WorldWideScience

Sample records for accident alarm system

  1. Rating of the efficiency of alarm systems in reactor accident emergencies

    Experience made with alarm systems designed to alert the population in the Federal Republik of Germany and in the US is discussed. German law on a national and regional level does not deal with alerting the population to the same degree as with alerting the disaster control agency, voluntary services and their members. The local disaster control agencies have to decide for themselves which alarm systems are to be used in an emergency caused by a nuclear accident. In order to clarify fundamentals for decision-making, the efficiency of existing alarm systems was analyzed. It was valuated according to six criteria. It became apparent that the system 'sirens/radio/TV' included in alarm plans so far can not ensure alerting of the population in an emergency caused by a nuclear accident, whereas the system using laudspeaker vans needs further inquiry and testing to determine its efficiency. Suggestions are made to improve the above alarm systems, and an alternative to existing systems is shown. (orig./HP)

  2. Verification of criticality accident alarm system detector locations for the X-326 process cell floor

    Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors on the cell floor of the X-326 process building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) are located at a height of 5 m above the cell floor. It has been suggested that this height be lowered to I m to alleviate accelerated system failures caused by the elevated temperatures at 5 m and to reduce the frequency of injury to maintenance personnel lifting the approximately 90-lb units into position. Work has been performed which analyzed the effect of relocating the CAAS detectors on the process floors of the X-333 and X-330 buildings from their current height to a height of 1 m1. This earlier work was based on criticality accidents occurring in low enriched material (5% 235U) and was limited to the X-333 and X-330 buildings and the low enriched areas of X-326. It did not consider the residual higher enriched material in the X-326 building. This report analyzes the effect on criticality alarm coverage of lowering the CAAS detectors. This analysis is based on criticality accidents resulting from higher enriched material which may be present as ''hold-up'' in the process equipment within the X-326 building. The criticality accident alarm detectors at the PORTS facility are set to alarm at a neutron absorbed dose rate of 5 mrad/hr. The calculated absorbed dose rates presented in this report show that the detectors examined that produce an alarm for the given criticality event at their current height will also produce an alarm if located at a height of 1 meter. Therefore, lowering the detectors will not result in a loss of coverage within the building

  3. Examination of dynamic response of detectors for criticality accident alarm systems at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    The Tokai reprocessing plant is so designed as to prevent the occurrence of any criticality accident during the operation including the handling, storage and transport of fissile materials in the plant. High reliable alarm systems against criticality accidents are urgently necessary to enable workers to evacuate immediately from the plant in a rare accident. The present systems were manufactured by SEIN Corp. in France, and the quality was guaranteed by CEA. The installation and maintenance of the systems have been performed by Toshiba Corp. The systems consist of 12 detectors which can detect gamma or neutron radiation resulting from critical excursion, a 623 BJ data processing module, an evacuation alarm sender and the warning equipment of 65 flash light boxes and 18 horn blowers. One area is monitored with a set of three criticality detectors of the same type, and alarm sounds when two out of three detectors detect the signals exceeding the threshold limit within the coincidence time of 500 msec. The configuration of gamma detectors, the test on dose rate linearity, alarm output characteristics and in-pile performance, and the results are reported. The time constant of the detectors was determined, and the detectors satisfactorily worked in the exposure test. (Kako, I.)

  4. A criticism of ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986: Criticality accident alarm system

    The American National Standard on criticality accident alarm systems has given rise to confusion in interpretation and implementation of the requirements. In addition, some of the standards have recently been incorporated into US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and others have been paraphrased in the DOE orders. Some of the DOE orders referencing these standards are being incorporated into law by means of the Code of Federal Regulations. As such, the intent of the authors of the standards to recommend a code of good practice is now being codified into law with attendant civil and criminal penalties for failure to comply. It is suggested that ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Critically Accident Alarm System, be carefully reviewed to alleviate the confusion that has been experienced in practice, to clarify the minimum accident of concern, to further define the dose (or dose rate) criteria for activation, and to stress the fact that a prime consideration in any safety system is the overall reduction of risk

  5. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies

  6. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  7. Testing of the Y-12 Plant Criticality Accident Alarm System detectors at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant operates its Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) according to the guidance of Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. This standard requires that the detector shall not fail to initiate an alarm when subjected to a radiation field of at least 0.1 Gy/s (10 rad/s). It also requires that the system shall be designed to immediately detect the minimum accident of concern and shall produce an alarm within one half second of activation. Sixty-three new detectors that use plastic scintillators have been obtained to upgrade the current Y-12 Plant CAAS. To ensure that these detectors can support the above criteria, testing was done using the SPR III reactor at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility

  8. Optimal Alarm Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  9. The Design of the Scene of the Accident Alarm System Based on ARM and GPS

    Shaik.abdul.mubeena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This system designs a wireless communication method using GSM to transmit data to the preset of treatment centers whenever an accident occurs. The vehicle is equipped with a GSM and a GPS module. The treatment center process the data received from the GSM module of the vehicle and identifies the location of the vehicle. The GPS module helps in tracking the location and state of the vehicle

  10. Analysis of criticality accident alarm system coverage in the X-700, X-705, and X-720 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant

    Additional services for the uranium enrichment cascade process, such as maintenance and decontamination operations, are provided by several ancillary facilities at the PORTS site. These facilities include the X-700 Maintenance Facility, the X-705 Decontamination Facility, and the X-720 Maintenance and Stores Facility. As uranium operations are performed within these facilities, the potential for a criticality accident exists. In the event of a criticality accident within one of these facilities at PORTS, a Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to detect the criticality accident and sound an alarm. In this report, an analysis was performed to provide verification that the existing CAAS at PORTS provides complete criticality accident coverage in the X-700, X-705, and X-720 facilities. The analysis has determined that the X-705 and X-720 facilities have complete CAAS coverage; the X-700 facility has not been shown to have complete CAAS coverage at this time

  11. The LEP alarm system

    Unlike alarm systems for previous accelerators, the LEP alarm system caters not only for the operation of the accelerator but also for technical services and provides the direct channel for personnel safety. It was commissioned during 1989 and has seen a continued development up to the present day. The system, comprising over 50 computers including 5 different platforms and 4 different operating systems, is described. The hierarchical structure of the software is outlined from the interface to the equipment groups, through the front end computers to the central server, and finally to the operator consoles. Reasons are given for choosing a conventional, as opposed to a 'knowledge based' approach. Finally, references are made to a prototype real time expert system for surveying the power converters of LEP, which was conducted during 1990 as part of the alarm development program. (author)

  12. Intelligent Alarm Management System (IAMS)

    A large number of alarms in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are related to one causative event/alarm. When such an event happens, it triggers a cascade of alarms (called alarm avalanche) that comes in quick succession. These alarms may or may not come in a particular time-sequence each time the cause event is triggered. Alarm avalanches in an emergency situation can affect the performance of even the most seasoned operators. If a cause-consequence relationship can be established among a set of alarms, then such avalanches can be avoided by annunciating only the rootcause alarm. Intelligent Alarm Management System (IAMS) is a knowledge-based alarm processing system to reduce the number of presented alarms. The processing is based on the functional cause-consequence knowledge-base of the plant, wherein an alarm on a function denotes degradation/unavailability of the function.The knowledge is modeled using a graphical construct called Function Graph. (author)

  13. Accident alarm equipment for steam generator, especially liquid sodium heated steam generator

    The alarm equipment consists of a system of sensors mounted onto the steam generator and its accessories. Each of the sensors is used for a different accident characteristic, such as the flow of sodium, the acoustic spectrum, the concentration of hydrogen in sodium. The system of sensors is connected to the common accident alarm system. The equipment will not issue the alarm signal if it receives a message from only one sensor, only when the message is confirmed from other sensors. This excludes false alarm. (M.D.)

  14. The Coast Alarm System Editor

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has for several years worked in the field of alarm handling. COAST was developed based on long experience with several different methods for identification of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. COAST has been delivered to a number of different organisations which generate their own applications. With COAST one can implement many alarm generation or structuring methods. So far, the alarm system is defined using a COAST language, COLA. Now, a first version of an editor to implement alarm systems is available, to support alarm system designers to write and structure their COLA code. It is developed based on general guidelines for user interface design and a thorough discussion of different editor types. The most important functionality needed when designing alarm systems for complex processes was emphasized when choosing the type of editor. A structure-oriented editor is currently implemented, and the report gives a description for how to include graphic features towards a more complete editor in the future. Support and encouragement for reuse of code is obtained by defining classes in a class library browser. Separate applications with their specific object definitions are constructed in an application browser. In this way the alarm classes from the class libraries can easily be used in several applications. The application browser offers the possibility to organize the alarm objects in a structured hierarchy. In big complex alarm systems such a structuring feature is of vital importance to keep the overview of the alarm system and to perform maintenance. (author)

  15. A comparison of two criticality accident alarm system detector locations for the X-700 building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report

    A previous analysis of the X-700 Building Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) showed that some of the building may not adequately be covered by the one building CAAS detector in its current location. This report compares the results of that analysis with a new analysis where the detector is in a different location. The new detector location (outside of the storage area in the center of the building--near column B-7) showed coverage for all points previously analyzed. The new centralized detector location reduces the distance and shielding between the source points and the detector. This explains the difference in the level of response when compared to the original (actual) detector location in the new annex west of the building

  16. Alarm system advances and innovations

    Alarm: 'a signal (as a loud noise or flashing light) that warns or alerts; also: a device that signals... '. This statement, this definition as simple as it is sums up every alarm system for every control system that has ever existed, but what it's missing from it is the complexity and uniqueness required by a Nuclear Power Plant. With advances in computerized control and engineering technologies within these plants, the need for more comprehensive alarm control and monitoring systems is as critical as the operation itself. (authors)

  17. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs

  18. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  19. Recommendations to alarm systems and lessons learned on alarm system implementation

    Alarm systems have been of major concern within complex industrial processes for many years. Within the nuclear community, the TMI accident in 1979 was the first really serious event that showed also the importance of the man-machine aspects of the systems in general, and the alarm system in particular. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working with alarm systems since 1974. This report is an attempt to gather some of the knowledge that has been accumulated during the years in Halden, both in research and also in bilateral projects. Bilateral projects within this field have provided a practical basis of knowledge.A major part of this report consists of a set of recommendations, which reflect HRP's current understanding of how an alarm system should work. There are also recommendations on design methods. But also other issues are included, as system development and implementation experience, and experimental knowledge on the performance of alarm systems. Some open issues are also discussed. (Author). 54 refs., 15 figs

  20. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  1. Referral to the accident and emergency department following the use of community alarms

    Youssef, G.; Underhill, T; Tovey, C

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the degree of appropriate referral to the accident and emergency (A&E) department following the use of a community alarm where a mobile warden works in conjunction with the community alarm control centre.

  2. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  3. Fire auto alarm system intelligent trend

    The author gives the course and trend of the fire alarm system going to more computerized and more intelligent. It is described that only the system applied artificial intelligent and confusion control is the true intelligent fire alarm system. The author gives the detailed analysis on the signal treatment of artificial intelligent applied to analogue fire alarm system as well as the alarm system controlled by confusion technology and artificial nervous net

  4. Video systems for alarm assessment

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Analysis of criticality accident alarm system coverage of the X-744G, X-744H, X-342/344A and X-343 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Additional services for the uranium enrichment cascade process, such as UF6 feed, sampling, and material storage are provided by several ancillary Uranium Material Handling (UMH) facilities at the PORTS site. These facilities include the X-343 Feed Vaporization and Sampling Facility, the X-744G Bulk Non-Uranium Enrichment Service Activity (UESA) Storage Building, the X-744H Waste Separation and Storage Facility, the X-344A Toll Enrichment Services Facility and the X-342A Feed Vaporization and Fluorine Generation Facility. As uranium operations are performed within these facilities, the potential for a criticality accident exists. In the event of a criticality accident within a process facility at PORTS, a Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to detect the criticality accident and sound an alarm. In this report, an analysis was performed to provide verification that the existing CAAS at PORTS provides complete criticality accident coverage in the X-343, X-744G. X-744H. X-344A and X-342A facilities. The analysis has determined that all of the above-mentioned facilities have complete CAAS coverage

  6. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330 (see Figures 1 and 2). These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries

  7. Design strategies of alarm system for SMART

    The high level goal of the SMART-AS (Alarm System for System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is for operators to enthusiastically accept a new technology that will improve their response to alarms during plant transient conditions. Three alarm system design characteristics were included: (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction); (2) alarm availability (prioritization and suppression); and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). The SMART-AS prioritizes alarms based on the state of the plant; reduces the amount of information presented to the operator by grouping and display the arms in accordance with the present state of the plant; and allows nuisance alarms to be suppressed. This paper provides an introduction into applying the data mining techniques for the alarm processing of SMART-AS. In this paper, we describe our data mining algorithms, and illustrate how to apply these algorithms to generate an alarm suppression model from the alarm data. (authors)

  8. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ''Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels''. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  9. Intelligent alarm-processing system for NPP

    Information on developing the intelligent alarm-processing system for NPPs with BWR reactors, which makes it possible to reduce the information load for the operators through the information volume optimization, related to identification of failures in the NPP operation, is presented. Calculational principles and methodological constituents for processing alarm signals are considered. Description of the system and simulation check results are presented

  10. Textile Moisture Sensor for Enuresis Alarm System

    Kašurina, I; Vališevskis, A; Ziemele, I; Viļumsone, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop an enuresis alarm system with textile moisture sensor (electrode), which is more suitable for textile garments. Authors propose to design sensor by embroidery using conductive yarn. Conductive yarns are a preferable material for enuresis alarm sensors, since they blend with the textile structure of underwear and bedding sheet, inducing less stress on the treated person.

  11. Development of the effectiveness measure for an advanced alarm system using signal detection theory

    Since many alarms which are activated during major process deviations or accidents in nuclear power plants can result in negative effects for operators, various types of advanced alarm systems that can select important alarms for the identification of process deviation have been developed to reduce the operator's workload. However, the irrelevant selection of important alarms could distract the operator from correct identification of process deviation. Therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of the advanced alarm system, a tradeoff between the alarm reduction rate (how many alarms are reduced?) and informativeness (how many important alarms that are conducive to identifying process deviation are provided?) of an advanced alarm system should be considered. In this paper, a new measure is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of an advanced alarm system with regard to the identification of process deviation. Here, the effectiveness measure is the combination of informativeness measure and reduction rate, and the informativeness measure means the information processing capability performed by the advanced alarm system including wrong rejection and wrong acceptance, and it can be calculated using the signal detection theory (SDT). The effectiveness of the prototype alarm system was evaluated using the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, and the validity of the effectiveness measure was investigated from two types of the operator response, such as the identification accuracy and the operator's preference for the identification of LOCA

  12. Reactor alarm system development and application issues

    The new hardware and software technologies, and the need in research reactors for assistance systems in operation and maintenance, have given an appropriate background to develop a computer based system named ''Reactor Alarm System'' (RAS). RAS is a software package, user oriented, with emphasis on production, experiments and maintenance goals. It is designed to run on distributed systems conformed with microcomputers under QNX operating system. RAS main features are: a) Alarm Panel Display; b) Alarm Page; c) Alarm Masking and Inhibition; d) Alarms Color and Attributes; e) Condition Classification; and f) Arrangement Presentation. RAS design allows it to be installed as a part of a computer based Supervision and Control System in new installations or retrofit existing reactor instrumentation systems. The analysis of human factors during development stage and successive user feedback from different applications, brought out several RAS improvements: a) Multiple-copy alarm summaries; b) Improved alarm handling; c) Extended dictionary; and d) Enhanced hardware availability. It has proved successful in providing new capabilities for operators, and also has shown the continuous increase of user-demands, reflecting the expectations placed today on computer-based systems. (author). 6 figs, 1 tabs

  13. Recommendations for the LHC safety alarm system

    Laeger, H

    1999-01-01

    A working group was set up to define the LHC safety alarm system, also known as Alarm-of-Level-3-System (AL3S). The mandate asked for recommendations to be elaborated on four items: the overall concept of the AL3S for machine and experiments, the transmission and display of safety alarms, the AL3S during civil engineering construction, and the transition from the present LEP to the final LHC safety alarm system. The members of the working group represented a wide range of interest and experience including the CERN Fire Brigade, safety officers from experiments and machines, and specialists for safety and control systems. The recommendations highlight the need for a clear definition of responsibilities and procedures, well-engineered homogeneous systems across CERN, and they point to several important issues outside the mandate of the working group. These recommendations were presented, discussed and accepted by several CERN and LHC committees.

  14. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies

  15. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  16. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  17. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ampersand ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite

  18. Development of a criticality monitoring and alarm system

    In this work we are presenting the development of a Criticality Monitor and Alarm System (SIMAC). It monitors the burst of radiation produced during such an accident and triggers an alarm for evacuation in case the radiation exceeds a pre-established threshold. It consists of two subsystems, one for gamma rays and the other for neutrons. Each subsystem has three independent detectors modules. Each module is composed of an ion chamber plus its associated electronics, feeding a logic module that in turn would trigger the evacuation alarm. An additional feature is a PC interface for data acquisition. The radiation detectors are ion chambers working in current mode. The electronics associated to each detector can manage a wide signal range using a logarithmic converter. (author)

  19. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF{sub 6} cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E.; Sutherland, P.J.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF{sub 6} cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330. These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries.

  20. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  1. An expert system for alarm diagnosis and filtering

    This paper describes an alarm processing system being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for implementation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The purpose of the system is to perform two related functions, alarm diagnosis and filtering, to aid nuclear plant operators in responding to the large number of alarms typically activated during a major plant transient. The alarm diagnostician determines the root cause of a pattern or sequence of alarms and generates an explanation of the events leading to the alarm sequence. The alarm filter identifies and deemphasize those alarms which are either irrelevant to the current plant condition or contribute no significant new information

  2. A Selection of Data Structure for SMART Alarm System Database

    A design goal of SMART Alarm System is providing intelligence alarm information to operator in main control room. To achive this, we should apply advanced alarm process logics and manage alarm data sets for advanced alarm logic. SMART Alarm System must analyze a lot of alarm by the cycle to determines alarms. For this, performance optimization of database is essential. Especially, high performance of search function is required. In this paper, we propose most a suitable search method to database by compare several search methods

  3. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  4. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs

  5. An Application of a Logic Alarm Cause Tracking System(LogACTs) to Wolsong 3 and 4

    After the TMI accident, many alarm reduction systems and diagnostic systems have been studied to reduce nuisance alarms and to detect the causes of an abnormal state. In this paper, an operator-aid system is proposed for tracking the logics of an alarm, finding the causes of an alarm, displaying the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes, and suppressing and filtering nuisance alarms due to the physical or logical connections between components or systems in an abnormal state. The system can be used by an operator to identify the detailed causes of an alarm without checking all the causes of the candidates by alarms. The proposed system will be applied to a nuclear power plant of a CANDU type, Wolsong 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

  6. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator's tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator's main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs

  7. Addressing the alarm analysis barrier - a tool for improving alarm systems

    This paper describes a software application tool for the initial specification and maintenance of the thousands of alarms in nuclear and other process control plants. The software program is used by system designers and maintainers to analyze, characterize, record and maintain the alarm information and configuration decisions for an alarm system. The tool provides a comprehensive design and information handling environment for: the existing alarm functions in current CANDU plants; the new alarm processing and presentation concepts developed under CANDU Owners Group (COG) sponsorship that are available to be applied to existing CANDU plants on a retrofit basis; and, the alarm functions to be implemented in new CANDU plants. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  8. Integrated taut wire sensor alarm monitoring system

    For many years mechanical taut wire intrusion detection systems have played a key role in protecting high risk facilities. The taut wire sensor has the advantage that it combines a physical barrier with an intrusion sensor, a useful feature where no fence is installed or planned. However, mechanical taut wire sensors have proven to have several major disadvantages, including: no sensitivity adjustment, no sensor self-test feature, no remote control capability, and inflexible mounting constraints. This paper deals with a new generation of solid state taut wire sensor which overcomes the deficiencies of the aging mechanical design. The new sensor uses a microprocessor to filter out sources of nuisance alarms, yet maintains exceptional sensitivity to intrusion and tamper attempts. Being solid sate, the new sensor can be mounted in any orientation, even upside down. Moreover, when combined with a new, advanced alarm monitoring system, the solid state taut wire fence will support remote sensitivity adjustment and remote sensor self-test control

  9. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  10. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  11. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  12. A Study on Performance Requirements for Advanced Alarm System

    A design goals of advanced alarm system is providing advanced alarm information to operator in main control room. To achive this, we applied computer based system to Alarm System. Because, It should apply data management and advanced alarm processing(ie. Data Base Mangegment System and S/W module for alarm processing). These are not impossible in analog based alarm system. And, preexitance research examples are made on digital computer. We have digital systems for test of advanced alarm system table and have tested and studied using by test equipment in the view point of the system performance, stability and security. In this paper, we discribed about general software architecture of preexitance research examples. Also, CPU performance and requirements of system software that served to accommodate it, stability and security

  13. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  14. ALARM SYSTEM FOR A BOILER SYSTEM CONTROL ON ENERGY ENTERPRISE

    Lueder, Arndt; Ryshentseva, Daria

    2014-01-01

    As the problem of good qualified functioning of a boiler every year is taking place, there is an interest to create an advanced error alarm system, which, as its mission, has the timely notification of the controlled object functioning errors. Thus, in this paper the improved model of the alarm system object control is proposed, the question of an error-free object functioning problem solving is raised. The proposed model includes such approaches to solve this problem as artificial intelligen...

  15. Experimental evaluation of human-system interaction on alarm design

    This study evaluates the practicability of automatic reset alarm system in Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) of Taiwan. The features of auto-reset alarm system include dynamic prioritization of all alarm signals and fast system reset. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of automatic/manual reset on operation time, situational awareness (SA), task load index (TLX), and subjective ratings. All participants, including Experts and Novices, took part in the experiment on the alarm system simulator with Load Rejection procedure. The experimental results imply that the auto-reset alarm system may be applied in an advanced control room under Load Rejection procedure, because all participants' operation time were reduced as well as Novice's SA were raised up. Nevertheless, to ensure operating safety in FNPP, the effects of the auto-reset alarm system in other procedures/special situations still need to be tested in the near future

  16. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    This report summarizes the results of an evaluation of Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) coverage of the operating floors (first floors) of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 buildings. CAAS coverage of the process cell floors (second floors) has been evaluated in previous reports. Coverage of the roadways around the three processing buildings by the cell floor detectors in these buildings has also been verified in a previous report. In order to evaluate coverage, the facilities were modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code (MCNP). MCNP was then used to simulate criticality accidents at various locations throughout the operating floors of the buildings and the associated neutron flux at the current detector locations was calculated. The neutron flux was then converted to an absorbed dose rate (in tissue) and compared with the Portsmouth criticality accident alarm set-point of 5mrad/hr. The parameters defining the simulated criticality accidents have been calculated as ''the minimum accident of concern'' as defined in ANSI Standard ANS 8.3-1986. These calculations are documented in Portsmouth report number POEF-SH-31. The results of this evaluation indicate that the X-333 Operating Floor CAAS may not alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern. This is primarily because of shielding provided by the numerous concrete columns used to support the second floor of this building and the large distances between the CAAS detectors. Conversely, the results indicate that the X-326 and the X-330 CAAS systems would alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern occurring on the operating floors of these buildings. It should be noted that the cell floors in these two buildings are supported with steel I-beams instead of the concrete columns used in the X-333 building

  17. JOYO operation support system 'JOYCAT' based on intelligent alarm handling

    An operation support system for the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' was developed based on an intelligent alarm-handling. A specific feature of this system, called JOYCAT (JOYO Consulting and Analyzing Tool), is in its sequential processing structure that a uniform treatment by using design knowledge base is firstly applied for all activated alarms, and an exceptional treatment by using heuristic knowledge base is then applied only for the former results. This enables us to achieve real-time and flexible alarm-handling. The first alarm-handling determines the candidates of causal alarms, important alarms with which the operator should firstly cope, through identifying the cause-consequence relations among alarms based on the design knowledge base in which importance and activating conditions are described for each of 640 alarms in a frame format. The second alarm-handling makes the final judgement with the candidates by using the heuristic knowledge base described as production rules. Then, operation manuals concerning the most important alarms are displayed to operators. JOYCAT has been in commission since September of 1990, after a wide scope of validation tests by using an on-site full-scope training simulator. (author)

  18. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS. PMID:10126436

  19. Reliability enhancement of criticality alarm system in CORAL

    This paper describes the challenges encountered in the Criticality Alarm System (CAS) installed in CORAL plant and explains the requirement and ways to make the system rugged, reliable and eliminate any false criticality alarms. To improve the reliability of the system the following improvements are required to be carried out viz. the power supply connections to the CAS, changes in wiring in the existing CASs, provision for electronic testing of the CAS remotely from control panel, connection of the criticality alarms to annunicator panel, design of common plant CAS alarm circuit with redundant DC power supplies, provision of alarm for mains and DC power supply failures, provision for transferring the CAS dose rate signals to the Radiation Data Acquisition Systems (RDAS) for event log and remote display and surveillance of CAS. (author)

  20. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  1. Operator Performance Comparison of two VDT-based Alarm Systems

    This study is carried out to investigate performance differences between two alarm presentation methods from the viewpoint of human factors and to provide items to be improved. One of the alarm display methods considered in this study displays alarm lists on VDT combined with hardwired alarm panels. The other method displays alarms on plant mimic diagrams of VDT. This alarm display method has other features for operator aid with which operator can get detailed information on the activated alarm in the mimic diagrams, and the capability for alarm processing such as alarm reduction and prioritization. To compare the two display methods, a human factor experiment was performed with a plant simulator in the ITF (Integrated Test Facility) that plant operators run for 4 event scenarios. During the experiment, physiological measurements, system and operator action log, and audio/video recordings were collected. Operators subjective opinion was collected as well after the experiment. Time, error rate and situation awareness were major human factor criteria used for the comparison during the analysis stage of the experiment. No statistical significance was found in the results of our statistical comparison analysis. Several findings were identified, however, through the analysis of subjective opinions. (authors)

  2. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km2 area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station

  3. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

  4. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  5. Design of SMART alarm system using main memory database

    To achieve design goal of SMART alarm system, first of all we have to decide on how to handle and manage alarm information and how to use database. So this paper analyses concepts and deficiencies of main memory database applied in real time system. And this paper sets up structure and processing principles of main memory database using nonvolatile memory such as flash memory and develops recovery strategy and process board structures using these. Therefore this paper shows design of SMART alarm system is suited functions and requirements

  6. DTR, Taut Wire System: An alarm barrier with experience

    The Taut Wire Fence Alarm System concept was developed and introduced more that fifteen years ago in Israel. A sudden expansion of the nations's border lines, the difficulty to monitor intrusions along those elongated lines and the need for timely as well as accurate armed response to an intrusion attempt dictated the need for an alarming barrier. Traditionally, protection of perimeters was accomplished by the installation of a fence or other type obstacles (man made or natural) and surveillance by manned patrols, fixed observation posts, and/or electronic devices. Defense planners recognized therefore the need for an alarming barrier. A concentrated effort by scientists solved the problem by developing the first Taut Wire Fence Alarm System in a configuration of an alarm barrier. The system was specified to have an extremely low false alarm rate (FAR/NAR), high probability of detection, the capability to follow various terrains, operability in a wide range of environmental conditions, a capability to delay an intruder, ease of installation by unskilled labor, and low maintenance requirements. The authors try here to explain the various constraints and considerations given during the design stages of the Taut Wire Alarm System so as to bring the present magnitude of users to a better understanding of the system's operation

  7. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  8. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  9. A study of reset mode in advanced alarm system simulator

    An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants. That leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, which considers human operational performance in automated systems. In this research is the automation alarm reset in the advanced alarm system (AAS) of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. Since alarms are very crucial for the understanding of the status of the plant as well as the reset function of alarm system will be changed from fully manual to fully automatic, it is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the effect of reset modes in AAS. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the auto-reset alarm system on the plant performance and on operators' preference and task load. To develop a dynamic simulator as an AAS was conducted to compare manual and automatic reset function of alarm system on task performance and subjective ratings of task workload, comprehension, and preference. The simulation includes PCTRAN model and alarm software processing. The final results revealed that, using the auto-reset mode, participants had lower task load index (TLX) on effort in the first test trial and was more satisfied in multiple tasks condition. In contrast, using manual reset mode, participants were more satisfied on alarm handling, monitoring, and decision making. In other words, either reset mode in the study has unique features to assist operator, but is insufficient. The reset function in AAS therefore should be very flexible. Additionally, the experimental results also pointed out that the user interfaces need to be improved. Those experiences will be helpful for human factors verification and validation in the near future. (authors)

  10. Implementation of alarm system for vibration monitoring of KOMAC facility

    For operating 100 MeV linac, Devices have to be operated in certain order. Thus malfunction of a device cause damage to linac and related devices. To protect linac, machine protect system (MPS) has been developed. The MPS protects the components by monitoring hardwired signals. When values of operating parameters go beyond or below limit, alarm will be generated and interlock system which stops related devices in certain sequence will run. Other factor, giving damage to linac is disaster. A strong vibration such as earthquake causes malfunction of devices and damage to linac. Against disaster, the monitoring system based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) was implemented. Configuration and Implementation of the monitoring system are presented and some preliminary results are reported. KOMAC implemented alarm system for a strong vibration and fire. Alarm is generated in unusual situation. Coping rapidly with situation, damages for Linac and related devices can be reduced

  11. PROLOG language application for alarm system realization in accelerator control

    Such PROLOG features as backtracking, matching and recursive data representation are powerful tools for ALARM system realization. Although the main idea is the possibility to describe some technical system in recursive form, backtracking and matching are ideal for processing recursive data structures. This paper represents a technique which would allow PROLOG language application for ALARM system realization using an example of the KEK LINAC magnet system. The technique is based on an object-oriented internal data representation in terms of objects, properties, relations and knowledge conception. In addition, each property value is characterized by a typical 'time life'. (author)

  12. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency messages shall have priority...

  13. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  14. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  15. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  16. An engineering approach to knowledge-based systems, the alarm processing and diagnostic system

    The number of alarms that may be initiated during transients or accidents in nuclear-generating control rooms may temporarily exceed an operator's ability to assimilate and respond. This phenomenon is characterized as Cognitive Overload. The Alarm Processing and Diagnostic System (APDS) was designed to deal with this problem through a unique and operationally sensitive method of alarm prioritization and filtration. The approach taken attempts to parallel the operator's situation assessment methodology when dealing with transient conditions. A strong criteria for the development methodology employed was its ultimate acceptance by parties engaged in the operation of nuclear power facilities. As such, the methodology used had to be easily understood and consistent with the acceptance standards of nuclear power. This necessitated the verifiable practices found in engineering design. While APDS remains rooted in artificial intelligence or expert systems, it goes beyond the paradigm of rules and inferencing to an object-oriented structure that allows traditional and well-documented engineering-based decision methods to be applied. These features have important consequences when considering final acceptance, implementation, and maintenance. 3 refs., 1 tab

  17. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  18. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  19. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  20. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working situations and is

  1. An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language

  2. 46 CFR 120.550 - General alarm systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 120.550 Section 120.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION...

  3. An object-oriented alarm-filtering system

    This paper discusses an alarm-filtering system (AFS) being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ultimate goal of this project is to place AFS into ATR's reactor control room to act as an aid during major plant transients. In addition, methods of alarm analysis are investigated based on functional relationships rather than on a historical approach utilizing cause-consequence trees. Artificial intelligence techniques, including object-oriented programming, are also demonstrated as useful in analyzing alarms and alarm sequences. After a brief description of the problem AFS addresses, this paper discusses the design constraints and human factors that influenced the development of the system. The reader is then presented with operational and architectural descriptions of the system as well as what directions the future development of AFS may take. The fact that AFS is being considered as a partial solution to the problems discussed in the next section demonstrates the viability of its underlying technology and approach

  4. Hierarchies of Alarms for Large Distributed Systems

    Boccioli, M; Martos, V; Holme, O

    2014-01-01

    The control systems of most of the infrastructure at CERN make use of the SCADA package WinCC Open Architecture by ETM*, including successful projects to control large scale systems such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator and associated experiments.).

  5. Logic Alarm Cause Tracking System(LogACTs) for Wolsong 3 and 4

    KAERI I and C. HF Research team has developed an alarm root cause tracking system (ACTs), an alarm and diagnosis-integrated operator support system (ADIOS), and a dynamic alarm system (DAS). An alarm processing and presentation system, LogACTs(Logic Alarm Cause Tracking system) of their researches is developed and installed into the main control room(MCR) of the Wolsong nuclear power plant(NPP) unit 3. The system is integrated with tracking the logics of an alarm, finding the causes of an alarm, displaying the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes, and suppressing and filtering nuisance alarms due to the physical or logical connections between components or systems in an abnormal state

  6. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  7. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford. Revision 1

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I&ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  8. Seismic alarm system for Ignalina nuclear power plant

    A seismic alarm system will be installed at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. There are two reactors, both RMBK 1500 MW units. Each reactor is a water cooled, graphite moderated, channel type reactor. INPP has the most advanced version of the RMBK reactor design series. The first and second units of INPP went into service at the end of 1983 and in August 1987 respectively. Their design lifetime is approx. 30 years. The various buildings and plant have been designed for two earthquake levels, that is the design earthquake and the maximum possible earthquake with peak ground accelerations ranging from 1.2% to 10% of the acceleration due to gravity. Certain parts of the buildings and some of the equipment of the first and second units do not comply with Western seismic standards. As seismic strengthening of the existing buildings and equipment is not feasible economically, a reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system was recommended. This system essentially consists of six seismic stations encircling INPP at a radial distance of approx. 30 km and a seventh station at INPP. Each station includes three seismic substations each 500 m apart. The ground motion at each station is measured continuously by three accelerometers and one seismometer. Data is transmitted via telemetry to the control centre at INPP. Early warning alarms are generated if a seismic threshold is exceeded. This paper discusses the characteristics of INPP, the seismic alarm system presently under construction and the experience with other early warning and seismic alarm systems. (author)

  9. A WSN-Based Intrusion Alarm System to Improve Safety in Road Work Zones

    Jose Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.

  10. Design of Textile Moisture Sensor for Enuresis Alarm System

    Kašurina, I; Vališevskis, A; Briedis, U; Viļumsone, A

    2012-01-01

    To improve the comfort properties of nocturnal enuresis alarm system, a modular humidity sensor should be replaced with a textile sensor. During research, two-electrode textile moisture sensor has been developed to study its electrical properties. To define the optimal type of a sensor, several sensor samples have been made using different configurations of sensor electrodes, yarn type and distance between parallel seams. Samples of sensor have been tested in terms of sig...

  11. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  12. TPLC-32 based alarm annunciation system for Dhruva

    The Control and Instrumentation (C and I) Systems of Dhruva Research Reactor have been designed in late seventies and are facing not only obsolescence but have limited diagnostic features. Since the expected life of C and I systems is typically twenty years, it was considered appropriate to upgrade some of the major systems including Alarm Annunciation System (AAS). The AAS of Dhruva is a Safety Class IB system that is used for processing alarm inputs and alerting the Main Control Room operator by driving LED based windows and audio annunciation in the Main Control Room. The AAS is also used for sequencing and logging of alarms on Operator Console. AAS is designed using qualified configurable platform Trombay Programmable Logic Controller-32 (TPLC-32) indigenously developed in BARC. The platform based design provides complete configurability, such that it can be used to build different systems for diverse applications. The AAS for Dhruva is first TPLC-32 based system to be deployed in any Indian Nuclear Reactor. The entire cycle involved conceptualization of system, making system requirement specifications, detailing the concept, design, fabrication, creation of test facilities, testing, validation of system performance, preparation of various documents for the regulatory safety clearances, installation and commissioning of the systems. This upgrade of AAS has helped enhancing safety, mitigates obsolescence and provided improved O and M features. Executing this upgrade in operating reactor posed additional constraints such as high level of safety, limited down time etc and this could be addressed through long term planning and implementation strategies based on innovative ideas and previous experience in installation and commissioning. Being an in-house product, long-term support for maintenance mitigating the obsolescence and technology up gradation is ensured. This paper provides technical information on AAS system design, its important features, the testing

  13. A NEW INVENTION OF ALARM REMINDER LOCKING (ARL SECURITY SYSTEM

    M.S.M. Effendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm Reminder Locking (ARL Security System mainly focuses on a door security system, which can install in the door area to increase the security level for home, office room, hostel or other places. This system used Arduino Controller and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM technology, which is the cheapest source to embed the security system to transmit the Short Message Service (SMS alert data. This device integrates three functions that are alarming, reminder and locked for a purpose of safety and connecting via mobile phone to remind the users through SMS. This device has a 3 modes of operation which is the system will be functional when the door is not improperly closed for the first reminder with the buzzer alert. The second mode is automated locked will be activated when users closed the door, but did not lock manually. Intrusion mode will activate while auto locked modes are interrupted without proper access. All this integrated system will provide high security access against intrusion occurrence. This security device will bring a new benefit to the user to consider about the userfriendly application, low power consumption and reasonable cost to install.

  14. Alarm filtering and presentation

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  15. A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

  16. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout

  17. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  18. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Hoško, I.; Zečević, N.; Pavlaković, S.

    2012-01-01

    Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. I...

  19. A Smart Cyber-physical Alarm System and its Application for Assisted Living

    Zhe-Ming Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issues are increasingly obvious. An automated real-time online alarm system to ensure the safety of property and personality while considering numerous smart Terminal Equipments (TE becomes a major challenge. At the same time, this is representative of novel and emerging alarm system for assisted living in the daily life. Two problems of current alarm system are identified. A smart Cyber-Physical Alarm System (CPAS based approach is proposed to address these problems. A prototype system installed in a house to assist living has been running stably and shows quite promising performance.

  20. Intelligent alarms detection for the analysis of system fault impact on business

    Pace, C.; Russo, I; Fernández, V.; Britos, Paola Verónica; Rossi, Bibiana D.; García Martínez, Ramón

    1998-01-01

    The tools for fault impact analysis are important for the deployment of critical mission systems. These tools can be also used as a development phase aid. We introduce several concepts related to "business alarms". Business alarms are an approximation to the company's business conceptual scheme driven by the business rules from systems conceptual schemes. In order to specify them we propose the utilization of Knowledge Engineering typical techniques. The object of alarm detection for impa...

  1. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  2. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility's training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ''Pump Trouble'' messages. The ''flow'' of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant's processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ''do something'' immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs

  3. Development of Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS)

    It is imperative that a reactor which has been shutdown remain subcritical and not inadvertently return to power. Such an event could occur for instance through failure of a component in the complex control system or inadvertent action taken by the operator. In any case, during such an event the reactor approaches criticality exponentially with respect to time thus making it more difficult for the operator to detect the event and take appropriate action before the reactor goes to criticality [Ref. 1]. This paper is prepared for the development of the Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS) to improve the sub-criticality monitoring of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 Standard Nuclear Power Plant (APR1400). This system is designed to provide operators with useful information about an inadvertent boron dilution event occurring with the plant in Modes 3, 4, 5, and 6 before the reactor coolant system is diluted sufficiently to result in a total loss of shutdown margin. The acceptance criteria of APR1400 for an unplanned boron (moderator) dilution specify at least 30 minutes in all operational modes. The main features of DBAS are the use of digital information from the startup neutron monitoring channels and a boronometer

  4. Development of Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS)

    Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Hwan Soo; Moon, Chan Kook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    It is imperative that a reactor which has been shutdown remain subcritical and not inadvertently return to power. Such an event could occur for instance through failure of a component in the complex control system or inadvertent action taken by the operator. In any case, during such an event the reactor approaches criticality exponentially with respect to time thus making it more difficult for the operator to detect the event and take appropriate action before the reactor goes to criticality [Ref. 1]. This paper is prepared for the development of the Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS) to improve the sub-criticality monitoring of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 Standard Nuclear Power Plant (APR1400). This system is designed to provide operators with useful information about an inadvertent boron dilution event occurring with the plant in Modes 3, 4, 5, and 6 before the reactor coolant system is diluted sufficiently to result in a total loss of shutdown margin. The acceptance criteria of APR1400 for an unplanned boron (moderator) dilution specify at least 30 minutes in all operational modes. The main features of DBAS are the use of digital information from the startup neutron monitoring channels and a boronometer

  5. E.D.A.C. detection system and criticality alarm

    The purpose of this document is to furnish to the radiation protection departments and users of facilities which must be considered to incur some risk of criticality accidents all the available information on the newly developed equipment, in order to facilitate its installation and use. This equipment was designed and developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (Patent No. 2184399 of 20 December 1974), and its industrial production was handled by Inter-technique. It includes the detecting sensors, grouped together as survey monitors, and the processing cabinet for the data generated by the sensors. The detecting sensor is the basic component of the system

  6. Changes are detected - cameras and video systems are monitoring the plant site, only rarely giving false alarm

    The main purpose of automatic data acquisition and processing for monitoring goals is to relieve the security personnel from monotonous observation tasks. The novel video systems can be programmed to detect moving target alarm signals, or accept alarm-suppressing image changes. This allows an intelligent alarm evaluation for physical protection in industry, differentiating between real and false alarm signals. (orig.)

  7. The use of simulation in the development of human factors guidelines for alarm systems

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance was developed based on a broad review and analysis of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance developed were identified. Experimental research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. This paper provides an overview of the approach to guidance development and discusses the role of simulation in the development approach. Finally, the current simulator-based experiment is described to illustrate how the alarm system design features are being studied

  8. Proposed Support Decision Making System for the Remote Monitoring of Commercial and Residencial Central Alarm Systems

    Alex Luiz de Sousa; André Bittencourt Leal; Ricardo Ferreira Martins; Claudio Cesar de Sá

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a system to support decision making for the remote monitoring of commercial and residencial central alarm systems. The basis of the system is modeled with deterministic finite automata and the support for decision-making uses of induction of decision trees and case-based reasoning. A prototype system was developed for validation and testing.

  9. Proposed Support Decision Making System for the Remote Monitoring of Commercial and Residencial Central Alarm Systems

    Alex Luiz de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a system to support decision making for the remote monitoring of commercial and residencial central alarm systems. The basis of the system is modeled with deterministic finite automata and the support for decision-making uses of induction of decision trees and case-based reasoning. A prototype system was developed for validation and testing.

  10. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  11. Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents

    Rana Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents” is an alert system used to safeguard our wildlife. We often hear of various accidents of wild animals like elephant, nilgai etc., who are trying to cross the railway track. So, an intelligent electronics system is necessary which can be affixed to avoid the possibilities of accidents. Regarding this, in our project we are using a Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR sensor which is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR light radiating from objects in its field of view and switches ON any electrical/electronic device to which it is connected to. The key component of the sensor module is the pyroelectric element. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation. Usually this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it is radiated at infrared wavelengths, but it is detected by this PIR sensor. This sensor does not radiate any energy for detection purposes and thus, it has no harmful effects on living beings. In our project the PIR sensor is used as a part of a burglar alarm and the electronic in the PIR typically control a small relay. This relay completes the circuit across a pair of electrical contacts connected to a detection input zone of the burglar alarm control panel. The system is usually designed such that if no living creature is being detected, the relay contact is closed- a „normally closed‟ (NC relay. If energy emitted from any nearby creature is detected, the relay opens, triggering the alarm, a signal will be directly sent to the driver‟s chamber and it will create a message in the LED screen of his chamber also an alarm will be heard which we have implemented using an ultrasonic sensor hc-sr04.

  12. A basic design of alarm system for the future nuclear power plants in Korea

    The design of an advanced alarm system is under way to apply to the new MMIS for the future nuclear power plants in Korea. Based on the alarm system design bases we established the design requirements and are now refining them with the results of evaluation through the prototype. To realize the advanced system new algorithms for alarm processing and display are implemented and various new devices are examined. The evaluation for the design is performed in accordance with the verification and validation plans and through the prototype. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  13. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-02-01

    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  14. Intelligent buildings, automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system

    The author describes in brief the intelligent buildings, and the automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system. On the basis of the four-bus, three-bus and two-bus, a new transfer technique was developed

  15. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    2010-07-01

    ... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being...

  16. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Hoško, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  17. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  18. SuperAlarm: System and Methods to Predict In-Hospital Patient Deterioration and Alleviate Alarm Fatigue

    Bai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A diverse array of continuous, multi-parameter and alarm-equipped physiologic monitoring devices have been deployed in modern intensive care units (ICUs) and other critical care settings to detect changes in a patient's status. Alarm signals activated by the monitors are intended to alert caregivers to either abnormalities in a patient's normal state or device malfunctions in order to prevent adverse events, and hence improve quality of care and patient safety. The majority of patients who ev...

  19. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  20. An embedded telecommunication cable auto-locating system of guard against theft and alarm

    Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Li-yong

    2005-12-01

    This system adopted two-level structure that was composed of Cable Monitoring And Controlling Device (CMCD) and Cable Monitoring Center (CMC). CMC receives the alarm data via the MODEM and the telephone net. In this way, the functions of typing the fault point's map, alarming and the cable management can be picked up. CMCD takes the processor chip Atemega128 as the center of the system that adopted the alternating current and direct current on-line switching electricity-supply mode. Also, the system includes four groups of independent power, the relay and the optical isolation to separate the system from the monitoring cable and the telephone net. CMCD accomplishes the cable real-time monitoring, malfunctions auto-locating, telephone voice alarming, long-distance parameters modification, data up-loading, error verifying and the telecommunication room's environment monitoring and so on. The longest distance of monitoring cable is 20 km, and the precision is 1%.

  1. An alarm filtering system for an automated process: a multiple-agent approach

    Nowadays, the supervision process of industrial installations is more and more complex involving the automation of their control. A malfunction generates an avalanche of alarms. The operator, in charge of the supervision, must face the incident and execute right actions to recover a normal situation. Generally, he is drowned under the great number of alarms. Our aim, in the frame of our researches, is to perform an alarm filtering system for an automated metro line, to help the operator finding the main alarm responsible for the malfunction. Our works are divided into two parts, both dealing with study and development of an alarm filtering system but using two different approaches. The first part is developed in the frame of the SARA project (an operator assistance system for an automated metro line) which is an expert system prototype helping the operators of a command center. In this part, a centralized approach has been used representing the events with a single event graph and using a global procedure to perform diagnosis. This approach has itself shown its limits. In the second part of our works, we have considered the distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) techniques, and more especially the multi-agent approach. The multi-agent approach has been motivated by the natural distribution of the metro line equipment and by the fact that each equipment has its own local control and knowledge. Thus, each equipment has been considered as an autonomous agent. Through agents cooperation, the system is able to determine the main alarm and the faulty equipment responsible for the incident. A prototype, written in SPIRAL (a tool for knowledge-based system) is running on a workstation. This prototype has allowed the concretization and the validation of our multi-agent approach. (author)

  2. Recognition of false alarms of loose parts monitoring system using neural network

    The Loose Part Monitoring System (LPMS) has been designed to detect, locate and evaluated detached or loosened parts and foreign objects in the reactor coolant system. In the existing LPMS, due to the high sensitivity of acoustic monitoring, the detection potential for impact occurrences is comparatively high. But, too frequent false or unnecessary alarms can reduce the confidence to LPMS. To reduce false alarm occurrence rate, this paper presents an application of the back propagation neural network. At the preprocessing step, the moving window average filter is adoped to reject the low frequency background noise components. And then, extracting the acoustic signature such as starting point of impact signal, Rising time, Half period, and Global time, they are used as the inputs to neural network. Applying the neural network to the practical false data during startup and impact test signal at nuclear power plant, the false alarms are reduced to one fourth level

  3. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  4. SAMSON: Severe Accident Management System Online Network

    SAMSON, Severe Accident Management System Online Network, is a computational tool used in the event of a nuclear power plant accident by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Offsite Facilities (EOF). SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. The status points analyzed include radiation levels, flow rates, pressure levels, temperatures and water levels. SAMSON uses an expert system as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithm to make predictions. Previous training on data from accident analysis code allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), with breaks ranging from one tube to eights tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), with breaks ranging from 0.001 square feet in size to breaks 3.0 square feet. SAMSON contains several neural networks for each accident type and break size, and chooses the correct network after accident classification by in expert system. SAMSON also provides information concerning the status of plant sensors and recovery strategies

  5. Development of severe accident training support system

    In order for appropriate decision-making during plant operation and management, the professional knowledge, expert's opinion, and previous experiences as well as information for current status are utilized. The operation support systems such as training simulators have been developed to assist these decision-making process, and most of them cover from normal operation to emergency operation because of the very low frequency of severe accident and of uncertaintics included in severe accident phenomena and scenarios. However, the architectures for severe accident management are being established based on severe accident management guidelines in some developed countries. Recentrly, in Korea, as teh severe accident management guideline was developed, the basis for establishing severe accident management architecture is prepared and this leads to the development of tool for systematic education and training for personnel related to severe accident management. The severe accident taining support system thus is developed to assist decision-making during execution of severe accident management guidelines by providing plant status information, prefessional knowledge for phenomena and scenarios, expected behavior for strategy execution, and so on

  6. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  7. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment

  8. A real time knowledge-based alarm system EXTRA

    EXTRA is an experimental expert system for industrial process control. The main objectives are the diagnosis and operation aids. From a methodological point of view, EXTRA is based on a deep knowledge of the plant operation and on qualitative simulation principles. The application concerns all the electric power and the Chemical and Volume Control System of a P.W.R. nuclear plant. The tests conducted on a full-scope simulator representative of the real plant yielded excellent results and taught the authors a number of lessons. The main lesson concerns the efficiency and flexibility provided by the combination of a knowledge-based system and of an advanced mini-computer

  9. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  10. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  11. Control Engineering Embraces Instrumentation and Alarm Systems Of Navy

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions (cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance.

  12. Safety alarms at CERN

    Ninin, P; Henny, L

    1998-01-01

    In order to operate the CERN accelerators complex safely, the acquisition, transport and management of safety alarms is of crucial importance. The French regulatory authority [Direction de Sûreté des Installations Nucléaires de Base (INB)] defines them as Level 3 alarms; they represent as such a danger for the life and require an immediate intervention of the Fire Brigade. Safety alarms are generated by fire and flammable gas detection systems, electrical emergency stops, and other safety related systems. Level 3 alarms are transmitted for reliability reasons to their operation centre: the CERN Safety Control Room (SCR) using two different media: the hard-wired network and a computer based system. The hard-wired networks are connected to local panels summarizing in 34 security areas the overall CERN geography. The computer based system offers data management facilities such as alarm acquisition, distribution, archiving and information correlation. The Level 3 alarms system is in constant evolution in order...

  13. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  14. The Performance of Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting System in Taiwan

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Wu, Yih-Min

    2016-04-01

    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. Because the real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Here, we outline the methodology and performance of the eBEAR system. The online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. Comparing to the earthquake catalog, the difference of the epicenters are less than 10 km for inland earthquakes; the difference of the magnitude are about 0.3. No false alarms generated by the system, but there were three false alarms issued by human. Due to the wrong operations, the EEW information created by off-line test were sent. However, we have learned from it and improved the standard operation procedure in the EEW system.

  15. Accident on the gas transfer system

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  16. Analysis of false alarm for imaging space-based laser warning system

    DONG Hong-jun; ZHOU Zhong-liang; HUANG Fu-yu

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problem of false alarm in imaging space-based laser warning system,the effects of sunlight and lightning on the threaten laser detection and attack event determination are studied by analyzing and calculating the radiant energy density and space-time feature of imaging spot,respectively.The results show that the main false alarm resourses of spacebased laser warning system are sunlight and lightning.The sunlight should exposure the detector directly in one ninth of the satillite orbital period,and the imaging spot of sun is similar to the attack laser.The lightning imaging spot is similar to the illumination laser.About 1.4 lightning events can occur in the field of view (FOV) of the warning system per second.It could not discriminate spots of sun,lightning and threaten laser by the frame subtraction technology.

  17. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  18. Application control chart concepts of designing a pre-alarm system in the nuclear power plant control room

    This study applied the concepts of the Shewhart control chart to design a pre-alarm system for the nuclear power plant control room. As a support in detecting faults, the pre-alarm system reminded the operators of a change in the system state in its early stages. Two pre-alarm types were designed to compare with the original system, and all participants were requested to monitor each simulated system under both normal and abnormal states. The tasks for the participants included shutting down the reactor, searching for procedures, monitoring system parameters and executing secondary tasks. In each trial, the task performance, mental workload and situation awareness (SA) of the participants were measured. Results indicated that participants had lower mental workload, but equal SA, when monitoring the system with either type of pre-alarm designs, and lower alarm frequency and higher secondary task performance were obtained with the pre-alarm design. Therefore, the pre-alarm system effectively assisted the operators in monitoring tasks

  19. Development of an algorithm to discriminate between valid and false alarms in a loose-parts monitoring system

    Highlights: • We developed a gun to generate impact signals to validate field experiment. • We developed an algorithm to discriminate against false alarms in a LPMS. • We proved that the algorithm minimized the false alarm rate in the LPMS. • We identified the signal patterns causing false alarms by thermal shock and friction. - Abstract: Loose-parts monitoring system (LPMS) monitors loosened or detached parts and foreign parts inside the pressure boundary of a reactor coolant system. If any object is detected, the LPMS identifies the object's characteristics, and can contribute to improving plant safety, since it can identify loosened metal objects, which have a potential to cause severe damage to internal components of the steam generator chamber. The most significant problem of a traditional LPMS is the high false alarm rate. The most developed systems used more sophisticated methods for event identification. With these sophisticated systems, the false alarm rate could be reduced to below 1%. Even though the LPMS resulted in a false alarm rate of less than 1%, there is still a high false alarm rate when the unit increases or decreases power. As the unit increases power, the coolant starts to heat the metal structure, which causes false alarms. Plant operators should continuously identify all alarms, including false alarms, until the metal structure reaches thermal balance. It is difficult to discriminate between valid and false alarms, since the signal pattern by thermal shocks and structure friction is similar to that by loose metal impacts. The false alarm rate can be reduced to almost 0% by applying an algorithm to discriminate between the false and valid alarms. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed to discriminate against signatures which are not related to loose-parts events, especially when the unit increases or decreases power. The algorithm can discriminate the signal pattern by the impact of loose parts against the signal

  20. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of nuclear weapons and its significance for the operational safety of alarm systems

    Following some short remarks on the generation of the EMP (fireball, γ initial radiation) and an estimation of the upper limits for the EMP values, the existing uncertainties in our knowledge of the EMP are pointed out, and suggestions are made for further considerations and research with regard to civil defense, for the protective measures for alarm systems must be designed to assure proper warning of the population. (HP)

  1. A design pattern language to assist the design of alarm visualizations for operating control systems

    Romero Gómez, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor With the growing emphasis on visualization as a mechanism for analysing and exploring large and complex data sets, visualization research has recognized the need of reusing prior design knowledge instead of starting from scratch. This fact is especially relevant in designing control systems in which alarm visualizations are key artefacts for human operators to maintain an awareness of the state of the process under control. In this context, desi...

  2. Improvement of alarm algorithms for SMART-P critical function monitoring system

    SMART-P is an integral reactor where major components such as main coolant pumps and steam generators are located inside of reactor vessel. It also have several different design features for the safety grade and non-safety grade systems relative to existing plants. Due to these unique features of SMART-P, new design requirements of the Critical Function Monitoring System (CFMS) are needed. Ten SMART-P CFMS critical function items were improved to satisfy the critical function required by NUREG-0696. - Core Reactivity Control - Core Heat Removal - RCS Inventory Control - RCS Pressure Control - RCS Heat Removal - Reactor Building Pressure/Temperature Control - Reactor Building Isolation - Radioactive Emissions Control - Combustible Gas Control - Maintenance of Vital Auxiliaries When we improve alarm algorithms for critical function, several SMART-P design features were reflected. In connection with the RCS inventory control, SMART-P POSRV did not release steam/water mixture but nitrogen gas in most cases so POSRV leakage alarm branch is moved to RCS Pressure Control item. In connection with the RCS pressure control, SMART-P pressurizer regulates the system pressure by nitrogen gas and steam partial pressure naturally without any active operation of spray or heater so alarm branch for pressure change rate were deleted

  3. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  4. Development of portable memory type radiation alarm monitor

    A radiation alarm monitor has been developed and manufactured in order to protect radiation workers from over-exposure. A visual and audible alarm system has been attached to initiate evacuation when accident occurs such as an unexpected change of radiation level or an over-exposure. The radiation alarm monitor installed with microprocessor can record the information of radiation field change between 90 min. before the alarm and 30 min. after the alarm and also provide the data to an IBM compatible computer to analyze the accidents and to set a counter plan. It features a wide detection range of radiation field(10 mR/h-100 R/h), radiation field data storage, portability, high precision (±5%) due to self-calibration function, and adaption of a powerful alarm system. According to ANSI N42.17A, the most stringent test standards, performance tests were carried out under various conditions of temperature, humidity, vibration, and electromagnetic wave hindrance at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS). As a result, the Radiation Alarm Monitor passed all tests

  5. Vehicle Security and Accident Information System

    D.Satheeshbabu*; B.Govardhana

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to offer an advance security system in CAR, which consists of a face detection subsystem, a GPS module, a GSM module and a control platform. The face detection subsystem can detect faces in cars during the period in which nobody should be in the car, and make an alarm loudly or soundlessly. The other modules transmit necessary information to users and help to keep eyes on cars all the time, even when the car is lost. In today’s world, many new techn...

  6. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  7. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  8. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H.; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of 14 managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e. alarms that do not require a response). The aim 15 of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern 16 Ireland (NI) Water by carrying-out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of 17 persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data was extracted 18 from Te...

  9. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  10. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Ziya Ekşi; Murat Çakıroğlu

    2013-01-01

    In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The desi...

  11. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  12. An attributable cost model for a telecare system using advanced community alarms.

    Brownsell, S J; Bradley, D A; Bragg, R; Catling, P; Carlier, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an attributable cost model for a city-based telecare scheme involving 11,618 community alarm users. The equipment was assumed to cost 500 Pounds-1000 Pounds per installation, compared with 175 Pounds for the current system. Because of the significant additional capital cost of the proposed system, it would be necessary to borrow to finance it. For example, if the home equipment cost 500 Pounds per unit, an additional 2.2 million Pounds would be required. Nonetheless, it would be possible to achieve a return on the investment after 10 years. The principal savings would arise from reduced hospital bed costs and reduced residential care. The model suggests that the financial benefits of the proposed system would occur in the ratio of 4% to the local authority housing department, 43% to the National Health Service and 53% to the residential care provider. PMID:11331043

  13. Development of a totally integrated severe accident training system

    Recently KAERI has developed the severe accident management guidance to establish the Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand the PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses the MELCOR code as the simulation engine. The simulator SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accidents with interactive user commands. Especially the control capability of SATS could make a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper we will describe the development and functions of the electrical guidance module, HyperKAMG, and the SATS-HyperKAMG linkage system designed for a totally integrated and automated severe accident training. (author)

  14. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2

  15. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden); Stille, Haakan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics

    2002-08-01

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2.

  16. The use of probabilistic safety analysis/assessment results for the development of diagnostics and alarm processing expert systems

    A method to generate alarm patterns using the results from Probabilistic Safety Analysis was developed. The method consists of extending the original fault trees to include the alarms and indicators corresponding to each primary events. The minimal cut sets of the extended tree are the desired alarm patterns. These patterns can be used to construct the Knowledge Base of a diagnosis expert system, or the stimulus response patterns to train a neural network. The Condensate System of a BWR station was used to illustrate the proposed method. Both the rule-based and the neural network-based diagnostics system work well when complete and accurate information is available. However, the neural-based diagnosis system can work under realistic conditions producing a correct diagnosis even when only incomplete or partially incorrect information is available. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  17. A Real Time Intelligent Driver Fatigue Alarm System Based On Video Sequences

    P.Ratnakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In automobiles advanced controllers are equipped to control all the data. In this work a new technology is considered as driver fatigue detection system. Developing intelligent system to prevent car accidents and can be very effective in minimizing accident death toll. One of the factors which play an important role in accidents is the human errors including driving fatigue. Relying on new smart techniques; this system detects the signs of fatigue and sleepiness in the face of the person at the time of driving by capturing the video sequences of the driver. Then, the frames are transformed from YUV space into RBG spaces. It is one of the inexpensive and unobtrusive method where face, eyes are detected and edge detection and histogram normalization are performed on the captured frames using MATLAB as a tool.The face area is separated from other parts with high accuracy in segmentation, low error rate and quick processing of input data distinguishes this system from similar ones

  18. Analysis of criticality alarm system response to an accidental criticality outside the cascade process buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Neutron dose rates at detector positions within the X-326, X-330, and X-333 buildings were evaluated for an accidental criticality outside of each building. As fissile material bearing equipment and containers are moved to and from each building, the possibility exists for a criticality accident to occur. This analysis demonstrates that a criticality accident which occurs at any position on the access roads alongside a process building can be detected. The detectable area includes all points within the access road boundary along each face of each building. This analysis also demonstrates that the criticality alarm systems of the process buildings will respond to criticality events occurring within the tie lines connecting the process buildings. This analysis was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo neutron-proton transport code. The radiation source is the neutron leakage spectrum of a critical solution of 4.95 percent enriched UO2F2-H2O at a power level corresponding to the ANSI ANS 8.3. Standard minimum accident of concern. The evaluated neutron fluxes were converted to neutron dose rates by use of the Henderson free-in-air response functions. Critical source positions correspond to the farthest source to detector distances on the access roads along each face of the three buildings, and the centerpoint of the building tie lines. This report contains the methodology used for this study, a background on the data used, and a section about the assumptions and limits to all conclusions

  19. Alarming atmospheres

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the...

  20. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system within the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.

    Schimitel, F G; de Almeida, G M; Pitol, D N; Armini, R S; Tufik, S; Schenberg, L C

    2012-01-01

    Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO₂ in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or patients without panic disorder. Accordingly, Klein [Klein (1993) Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317] suggested that clinical panic is the misfiring of an as-yet-unidentified suffocation alarm system. In rats, selective anoxia of chemoreceptor cells by potassium cyanide (KCN) and electrical and chemical stimulations of periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) produce defensive behaviors, which resemble panic attacks. Thus, here we examined the effects of single or combined administrations of CO₂ (8% and 13%) and KCN (10-80 μg, i.v.) on spontaneous and PAG-evoked behaviors of rats either intact or bearing electrolytic lesions of PAG. Exposure to CO₂ alone reduced grooming while increased exophthalmus, suggesting an arousal response to non-visual cues of environment. Unexpectedly, however, CO₂ attenuated PAG-evoked immobility, trotting, and galloping while facilitated defecation and micturition. Conversely, KCN produced all defensive behaviors of the rat and facilitated PAG-evoked trotting, galloping, and defecation. There were also facilitatory trends in PAG-evoked exophthalmus, immobility, and jumping. Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked defensive behaviors were attenuated or even suppressed by discrete lesions of PAG, they were markedly facilitated by CO₂. Authors suggest that the PAG harbors an anoxia-sensitive suffocation alarm system which activation precipitates panic attacks and potentiates the subject responses to hypercapnia. PMID:22062132

  1. Plant Performance Assessment System (PPAS) for crew performance evaluation. Lessons learned from an alarm system study conducted in HAMMLAB

    An experimental evaluation study of an alarm system was conducted in HAMMLAB. Sixteen scenarios of disturbances in the plant were simulated with the participation of six crews of professional operators from the Loviisa nuclear power station in Finland. This HWR describes a procedure developed to systematically evaluate and score crew performance from plant measures during the simulated scenarios. It comprises two parts: the first part is a description and discussion of the procedure and it's application to the alarm study. The second part provides a summary of information related to each of the sixteen scenarios. Tables of results are also presented together with figures showing the crew scores, which are based on plant performance versus the scenarios. (author)

  2. System Design Strategies of Post-Accident Monitoring System for a PGSFR in Korea

    Monitoring systems of a PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) in Korea provide alarms, integrity information in the reactor building, sodium-water reaction information in the steam generator, fuel failure information, and supporting information for maintenance and inspection. In particular, a Post-Accident Monitoring System (PAMS) provides primary information for operators to assess the plant conditions and perform their role in bringing the plant to a safe condition during an accident. Some PAM variables can be allocated as more two types. It is important for system designers to confirm the suitability of the selection of PAM variables. In addition, the PAMS is a position 4 display against common cause failures of safety I and C systems. The position 4 display should be independent and diverse from the safety I and C systems. The diversity of safety I and C equipment has led to an increase in the design and verification and validation cost. Thus, this paper proposes the system design strategies on the PAMS design problems of the PGSFR in KOREA. The results will be input into a conceptual system design for the PAMS of the PGSFR in KOREA. (authors)

  3. PWR auxiliary systems, safety and emergency systems, accident analysis, operation

    The author presents a description of PWR auxiliary systems like volume control, boric acid control, coolant purification, -degassing, -storage and -treatment system and waste processing systems. Residual heat removal systems, emergency systems and containment designs are discussed. As an accident analysis the author gives a survey over malfunctions and disturbances in the field of reactor operations. (TK)

  4. Modular telerobot control system for accident response

    Anderson, Richard J. M.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-08-01

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera-frame teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements seven different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  6. Reactor accident diagnostic expert system: DISKET

    A reactor accident diagnostic system DISKET has been developed to identify the cause and the type of an abnormal transient of a nuclear power plant. The system is based on the knowledge engineering and consists of an inference engine IERIAS and a knowledge base. The main features of DISKET are the following: Time-varying characteristics of transient can be treated and knowledge base can be divided into several knowledge units to handle a lot of rules effectively. This report has been provided for the convenience of DISKET's users and consists of three parts. The first part is the description of the whole system, the details of the knowledge base of DISKET are described in the second part, and how to use the DISKET system is explained in the third part. (author)

  7. Expert system in OPS5 for intelligent processing of the alarms in nuclear plants

    This work intends to establish a model of knowledge representation based on a expert system to supervise either security or operating to be applied generally on monitoring and detecting faults of industrial processes. The model structure proposed here let the system represent the knowledge related to faults on a process using a combination of rules either basic or associative. Besides, the model proposed has a mechanism of propagation of events in real time that acts on this structure making it possible to have an intelligent alarm processing. The rules used by the system define faults from the data acquired by instrumentation (basic rules), or from the establishment of a conjunction of faults already existent (associate rules). The computing implementation of the model defined in this work was developed in OPS5. It was applied on an example consisting of the shutdown of the Angra-I's power plant and was called FDAX (FDA Extended). For the simulated tests the FDAX was connected to the SICA (Integrated System of Angra-I Computers). It results save validity to the model, confirming thus its performance to real time applications. (author)

  8. Alarm systems in the nuclear industry - survey of the working situation and identification of future research issues

    Safety issues are important in the control of industrial processes. An essential part for interpreting and avoiding hazardous situations is the alarm system and its design. To increase the knowledge and to develop new design solutions this doctoral project was initiated. The work has been divided into three stages and this paper presents the results of the first stage. The objective of stage one was to investigate how operators in both nuclear and non-nuclear plants work. A comparison between different branches of industry was also performed. From these results a future research issue has been identified. The methods used were observations, interviews and a literature study. The results showed that the operators are satisfied with the performance of the alarm system during normal operating conditions. However, several problems could also be identified but most of them are already well-known in the nuclear industry. Since these problems are well known but still exist, this result contributes to the basic hypothesis that a theoretical basis is lacking for the design of the alarm system. The proposed issue for forthcoming work is therefore to collect and compile existing knowledge about the human information processing and alarm systems, and combine the knowledge from these areas. With a better understanding of the relation between these areas it is possible to develop new design solutions which are better adapted to the human capabilities and limitations. This would support operator performance which in turn increases plant performance and safety. (Author)

  9. New alarm system approach for detection and location of small leaks from pipelines

    Vapor Monitoring Wells are an accepted method to monitor for leaks from underground storage tanks and pipe. This paper discusses a method that is similar to well leak detection technique, yet superior for pipelines for reasons to be defined. Vapors from a leak source migrate through the soil. The time required for a leak to migrate a known distance is dependent on the vapor pressure of the leaking substance, the leak rate, and finally, soil type, compaction, and collection device is to the leak source the shorter the time required for the premise that the sensor tube acts as a continuous row of wells that can all be automatically sampled with one central pump/detector. The system precisely locates the leak. The benefit of this system is earlier detection and location of small leaks to minimize product loss to the environment. Dr. Wolfgang Issel developed Leak Alarm System for Pollutants, LASP, with the support of the German Ministry of Research and Technology to protect groundwater and other environmentally sensitive zones

  10. 78 FR 6732 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    2013-01-31

    ..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule... to numbering undocumented vessels and reporting boating accidents. The amendment affects three... agencies involved in issuing vessel registration and reporting boating accidents. This notice...

  11. Strategy generator in computerized accident management support system

    An increased interest for research in the field of accident management of nuclear power plants can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accidents in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The idea of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information from the plant will help the strategy planning. (orig.). (40 refs., 20 figs.)

  12. The function of the alarm system in advanced control rooms: an analysis of operator visual activity during a simulated nuclear power plant disturbance

    In 1996, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Brookhaven National Laboratory (US), and the OECD Halden Reactor Project conducted a large experiment, investigating the effects of alarm reduction and display on operator and plant performance (O'Hara et al., 1997), The results from this experiment indicated that the number of alarms presented to the operators, and the type of alarm display, had no impact on human performance during simulated disturbances. One possible interpretation of these surprising results is that operators in advanced control rooms use the alarm system only for limited purposes, i.e., the introduction of process formats, trend curves, overview displays, and computerized support systems have made the alarm system superfluous. Given the massive efforts put into the design and development of sophisticated alarm systems intended to maximize safety, this would be a paradoxical conclusion. To explore the role of the alarm system in more detail, we performed an analysis of eye-movement tracking data collected in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB). The objective of the study was to examine to which extent, and for what purposes, licensed operators use the alarm system in advanced control rooms during complex problem solving. According to Funke (1991), complex problem solving situations are non-transparent, ill-defined, and dynamic, i.e., the underlying state of the system must be inferred from symptoms, the goal state is ambiguous, and the problem is in continuous change. This seems to be an appropriate description of the working conditions when operators are confronted with challenging scenarios in a full scope nuclear simulator. Five experts on nuclear power plant operation from the OECD Halden Reactor Project were convened in order to generate initial hypotheses about the operators' use of the alarm system. The expert panel estimated that operators in advanced control rooms would use the alarm system less than 10 percent of the available

  13. A new diagnosis method using alarm annunciation for FBR power plants

    We discuss the methodology diversity for diagnosis reasoning in autonomous operation system, and propose a new diagnosis method using alarm annunciation system. The methodology diversity is assured by preparing plural agents, each of which is based on its own different methodology, therefore, it is expected for the reliability in diagnosis to be improved. Meanwhile, the combination of annunciated alarms is expected to be peculiar to the anomalous phenomenon or accident. Moreover, as the state of affairs is developing, each appearance of the pattern is changing with time peculiarly to each anomaly or accident. The matter is utilized for the new diagnosis method. The patterns of annunciated alarms with progress of the events are prepared in advance under the condition of the anomalies or accidents by use of plant simulatory. The diagnostic reasoning can be done by comparing the obtained combination of annunciated alarms with the reference templates, pattern matching method. On the other hand, we have another method, called as COBWEB used for conceptual classification in cognitive science, to reason for diagnosis. We have carried out the experiments using the loop type LMFBR plant simulator to obtain the various combinations of annunciated alarms with progress of the events under the conditions of anomalies and accidents. The examined cases were related to the anomalies and accidents in the water/steam system of the LMFBR power plant. We have obtained the conclusions that it is effective to reason the causes of anomalies using the annunciated alarms. We are going to apply the pattern matching technique or COBWEB method into the diagnostic reasoning to confirm the performance of the proposed diagnosis method based on the alarm annunciation. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs

  14. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Peddi Anudeep

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the previous speed in every second through a Microcontroller Unit. Whenever the speed will be below the specified speed, it will assume that an accident has occurred. The system will then send the accident location acquired from the GPS along with the time and the speed by utilizing the GSM network. This will help to reach the rescue service in time and save the valuable human life.

  15. Alarm setpoint determination method of gaseous effluent radiation monitoring systems based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    Kim, H. G.; Ha, G. H.; Park, G.; Eum, H. M. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Korean Atomic Laws require assurance that radioactive materials within gaseous effluents do not exceed Effluent Concentration Limits (ECL) as set forth in the Korean radiation protection standards. This simply means that any effluent that could possibly contain radioactivity must be monitored. Besides the legal implications, sound industrial hygiene practices require that personnel be protected against the possibility of exposure to excessive radiation from any source. Off-line gas and particulate monitors are particularly the case with a stack or duct where effluent is released into environment. The sample passes through the particulate and iodine filters, then through the gas sample volume to the pumping system and back to the process stack/duct. The alarm setpoint for the low range effluent noble gas monitors shall be established to ensure that the dose rates due to noble gas releases do not exceed a total body dose rate of 500 mrem/yr at the site boundary for combined releases from all units. The initial operational period of the unit will utilize the FSAR 1% failed fuel source term values for design basis release rate for each operating unit. The revised radiation protection guidelines in Korea were based largely on the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP recommended a dose limit of 1 mSv/yr in its 1990 recommendations. This study was requested to obtain a preliminary estimate of the impacts on the setpoint of effluent radiation monitoring systems at Korea Nuclear Power Plants of any reduction in the dose limits.

  16. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... care and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their.......17-2.95). CONCLUSIONS: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  18. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Peddi Anudeep; K. Hari Bab

    2014-01-01

    Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the pr...

  19. Line supervision of alarm communications

    The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions

  20. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  1. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... modeling technique (MFM) which represents a process in terms of its goals, functions and operating requirements. The reasoning capabilities of MFM enable identification of operational situations which threaten to generate an alarm and derivation of potential response scenarios. The design methodology can...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not...

  2. Statistical method application to knowledge base building for reactor accident diagnostic system

    In the development of a knowledge based expert system, one of key issues is how to build the knowledge base (KB) in an efficient way with keeping the objectivity of KB. In order to solve this issue, an approach has been proposed to build a prototype KB systematically by a statistical method, factor analysis. For the verification of this approach, factor analysis was applied to build a prototype KB for the JAERI expert system DISKET. To this end, alarm and process information was generated by a PWR simulator and the factor analysis was applied to this information to define taxonomy of accident hypotheses and to extract rules for each hypothesis. The prototype KB thus built was tested through inferring against several types of transients including double-failures. In each diagnosis, the transient type was well identified. Furthermore, newly introduced standards for rule extraction showed good effects on the enhancement of the performance of prototype KB. (author)

  3. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    this boundary a fan‐shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left‐ back and right‐back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that empirically verified the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. Furthermore, we analyzed the time and direction response based on neck vibrations. The statistical analysis (including hypothesis test suggests that the chosen alarm necklace can provide a rapid indication for a quick human response.

  4. Development of solution behavior observation system under criticality accident conditions

    A solution behavior observation system was developed for observing the behavior of fissile solution and radiolytic voids under criticality accident conditions in TRACY. The system consisted of a radiation-resistive optical fiberscope and a CCD color video camera. The system functioned properly in the mixed high radiation fields of gamma rays and neutrons under criticality accident conditions, and it succeeded in taking the images of their behavior. They provide an important information to understand phenomena of fuel solution at criticality accidents and to construct computational kinetic models. The images can also be used as teaching materials for plant workers and students in universities. (author)

  5. EDUCATIONAL USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND AT-MEGA MICROCONTROLLER - A CASE STUDY OF AN ALARM SYSTEM

    Tomasz Cieplak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  6. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  7. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  8. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as ApacheR, IISR, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as NetscapeR, Microsoft Internet ExplorerR, Mozilla FirefoxR, OperaR, and others. (authors)

  9. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS ...

  10. Transient accident analysis of the glovebox system in a large process room

    Local transient hydrogen concentrations were evaluated inside a large process room when the hydrogen gas was released by three postulated accident scenarios associated with the process tank leakage and fire leading to a loss of gas confinement. The three cases considered in this work were fire in a room, loss of confinement from a process tank, and loss of confinement coupled with fire event. Based on these accident scenarios in a large and unventilated process room, the modeling calculations of the hydrogen migration were performed to estimate local transient concentrations of hydrogen due to the sudden leakage and release from a glovebox system associated with the process tank. The modeling domain represented the major features of the process room including the principal release or leakage source of gas storage system. The model was benchmarked against the literature results for key phenomena such as natural convection, turbulent behavior, gas mixing due to jet entrainment, and radiation cooling because these phenomena are closely related to the gas driving mechanisms within a large air space of the process room. The modeling results showed that at the corner of the process room, the gas concentrations migrated by the Case 2 and Case 3 scenarios reached the set-point value of high activity alarm in about 13 seconds, while the Case 1 scenario takes about 90 seconds to reach the concentration. The modeling results were used to estimate transient radioactive gas migrations in an enclosed process room installed with high activity alarm monitor when the postulated leakage scenarios are initiated without room ventilation. (authors)

  11. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  12. How tissue injury alarms the immune system and causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Pugin, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is very prevalent among critically ill patients, particularly those with extensive tissue injury. Although downstream mediators (cytokines) and effector cells (phagocytes) have been identified, proximal mediators originating from injured tissues remained elusive. Alarmins (“danger signals”) released by necrotic/injured cells have been identified recently and certainly play a role in triggering local and systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. The most promising...

  13. Severe Accident Management System On-line Network SAMSON

    SAMSON is a computational tool used by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Operations Facilities (EOF) in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. SAMSON uses expert systems, as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithms to make predictions. Training on data from an accident analysis code (MAAP - Modular Accident Analysis Program) allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTRs), with breaks ranging from one tube to eight tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), with breaks ranging from 0.0014 square feet (1.30 cm2) in size to breaks 3.0 square feet in size (2800 cm2). (author)

  14. Predictive accident modeling approach inrelation to workover systems

    Jermstad, Lene Bøkseth

    2011-01-01

    Hydro carbon releases are the main contributor to the major accident risk on oil and gas platforms, and the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) has thus set a target for reducing such releases. Traditionally topside equipment has been the main focus of study in risk analysis, but to obtain the reduction goals it is important to focus on drilling and well intervention as well. This is due to the complexity of the systems, and the lessons learned from several accidents during such operation...

  15. Development of emergency response support system for accident management

    Specific measures for the accident management (AM) are proposed to prevent the severe accident and to mitigate their effects in order to upgrade the safety of nuclear power plants even further. To ensure accident management effective, it is essential to grasp the plant status accurately. In consideration of the above mentioned background, the Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) was developed as a computer assisted prototype system by a joint study of Japanese BWR group. This system judges and predicts the plant status at the emergency condition in a nuclear power plant. This system displays the results of judgment and prediction. The effectiveness of the system was verified through the test and good prospects for applying the system to a plant was obtained. 7 refs., 10 figs

  16. Optimizing severe accident containment filtered vent systems - Severe accident analysis and the dry and scrubber filter technology

    The accident at Fukushima has re-emphasized the importance of the capability to protect containment integrity during severe accidents. In the area of containment filtered vent systems, advances have been made since the original systems were installed in some plants in the late eighties and nineties. The paper describes new work in developing design specific requirements and system design.

  17. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  18. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  19. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  20. Cognitive systems engineering analysis of the JCO criticality accident

    The JCO Criticality Accident is analyzed with a framework based on cognitive systems engineering. With the framework, analysis is conducted integrally both from the system viewpoint and actors viewpoint. The occupational chemical risk was important as safety constraint for the actors as well as the nuclear risk, which is due to criticality accident, to the public and to actors. The inappropriate actor's mental model of the work system played a critical role and several factors (e.g. poor training and education, lack of information on criticality safety control in the procedures and instructions, and lack of warning signs at workplace) contributed to form and shape the mental model. Based on the analysis, several countermeasures, such as warning signs, information system for supporting actors and improved training and education, are derived to prevent such an accident. (author)

  1. Fundamental principles of alarm design

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional modeling technique (MFM) which represents a process in terms of its goals, functions and operating requirements. The reasoning capabilities of MFM enable identification of operational situations which threaten to generate an alarm and derivation of potential response scenarios. The design methodology can be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal with alarm presentation or display design issues. A hydraulically powered grinding process is employed as an industrially relevant system to show the applicability of the proposed design methodology with promising results. (author)

  2. Process criticality accident likelihoods, consequences, and emergency planning

    Evaluation of criticality accident risks in the processing of significant quantities of fissile materials is both complex and subjective, largely due to the lack of accident statistics. Thus, complying with standards such as ISO 7753 which mandates that the need for an alarm system be evaluated, is also subjective. A review of guidance found in the literature on potential accident magnitudes is presented for different material forms and arrangements. Reasoned arguments are also presented concerning accident prevention and accident likelihoods for these material forms and arrangements. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. CERN alarms data management: state and improvements

    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive. The article will cover as well the data management challenges related to the recently developed suite of data management interfaces in respect of keeping data consistency between the alarms configuration data coming from external data sources and the data modifications introduced by the end-users. (authors)

  4. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  5. Analysis of Criticality Accident Transients of Uranium Solution System

    DUAN; Ming-hui; DU; Kai-wen; LIU; Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the nuclear fuel cycle, fissile materials are often dissolved in water. Criticality accidents are likely to happen in the uranium solution system and release a large amount of energy and radioactive materials. Therefore, the criticality safety of uranium solution system is very important in the nuclear safety technology research.

  6. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Dang, Vinh N [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method.

  7. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method

  8. Plant system utilization for accident mitigation. Working material

    The 25 participants from 10 countries reviewed and assessed the current status and future trends in the use of available and/or additional systems to prevent and mitigate severe accidents at nuclear power plants and evaluated the implementation of corresponding guidelines to the operating and support staff. They presented 16 papers on the subject and provided comments for the preparation of a draft report on the use of plant systems for accident management. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Accident sequence quantification of phased mission systems using Markov approach

    A Markov approach to incorporate a phased mission analysis into an accident sequence quantification is developed in this study. The Markov approach describes more accurately the dynamic characteristics of phased mission systems, dependency among various phases, and repair of failed components than a cut set approach. For comparison, an accurate cut set approach to quantify the accident sequences is also presented in this study. The results show that it is desirable to use the Markov approach in phased missions systems with large failure rates of components or long mission time intervals. Furthermore, the Markov approach is not constrained by the magnitudes of failure rates or mission time intervals. (author)

  10. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  11. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems

  12. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  13. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management

  15. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  16. EAC european accident code. A modular system of computer programs to simulate LMFBR hypothetical accidents

    One aspect of fast reactor safety analysis consists of calculating the strongly coupled system of physical phenomena which contribute to the reactivity balance in hypothetical whole-core accidents: these phenomena are neutronics, fuel behaviour and heat transfer together with coolant thermohydraulics in single- and two-phase flow. Temperature variations in fuel, coolant and neighbouring structures induce, in fact, thermal reactivity feedbacks which are added up and put in the neutronics calculation to predict the neutron flux and the subsequent heat generation in the reactor. At this point a whole-core analysis code is necessary to examine for any hypothetical transient whether the various feedbacks result effectively in a negative balance, which is the basis condition to ensure stability and safety. The European Accident Code (EAC), developed at the Joint Research Centre of the CEC at Ispra (Italy), fulfills this objective. It is a modular informatics structure (quasi 2-D multichannel approach) aimed at collecting stand-alone computer codes of neutronics, fuel pin mechanics and hydrodynamics, developed both in national laboratories and in the JRC itself. EAC makes these modules interact with each other and produces results for these hypothetical accidents in terms of core damage and total energy release. 10 refs

  17. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    Yates, K R

    2003-01-01

    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  18. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. Objective To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monit...

  19. KESS-2, a system for simulation of core melt accidents

    KESS was able to simulate core melt accidents resulting from a 2 F break (low pressure cases). Risk studies and the accident at TMI-2 have revealed that this is not sufficient. Therefore it was decided to further develop the KESS system. The result is KESS-2. One can treat general accident situations with the new system. Thermalhydraulic conditions can be determined either by special programs or by a primary circuit model which is part of KESS-2. Due to the use of advanced software technologies it became possible to utilize the KESS-2 system in two different ways. Models and program sequences are provided for standard accident sequences as defined in the German Risk Study Phase B. They may be parameterised or adapted to different conditions. This can be done in a way similar to the use of conventional programs. Due to the modular design of KESS-2 it is also possible to use the system as a tool which allows to react on new situations. However this requires an understanding of both, the physics and the models provided in KESS-2. Both ways to utilise KESS-2 are demonstrated by several examples. (orig./HP)

  20. Tracking alarm causes by logic diagram

    An operator should provide the correct and fast actions on a cause of alarms and failure for reducing the effect of failure. There are a lot of study. But most of those studies may use a physical knowledges or causal relationships. Most of those studies impose on high level information like the physical knowledges or causal relationships of failure rather than the logical states or process signals as the detail causes of failure. It is very difficult that the physical knowledges or causal relationships are to be implemented and verified. This paper proposes a methodology for tracking alarm by logic of alarms. This methodology uses the proper logical knowledges on the proven logic and alarm diagram or electrical alarm relay logic than the uncertain physical knowledges or causal relationships. This system is to display the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes. The system can be used for operator to identify the detail causes of alarm without checking all candidates for causes in alarm response procedure and the logical states of alarm with alarm logic disgrams provided on CRT dynamically

  1. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  2. Advocating System Safety Concept in Preventing Airline Accidents

    Lu, Chien-tsung; Wetmore, Michael; Smith, John

    2005-01-01

    System safety was conceptualized by the aerospace industry in the late 1940s in the United States (U.S.). Traditionally, users of system safety applied analysis to identify operational hazards and subsequently provide countermeasures before or after an accident. Unfortunately, very few aviation safety researches from the airlines had utilized it to promote aviation safety. To enrich this knowledge and contribute interest from academia, this paper adopted the inductive techniques of system saf...

  3. Neural network-based expert system for severe accident management

    This paper presents the results of the second phase of a three-phase Severe Accident Management expert system program underway. The primary objectives of the second phase were to develop and demonstrate four capabilities of neural networks with respect to nuclear power plant severe accident monitoring and prediction. A second objective of the program was to develop an interactive graphical user interface which presented the system's information in an easily accessible and straightforward manner to the user. This paper describes the technical and regulatory foundation upon which the expert system is based and provides a background on the development of a new severe accident management tool. This tool provides data to assist in; (1) planning and developing priorities for recovery actions, (2) evaluating recovery action feasibility, (3) identifying recovery action options, and (4) assessing the timing and possible effects of potential recovery strategies. These performance characteristics represent the goals identified for the Severe Accident Management Strategies Online Network (SAMSON) which is currently under development. 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  5. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  6. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  7. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Choi, Y

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs.

  8. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  9. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs

  10. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  12. Development of radiation dose assessment system for radiation accident (RADARAC)

    The possibility of radiation accident is very rare, but cannot be regarded as zero. Medical treatments are quite essential for a heavily exposed person in an occurrence of a radiation accident. Radiation dose distribution in a human body is useful information to carry out effectively the medical treatments. A radiation transport calculation utilizing the Monte Carlo method has an advantageous in the analysis of radiation dose inside of the body, which cannot be measured. An input file, which describes models for the accident condition and quantities of interest, should be prepared to execute the radiation transport calculation. Since the accident situation, however, cannot be prospected, many complicated procedures are needed to make effectively the input file soon after the occurrence of the accident. In addition, the calculated doses are to be given in output files, which usually include much information concerning the radiation transport calculation. Thus, Radiation Dose Assessment system for Radiation Accident (RADARAC) was developed to derive effectively radiation dose by using the MCNPX or MCNP code. RADARAC mainly consists of two parts. One part is RADARAC-INPUT, which involves three programs. A user can interactively set up necessary resources to make input files for the codes, with graphical user interfaces in a personnel computer. The input file includes information concerning the geometric structure of the radiation source and the exposed person, emission of radiations during the accident, physical quantities of interest and so on. The other part is RADARAC-DOSE, which has one program. The results of radiation doses can be effectively indicated with numerical tables, graphs and color figures visibly depicting dose distribution by using this program. These results are obtained from the outputs of the radiation transport calculations. It is confirmed that the system can effectively make input files with a few thousand lines and indicate more than 20

  13. Intelligent system for accident identification in NPP

    Accidental situations in NPP are great concern for operators, the facility, regulatory bodies and the environmental. This work proposes a design of intelligent system aimed to assist the operator in the process of decision making initiator events with higher relative contribution to the reactor core damage occur. The intelligent System uses the results of the pre-operational Probabilistic safety Assessment and the Thermal hydraulic Safety Analysis of the NPP Juragua as source for building its knowledge base. The nucleus of the system is presented as a design of an intelligent hybrid from the combination of the artificial intelligence techniques fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. The system works with variables from the process of the first circuit, second circuit and the containment and it is presented as a model for the integration of safety analyses in the process of decision making by the operator when tackling with accidental situations

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...

    2010-10-01

    ... more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. 113.25-30 Section 113.25-30... for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. The general emergency alarm system for a barge of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for...

  15. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy

  16. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications

    Chang, Soon Hong; Cheon, Moon Heon; Cho, Nam jin; No, Hui Cheon; Chang, Hyeon Seop; Moon, Sang Kee; Park, Seok Jeong; Chung, Jee Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy.

  17. System of accidents notification: the ROSIS experience

    ROSIS is short for 'Radiation Oncology Safety Information System' and it is a voluntary web-based safety information database for Radiotherapy. The system is based on professional front-line staff in radiotherapy clinics reporting incidents and corrective actions over the Internet to a database. On a six years period, 120 health establishments registered more than 1200 events. Almost 98% of statements concern external radiotherapy. The reports can be consulted on the Internet site (www.clin.radfys.lu.se/) besides, a mini training to the risk management in the field of radiotherapy based on the Rosis data has been finalized and proposed for six years. (N.C.)

  18. Simulation of Intelligent Fire Detection and Alarm System for a W d p .

    V. B. Pati; Joshi, S.P.; R. Sowmianarayanan; M. Vedavath; R.K. Rana

    1989-01-01

    Fire is one of the major hazards in warships. A warship being avery complex structure, with sophisticated weapons, machinery, fueland ammunition is always at risk of fire. Restrictions on movement of ship's personnel and equipment requires automation in fire detectionand control systems. This paper describes the limitations of conventional fire detection systems, followed by the features of modern fire detection and alarnr (the so-called intelligent) systems and thetypes of fire detectors use...

  19. Black Juveniles in the Juvenile Justice System: A Cause for Alarm.

    LeFlore, Larry

    This report examines the representation of black youth in the juvenile justice system, describes changes in juvenile justice philosophy, and discusses policy implications. Black youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system compared to white youth. Positivist theories explain this overrepresentation as the result of…

  20. Simulation of Intelligent Fire Detection and Alarm System for a W d p .

    V. B. Pati

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the major hazards in warships. A warship being avery complex structure, with sophisticated weapons, machinery, fueland ammunition is always at risk of fire. Restrictions on movement of ship's personnel and equipment requires automation in fire detectionand control systems. This paper describes the limitations of conventional fire detection systems, followed by the features of modern fire detection and alarnr (the so-called intelligent systems and thetypes of fire detectors used in fire detection systems. The experimentalset-up used for simulating a simple system having 24 sensors connecteato the micro computer via digital input card is explained in detail withthe limitations of the experimental set-up and improvements that canbe made by incorporating serial communication in a loop, using fibre optics data links. and intelligent loop/interface units.

  1. An Intelligent Alarm Based Visual Eye Tracking Algorithm for Cheating Free Examination System

    Ali Javed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern and well established education system is a backbone of any nation’s success. High reputation in international platform can only be achieved when best and deserving students represent your country and earn reputation on their ability and dedication. For this purpose an education system must be a cheating free system so that non-deserving students should not get the positions which they don’t deserve. This research aims to develop such a system which can be used in exam halls to avoid the cheating based on student’s eye movement. The algorithm detects the human from the scene followed by the face detection and recognition. The next phase involves eye detection followed by eye's movement tracking to analyze and decide about whether the student is involved in cheating or not. The system can be used on a large scale in educational institutions as well as in corporate sector wherever exams have been conducted.

  2. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  3. Development and operation of an alarm and monitoring systems for fuel element transports from nuclear facilities

    A fast measuring system using a NaJ(Tl) scintillator is described which can distinguish between fuel element transports, transports of high- and medium-activity nuclear waste, and transports of other radioactive emitters. (orig.)

  4. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS technology. Security enabling module includes sensory units which ensures the condition of seat belt and the driver. This module includes alcohol sensor and eye sensor. The smart display and control is composed of two separate units: Zone status Transmitter unit and Receiver (speed Display and Control Unit.

  5. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  6. Application of CAN Bus Technology in Industrial Alarm Network System%CAN总线技术在工业报警网络系统中的应用

    柴钰; 张奇

    2011-01-01

    To satisfy the strict requirements on reliability and anti-interference capability for industrial alarm system, through analyzing the applicable background of various buses used in industrial areas, and classifying the common seen alarm types, the alarm network structure based on CAN bus is proposed and at the basis of the low layer CAN bus, the high layer CAN bus protocol better suitable for industrial alarm system has been designed, the real-time performance of bus data transmission and the transmission processing of the alarm information are analyzed;the practical hardware system of this communication network is established. The experiments verify the effectiveness of this design method.%为满足工业中报警系统对可靠性、抗干扰性方面的严格要求,通过分析工业中各种总线类型的应用背景,以及对目前常见报警类型进行分类,提出了一种基于CAN总线的报警网络结构.在CAN总线底层协议的基础上,设计了一种更加适用于工业报警系统的较高层CAN总线协议,分析了总线数据传输的实时性和报警信息的传输处理,搭建了该通信网络的实际硬件系统.实验论证了该设计方法的有效性.

  7. Development of accident diagnosis and prediction system for research reactor

    A pilot system of early fault detection expert system has been developed. The early fault detection expert system is one of subsystems in the accident diagnosis and prediction system for the research reactor JRR-3 in JAERI. Functions of the pilot system are to detect deviations of process parameters from the steady state in the early stage of the transient and, if possible, to provide procedures to operators to avoid scram actuation. The reactor accident diagnosis system, DISKET, which had been developed in JAERI, was applied for developing the pilot system by extending functions as follows. (1) A frame structure has been introduced to a part of the knowledge base of DISKET in order to infer efficiently. (2) Numerical equation has been introduced to rule representation in order to calculate numerical value for rules. The pilot system was tested against some simulated transients to validate the effectiveness of the extension mentioned above as well as the performance of the system. This report describes development of the pilot system and the results of the test. (author)

  8. Design of Alarm Clock

    Budík, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to create alarm clock, which respect the functional, technical and aesthetic requirements of this device and attain an attractive design of this product. The final draft should be innovative, original and user attractive alarm clock.

  9. 75 FR 25137 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    2010-05-07

    ... Boating Accident Report Database CFR Code of Federal Regulations DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS....

  10. The Importance of E-Learning and GSM Alarm System in the Medical Engineering

    Maria-Lavinia POPESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present social context is disturbed by questions, diversity, complexity, and the time and space parameters. Thus it is justifying the change of institution activity at news requirements which oblige and which sometimes are contradictory. That is why a special importance presents the adaptation capacity of entities to continuum improvement of their offers. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present new aspects which can increase the medical services quality. Much more, the paper represents an interdisciplinary approach because it presents the importance of integration of technical aspects with the learning system founded by technology, Internet and electronic materials, all integrated of medical engineering.