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Sample records for accident alarm system

  1. Rating of the efficiency of alarm systems in reactor accident emergencies

    Experience made with alarm systems designed to alert the population in the Federal Republik of Germany and in the US is discussed. German law on a national and regional level does not deal with alerting the population to the same degree as with alerting the disaster control agency, voluntary services and their members. The local disaster control agencies have to decide for themselves which alarm systems are to be used in an emergency caused by a nuclear accident. In order to clarify fundamentals for decision-making, the efficiency of existing alarm systems was analyzed. It was valuated according to six criteria. It became apparent that the system 'sirens/radio/TV' included in alarm plans so far can not ensure alerting of the population in an emergency caused by a nuclear accident, whereas the system using laudspeaker vans needs further inquiry and testing to determine its efficiency. Suggestions are made to improve the above alarm systems, and an alternative to existing systems is shown. (orig./HP)

  2. Verification of criticality accident alarm system detector locations for the X-326 process cell floor

    Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors on the cell floor of the X-326 process building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) are located at a height of 5 m above the cell floor. It has been suggested that this height be lowered to I m to alleviate accelerated system failures caused by the elevated temperatures at 5 m and to reduce the frequency of injury to maintenance personnel lifting the approximately 90-lb units into position. Work has been performed which analyzed the effect of relocating the CAAS detectors on the process floors of the X-333 and X-330 buildings from their current height to a height of 1 m1. This earlier work was based on criticality accidents occurring in low enriched material (5% 235U) and was limited to the X-333 and X-330 buildings and the low enriched areas of X-326. It did not consider the residual higher enriched material in the X-326 building. This report analyzes the effect on criticality alarm coverage of lowering the CAAS detectors. This analysis is based on criticality accidents resulting from higher enriched material which may be present as ''hold-up'' in the process equipment within the X-326 building. The criticality accident alarm detectors at the PORTS facility are set to alarm at a neutron absorbed dose rate of 5 mrad/hr. The calculated absorbed dose rates presented in this report show that the detectors examined that produce an alarm for the given criticality event at their current height will also produce an alarm if located at a height of 1 meter. Therefore, lowering the detectors will not result in a loss of coverage within the building

  3. Examination of dynamic response of detectors for criticality accident alarm systems at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    The Tokai reprocessing plant is so designed as to prevent the occurrence of any criticality accident during the operation including the handling, storage and transport of fissile materials in the plant. High reliable alarm systems against criticality accidents are urgently necessary to enable workers to evacuate immediately from the plant in a rare accident. The present systems were manufactured by SEIN Corp. in France, and the quality was guaranteed by CEA. The installation and maintenance of the systems have been performed by Toshiba Corp. The systems consist of 12 detectors which can detect gamma or neutron radiation resulting from critical excursion, a 623 BJ data processing module, an evacuation alarm sender and the warning equipment of 65 flash light boxes and 18 horn blowers. One area is monitored with a set of three criticality detectors of the same type, and alarm sounds when two out of three detectors detect the signals exceeding the threshold limit within the coincidence time of 500 msec. The configuration of gamma detectors, the test on dose rate linearity, alarm output characteristics and in-pile performance, and the results are reported. The time constant of the detectors was determined, and the detectors satisfactorily worked in the exposure test. (Kako, I.)

  4. A criticism of ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986: Criticality accident alarm system

    The American National Standard on criticality accident alarm systems has given rise to confusion in interpretation and implementation of the requirements. In addition, some of the standards have recently been incorporated into US Department of Energy (DOE) orders, and others have been paraphrased in the DOE orders. Some of the DOE orders referencing these standards are being incorporated into law by means of the Code of Federal Regulations. As such, the intent of the authors of the standards to recommend a code of good practice is now being codified into law with attendant civil and criminal penalties for failure to comply. It is suggested that ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986, Critically Accident Alarm System, be carefully reviewed to alleviate the confusion that has been experienced in practice, to clarify the minimum accident of concern, to further define the dose (or dose rate) criteria for activation, and to stress the fact that a prime consideration in any safety system is the overall reduction of risk

  5. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies.

  6. Bibliography for nuclear criticality accident experience, alarm systems, and emergency management

    The characteristics, detection, and emergency management of nuclear criticality accidents outside reactors has been an important component of criticality safety for as long as the need for this specialized safety discipline has been recognized. The general interest and importance of such topics receives special emphasis because of the potentially lethal, albeit highly localized, effects of criticality accidents and because of heightened public and regulatory concerns for any undesirable event in nuclear and radiological fields. This bibliography lists references which are potentially applicable to or interesting for criticality alarm, detection, and warning systems; criticality accident emergency management; and their associated programs. The lists are annotated to assist bibliography users in identifying applicable: industry and regulatory guidance and requirements, with historical development information and comments; criticality accident characteristics, consequences, experiences, and responses; hazard-, risk-, or safety-analysis criteria; CAS design and qualification criteria; CAS calibration, maintenance, repair, and testing criteria; experiences of CAS designers and maintainers; criticality accident emergency management (planning, preparedness, response, and recovery) requirements and guidance; criticality accident emergency management experience, plans, and techniques; methods and tools for analysis; and additional bibliographies

  7. Testing of the Y-12 Plant Criticality Accident Alarm System detectors at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant operates its Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) according to the guidance of Standard ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. This standard requires that the detector shall not fail to initiate an alarm when subjected to a radiation field of at least 0.1 Gy/s (10 rad/s). It also requires that the system shall be designed to immediately detect the minimum accident of concern and shall produce an alarm within one half second of activation. Sixty-three new detectors that use plastic scintillators have been obtained to upgrade the current Y-12 Plant CAAS. To ensure that these detectors can support the above criteria, testing was done using the SPR III reactor at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility

  8. Optimal Alarm Systems

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system is simply an optimal level-crossing predictor that can be designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. It...

  9. The Design of the Scene of the Accident Alarm System Based on ARM and GPS

    Shaik.abdul.mubeena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This system designs a wireless communication method using GSM to transmit data to the preset of treatment centers whenever an accident occurs. The vehicle is equipped with a GSM and a GPS module. The treatment center process the data received from the GSM module of the vehicle and identifies the location of the vehicle. The GPS module helps in tracking the location and state of the vehicle

  10. Analysis of criticality accident alarm system coverage in the X-700, X-705, and X-720 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plant

    Additional services for the uranium enrichment cascade process, such as maintenance and decontamination operations, are provided by several ancillary facilities at the PORTS site. These facilities include the X-700 Maintenance Facility, the X-705 Decontamination Facility, and the X-720 Maintenance and Stores Facility. As uranium operations are performed within these facilities, the potential for a criticality accident exists. In the event of a criticality accident within one of these facilities at PORTS, a Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to detect the criticality accident and sound an alarm. In this report, an analysis was performed to provide verification that the existing CAAS at PORTS provides complete criticality accident coverage in the X-700, X-705, and X-720 facilities. The analysis has determined that the X-705 and X-720 facilities have complete CAAS coverage; the X-700 facility has not been shown to have complete CAAS coverage at this time

  11. The LEP alarm system

    Unlike alarm systems for previous accelerators, the LEP alarm system caters not only for the operation of the accelerator but also for technical services and provides the direct channel for personnel safety. It was commissioned during 1989 and has seen a continued development up to the present day. The system, comprising over 50 computers including 5 different platforms and 4 different operating systems, is described. The hierarchical structure of the software is outlined from the interface to the equipment groups, through the front end computers to the central server, and finally to the operator consoles. Reasons are given for choosing a conventional, as opposed to a 'knowledge based' approach. Finally, references are made to a prototype real time expert system for surveying the power converters of LEP, which was conducted during 1990 as part of the alarm development program. (author)

  12. Intelligent Alarm Management System (IAMS)

    A large number of alarms in a nuclear power plant (NPP) are related to one causative event/alarm. When such an event happens, it triggers a cascade of alarms (called alarm avalanche) that comes in quick succession. These alarms may or may not come in a particular time-sequence each time the cause event is triggered. Alarm avalanches in an emergency situation can affect the performance of even the most seasoned operators. If a cause-consequence relationship can be established among a set of alarms, then such avalanches can be avoided by annunciating only the rootcause alarm. Intelligent Alarm Management System (IAMS) is a knowledge-based alarm processing system to reduce the number of presented alarms. The processing is based on the functional cause-consequence knowledge-base of the plant, wherein an alarm on a function denotes degradation/unavailability of the function.The knowledge is modeled using a graphical construct called Function Graph. (author)

  13. Accident alarm equipment for steam generator, especially liquid sodium heated steam generator

    The alarm equipment consists of a system of sensors mounted onto the steam generator and its accessories. Each of the sensors is used for a different accident characteristic, such as the flow of sodium, the acoustic spectrum, the concentration of hydrogen in sodium. The system of sensors is connected to the common accident alarm system. The equipment will not issue the alarm signal if it receives a message from only one sensor, only when the message is confirmed from other sensors. This excludes false alarm. (M.D.)

  14. The Coast Alarm System Editor

    The OECD Halden Reactor Project has for several years worked in the field of alarm handling. COAST was developed based on long experience with several different methods for identification of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. COAST has been delivered to a number of different organisations which generate their own applications. With COAST one can implement many alarm generation or structuring methods. So far, the alarm system is defined using a COAST language, COLA. Now, a first version of an editor to implement alarm systems is available, to support alarm system designers to write and structure their COLA code. It is developed based on general guidelines for user interface design and a thorough discussion of different editor types. The most important functionality needed when designing alarm systems for complex processes was emphasized when choosing the type of editor. A structure-oriented editor is currently implemented, and the report gives a description for how to include graphic features towards a more complete editor in the future. Support and encouragement for reuse of code is obtained by defining classes in a class library browser. Separate applications with their specific object definitions are constructed in an application browser. In this way the alarm classes from the class libraries can easily be used in several applications. The application browser offers the possibility to organize the alarm objects in a structured hierarchy. In big complex alarm systems such a structuring feature is of vital importance to keep the overview of the alarm system and to perform maintenance. (author)

  15. A comparison of two criticality accident alarm system detector locations for the X-700 building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Final report

    A previous analysis of the X-700 Building Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) showed that some of the building may not adequately be covered by the one building CAAS detector in its current location. This report compares the results of that analysis with a new analysis where the detector is in a different location. The new detector location (outside of the storage area in the center of the building--near column B-7) showed coverage for all points previously analyzed. The new centralized detector location reduces the distance and shielding between the source points and the detector. This explains the difference in the level of response when compared to the original (actual) detector location in the new annex west of the building

  16. Alarm system advances and innovations

    Alarm: 'a signal (as a loud noise or flashing light) that warns or alerts; also: a device that signals... '. This statement, this definition as simple as it is sums up every alarm system for every control system that has ever existed, but what it's missing from it is the complexity and uniqueness required by a Nuclear Power Plant. With advances in computerized control and engineering technologies within these plants, the need for more comprehensive alarm control and monitoring systems is as critical as the operation itself. (authors)

  17. Measurement of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant criticality accident alarm

    Measurements of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's nuclear criticality accident radiation alarm signal response time, sound wave frequency, and sound volume levels were made to demonstrate compliance with ANSI/ANS-8.3-1986. A steady-state alarm signal is produced within one-half second of obtaining a two-out-of-three detector trip. The fundamental alarm sound wave frequency is 440 hertz. The sound volume levels are greater than 10 decibels above background and ranged from 100 to 125 A-weighted decibels. The requirements of the standard were met; however the recommended maximum sound volume level of 115 dBA was exceeded. Emergency procedures require immediate evacuation upon initiation of a facility's radiation alarm. Comparison with standards for allowable time of exposure at different noise levels indicate that the elevated noise level at this location does not represent an occupational injury hazard. 8 refs., 5 figs

  18. Central alarm system replacement in NPP Krsko

    Current NPP Krsko central alarm system consists of three main segments. Main Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000), Ventilation Control Board alarm system (BETA 1000) and Electrical Control Board alarm system (BETA 1100). All sections are equipped with specific BetaTone audible alarms and silence, acknowledge as well as test push buttons. The main reason for central alarm system replacement is system obsolescence and problems with maintenance, due to lack of spare parts. Other issue is lack of system redundancy, which could lead to loss of several Alarm Light Boxes in the event of particular power supply failure. Current central alarm system does not provide means of alarm optimization, grouping or prioritization. There are three main options for central alarm system replacement: Conventional annunciator system, hybrid annunciator system and advanced alarm system. Advanced alarm system implementation requires Main Control Board upgrade, integration of process instrumentation and plant process computer as well as long time for replacement. NPP Krsko has decided to implement hybrid alarm system with patchwork approach. The new central alarm system will be stand alone, digital, with advanced filtering and alarm grouping options. Sequence of event recorder will be linked with plant process computer and time synchronized with redundant GPS signal. Advanced functions such as link to plant procedures will be implemented with plant process computer upgrade in outage 2006. Central alarm system replacement is due in outage 2004.(author)

  19. Recommendations to alarm systems and lessons learned on alarm system implementation

    Alarm systems have been of major concern within complex industrial processes for many years. Within the nuclear community, the TMI accident in 1979 was the first really serious event that showed also the importance of the man-machine aspects of the systems in general, and the alarm system in particular. The OECD Halden Reactor Project has been working with alarm systems since 1974. This report is an attempt to gather some of the knowledge that has been accumulated during the years in Halden, both in research and also in bilateral projects. Bilateral projects within this field have provided a practical basis of knowledge.A major part of this report consists of a set of recommendations, which reflect HRP's current understanding of how an alarm system should work. There are also recommendations on design methods. But also other issues are included, as system development and implementation experience, and experimental knowledge on the performance of alarm systems. Some open issues are also discussed. (Author). 54 refs., 15 figs

  20. SUBSURFACE VISUAL ALARM SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    The ''Subsurface Fire Hazard Analysis'' (CRWMS M andO 1998, page 61), and the document, ''Title III Evaluation Report for the Surface and Subsurface Communication System'', (CRWMS M andO 1999a, pages 21 and 23), both indicate the installed communication system is adequate to support Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) activities with the exception of the mine phone system for emergency notification purposes. They recommend the installation of a visual alarm system to supplement the page/party phone system The purpose of this analysis is to identify data communication highway design approaches, and provide justification for the selected or recommended alternatives for the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system. This analysis is being prepared to document a basis for the design selection of the data communication method. This analysis will briefly describe existing data or voice communication or monitoring systems within the ESF, and look at how these may be revised or adapted to support the needed data highway of the subsurface visual alarm. system. The existing PLC communication system installed in subsurface is providing data communication for alcove No.5 ventilation fans, south portal ventilation fans, bulkhead doors and generator monitoring system. It is given that the data communication of the subsurface visual alarm system will be a digital based system. It is also given that it is most feasible to take advantage of existing systems and equipment and not consider an entirely new data communication system design and installation. The scope and primary objectives of this analysis are to: (1) Briefly review and describe existing available data communication highways or systems within the ESF. (2) Examine technical characteristics of an existing system to disqualify a design alternative is paramount in minimizing the number of and depth of a system review. (3) Apply general engineering design practices or criteria such as relative cost, and degree

  1. Referral to the accident and emergency department following the use of community alarms

    Youssef, G.; Underhill, T; Tovey, C

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To assess the degree of appropriate referral to the accident and emergency (A&E) department following the use of a community alarm where a mobile warden works in conjunction with the community alarm control centre.

  2. Evaluation of the concrete shield compositions from the 2010 criticality accident alarm system benchmark experiments at the CEA Valduc SILENE facility

    Miller, Thomas Martin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wagner, John C [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McMahan, Kimberly L [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Authier, Nicolas [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Jacquet, Xavier [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Rousseau, Guillaume [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Wolff, Herve [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Savanier, Laurence [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Baclet, Nathalie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Valduc, Is-sur-Tille (France); Lee, Yi-kang [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Trama, Jean-Christophe [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Masse, Veronique [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Gagnier, Emmanuel [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Naury, Sylvie [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Centre de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Hunter, Richard [Babcock International Group (United Kingdom); Kim, Soon [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dulik, George Michael [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, Kevin H. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In October 2010, a series of benchmark experiments were conducted at the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) Valduc SILENE facility. These experiments were a joint effort between the United States Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program and the CEA. The purpose of these experiments was to create three benchmarks for the verification and validation of radiation transport codes and evaluated nuclear data used in the analysis of criticality accident alarm systems. This series of experiments consisted of three single-pulsed experiments with the SILENE reactor. For the first experiment, the reactor was bare (unshielded), whereas in the second and third experiments, it was shielded by lead and polyethylene, respectively. The polyethylene shield of the third experiment had a cadmium liner on its internal and external surfaces, which vertically was located near the fuel region of SILENE. During each experiment, several neutron activation foils and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed around the reactor. Nearly half of the foils and TLDs had additional high-density magnetite concrete, high-density barite concrete, standard concrete, and/or BoroBond shields. CEA Saclay provided all the concrete, and the US Y-12 National Security Complex provided the BoroBond. Measurement data from the experiments were published at the 2011 International Conference on Nuclear Criticality (ICNC 2011) and the 2013 Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD 2013) topical meeting. Preliminary computational results for the first experiment were presented in the ICNC 2011 paper, which showed poor agreement between the computational results and the measured values of the foils shielded by concrete. Recently the hydrogen content, boron content, and density of these concrete shields were further investigated within the constraints of the previously available data. New computational results for the first experiment are now available

  3. Fire auto alarm system intelligent trend

    The author gives the course and trend of the fire alarm system going to more computerized and more intelligent. It is described that only the system applied artificial intelligent and confusion control is the true intelligent fire alarm system. The author gives the detailed analysis on the signal treatment of artificial intelligent applied to analogue fire alarm system as well as the alarm system controlled by confusion technology and artificial nervous net

  4. Video systems for alarm assessment

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing closed-circuit television systems for video alarm assessment. There is a section on each of the major components in a video system: camera, lens, lighting, transmission, synchronization, switcher, monitor, and recorder. Each section includes information on component selection, procurement, installation, test, and maintenance. Considerations for system integration of the components are contained in each section. System emphasis is focused on perimeter intrusion detection and assessment systems. A glossary of video terms is included. 13 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Analysis of criticality accident alarm system coverage of the X-744G, X-744H, X-342/344A and X-343 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Additional services for the uranium enrichment cascade process, such as UF6 feed, sampling, and material storage are provided by several ancillary Uranium Material Handling (UMH) facilities at the PORTS site. These facilities include the X-343 Feed Vaporization and Sampling Facility, the X-744G Bulk Non-Uranium Enrichment Service Activity (UESA) Storage Building, the X-744H Waste Separation and Storage Facility, the X-344A Toll Enrichment Services Facility and the X-342A Feed Vaporization and Fluorine Generation Facility. As uranium operations are performed within these facilities, the potential for a criticality accident exists. In the event of a criticality accident within a process facility at PORTS, a Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) is in place to detect the criticality accident and sound an alarm. In this report, an analysis was performed to provide verification that the existing CAAS at PORTS provides complete criticality accident coverage in the X-343, X-744G. X-744H. X-344A and X-342A facilities. The analysis has determined that all of the above-mentioned facilities have complete CAAS coverage

  6. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330 (see Figures 1 and 2). These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries

  7. Design strategies of alarm system for SMART

    The high level goal of the SMART-AS (Alarm System for System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is for operators to enthusiastically accept a new technology that will improve their response to alarms during plant transient conditions. Three alarm system design characteristics were included: (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction); (2) alarm availability (prioritization and suppression); and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). The SMART-AS prioritizes alarms based on the state of the plant; reduces the amount of information presented to the operator by grouping and display the arms in accordance with the present state of the plant; and allows nuisance alarms to be suppressed. This paper provides an introduction into applying the data mining techniques for the alarm processing of SMART-AS. In this paper, we describe our data mining algorithms, and illustrate how to apply these algorithms to generate an alarm suppression model from the alarm data. (authors)

  8. Alarm system for ABWR main control panels

    TOSHIBA has developed integrated digital control and instrumentation system for ABWR, which is the third-generation man machine interface system for main control room that we call A-PODIA (Advanced PODIA). A-Podia has been introduced the first actual ABWR plant in Japan. in A-PODIA, TOSHIBA has realized improvement of alarm system that all operator crews in the control room can recognize plant anomalies easily. The alarm system can recognize essential alarms for plant safety easily and understand annunciators with each integrated annunciators and their prioritized color easily by classifying alarms into plant-level essential annunciators, system-level integrated annunciators and equipment level individual annunciators with hierarchical structure. This paper describes conventional alarm system and the design philosophy, alarm system design and operation of ''Alarm System for ABWR Main Control Panels''. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 1 tab

  9. Intelligent alarm-processing system for NPP

    Information on developing the intelligent alarm-processing system for NPPs with BWR reactors, which makes it possible to reduce the information load for the operators through the information volume optimization, related to identification of failures in the NPP operation, is presented. Calculational principles and methodological constituents for processing alarm signals are considered. Description of the system and simulation check results are presented

  10. Textile Moisture Sensor for Enuresis Alarm System

    Kašurina, I; Vališevskis, A; Ziemele, I; Viļumsone, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop an enuresis alarm system with textile moisture sensor (electrode), which is more suitable for textile garments. Authors propose to design sensor by embroidery using conductive yarn. Conductive yarns are a preferable material for enuresis alarm sensors, since they blend with the textile structure of underwear and bedding sheet, inducing less stress on the treated person.

  11. Development of the effectiveness measure for an advanced alarm system using signal detection theory

    Since many alarms which are activated during major process deviations or accidents in nuclear power plants can result in negative effects for operators, various types of advanced alarm systems that can select important alarms for the identification of process deviation have been developed to reduce the operator's workload. However, the irrelevant selection of important alarms could distract the operator from correct identification of process deviation. Therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of the advanced alarm system, a tradeoff between the alarm reduction rate (how many alarms are reduced?) and informativeness (how many important alarms that are conducive to identifying process deviation are provided?) of an advanced alarm system should be considered. In this paper, a new measure is proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of an advanced alarm system with regard to the identification of process deviation. Here, the effectiveness measure is the combination of informativeness measure and reduction rate, and the informativeness measure means the information processing capability performed by the advanced alarm system including wrong rejection and wrong acceptance, and it can be calculated using the signal detection theory (SDT). The effectiveness of the prototype alarm system was evaluated using the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) scenario, and the validity of the effectiveness measure was investigated from two types of the operator response, such as the identification accuracy and the operator's preference for the identification of LOCA

  12. Reactor alarm system development and application issues

    The new hardware and software technologies, and the need in research reactors for assistance systems in operation and maintenance, have given an appropriate background to develop a computer based system named ''Reactor Alarm System'' (RAS). RAS is a software package, user oriented, with emphasis on production, experiments and maintenance goals. It is designed to run on distributed systems conformed with microcomputers under QNX operating system. RAS main features are: a) Alarm Panel Display; b) Alarm Page; c) Alarm Masking and Inhibition; d) Alarms Color and Attributes; e) Condition Classification; and f) Arrangement Presentation. RAS design allows it to be installed as a part of a computer based Supervision and Control System in new installations or retrofit existing reactor instrumentation systems. The analysis of human factors during development stage and successive user feedback from different applications, brought out several RAS improvements: a) Multiple-copy alarm summaries; b) Improved alarm handling; c) Extended dictionary; and d) Enhanced hardware availability. It has proved successful in providing new capabilities for operators, and also has shown the continuous increase of user-demands, reflecting the expectations placed today on computer-based systems. (author). 6 figs, 1 tabs

  13. Recommendations for the LHC safety alarm system

    Laeger, H

    1999-01-01

    A working group was set up to define the LHC safety alarm system, also known as Alarm-of-Level-3-System (AL3S). The mandate asked for recommendations to be elaborated on four items: the overall concept of the AL3S for machine and experiments, the transmission and display of safety alarms, the AL3S during civil engineering construction, and the transition from the present LEP to the final LHC safety alarm system. The members of the working group represented a wide range of interest and experience including the CERN Fire Brigade, safety officers from experiments and machines, and specialists for safety and control systems. The recommendations highlight the need for a clear definition of responsibilities and procedures, well-engineered homogeneous systems across CERN, and they point to several important issues outside the mandate of the working group. These recommendations were presented, discussed and accepted by several CERN and LHC committees.

  14. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies

  15. Automated Information System (AIS) Alarm System

    Hunteman, W.

    1997-05-01

    The Automated Information Alarm System is a joint effort between Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory to demonstrate and implement, on a small-to-medium sized local area network, an automated system that detects and automatically responds to attacks that use readily available tools and methodologies. The Alarm System will sense or detect, assess, and respond to suspicious activities that may be detrimental to information on the network or to continued operation of the network. The responses will allow stopping, isolating, or ejecting the suspicious activities. The number of sensors, the sensitivity of the sensors, the assessment criteria, and the desired responses may be set by the using organization to meet their local security policies.

  16. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  17. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I ampersand ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite

  18. Development of a criticality monitoring and alarm system

    In this work we are presenting the development of a Criticality Monitor and Alarm System (SIMAC). It monitors the burst of radiation produced during such an accident and triggers an alarm for evacuation in case the radiation exceeds a pre-established threshold. It consists of two subsystems, one for gamma rays and the other for neutrons. Each subsystem has three independent detectors modules. Each module is composed of an ion chamber plus its associated electronics, feeding a logic module that in turn would trigger the evacuation alarm. An additional feature is a PC interface for data acquisition. The radiation detectors are ion chambers working in current mode. The electronics associated to each detector can manage a wide signal range using a logarithmic converter. (author)

  19. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF{sub 6} cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E.; Sutherland, P.J.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF{sub 6} cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330. These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries.

  20. Alarm system management: evidence-based guidance encouraging direct measurement of informativeness to improve alarm response.

    Rayo, Michael F; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D

    2015-04-01

    Although there are powerful incentives for creating alarm management programmes to reduce 'alarm fatigue', they do not provide guidance on how to reduce the likelihood that clinicians will disregard critical alarms. The literature cites numerous phenomena that contribute to alarm fatigue, although many of these, including total rate of alarms, are not supported in the literature as factors that directly impact alarm response. The contributor that is most frequently associated with alarm response is informativeness, which is defined as the proportion of total alarms that successfully conveys a specific event, and the extent to which it is a hazard. Informativeness is low across all healthcare applications, consistently ranging from 1% to 20%. Because of its likelihood and strong evidential support, informativeness should be evaluated before other contributors are considered. Methods for measuring informativeness and alarm response are discussed. Design directions for potential interventions, as well as design alternatives to traditional alarms, are also discussed. With the increased attention and investment in alarm system management that alarm interventions are currently receiving, initiatives that focus on informativeness and the other evidence-based measures identified will allow us to more effectively, efficiently and reliably redirect clinician attention, ultimately improving alarm response. PMID:25734193

  1. A Selection of Data Structure for SMART Alarm System Database

    A design goal of SMART Alarm System is providing intelligence alarm information to operator in main control room. To achive this, we should apply advanced alarm process logics and manage alarm data sets for advanced alarm logic. SMART Alarm System must analyze a lot of alarm by the cycle to determines alarms. For this, performance optimization of database is essential. Especially, high performance of search function is required. In this paper, we propose most a suitable search method to database by compare several search methods

  2. An expert system for alarm diagnosis and filtering

    This paper describes an alarm processing system being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for implementation in the High Flux Isotope Reactor. The purpose of the system is to perform two related functions, alarm diagnosis and filtering, to aid nuclear plant operators in responding to the large number of alarms typically activated during a major plant transient. The alarm diagnostician determines the root cause of a pattern or sequence of alarms and generates an explanation of the events leading to the alarm sequence. The alarm filter identifies and deemphasize those alarms which are either irrelevant to the current plant condition or contribute no significant new information

  3. An Undergraduate Experiment in Alarm System Design.

    Martini, R. A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving data acquisition by a computer, digital signal transmission from the computer to a digital logic circuit and signal interpretation by this circuit. The system is being used at the Illinois Institute of Technology. Discusses the fundamental concepts involved. Demonstrates the alarm experiment as it is used in…

  4. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs

  5. An Application of a Logic Alarm Cause Tracking System(LogACTs) to Wolsong 3 and 4

    After the TMI accident, many alarm reduction systems and diagnostic systems have been studied to reduce nuisance alarms and to detect the causes of an abnormal state. In this paper, an operator-aid system is proposed for tracking the logics of an alarm, finding the causes of an alarm, displaying the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes, and suppressing and filtering nuisance alarms due to the physical or logical connections between components or systems in an abnormal state. The system can be used by an operator to identify the detailed causes of an alarm without checking all the causes of the candidates by alarms. The proposed system will be applied to a nuclear power plant of a CANDU type, Wolsong 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant

  6. Alarm handling systems and techniques developed to match operator tasks

    This paper covers alarm handling methods and techniques explored at the Halden Project, and describes current status on the research activities on alarm systems. Alarm systems are often designed by application of a bottom-up strategy, generating alarms at component level. If no structuring of the alarms is applied, this may result in alarm avalanches in major plant disturbances, causing cognitive overload of the operator. An alarm structuring module should be designed using a top-down approach, analysing operator's tasks, plant states, events and disturbances. One of the operator's main tasks during plant disturbances is status identification, including determination of plant status and detection of plant anomalies. The main support of this is provided through the alarm systems, the process formats, the trends and possible diagnosis systems. The alarm system should both physically and conceptually be integrated with all these systems. 9 refs, 5 figs

  7. Addressing the alarm analysis barrier - a tool for improving alarm systems

    This paper describes a software application tool for the initial specification and maintenance of the thousands of alarms in nuclear and other process control plants. The software program is used by system designers and maintainers to analyze, characterize, record and maintain the alarm information and configuration decisions for an alarm system. The tool provides a comprehensive design and information handling environment for: the existing alarm functions in current CANDU plants; the new alarm processing and presentation concepts developed under CANDU Owners Group (COG) sponsorship that are available to be applied to existing CANDU plants on a retrofit basis; and, the alarm functions to be implemented in new CANDU plants. (author). 3 refs., 1 fig

  8. Integrated taut wire sensor alarm monitoring system

    For many years mechanical taut wire intrusion detection systems have played a key role in protecting high risk facilities. The taut wire sensor has the advantage that it combines a physical barrier with an intrusion sensor, a useful feature where no fence is installed or planned. However, mechanical taut wire sensors have proven to have several major disadvantages, including: no sensitivity adjustment, no sensor self-test feature, no remote control capability, and inflexible mounting constraints. This paper deals with a new generation of solid state taut wire sensor which overcomes the deficiencies of the aging mechanical design. The new sensor uses a microprocessor to filter out sources of nuisance alarms, yet maintains exceptional sensitivity to intrusion and tamper attempts. Being solid sate, the new sensor can be mounted in any orientation, even upside down. Moreover, when combined with a new, advanced alarm monitoring system, the solid state taut wire fence will support remote sensitivity adjustment and remote sensor self-test control

  9. Optimal alarm system applied in coffee rust

    Luciene Resende Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm systems have very great utility in detecting and warning of catastrophes. This methodology was applied via TARSO model with Bayesian estimation, serving as a forecasting mechanism for coffee rust disease. The coffee culture is very susceptible to this disease causing several records of incidence in most cultivated crops. Researches involving this limiting factor for production are intense and frequent, indicating environmental factors as responsible for the epidemics spread, which does not occur if these factors are not favorable. The fitting type used by the a posteriori probability, allows the system to be updated each time point. The methodology was applied to the rust index series in the presence of the average temperature series. Thus, it is possible to verify the alarm resulted or in a high catastrophe detection in points at which the catastrophe has not occurred, or in the low detections if the point was already in the catastrophe state.

  10. Development of the newly advanced alarm system for APWR plant

    We have been developing AMCB (Advanced Main Control Board) for APWR consisting of a large overview display and on operator console. We have adopted the alarm prioritizing functions, which are already in use in the existing Japanese PWR plants, for easier identification of the high priority alarms. Moreover, we have developed an alarm system with a large overview display, which presents alarms on the plant process flow diagram. This enhances the location aids and pattern recognition in the alarm identification process. This time, we made further improvement and studies for better and various functions combining a large overview display with a CRT display. We determined the alarm system specification as follows, taking account of flexible alarm recognition processes. (1) The high priority alarms can be identified upon the LOD (large overview display). On the display, the alarms are described on the plant flow diagram, and the alarm status is shown on the fixed position of process or equipment symbols. (2) Other alarms are identified on large overview display and on CRTs using a hierarchical process. (3) The alarm messages are divided into 4 different groups according to the plant systems, thus enabling to undertake the countermeasure operations, using only the CRT. Moreover, we integrated a computerized ARPs (Alarm Response Procedures) into the alarm system. (author). 4 figs, 5 tabs

  11. 30 CFR 57.4360 - Underground alarm systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground alarm systems. 57.4360 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Procedures/alarms/drills § 57.4360 Underground alarm systems. (a) Fire...

  12. A Study on Performance Requirements for Advanced Alarm System

    A design goals of advanced alarm system is providing advanced alarm information to operator in main control room. To achive this, we applied computer based system to Alarm System. Because, It should apply data management and advanced alarm processing(ie. Data Base Mangegment System and S/W module for alarm processing). These are not impossible in analog based alarm system. And, preexitance research examples are made on digital computer. We have digital systems for test of advanced alarm system table and have tested and studied using by test equipment in the view point of the system performance, stability and security. In this paper, we discribed about general software architecture of preexitance research examples. Also, CPU performance and requirements of system software that served to accommodate it, stability and security

  13. System for alarms analysis and optimization in petrochemicals plants; Sistema para analise e otimizacao de alarmes em plantas petroquimicas

    Leitao, Gustavo; Pifer, Aderson; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Saito, Kaku; Aquino, Leonardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The present work presents a group of algorithms, techniques and functionalities on alarms management which can be used efficiently on the treatment of 'disturbances' caused by the informal management of the alarm systems. Among the disturbances handled by these techniques, there is the recognition of intermittent alarms and false alarms, location of alarm floods and correlation between alarms, aiming the identification of communal root causes. The results will be presented through a case study on petrochemical alarm plants. At last, the results obtained by the utilization of such functionalities will be presented and discussed. (author)

  14. ALARM SYSTEM FOR A BOILER SYSTEM CONTROL ON ENERGY ENTERPRISE

    Lueder, Arndt; Ryshentseva, Daria

    2014-01-01

    As the problem of good qualified functioning of a boiler every year is taking place, there is an interest to create an advanced error alarm system, which, as its mission, has the timely notification of the controlled object functioning errors. Thus, in this paper the improved model of the alarm system object control is proposed, the question of an error-free object functioning problem solving is raised. The proposed model includes such approaches to solve this problem as artificial intelligen...

  15. Experimental evaluation of human-system interaction on alarm design

    This study evaluates the practicability of automatic reset alarm system in Fourth Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) of Taiwan. The features of auto-reset alarm system include dynamic prioritization of all alarm signals and fast system reset. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of automatic/manual reset on operation time, situational awareness (SA), task load index (TLX), and subjective ratings. All participants, including Experts and Novices, took part in the experiment on the alarm system simulator with Load Rejection procedure. The experimental results imply that the auto-reset alarm system may be applied in an advanced control room under Load Rejection procedure, because all participants' operation time were reduced as well as Novice's SA were raised up. Nevertheless, to ensure operating safety in FNPP, the effects of the auto-reset alarm system in other procedures/special situations still need to be tested in the near future

  16. Examination of criticality accident alarm coverage on the operating floors of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    This report summarizes the results of an evaluation of Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) coverage of the operating floors (first floors) of the X-333, X-330, and X-326 buildings. CAAS coverage of the process cell floors (second floors) has been evaluated in previous reports. Coverage of the roadways around the three processing buildings by the cell floor detectors in these buildings has also been verified in a previous report. In order to evaluate coverage, the facilities were modeled using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code (MCNP). MCNP was then used to simulate criticality accidents at various locations throughout the operating floors of the buildings and the associated neutron flux at the current detector locations was calculated. The neutron flux was then converted to an absorbed dose rate (in tissue) and compared with the Portsmouth criticality accident alarm set-point of 5mrad/hr. The parameters defining the simulated criticality accidents have been calculated as ''the minimum accident of concern'' as defined in ANSI Standard ANS 8.3-1986. These calculations are documented in Portsmouth report number POEF-SH-31. The results of this evaluation indicate that the X-333 Operating Floor CAAS may not alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern. This is primarily because of shielding provided by the numerous concrete columns used to support the second floor of this building and the large distances between the CAAS detectors. Conversely, the results indicate that the X-326 and the X-330 CAAS systems would alarm in response to a minimum accident of concern occurring on the operating floors of these buildings. It should be noted that the cell floors in these two buildings are supported with steel I-beams instead of the concrete columns used in the X-333 building

  17. JOYO operation support system 'JOYCAT' based on intelligent alarm handling

    An operation support system for the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' was developed based on an intelligent alarm-handling. A specific feature of this system, called JOYCAT (JOYO Consulting and Analyzing Tool), is in its sequential processing structure that a uniform treatment by using design knowledge base is firstly applied for all activated alarms, and an exceptional treatment by using heuristic knowledge base is then applied only for the former results. This enables us to achieve real-time and flexible alarm-handling. The first alarm-handling determines the candidates of causal alarms, important alarms with which the operator should firstly cope, through identifying the cause-consequence relations among alarms based on the design knowledge base in which importance and activating conditions are described for each of 640 alarms in a frame format. The second alarm-handling makes the final judgement with the candidates by using the heuristic knowledge base described as production rules. Then, operation manuals concerning the most important alarms are displayed to operators. JOYCAT has been in commission since September of 1990, after a wide scope of validation tests by using an on-site full-scope training simulator. (author)

  18. From alarm systems to smart houses.

    Vlaskamp, F J

    1992-01-01

    The percentage of senior citizens in the Netherlands will rise in coming years. The expected percentage for the year 2010 of persons over age 65 in the total population is 15%. More persons over age 65 than ever before will continue to live in their own environment. Emergency response systems (ERS) can support independent living. The most common type of organization distributing ERS is a small, partly subsidized local alarm organization run by a social welfare office for the elderly. Government subsidy has been reduced in recent years which has motivated small organizations to join together into larger regional organizations in order to get a more solid financial base. On the other hand new semi-commercial and commercial organizations have come into being. These developments are part of the growing importance of home care, leading to more medical applications of ERS. User satisfaction with ERS is high. Portable triggers can enhance the effectiveness of the system. However, many users do not wear the portable trigger when feeling well. Future technical developments will result in multifunctionality of ERS-devices. In the long term the hardware of today will be integrated in a multimedia home terminal replacing the telephone. The portable trigger will remain the only specific hardware at home for ERS. PMID:10126436

  19. Alarm systems a guide to design, management and procurement

    Engineering Equipment and Materials Users' Association. London

    2013-01-01

    Alarm systems form an essential part of the operator interfaces to large modern industrial facilities. They provide vital support to the operators by warning them of situations that need their attention and have an important role in preventing, controlling and mitigating the effects of abnormal situations. Since it was first published in 1999, EEMUA 191 has become the globally accepted and leading guide to good practice for all aspects of alarm systems. The guide, developed by users of alarm systems with input from the GB Health and Safety Executive, gives comprehensive guidance on designing, managing and procuring an effective alarm system. The new Third Edition has been comprehensively updated and includes guidance on implementing the alarm management philosophy in practice; applications in geographically distributed processes; and performance metrics and KPIs.

  20. Reliability enhancement of criticality alarm system in CORAL

    This paper describes the challenges encountered in the Criticality Alarm System (CAS) installed in CORAL plant and explains the requirement and ways to make the system rugged, reliable and eliminate any false criticality alarms. To improve the reliability of the system the following improvements are required to be carried out viz. the power supply connections to the CAS, changes in wiring in the existing CASs, provision for electronic testing of the CAS remotely from control panel, connection of the criticality alarms to annunicator panel, design of common plant CAS alarm circuit with redundant DC power supplies, provision of alarm for mains and DC power supply failures, provision for transferring the CAS dose rate signals to the Radiation Data Acquisition Systems (RDAS) for event log and remote display and surveillance of CAS. (author)

  1. Operator Performance Comparison of two VDT-based Alarm Systems

    This study is carried out to investigate performance differences between two alarm presentation methods from the viewpoint of human factors and to provide items to be improved. One of the alarm display methods considered in this study displays alarm lists on VDT combined with hardwired alarm panels. The other method displays alarms on plant mimic diagrams of VDT. This alarm display method has other features for operator aid with which operator can get detailed information on the activated alarm in the mimic diagrams, and the capability for alarm processing such as alarm reduction and prioritization. To compare the two display methods, a human factor experiment was performed with a plant simulator in the ITF (Integrated Test Facility) that plant operators run for 4 event scenarios. During the experiment, physiological measurements, system and operator action log, and audio/video recordings were collected. Operators subjective opinion was collected as well after the experiment. Time, error rate and situation awareness were major human factor criteria used for the comparison during the analysis stage of the experiment. No statistical significance was found in the results of our statistical comparison analysis. Several findings were identified, however, through the analysis of subjective opinions. (authors)

  2. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory long-range alarm system

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Long-Range Alarm System is described. The last few years have brought significant changes in the Department of Energy regulations for protection of classified documents and special nuclear material. These changes in regulations have forced a complete redesign of the LASL security alarm system. LASL covers many square miles of varying terrain and consists of separate technical areas connected by public roads and communications. A design study over a period of 2 years produced functional specifications for a distributed intelligence, expandable alarm system that will handle 30,000 alarm points from hundreds of data concentrators spread over a 250-km2 area. Emphasis in the design was on nonstop operation, data security, data communication, and upward expandability to incorporate fire alarms and the computer-aided dispatching of security and fire vehicles. All aspects of the alarm system were to be fault tolerant from the central computer system down to but not including the individual data concentrators. Redundant communications lines travel over public domain from the alarmed area to the central alarm station

  3. Use of pagers with an alarm escalation system to reduce cardiac monitor alarm signals.

    Cvach, Maria M; Frank, Robert J; Doyle, Pete; Stevens, Zeina Khouri

    2014-01-01

    Alarm fatigue desensitizes nurses to alarm signals and presents potential for patient harm. This project describes an innovative method of communicating cardiac monitor alarms to pagers using an alarm escalation algorithm. This innovation was tested on 2 surgical progressive care units over a 6-month period. There was a significant decrease in mean frequency and duration of high-priority monitor alarms and improvement in nurses' perception of alarm response time, using this method of alarm communication. PMID:23963169

  4. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  5. Design of SMART alarm system using main memory database

    To achieve design goal of SMART alarm system, first of all we have to decide on how to handle and manage alarm information and how to use database. So this paper analyses concepts and deficiencies of main memory database applied in real time system. And this paper sets up structure and processing principles of main memory database using nonvolatile memory such as flash memory and develops recovery strategy and process board structures using these. Therefore this paper shows design of SMART alarm system is suited functions and requirements

  6. DTR, Taut Wire System: An alarm barrier with experience

    The Taut Wire Fence Alarm System concept was developed and introduced more that fifteen years ago in Israel. A sudden expansion of the nations's border lines, the difficulty to monitor intrusions along those elongated lines and the need for timely as well as accurate armed response to an intrusion attempt dictated the need for an alarming barrier. Traditionally, protection of perimeters was accomplished by the installation of a fence or other type obstacles (man made or natural) and surveillance by manned patrols, fixed observation posts, and/or electronic devices. Defense planners recognized therefore the need for an alarming barrier. A concentrated effort by scientists solved the problem by developing the first Taut Wire Fence Alarm System in a configuration of an alarm barrier. The system was specified to have an extremely low false alarm rate (FAR/NAR), high probability of detection, the capability to follow various terrains, operability in a wide range of environmental conditions, a capability to delay an intruder, ease of installation by unskilled labor, and low maintenance requirements. The authors try here to explain the various constraints and considerations given during the design stages of the Taut Wire Alarm System so as to bring the present magnitude of users to a better understanding of the system's operation

  7. Perimeter security alarm system based on fiber Bragg grating

    Zhang, Cui; Wang, Lixin

    2010-11-01

    With the development of the society and economy and the improvement of living standards, people need more and more pressing security. Perimeter security alarm system is widely regarded as the first line of defense. A highly sensitive Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor based on the theory of the string vibration, combined with neural network adaptive dynamic programming algorithm for the perimeter security alarm system make the detection intelligently. Intelligent information processing unit identify the true cause of the vibration of the invasion or the natural environment by analyzing the frequency of vibration signals, energy, amplitude and duration. Compared with traditional perimeter security alarm systems, such as infrared perimeter security system and electric fence system, FBG perimeter security alarm system takes outdoor passive structures, free of electromagnetic interference, transmission distance through optical fiber can be as long as 20 km It is able to detect the location of event within short period of time (high-speed response, less than 3 second).This system can locate the fiber cable's breaking sites and alarm automatically if the cable were be cut. And the system can prevent effectively the false alarm from small animals, birds, strong wind, scattering things, snowfalls and vibration of sensor line itself. It can also be integrated into other security systems. This system can be widely used in variety fields such as military bases, nuclear sites, airports, warehouses, prisons, residence community etc. It will be a new force of perimeter security technology.

  8. ARC Code TI: Optimal Alarm System Design and Implementation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An optimal alarm system can robustly predict a level-crossing event that is specified over a fixed prediction horizon. The code contained in this packages provides...

  9. A study of reset mode in advanced alarm system simulator

    An automation function has been widely applied in main control room of nuclear power plants. That leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, which considers human operational performance in automated systems. In this research is the automation alarm reset in the advanced alarm system (AAS) of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. Since alarms are very crucial for the understanding of the status of the plant as well as the reset function of alarm system will be changed from fully manual to fully automatic, it is very important to test and evaluate the performance and the effect of reset modes in AAS. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of the auto-reset alarm system on the plant performance and on operators' preference and task load. To develop a dynamic simulator as an AAS was conducted to compare manual and automatic reset function of alarm system on task performance and subjective ratings of task workload, comprehension, and preference. The simulation includes PCTRAN model and alarm software processing. The final results revealed that, using the auto-reset mode, participants had lower task load index (TLX) on effort in the first test trial and was more satisfied in multiple tasks condition. In contrast, using manual reset mode, participants were more satisfied on alarm handling, monitoring, and decision making. In other words, either reset mode in the study has unique features to assist operator, but is insufficient. The reset function in AAS therefore should be very flexible. Additionally, the experimental results also pointed out that the user interfaces need to be improved. Those experiences will be helpful for human factors verification and validation in the near future. (authors)

  10. Implementation of alarm system for vibration monitoring of KOMAC facility

    For operating 100 MeV linac, Devices have to be operated in certain order. Thus malfunction of a device cause damage to linac and related devices. To protect linac, machine protect system (MPS) has been developed. The MPS protects the components by monitoring hardwired signals. When values of operating parameters go beyond or below limit, alarm will be generated and interlock system which stops related devices in certain sequence will run. Other factor, giving damage to linac is disaster. A strong vibration such as earthquake causes malfunction of devices and damage to linac. Against disaster, the monitoring system based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) was implemented. Configuration and Implementation of the monitoring system are presented and some preliminary results are reported. KOMAC implemented alarm system for a strong vibration and fire. Alarm is generated in unusual situation. Coping rapidly with situation, damages for Linac and related devices can be reduced

  11. PROLOG language application for alarm system realization in accelerator control

    Such PROLOG features as backtracking, matching and recursive data representation are powerful tools for ALARM system realization. Although the main idea is the possibility to describe some technical system in recursive form, backtracking and matching are ideal for processing recursive data structures. This paper represents a technique which would allow PROLOG language application for ALARM system realization using an example of the KEK LINAC magnet system. The technique is based on an object-oriented internal data representation in terms of objects, properties, relations and knowledge conception. In addition, each property value is characterized by a typical 'time life'. (author)

  12. 29 CFR 1910.165 - Employee alarm systems.

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Other Fire Protection Systems § 1910.165 Employee... communication system also serves as the employee alarm system, all emergency messages shall have priority...

  13. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  14. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  15. FATAL ACCIDENT REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS)

    The Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) database consist of three relational tables, containing data on automobile accidents on public U.S. roads that resulted in the death of one or more people within 30 days of the accident. Truck and trailer accidents are also included.

  16. An engineering approach to knowledge-based systems, the alarm processing and diagnostic system

    The number of alarms that may be initiated during transients or accidents in nuclear-generating control rooms may temporarily exceed an operator's ability to assimilate and respond. This phenomenon is characterized as Cognitive Overload. The Alarm Processing and Diagnostic System (APDS) was designed to deal with this problem through a unique and operationally sensitive method of alarm prioritization and filtration. The approach taken attempts to parallel the operator's situation assessment methodology when dealing with transient conditions. A strong criteria for the development methodology employed was its ultimate acceptance by parties engaged in the operation of nuclear power facilities. As such, the methodology used had to be easily understood and consistent with the acceptance standards of nuclear power. This necessitated the verifiable practices found in engineering design. While APDS remains rooted in artificial intelligence or expert systems, it goes beyond the paradigm of rules and inferencing to an object-oriented structure that allows traditional and well-documented engineering-based decision methods to be applied. These features have important consequences when considering final acceptance, implementation, and maintenance. 3 refs., 1 tab

  17. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  18. Cost-Effective School Alarm Systems. Security Topics Series.

    Kaufer, Steve

    This document outlines considerations in the selection of a cost-effective school-alarm system. Steps in the planning process include: conducting a district needs assessment; gathering input from all staff levels; consulting technical expertise; and selecting a security system that can be integrated with other site needs. It further describes the…

  19. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs

  20. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working situations and is

  1. An alarm processing system for a nuclear power plant using artificial intelligence techniques

    This paper reports on an alarm processing system (APS) developed that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help operators to make decisions. Alarms in nuclear power plants are classified into generalized and special alarms. Generalized alarms are further classified into global and local alarms. For each type of alarm, the specific processing rules are applied to filter and suppress unnecessary and potentially misleading alarms. The processing for the generalized alarms is based on model-based reasoning. The special alarms are processed by the cause-consequence check rules. The priorities of alarms are determined according to both the plant state and the consistencies among the alarms. This APS is built on a workstation using the Prolog language

  2. 46 CFR 120.550 - General alarm systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm systems. 120.550 Section 120.550 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION...

  3. An object-oriented alarm-filtering system

    This paper discusses an alarm-filtering system (AFS) being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ultimate goal of this project is to place AFS into ATR's reactor control room to act as an aid during major plant transients. In addition, methods of alarm analysis are investigated based on functional relationships rather than on a historical approach utilizing cause-consequence trees. Artificial intelligence techniques, including object-oriented programming, are also demonstrated as useful in analyzing alarms and alarm sequences. After a brief description of the problem AFS addresses, this paper discusses the design constraints and human factors that influenced the development of the system. The reader is then presented with operational and architectural descriptions of the system as well as what directions the future development of AFS may take. The fact that AFS is being considered as a partial solution to the problems discussed in the next section demonstrates the viability of its underlying technology and approach

  4. Hierarchies of Alarms for Large Distributed Systems

    Boccioli, M; Martos, V; Holme, O

    2014-01-01

    The control systems of most of the infrastructure at CERN make use of the SCADA package WinCC Open Architecture by ETM*, including successful projects to control large scale systems such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator and associated experiments.).

  5. Logic Alarm Cause Tracking System(LogACTs) for Wolsong 3 and 4

    KAERI I and C. HF Research team has developed an alarm root cause tracking system (ACTs), an alarm and diagnosis-integrated operator support system (ADIOS), and a dynamic alarm system (DAS). An alarm processing and presentation system, LogACTs(Logic Alarm Cause Tracking system) of their researches is developed and installed into the main control room(MCR) of the Wolsong nuclear power plant(NPP) unit 3. The system is integrated with tracking the logics of an alarm, finding the causes of an alarm, displaying the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes, and suppressing and filtering nuisance alarms due to the physical or logical connections between components or systems in an abnormal state

  6. Locations of criticality alarms and nuclear accident dosimeters at Hanford. Revision 1

    1992-08-01

    Hanford facilities that contain fissionable materials capable of achieving critical mass are monitored with nuclear accident dosimeters (NADS) in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.11, Chapter XI, Section 4.c. (DOE 1988). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (RL) has assigned the responsibility for maintaining and evaluating the Hanford NAD system to the Instrumentation and External Dosimetry (I&ED) Section of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) Health Physics Department. This manual provides a description of the Hanford NAD, criteria and instructions for proper NAD placement, and the locations of these dosimeters onsite.

  7. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland.

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-08-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e., alarms that do not require a response). The aim of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern Ireland (NI) Water by carrying out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data were extracted from TelemWeb (NI Water's telemetry monitoring system) and analyzed in Excel. Over a 6-week period, an average of 40 000 alarms occurred per week. The alarm duration analysis, which has never been implemented before by NI Water, found that an average of 57% of NI Water alarms had a duration of <5 minutes. Applying 5-minute persistence, therefore, could prevent an average 26 816 nuisance alarms per week. Most of these alarms were from wastewater assets. PMID:26237691

  8. Seismic alarm system for Ignalina nuclear power plant

    A seismic alarm system will be installed at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) in Lithuania. There are two reactors, both RMBK 1500 MW units. Each reactor is a water cooled, graphite moderated, channel type reactor. INPP has the most advanced version of the RMBK reactor design series. The first and second units of INPP went into service at the end of 1983 and in August 1987 respectively. Their design lifetime is approx. 30 years. The various buildings and plant have been designed for two earthquake levels, that is the design earthquake and the maximum possible earthquake with peak ground accelerations ranging from 1.2% to 10% of the acceleration due to gravity. Certain parts of the buildings and some of the equipment of the first and second units do not comply with Western seismic standards. As seismic strengthening of the existing buildings and equipment is not feasible economically, a reactor protection system based on an earthquake early warning system was recommended. This system essentially consists of six seismic stations encircling INPP at a radial distance of approx. 30 km and a seventh station at INPP. Each station includes three seismic substations each 500 m apart. The ground motion at each station is measured continuously by three accelerometers and one seismometer. Data is transmitted via telemetry to the control centre at INPP. Early warning alarms are generated if a seismic threshold is exceeded. This paper discusses the characteristics of INPP, the seismic alarm system presently under construction and the experience with other early warning and seismic alarm systems. (author)

  9. A WSN-Based Intrusion Alarm System to Improve Safety in Road Work Zones

    Jose Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Workers responsible for maintaining and repairing roadways are especially prone to suffer these events, given their exceptional exposure to traffic. Since these actuations usually coexist with regular traffic, an errant driver can easily intrude the work area and provoke a collision. Some authors have proposed mechanisms aimed at detecting breaches in the work zone perimeter and alerting workers, which are collectively called intrusion alarm systems. However, they have several limitations and have not yet fulfilled the necessities of these scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new intrusion alarm system based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. Our system is comprised of two main elements: vehicle detectors that form a virtual barrier and detect perimeter breaches by means of an ultrasonic beam and individual warning devices that transmit alerts to the workers. All these elements have a wireless communication interface and form a network that covers the whole work area. This network is in charge of transmitting and routing the alarms and coordinates the behavior of the system. We have tested our solution under real conditions with satisfactory results.

  10. Design of Textile Moisture Sensor for Enuresis Alarm System

    Kašurina, I; Vališevskis, A; Briedis, U; Viļumsone, A

    2012-01-01

    To improve the comfort properties of nocturnal enuresis alarm system, a modular humidity sensor should be replaced with a textile sensor. During research, two-electrode textile moisture sensor has been developed to study its electrical properties. To define the optimal type of a sensor, several sensor samples have been made using different configurations of sensor electrodes, yarn type and distance between parallel seams. Samples of sensor have been tested in terms of sig...

  11. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  12. TPLC-32 based alarm annunciation system for Dhruva

    The Control and Instrumentation (C and I) Systems of Dhruva Research Reactor have been designed in late seventies and are facing not only obsolescence but have limited diagnostic features. Since the expected life of C and I systems is typically twenty years, it was considered appropriate to upgrade some of the major systems including Alarm Annunciation System (AAS). The AAS of Dhruva is a Safety Class IB system that is used for processing alarm inputs and alerting the Main Control Room operator by driving LED based windows and audio annunciation in the Main Control Room. The AAS is also used for sequencing and logging of alarms on Operator Console. AAS is designed using qualified configurable platform Trombay Programmable Logic Controller-32 (TPLC-32) indigenously developed in BARC. The platform based design provides complete configurability, such that it can be used to build different systems for diverse applications. The AAS for Dhruva is first TPLC-32 based system to be deployed in any Indian Nuclear Reactor. The entire cycle involved conceptualization of system, making system requirement specifications, detailing the concept, design, fabrication, creation of test facilities, testing, validation of system performance, preparation of various documents for the regulatory safety clearances, installation and commissioning of the systems. This upgrade of AAS has helped enhancing safety, mitigates obsolescence and provided improved O and M features. Executing this upgrade in operating reactor posed additional constraints such as high level of safety, limited down time etc and this could be addressed through long term planning and implementation strategies based on innovative ideas and previous experience in installation and commissioning. Being an in-house product, long-term support for maintenance mitigating the obsolescence and technology up gradation is ensured. This paper provides technical information on AAS system design, its important features, the testing

  13. A NEW INVENTION OF ALARM REMINDER LOCKING (ARL SECURITY SYSTEM

    M.S.M. Effendi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alarm Reminder Locking (ARL Security System mainly focuses on a door security system, which can install in the door area to increase the security level for home, office room, hostel or other places. This system used Arduino Controller and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM technology, which is the cheapest source to embed the security system to transmit the Short Message Service (SMS alert data. This device integrates three functions that are alarming, reminder and locked for a purpose of safety and connecting via mobile phone to remind the users through SMS. This device has a 3 modes of operation which is the system will be functional when the door is not improperly closed for the first reminder with the buzzer alert. The second mode is automated locked will be activated when users closed the door, but did not lock manually. Intrusion mode will activate while auto locked modes are interrupted without proper access. All this integrated system will provide high security access against intrusion occurrence. This security device will bring a new benefit to the user to consider about the userfriendly application, low power consumption and reasonable cost to install.

  14. Alarm filtering and presentation

    This paper discusses alarm filtering and presentation in the control room of nuclear and other process control plants. Alarm generation and presentation is widely recognized as a general process control problem. Alarm systems often fail to provide meaningful alarms to operators. Alarm generation and presentation is an area in which computer aiding is feasible and provides clear benefits. Therefore, researchers have developed several computerized alarm filtering and presentation approaches. This paper discusses problems associated with alarm generation and presentation. Approaches to improving the alarm situation and installation issues of alarm system improvements are discussed. The impact of artificial intelligence (AI) technology on alarm system improvements is assessed. (orig.)

  15. A High-confidence Cyber-Physical Alarm System: Design and Implementation

    Ma, Longhua; Xia, Feng; Xu, Ming; Yao, Jun; Shao, Meng

    2010-01-01

    Most traditional alarm systems cannot address security threats in a satisfactory manner. To alleviate this problem, we developed a high-confidence cyber-physical alarm system (CPAS), a new kind of alarm systems. This system establishes the connection of the Internet (i.e. TCP/IP) through GPRS/CDMA/3G. It achieves mutual communication control among terminal equipments, human machine interfaces and users by using the existing mobile communication network. The CPAS will enable the transformation in alarm mode from traditional one-way alarm to two-way alarm. The system has been successfully applied in practice. The results show that the CPAS could avoid false alarms and satisfy residents' security needs.

  16. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    O`Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Stubler, W.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout.

  17. Human factors engineering guidance for the review of advanced alarm systems

    This report provides guidance to support the review of the human factors aspects of advanced alarm system designs in nuclear power plants. The report is organized into three major sections. The first section describes the methodology and criteria that were used to develop the design review guidelines. Also included is a description of the scope, organization, and format of the guidelines. The second section provides a systematic review procedure in which important characteristics of the alarm system are identified, described, and evaluated. The third section provides the detailed review guidelines. The review guidelines are organized according to important characteristics of the alarm system including: alarm definition; alarm processing and reduction; alarm prioritization and availability; display; control; automated; dynamic, and modifiable characteristics; reliability, test, maintenance, and failure indication; alarm response procedures; and control-display integration and layout

  18. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Hoško, I.; Zečević, N.; Pavlaković, S.

    2012-01-01

    Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. I...

  19. A Smart Cyber-physical Alarm System and its Application for Assisted Living

    Zhe-Ming Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issues are increasingly obvious. An automated real-time online alarm system to ensure the safety of property and personality while considering numerous smart Terminal Equipments (TE becomes a major challenge. At the same time, this is representative of novel and emerging alarm system for assisted living in the daily life. Two problems of current alarm system are identified. A smart Cyber-Physical Alarm System (CPAS based approach is proposed to address these problems. A prototype system installed in a house to assist living has been running stably and shows quite promising performance.

  20. Intelligent alarms detection for the analysis of system fault impact on business

    Pace, C.; Russo, I; Fernández, V.; Britos, Paola Verónica; Rossi, Bibiana D.; García Martínez, Ramón

    1998-01-01

    The tools for fault impact analysis are important for the deployment of critical mission systems. These tools can be also used as a development phase aid. We introduce several concepts related to "business alarms". Business alarms are an approximation to the company's business conceptual scheme driven by the business rules from systems conceptual schemes. In order to specify them we propose the utilization of Knowledge Engineering typical techniques. The object of alarm detection for impa...

  1. Advanced alarm system design and human performance: Guidance development and current research

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. Guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. As part of the development effort, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance development were identified and prioritized. Research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. (author). 29 refs, 2 figs

  2. Simulator testing of the Westinghouse aware alarm management system

    Over the last year, Westinghouse engineers and operators from the Beznau nuclear power station (KKB), owned by the Nordostschweizerische Krafwerke AG of Baden, Switzerland, have been installing and testing the Westinghouse AWARE Alarm Management System in Beznau/SNUPPS operator training simulator, owned and operated by the Westinghouse Electric Corp., in Waltz Mill, PA, USA. The testing has focused primarily on validating the trigger logic data base and on familiarizing the utility's training department with the operation of the system in a real-time environment. Some of the tests have included plant process scenarios in which the computerized Emergency Procedures were available and used through the COMPRO (COMputerized PROcedures) System in conjunction with the AWARE System. While the results to date are qualitative from the perspective of system performance and improvement in message presentation, the tests have generally confirmed the expectations of the design. There is a large reduction in the number of messages that the control room staff must deal with during major process abnormalities, yet at times of relative minor disturbances, some additional messages are available which add clarification, e.g., ''Pump Trouble'' messages. The ''flow'' of an abnormality as it progresses from one part of the plant's processes to another is quite visible. Timing of the messages and the lack of message avalanching is proving to give the operators additional time to respond to messages. Generally, the anxiety level to ''do something'' immediately upon a reactor trip appears to be reduced. (author). 8 refs

  3. Development of Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS)

    It is imperative that a reactor which has been shutdown remain subcritical and not inadvertently return to power. Such an event could occur for instance through failure of a component in the complex control system or inadvertent action taken by the operator. In any case, during such an event the reactor approaches criticality exponentially with respect to time thus making it more difficult for the operator to detect the event and take appropriate action before the reactor goes to criticality [Ref. 1]. This paper is prepared for the development of the Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS) to improve the sub-criticality monitoring of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 Standard Nuclear Power Plant (APR1400). This system is designed to provide operators with useful information about an inadvertent boron dilution event occurring with the plant in Modes 3, 4, 5, and 6 before the reactor coolant system is diluted sufficiently to result in a total loss of shutdown margin. The acceptance criteria of APR1400 for an unplanned boron (moderator) dilution specify at least 30 minutes in all operational modes. The main features of DBAS are the use of digital information from the startup neutron monitoring channels and a boronometer

  4. Development of Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS)

    Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Hwan Soo; Moon, Chan Kook [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    It is imperative that a reactor which has been shutdown remain subcritical and not inadvertently return to power. Such an event could occur for instance through failure of a component in the complex control system or inadvertent action taken by the operator. In any case, during such an event the reactor approaches criticality exponentially with respect to time thus making it more difficult for the operator to detect the event and take appropriate action before the reactor goes to criticality [Ref. 1]. This paper is prepared for the development of the Digital Boron Dilution Alarm System (DBDAS) to improve the sub-criticality monitoring of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 Standard Nuclear Power Plant (APR1400). This system is designed to provide operators with useful information about an inadvertent boron dilution event occurring with the plant in Modes 3, 4, 5, and 6 before the reactor coolant system is diluted sufficiently to result in a total loss of shutdown margin. The acceptance criteria of APR1400 for an unplanned boron (moderator) dilution specify at least 30 minutes in all operational modes. The main features of DBAS are the use of digital information from the startup neutron monitoring channels and a boronometer

  5. E.D.A.C. detection system and criticality alarm

    The purpose of this document is to furnish to the radiation protection departments and users of facilities which must be considered to incur some risk of criticality accidents all the available information on the newly developed equipment, in order to facilitate its installation and use. This equipment was designed and developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (Patent No. 2184399 of 20 December 1974), and its industrial production was handled by Inter-technique. It includes the detecting sensors, grouped together as survey monitors, and the processing cabinet for the data generated by the sensors. The detecting sensor is the basic component of the system

  6. Changes are detected - cameras and video systems are monitoring the plant site, only rarely giving false alarm

    The main purpose of automatic data acquisition and processing for monitoring goals is to relieve the security personnel from monotonous observation tasks. The novel video systems can be programmed to detect moving target alarm signals, or accept alarm-suppressing image changes. This allows an intelligent alarm evaluation for physical protection in industry, differentiating between real and false alarm signals. (orig.)

  7. The use of simulation in the development of human factors guidelines for alarm systems

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance was developed based on a broad review and analysis of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support guidance developed were identified. Experimental research is currently underway to address the highest priority topics: alarm processing and display characteristics. This paper provides an overview of the approach to guidance development and discusses the role of simulation in the development approach. Finally, the current simulator-based experiment is described to illustrate how the alarm system design features are being studied

  8. Proposed Support Decision Making System for the Remote Monitoring of Commercial and Residencial Central Alarm Systems

    Alex Luiz de Sousa; André Bittencourt Leal; Ricardo Ferreira Martins; Claudio Cesar de Sá

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a system to support decision making for the remote monitoring of commercial and residencial central alarm systems. The basis of the system is modeled with deterministic finite automata and the support for decision-making uses of induction of decision trees and case-based reasoning. A prototype system was developed for validation and testing.

  9. Proposed Support Decision Making System for the Remote Monitoring of Commercial and Residencial Central Alarm Systems

    Alex Luiz de Sousa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a system to support decision making for the remote monitoring of commercial and residencial central alarm systems. The basis of the system is modeled with deterministic finite automata and the support for decision-making uses of induction of decision trees and case-based reasoning. A prototype system was developed for validation and testing.

  10. Accident/Mishap Investigation System

    Keller, Richard; Wolfe, Shawn; Gawdiak, Yuri; Carvalho, Robert; Panontin, Tina; Williams, James; Sturken, Ian

    2007-01-01

    InvestigationOrganizer (IO) is a Web-based collaborative information system that integrates the generic functionality of a database, a document repository, a semantic hypermedia browser, and a rule-based inference system with specialized modeling and visualization functionality to support accident/mishap investigation teams. This accessible, online structure is designed to support investigators by allowing them to make explicit, shared, and meaningful links among evidence, causal models, findings, and recommendations.

  11. Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents

    Rana Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Alert System for High Speed Vehicles to Avoid Wildlife Accidents” is an alert system used to safeguard our wildlife. We often hear of various accidents of wild animals like elephant, nilgai etc., who are trying to cross the railway track. So, an intelligent electronics system is necessary which can be affixed to avoid the possibilities of accidents. Regarding this, in our project we are using a Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR sensor which is an electronic sensor that measures infrared (IR light radiating from objects in its field of view and switches ON any electrical/electronic device to which it is connected to. The key component of the sensor module is the pyroelectric element. All objects with a temperature above absolute zero emit heat energy in the form of radiation. Usually this radiation is invisible to the human eye because it is radiated at infrared wavelengths, but it is detected by this PIR sensor. This sensor does not radiate any energy for detection purposes and thus, it has no harmful effects on living beings. In our project the PIR sensor is used as a part of a burglar alarm and the electronic in the PIR typically control a small relay. This relay completes the circuit across a pair of electrical contacts connected to a detection input zone of the burglar alarm control panel. The system is usually designed such that if no living creature is being detected, the relay contact is closed- a „normally closed‟ (NC relay. If energy emitted from any nearby creature is detected, the relay opens, triggering the alarm, a signal will be directly sent to the driver‟s chamber and it will create a message in the LED screen of his chamber also an alarm will be heard which we have implemented using an ultrasonic sensor hc-sr04.

  12. A basic design of alarm system for the future nuclear power plants in Korea

    The design of an advanced alarm system is under way to apply to the new MMIS for the future nuclear power plants in Korea. Based on the alarm system design bases we established the design requirements and are now refining them with the results of evaluation through the prototype. To realize the advanced system new algorithms for alarm processing and display are implemented and various new devices are examined. The evaluation for the design is performed in accordance with the verification and validation plans and through the prototype. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  13. Intelligent buildings, automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system

    The author describes in brief the intelligent buildings, and the automatic fire alarm and fire-protection control system. On the basis of the four-bus, three-bus and two-bus, a new transfer technique was developed

  14. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-02-01

    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  15. 40 CFR 267.34 - When must personnel have access to communication equipment or an alarm system?

    2010-07-01

    ... to an internal alarm or emergency communication device, either directly or through visual or voice... communication equipment or an alarm system? 267.34 Section 267.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... have access to communication equipment or an alarm system? (a) Whenever hazardous waste is being...

  16. Nitric Acid Revamp and Upgrading of the Alarm & Protection Safety System at Petrokemija, Croatia

    Hoško, I.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Every industrial production, particularly chemical processing, demands special attention in conducting the technological process with regard to the security requirements. For this reason, production processes should be continuously monitored by means of control and alarm safety instrumented systems. In the production of nitric acid at Petrokemija d. d., the original alarm safety system was designed as a combination of an electrical relay safety system and transistorized alarm module system. In order to increase safety requirements and modernize the technological process of nitric acid production, revamping and upgrading of the existing alarm safety system was initiated with a new microprocessor system. The newly derived alarm safety system, Simatic PCS 7, links the function of "classically" distributed control (DCS and logical systems in a common hardware and software platform with integrated engineering tools and operator interface to meet the minimum safety standards with safety integrity level 2 (SIL2 up to level 3 (SIL3, according to IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. This professional paper demonstrates the methodology of upgrading the logic of the alarm safety system in the production of nitric acid in the form of a logical diagram, which was the basis for a further step in its design and construction. Based on the mentioned logical diagram and defined security requirements, the project was implemented in three phases: analysis and testing, installation of the safety equipment and system, and commissioning. Developed also was a verification system of all safety conditions, which could be applied to other facilities for production of nitric acid. With the revamped and upgraded interlock alarm safety system, a new and improved safety boundary in the production of nitric acid was set, which created the foundation for further improvement of the production process in terms of improved analysis.

  17. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  18. SuperAlarm: System and Methods to Predict In-Hospital Patient Deterioration and Alleviate Alarm Fatigue

    Bai, Yong

    2016-01-01

    A diverse array of continuous, multi-parameter and alarm-equipped physiologic monitoring devices have been deployed in modern intensive care units (ICUs) and other critical care settings to detect changes in a patient's status. Alarm signals activated by the monitors are intended to alert caregivers to either abnormalities in a patient's normal state or device malfunctions in order to prevent adverse events, and hence improve quality of care and patient safety. The majority of patients who ev...

  19. AI-based alarm processing for a nuclear power plant

    A real-time expert system is implemented using artificial intelligence and object-oriented technology for alarm processing and presentation in a nuclear power plant. The knowledge base is constructed based on some schemes to process and display alarms to the plant operators. The activated alarms are dynamically prioritized by the reasoning rules, and then, presented on the process mimic overview and by some other means. To demonstrate the proposed system, the alarm processing and presentation is carried out in a simulated environment of the TMI-2 accident

  20. An embedded telecommunication cable auto-locating system of guard against theft and alarm

    Li, Yan; Li, Jun; Jin, Tian-Bo; Zhang, Li-yong

    2005-12-01

    This system adopted two-level structure that was composed of Cable Monitoring And Controlling Device (CMCD) and Cable Monitoring Center (CMC). CMC receives the alarm data via the MODEM and the telephone net. In this way, the functions of typing the fault point's map, alarming and the cable management can be picked up. CMCD takes the processor chip Atemega128 as the center of the system that adopted the alternating current and direct current on-line switching electricity-supply mode. Also, the system includes four groups of independent power, the relay and the optical isolation to separate the system from the monitoring cable and the telephone net. CMCD accomplishes the cable real-time monitoring, malfunctions auto-locating, telephone voice alarming, long-distance parameters modification, data up-loading, error verifying and the telecommunication room's environment monitoring and so on. The longest distance of monitoring cable is 20 km, and the precision is 1%.

  1. An alarm filtering system for an automated process: a multiple-agent approach

    Nowadays, the supervision process of industrial installations is more and more complex involving the automation of their control. A malfunction generates an avalanche of alarms. The operator, in charge of the supervision, must face the incident and execute right actions to recover a normal situation. Generally, he is drowned under the great number of alarms. Our aim, in the frame of our researches, is to perform an alarm filtering system for an automated metro line, to help the operator finding the main alarm responsible for the malfunction. Our works are divided into two parts, both dealing with study and development of an alarm filtering system but using two different approaches. The first part is developed in the frame of the SARA project (an operator assistance system for an automated metro line) which is an expert system prototype helping the operators of a command center. In this part, a centralized approach has been used representing the events with a single event graph and using a global procedure to perform diagnosis. This approach has itself shown its limits. In the second part of our works, we have considered the distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) techniques, and more especially the multi-agent approach. The multi-agent approach has been motivated by the natural distribution of the metro line equipment and by the fact that each equipment has its own local control and knowledge. Thus, each equipment has been considered as an autonomous agent. Through agents cooperation, the system is able to determine the main alarm and the faulty equipment responsible for the incident. A prototype, written in SPIRAL (a tool for knowledge-based system) is running on a workstation. This prototype has allowed the concretization and the validation of our multi-agent approach. (author)

  2. Recognition of false alarms of loose parts monitoring system using neural network

    The Loose Part Monitoring System (LPMS) has been designed to detect, locate and evaluated detached or loosened parts and foreign objects in the reactor coolant system. In the existing LPMS, due to the high sensitivity of acoustic monitoring, the detection potential for impact occurrences is comparatively high. But, too frequent false or unnecessary alarms can reduce the confidence to LPMS. To reduce false alarm occurrence rate, this paper presents an application of the back propagation neural network. At the preprocessing step, the moving window average filter is adoped to reject the low frequency background noise components. And then, extracting the acoustic signature such as starting point of impact signal, Rising time, Half period, and Global time, they are used as the inputs to neural network. Applying the neural network to the practical false data during startup and impact test signal at nuclear power plant, the false alarms are reduced to one fourth level

  3. Ignalina accident localisation system response to maximum design basis accident

    In this paper the study of the accident localisation system (ALS) of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) with RBMK-1500 reactors (large-power channel-type water-cooled graphite-moderated reactor) with regard to a maximum design basis accident (MDBA) is presented. The MDBA for Ignalina NPP constitutes a guillotine rupture of the maximum diameter pipe. The thermal-hydraulic and structural analyses were performed using the RELAP5, CONTAIN and ALGOR codes. The coolant mass and energy discharge source terms to the accident compartment were established using the RELAP5 code. This was then used as a source term for the long-term accident thermal-hydraulic analysis of ALS compartments employing the CONTAIN code. Results obtained by the CONTAIN calculations establish a basis for the structural analysis. A finite-element method has been used for ALS structural analysis using the ALGOR code, the results of which show that the structures of the ALS would not be breached by the pressure attained in the event of an MDBA. (author)

  4. SAMSON: Severe Accident Management System Online Network

    SAMSON, Severe Accident Management System Online Network, is a computational tool used in the event of a nuclear power plant accident by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Offsite Facilities (EOF). SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. The status points analyzed include radiation levels, flow rates, pressure levels, temperatures and water levels. SAMSON uses an expert system as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithm to make predictions. Previous training on data from accident analysis code allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTR), with breaks ranging from one tube to eights tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), with breaks ranging from 0.001 square feet in size to breaks 3.0 square feet. SAMSON contains several neural networks for each accident type and break size, and chooses the correct network after accident classification by in expert system. SAMSON also provides information concerning the status of plant sensors and recovery strategies

  5. Development of severe accident training support system

    In order for appropriate decision-making during plant operation and management, the professional knowledge, expert's opinion, and previous experiences as well as information for current status are utilized. The operation support systems such as training simulators have been developed to assist these decision-making process, and most of them cover from normal operation to emergency operation because of the very low frequency of severe accident and of uncertaintics included in severe accident phenomena and scenarios. However, the architectures for severe accident management are being established based on severe accident management guidelines in some developed countries. Recentrly, in Korea, as teh severe accident management guideline was developed, the basis for establishing severe accident management architecture is prepared and this leads to the development of tool for systematic education and training for personnel related to severe accident management. The severe accident taining support system thus is developed to assist decision-making during execution of severe accident management guidelines by providing plant status information, prefessional knowledge for phenomena and scenarios, expected behavior for strategy execution, and so on

  6. Design of alarm systems in Swedish nuclear power plants; Utformning av larmsystem i svenska kaernkraftverk

    Thunberg, Anna; Osvalder, Anna-Lisa (Dept. of Product and Production Development, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Research within the area of improving alarm system design and performance has mainly focused on new alarm systems. However, smaller modernisations of legacy systems are more common in the Swedish nuclear industry than design of totally new systems. This imposes problems when the new system should function together with the old system. This project deals with the special concerns raised by modernisation projects. The objective of the project has been to increase the understanding of the relationship between the operator's performance and the design of the alarm system. Of major concern has been to consider the cognitive abilities of the operator, different operator roles and work situations, and varying need of information. The aim of the project has been to complement existing alarm design guidance and to develop user-centred alarm design concepts. Different case studies have been performed in several industry sectors (nuclear, oil refining, pulp and paper, aviation and medical care) to identify best practice. Several empirical studies have been performed within the nuclear area to investigate the operator's need of information, performance and workload in different operating modes. The aspect of teamwork has also been considered. The analyses show that the operator has different roles in different work situations which affect both the type of information needed and how the information is processed. In full power operation, the interaction between the operator and the alarm system is driven by internal factors and the operator tries to maintain high situation awareness by actively searching for information. The operator wants to optimise the process and need detailed information with possibilities to follow-up and get historical data. In disturbance management, the operator is more dependent on external information presented by the alarm system. The new compilation of alarm guidance is based on the operator's varying needs in different working

  7. CSER 95-003: Exemption from Criticality Alarm System requirement for 232-Z building

    This CSER establishes an exemption for 232-Z from the requirement for a Criticality Alarm System, because the formation of a critical configuration is not a credible event for any circumstance involving the cleaning out and removal of the Burning Hood and associated equipment

  8. A real time knowledge-based alarm system EXTRA

    EXTRA is an experimental expert system for industrial process control. The main objectives are the diagnosis and operation aids. From a methodological point of view, EXTRA is based on a deep knowledge of the plant operation and on qualitative simulation principles. The application concerns all the electric power and the Chemical and Volume Control System of a P.W.R. nuclear plant. The tests conducted on a full-scope simulator representative of the real plant yielded excellent results and taught the authors a number of lessons. The main lesson concerns the efficiency and flexibility provided by the combination of a knowledge-based system and of an advanced mini-computer

  9. Neural Network Target Identification System for False Alarm Reduction

    Ye, David; Edens, Weston; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage automated target recognition (ATR) system has been designed to perform computer vision tasks with adequate proficiency in mimicking human vision. The system is able to detect, identify, and track targets of interest. Potential regions of interest (ROIs) are first identified by the detection stage using an Optimum Trade-off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter combined with a wavelet transform. False positives are then eliminated by the verification stage using feature extraction methods in conjunction with neural networks. Feature extraction transforms the ROIs using filtering and binning algorithms to create feature vectors. A feed forward back propagation neural network (NN) is then trained to classify each feature vector and remove false positives. This paper discusses the test of the system performance and parameter optimizations process which adapts the system to various targets and datasets. The test results show that the system was successful in substantially reducing the false positive rate when tested on a sonar image dataset.

  10. Applying an integrated neuro-expert system model in a real-time alarm processing system

    Khosla, Rajiv; Dillon, Tharam S.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper we propose an integrated model which is derived from the combination of a generic neuro-expert system model, an object model, and unix operating system process (UOSP) model. This integrated model reflects the strengths of both artificial neural nets (ANNs) and expert systems (ESs). A formalism of ES object, ANN object, UOSP object, and problem domain object is used for developing a set of generic data structures and methods. These generic data structures and methods help us to build heterogeneous ES-ANN objects with uniform communication interface. The integrated model is applied in a real-time alarm processing system for a non-trivial terminal power station. It is shown how features like hierarchical/distributed ES/ANN objects, inter process communication, and fast concurrent execution help to cope with real-time system constraints like, continuity, data variability, and fast response time.

  11. Control Engineering Embraces Instrumentation and Alarm Systems Of Navy

    Gheorghe Samoilescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Control engineering can be applied not only to propelling and auxiliary machinery but also to electrical installations, refrigeration, cargo handling (especially in tankers and deck machinery, e.g. Windlass control. Opinion still vary on such matters as the relative merits of pneumatic versus electronic system and whether the control center should be in the engine room or adjacent to the navigating bridge. Arguments against the exclusion of the engineer officer from close contact with the machinery are countered by the fact that electronic systems are based on changes other than those of human response. Automated ships (UMS operate closer to prescribed standards and therefore operate with greater efficiency. The closer control of machinery operating conditions (cooling water temperatures and pressures, permits machinery to be run at its optimum design conditions, making for fuel economy and reduced maintenance.

  12. Safety alarms at CERN

    Ninin, P; Henny, L

    1998-01-01

    In order to operate the CERN accelerators complex safely, the acquisition, transport and management of safety alarms is of crucial importance. The French regulatory authority [Direction de Sûreté des Installations Nucléaires de Base (INB)] defines them as Level 3 alarms; they represent as such a danger for the life and require an immediate intervention of the Fire Brigade. Safety alarms are generated by fire and flammable gas detection systems, electrical emergency stops, and other safety related systems. Level 3 alarms are transmitted for reliability reasons to their operation centre: the CERN Safety Control Room (SCR) using two different media: the hard-wired network and a computer based system. The hard-wired networks are connected to local panels summarizing in 34 security areas the overall CERN geography. The computer based system offers data management facilities such as alarm acquisition, distribution, archiving and information correlation. The Level 3 alarms system is in constant evolution in order...

  13. Accident on the gas transfer system

    An accident has happened on the Vivitron gas transfer system on the 7 th August 1991. This report presents the context, facts and inquiries, analyses the reasons and explains also how the repairing has been effected

  14. Multiple-Parameter, Low-False-Alarm Fire-Detection Systems

    Hunter, Gary W.; Greensburg, Paul; McKnight, Robert; Xu, Jennifer C.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, Prabir; Makel, Darby; Blake, D.; Sue-Antillio, Jill

    2007-01-01

    Fire-detection systems incorporating multiple sensors that measure multiple parameters are being developed for use in storage depots, cargo bays of ships and aircraft, and other locations not amenable to frequent, direct visual inspection. These systems are intended to improve upon conventional smoke detectors, now used in such locations, that reliably detect fires but also frequently generate false alarms: for example, conventional smoke detectors based on the blockage of light by smoke particles are also affected by dust particles and water droplets and, thus, are often susceptible to false alarms. In contrast, by utilizing multiple parameters associated with fires, i.e. not only obscuration by smoke particles but also concentrations of multiple chemical species that are commonly generated in combustion, false alarms can be significantly decreased while still detecting fires as reliably as older smoke-detector systems do. The present development includes fabrication of sensors that have, variously, micrometer- or nanometer-sized features so that such multiple sensors can be integrated into arrays that have sizes, weights, and power demands smaller than those of older macroscopic sensors. The sensors include resistors, electrochemical cells, and Schottky diodes that exhibit different sensitivities to the various airborne chemicals of interest. In a system of this type, the sensor readings are digitized and processed by advanced signal-processing hardware and software to extract such chemical indications of fires as abnormally high concentrations of CO and CO2, possibly in combination with H2 and/or hydrocarbons. The system also includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based particle detector and classifier device to increase the reliability of measurements of chemical species and particulates. In parallel research, software for modeling the evolution of a fire within an aircraft cargo bay has been developed. The model implemented in the software can

  15. The Performance of Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting System in Taiwan

    Chen, Ta-Yi; Hsiao, Nai-Chi; Wu, Yih-Min

    2016-04-01

    The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan has operated an earthquake early warning (EEW) system and issued warnings to schools and government agencies since 2014. Because the real-time seismic data streams are integrated by the Earthworm software, some EEW modules were created under the Earthworm platform. The system is named Earthworm Based Earthquake Alarm Reporting (eBEAR) system, which is currently operating. The eBEAR system consists of new Earthworm modules for managing P-wave phase picking, trigger associations, hypocenter locations, magnitude estimations, and alert filtering prior to broadcasting. Here, we outline the methodology and performance of the eBEAR system. The online performance of the eBEAR system indicated that the average reporting times afforded by the system are approximately 15 and 26 s for inland and offshore earthquakes, respectively. Comparing to the earthquake catalog, the difference of the epicenters are less than 10 km for inland earthquakes; the difference of the magnitude are about 0.3. No false alarms generated by the system, but there were three false alarms issued by human. Due to the wrong operations, the EEW information created by off-line test were sent. However, we have learned from it and improved the standard operation procedure in the EEW system.

  16. Analysis of false alarm for imaging space-based laser warning system

    DONG Hong-jun; ZHOU Zhong-liang; HUANG Fu-yu

    2012-01-01

    In view of the problem of false alarm in imaging space-based laser warning system,the effects of sunlight and lightning on the threaten laser detection and attack event determination are studied by analyzing and calculating the radiant energy density and space-time feature of imaging spot,respectively.The results show that the main false alarm resourses of spacebased laser warning system are sunlight and lightning.The sunlight should exposure the detector directly in one ninth of the satillite orbital period,and the imaging spot of sun is similar to the attack laser.The lightning imaging spot is similar to the illumination laser.About 1.4 lightning events can occur in the field of view (FOV) of the warning system per second.It could not discriminate spots of sun,lightning and threaten laser by the frame subtraction technology.

  17. Design of DroDeASys (Drowsy Detection and Alarming System)

    Juvale, Hrishikesh B.; Mahajan, Anant S.; Bhagwat, Ashwin A.; Badiger, Vishal T.; Bhutkar, Ganesh D.; Dhabe, Priyadarshan S.; Dhore, Manikrao L.

    The paper discusses the Drowsy Detection & Alarming System that has been developed, using a non-intrusive approach. The system is basically developed to detect drivers dozing at the wheel at night time driving. The system uses a small infra-red night vision camera that points directly towards the driver`s face and monitors the driver`s eyes in order to detect fatigue. In such a case when fatigue is detected, a warning signal is issued to alert the driver. This paper discusses the algorithms that have been used to detect drowsiness. The decision whether the driver is dozing or not is taken depending on whether the eyes are open for a specific number of frames. If the eyes are found to be closed for a certain number of consecutive frames then the driver is alerted with an alarm.

  18. Application control chart concepts of designing a pre-alarm system in the nuclear power plant control room

    This study applied the concepts of the Shewhart control chart to design a pre-alarm system for the nuclear power plant control room. As a support in detecting faults, the pre-alarm system reminded the operators of a change in the system state in its early stages. Two pre-alarm types were designed to compare with the original system, and all participants were requested to monitor each simulated system under both normal and abnormal states. The tasks for the participants included shutting down the reactor, searching for procedures, monitoring system parameters and executing secondary tasks. In each trial, the task performance, mental workload and situation awareness (SA) of the participants were measured. Results indicated that participants had lower mental workload, but equal SA, when monitoring the system with either type of pre-alarm designs, and lower alarm frequency and higher secondary task performance were obtained with the pre-alarm design. Therefore, the pre-alarm system effectively assisted the operators in monitoring tasks

  19. Development of an algorithm to discriminate between valid and false alarms in a loose-parts monitoring system

    Highlights: • We developed a gun to generate impact signals to validate field experiment. • We developed an algorithm to discriminate against false alarms in a LPMS. • We proved that the algorithm minimized the false alarm rate in the LPMS. • We identified the signal patterns causing false alarms by thermal shock and friction. - Abstract: Loose-parts monitoring system (LPMS) monitors loosened or detached parts and foreign parts inside the pressure boundary of a reactor coolant system. If any object is detected, the LPMS identifies the object's characteristics, and can contribute to improving plant safety, since it can identify loosened metal objects, which have a potential to cause severe damage to internal components of the steam generator chamber. The most significant problem of a traditional LPMS is the high false alarm rate. The most developed systems used more sophisticated methods for event identification. With these sophisticated systems, the false alarm rate could be reduced to below 1%. Even though the LPMS resulted in a false alarm rate of less than 1%, there is still a high false alarm rate when the unit increases or decreases power. As the unit increases power, the coolant starts to heat the metal structure, which causes false alarms. Plant operators should continuously identify all alarms, including false alarms, until the metal structure reaches thermal balance. It is difficult to discriminate between valid and false alarms, since the signal pattern by thermal shocks and structure friction is similar to that by loose metal impacts. The false alarm rate can be reduced to almost 0% by applying an algorithm to discriminate between the false and valid alarms. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed to discriminate against signatures which are not related to loose-parts events, especially when the unit increases or decreases power. The algorithm can discriminate the signal pattern by the impact of loose parts against the signal

  20. A design pattern language to assist the design of alarm visualizations for operating control systems

    Romero Gómez, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor With the growing emphasis on visualization as a mechanism for analysing and exploring large and complex data sets, visualization research has recognized the need of reusing prior design knowledge instead of starting from scratch. This fact is especially relevant in designing control systems in which alarm visualizations are key artefacts for human operators to maintain an awareness of the state of the process under control. In this context, desi...

  1. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of nuclear weapons and its significance for the operational safety of alarm systems

    Following some short remarks on the generation of the EMP (fireball, γ initial radiation) and an estimation of the upper limits for the EMP values, the existing uncertainties in our knowledge of the EMP are pointed out, and suggestions are made for further considerations and research with regard to civil defense, for the protective measures for alarm systems must be designed to assure proper warning of the population. (HP)

  2. Improvement of alarm algorithms for SMART-P critical function monitoring system

    SMART-P is an integral reactor where major components such as main coolant pumps and steam generators are located inside of reactor vessel. It also have several different design features for the safety grade and non-safety grade systems relative to existing plants. Due to these unique features of SMART-P, new design requirements of the Critical Function Monitoring System (CFMS) are needed. Ten SMART-P CFMS critical function items were improved to satisfy the critical function required by NUREG-0696. - Core Reactivity Control - Core Heat Removal - RCS Inventory Control - RCS Pressure Control - RCS Heat Removal - Reactor Building Pressure/Temperature Control - Reactor Building Isolation - Radioactive Emissions Control - Combustible Gas Control - Maintenance of Vital Auxiliaries When we improve alarm algorithms for critical function, several SMART-P design features were reflected. In connection with the RCS inventory control, SMART-P POSRV did not release steam/water mixture but nitrogen gas in most cases so POSRV leakage alarm branch is moved to RCS Pressure Control item. In connection with the RCS pressure control, SMART-P pressurizer regulates the system pressure by nitrogen gas and steam partial pressure naturally without any active operation of spray or heater so alarm branch for pressure change rate were deleted

  3. Video methods for evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses.

    Bonafide, Christopher P; Zander, Miriam; Graham, Christian Sarkis; Weirich Paine, Christine M; Rock, Whitney; Rich, Andrew; Roberts, Kathryn E; Fortino, Margaret; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Lin, Richard; Keren, Ron

    2014-01-01

    False physiologic monitor alarms are extremely common in the hospital environment. High false alarm rates have the potential to lead to alarm fatigue, leading nurses to delay their responses to alarms, ignore alarms, or disable them entirely. Recent evidence from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and The Joint Commission has demonstrated a link between alarm fatigue and patient deaths. Yet, very little scientific effort has focused on the rigorous quantitative measurement of alarms and responses in the hospital setting. We developed a system using multiple temporarily mounted, minimally obtrusive video cameras in hospitalized patients' rooms to characterize physiologic monitor alarms and nurse responses as a proxy for alarm fatigue. This allowed us to efficiently categorize each alarm's cause, technical validity, actionable characteristics, and determine the nurse's response time. We describe and illustrate the methods we used to acquire the video, synchronize and process the video, manage the large digital files, integrate the video with data from the physiologic monitor alarm network, archive the video to secure servers, and perform expert review and annotation using alarm "bookmarks." We discuss the technical and logistical challenges we encountered, including the root causes of hardware failures as well as issues with consent, confidentiality, protection of the video from litigation, and Hawthorne-like effects. The description of this video method may be useful to multidisciplinary teams interested in evaluating physiologic monitor alarms and alarm responses to better characterize alarm fatigue and other patient safety issues in clinical settings. PMID:24847936

  4. Development of portable memory type radiation alarm monitor

    A radiation alarm monitor has been developed and manufactured in order to protect radiation workers from over-exposure. A visual and audible alarm system has been attached to initiate evacuation when accident occurs such as an unexpected change of radiation level or an over-exposure. The radiation alarm monitor installed with microprocessor can record the information of radiation field change between 90 min. before the alarm and 30 min. after the alarm and also provide the data to an IBM compatible computer to analyze the accidents and to set a counter plan. It features a wide detection range of radiation field(10 mR/h-100 R/h), radiation field data storage, portability, high precision (±5%) due to self-calibration function, and adaption of a powerful alarm system. According to ANSI N42.17A, the most stringent test standards, performance tests were carried out under various conditions of temperature, humidity, vibration, and electromagnetic wave hindrance at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science(KRISS). As a result, the Radiation Alarm Monitor passed all tests

  5. Vehicle Security and Accident Information System

    D.Satheeshbabu*; B.Govardhana

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this project is to offer an advance security system in CAR, which consists of a face detection subsystem, a GPS module, a GSM module and a control platform. The face detection subsystem can detect faces in cars during the period in which nobody should be in the car, and make an alarm loudly or soundlessly. The other modules transmit necessary information to users and help to keep eyes on cars all the time, even when the car is lost. In today’s world, many new techn...

  6. Accident Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed

  7. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  8. Reducing SCADA System Nuisance Alarms in the Water Industry in Northern Ireland

    O'Donoghue, Nigel; Phillips, Debra H.; Nicell, Ciaran

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of telemetry control for the water industry has increased the difficulty of 14 managing large volumes of nuisance alarms (i.e. alarms that do not require a response). The aim 15 of this study was to identify and reduce the number of nuisance alarms that occur for Northern 16 Ireland (NI) Water by carrying-out alarm duration analysis to determine the appropriate length of 17 persistence (an advanced alarm management tool) that could be applied. All data was extracted 18 from Te...

  9. ALARMS: Alerting and Reasoning Management System for Next Generation Aircraft Hazards

    Carlin, Alan S; Marecki, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Air Transportation System will introduce new, advanced sensor technologies into the cockpit. With the introduction of such systems, the responsibilities of the pilot are expected to dramatically increase. In the ALARMS (ALerting And Reasoning Management System) project for NASA, we focus on a key challenge of this environment, the quick and efficient handling of aircraft sensor alerts. It is infeasible to alert the pilot on the state of all subsystems at all times. Furthermore, there is uncertainty as to the true hazard state despite the evidence of the alerts, and there is uncertainty as to the effect and duration of actions taken to address these alerts. This paper reports on the first steps in the construction of an application designed to handle Next Generation alerts. In ALARMS, we have identified 60 different aircraft subsystems and 20 different underlying hazards. In this paper, we show how a Bayesian network can be used to derive the state of the underlying hazards, based on the se...

  10. Designing of an emergency call system for traffic accidents

    Ziya Ekşi; Murat Çakıroğlu

    2013-01-01

    In our country, many people have been seriously injured or died in traffic accidents. Fatal accidents often occur because of not complying with traffic rules or carelessness. Except these driver mistakes, heavy injuries can result in deaths because of emergency aid teams failing to arrive to accident scene in time. In this study, an accident emergency call system is designed to help injured people's treatment as soon as possible by notifying emercengy team automatically in accidents. The desi...

  11. The event notification and alarm system for the Open Science Grid operations center

    The Open Science Grid Operations (OSG) Team operates a distributed set of services and tools that enable the utilization of the OSG by several HEP projects. Without these services users of the OSG would not be able to run jobs, locate resources, obtain information about the status of systems or generally use the OSG. For this reason these services must be highly available. This paper describes the automated monitoring and notification systems used to diagnose and report problems. Described here are the means used by OSG Operations to monitor systems such as physical facilities, network operations, server health, service availability and software error events. Once detected, an error condition generates a message sent to, for example, Email, SMS, Twitter, an Instant Message Server, etc. The mechanism being developed to integrate these monitoring systems into a prioritized and configurable alarming system is emphasized.

  12. An attributable cost model for a telecare system using advanced community alarms.

    Brownsell, S J; Bradley, D A; Bragg, R; Catling, P; Carlier, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an attributable cost model for a city-based telecare scheme involving 11,618 community alarm users. The equipment was assumed to cost 500 Pounds-1000 Pounds per installation, compared with 175 Pounds for the current system. Because of the significant additional capital cost of the proposed system, it would be necessary to borrow to finance it. For example, if the home equipment cost 500 Pounds per unit, an additional 2.2 million Pounds would be required. Nonetheless, it would be possible to achieve a return on the investment after 10 years. The principal savings would arise from reduced hospital bed costs and reduced residential care. The model suggests that the financial benefits of the proposed system would occur in the ratio of 4% to the local authority housing department, 43% to the National Health Service and 53% to the residential care provider. PMID:11331043

  13. Development of a totally integrated severe accident training system

    Recently KAERI has developed the severe accident management guidance to establish the Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand the PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses the MELCOR code as the simulation engine. The simulator SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accidents with interactive user commands. Especially the control capability of SATS could make a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper we will describe the development and functions of the electrical guidance module, HyperKAMG, and the SATS-HyperKAMG linkage system designed for a totally integrated and automated severe accident training. (author)

  14. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2

  15. Observation systems with alarm thresholds and their use in designing underground facilities

    Olsson, Lars [Geostatistik AB, Tumba (Sweden); Stille, Haakan [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Soil and Rock Mechanics

    2002-08-01

    The decision-based methodology described has wide applications in the building process. It can be applied whenever the exact outcome of the work is not known and where countermeasures might be needed. One such application is in the pre-investigations for the siting of spent nuclear fuel facilities aimed at determining the criteria for abandoning work on a given site. It can be seen that the principles of for designing an observation system and determining the alarm threshold are well understood. Several possible theoretical tools are also known, albeit from other disciplines than civil engineering. However, the choice of tools for a real problem should be investigated so that the advantages and drawbacks are illustrated. Reliable methods for designing observation systems in practice are, however, not known and are therefore not in use. A continuation of this study should therefore be aimed at comparing different theoretical tools and examining their practical application, including Quality Assurance and updating. It is therefore suggested that an observation system with alarm thresholds etc should be designed using the principles described in this report and should include testing and comparison of different models for predicting behaviour. This work could be undertaken for a real or for a hypothetical project. A real project is, of course, more difficult but has all the real-world problems that must be solved. A very brief, and not theoretically fully developed, account of the application of an observation system during the expansion of the interim spent fuel storage facility CLAB is enclosed as Appendix 1. Some comments on proposed changes in the system based on the principles set forth in this report are given in Appendix 2.

  16. The use of probabilistic safety analysis/assessment results for the development of diagnostics and alarm processing expert systems

    A method to generate alarm patterns using the results from Probabilistic Safety Analysis was developed. The method consists of extending the original fault trees to include the alarms and indicators corresponding to each primary events. The minimal cut sets of the extended tree are the desired alarm patterns. These patterns can be used to construct the Knowledge Base of a diagnosis expert system, or the stimulus response patterns to train a neural network. The Condensate System of a BWR station was used to illustrate the proposed method. Both the rule-based and the neural network-based diagnostics system work well when complete and accurate information is available. However, the neural-based diagnosis system can work under realistic conditions producing a correct diagnosis even when only incomplete or partially incorrect information is available. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  17. A Real Time Intelligent Driver Fatigue Alarm System Based On Video Sequences

    P.Ratnakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In automobiles advanced controllers are equipped to control all the data. In this work a new technology is considered as driver fatigue detection system. Developing intelligent system to prevent car accidents and can be very effective in minimizing accident death toll. One of the factors which play an important role in accidents is the human errors including driving fatigue. Relying on new smart techniques; this system detects the signs of fatigue and sleepiness in the face of the person at the time of driving by capturing the video sequences of the driver. Then, the frames are transformed from YUV space into RBG spaces. It is one of the inexpensive and unobtrusive method where face, eyes are detected and edge detection and histogram normalization are performed on the captured frames using MATLAB as a tool.The face area is separated from other parts with high accuracy in segmentation, low error rate and quick processing of input data distinguishes this system from similar ones

  18. Analysis of criticality alarm system response to an accidental criticality outside the cascade process buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Neutron dose rates at detector positions within the X-326, X-330, and X-333 buildings were evaluated for an accidental criticality outside of each building. As fissile material bearing equipment and containers are moved to and from each building, the possibility exists for a criticality accident to occur. This analysis demonstrates that a criticality accident which occurs at any position on the access roads alongside a process building can be detected. The detectable area includes all points within the access road boundary along each face of each building. This analysis also demonstrates that the criticality alarm systems of the process buildings will respond to criticality events occurring within the tie lines connecting the process buildings. This analysis was performed using the MCNP Monte Carlo neutron-proton transport code. The radiation source is the neutron leakage spectrum of a critical solution of 4.95 percent enriched UO2F2-H2O at a power level corresponding to the ANSI ANS 8.3. Standard minimum accident of concern. The evaluated neutron fluxes were converted to neutron dose rates by use of the Henderson free-in-air response functions. Critical source positions correspond to the farthest source to detector distances on the access roads along each face of the three buildings, and the centerpoint of the building tie lines. This report contains the methodology used for this study, a background on the data used, and a section about the assumptions and limits to all conclusions

  19. Alarming atmospheres

    Højlund, Marie; Kinch, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    . As a response to this situation, our design artefact, the interactive furniture Kidkit, invites children to become accustomed to the alarming sounds sampled from the ward while they are waiting in the waiting room. Our design acknowledges how atmospheres emerge as temporal negotiations between the...

  20. Evidence of a suffocation alarm system within the periaqueductal gray matter of the rat.

    Schimitel, F G; de Almeida, G M; Pitol, D N; Armini, R S; Tufik, S; Schenberg, L C

    2012-01-01

    Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO₂ in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or patients without panic disorder. Accordingly, Klein [Klein (1993) Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:306-317] suggested that clinical panic is the misfiring of an as-yet-unidentified suffocation alarm system. In rats, selective anoxia of chemoreceptor cells by potassium cyanide (KCN) and electrical and chemical stimulations of periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) produce defensive behaviors, which resemble panic attacks. Thus, here we examined the effects of single or combined administrations of CO₂ (8% and 13%) and KCN (10-80 μg, i.v.) on spontaneous and PAG-evoked behaviors of rats either intact or bearing electrolytic lesions of PAG. Exposure to CO₂ alone reduced grooming while increased exophthalmus, suggesting an arousal response to non-visual cues of environment. Unexpectedly, however, CO₂ attenuated PAG-evoked immobility, trotting, and galloping while facilitated defecation and micturition. Conversely, KCN produced all defensive behaviors of the rat and facilitated PAG-evoked trotting, galloping, and defecation. There were also facilitatory trends in PAG-evoked exophthalmus, immobility, and jumping. Moreover, whereas the KCN-evoked defensive behaviors were attenuated or even suppressed by discrete lesions of PAG, they were markedly facilitated by CO₂. Authors suggest that the PAG harbors an anoxia-sensitive suffocation alarm system which activation precipitates panic attacks and potentiates the subject responses to hypercapnia. PMID:22062132

  1. Plant Performance Assessment System (PPAS) for crew performance evaluation. Lessons learned from an alarm system study conducted in HAMMLAB

    An experimental evaluation study of an alarm system was conducted in HAMMLAB. Sixteen scenarios of disturbances in the plant were simulated with the participation of six crews of professional operators from the Loviisa nuclear power station in Finland. This HWR describes a procedure developed to systematically evaluate and score crew performance from plant measures during the simulated scenarios. It comprises two parts: the first part is a description and discussion of the procedure and it's application to the alarm study. The second part provides a summary of information related to each of the sixteen scenarios. Tables of results are also presented together with figures showing the crew scores, which are based on plant performance versus the scenarios. (author)

  2. System Design Strategies of Post-Accident Monitoring System for a PGSFR in Korea

    Monitoring systems of a PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) in Korea provide alarms, integrity information in the reactor building, sodium-water reaction information in the steam generator, fuel failure information, and supporting information for maintenance and inspection. In particular, a Post-Accident Monitoring System (PAMS) provides primary information for operators to assess the plant conditions and perform their role in bringing the plant to a safe condition during an accident. Some PAM variables can be allocated as more two types. It is important for system designers to confirm the suitability of the selection of PAM variables. In addition, the PAMS is a position 4 display against common cause failures of safety I and C systems. The position 4 display should be independent and diverse from the safety I and C systems. The diversity of safety I and C equipment has led to an increase in the design and verification and validation cost. Thus, this paper proposes the system design strategies on the PAMS design problems of the PGSFR in KOREA. The results will be input into a conceptual system design for the PAMS of the PGSFR in KOREA. (authors)

  3. PWR auxiliary systems, safety and emergency systems, accident analysis, operation

    The author presents a description of PWR auxiliary systems like volume control, boric acid control, coolant purification, -degassing, -storage and -treatment system and waste processing systems. Residual heat removal systems, emergency systems and containment designs are discussed. As an accident analysis the author gives a survey over malfunctions and disturbances in the field of reactor operations. (TK)

  4. Modular telerobot control system for accident response

    Anderson, Richard J. M.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-08-01

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera-frame teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements seven different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System for accident site salvage operations

    This paper describes and evaluates operational experiences with the Accident Response Mobile Manipulation System (ARMMS) during simulated accident site salvage operations which might involve nuclear weapons. The ARMMS is based upon a teleoperated mobility platform with two Schilling Titan 7F Manipulators

  6. Reactor accident diagnostic expert system: DISKET

    A reactor accident diagnostic system DISKET has been developed to identify the cause and the type of an abnormal transient of a nuclear power plant. The system is based on the knowledge engineering and consists of an inference engine IERIAS and a knowledge base. The main features of DISKET are the following: Time-varying characteristics of transient can be treated and knowledge base can be divided into several knowledge units to handle a lot of rules effectively. This report has been provided for the convenience of DISKET's users and consists of three parts. The first part is the description of the whole system, the details of the knowledge base of DISKET are described in the second part, and how to use the DISKET system is explained in the third part. (author)

  7. Expert system in OPS5 for intelligent processing of the alarms in nuclear plants

    This work intends to establish a model of knowledge representation based on a expert system to supervise either security or operating to be applied generally on monitoring and detecting faults of industrial processes. The model structure proposed here let the system represent the knowledge related to faults on a process using a combination of rules either basic or associative. Besides, the model proposed has a mechanism of propagation of events in real time that acts on this structure making it possible to have an intelligent alarm processing. The rules used by the system define faults from the data acquired by instrumentation (basic rules), or from the establishment of a conjunction of faults already existent (associate rules). The computing implementation of the model defined in this work was developed in OPS5. It was applied on an example consisting of the shutdown of the Angra-I's power plant and was called FDAX (FDA Extended). For the simulated tests the FDAX was connected to the SICA (Integrated System of Angra-I Computers). It results save validity to the model, confirming thus its performance to real time applications. (author)

  8. Alarm systems in the nuclear industry - survey of the working situation and identification of future research issues

    Safety issues are important in the control of industrial processes. An essential part for interpreting and avoiding hazardous situations is the alarm system and its design. To increase the knowledge and to develop new design solutions this doctoral project was initiated. The work has been divided into three stages and this paper presents the results of the first stage. The objective of stage one was to investigate how operators in both nuclear and non-nuclear plants work. A comparison between different branches of industry was also performed. From these results a future research issue has been identified. The methods used were observations, interviews and a literature study. The results showed that the operators are satisfied with the performance of the alarm system during normal operating conditions. However, several problems could also be identified but most of them are already well-known in the nuclear industry. Since these problems are well known but still exist, this result contributes to the basic hypothesis that a theoretical basis is lacking for the design of the alarm system. The proposed issue for forthcoming work is therefore to collect and compile existing knowledge about the human information processing and alarm systems, and combine the knowledge from these areas. With a better understanding of the relation between these areas it is possible to develop new design solutions which are better adapted to the human capabilities and limitations. This would support operator performance which in turn increases plant performance and safety. (Author)

  9. New alarm system approach for detection and location of small leaks from pipelines

    Vapor Monitoring Wells are an accepted method to monitor for leaks from underground storage tanks and pipe. This paper discusses a method that is similar to well leak detection technique, yet superior for pipelines for reasons to be defined. Vapors from a leak source migrate through the soil. The time required for a leak to migrate a known distance is dependent on the vapor pressure of the leaking substance, the leak rate, and finally, soil type, compaction, and collection device is to the leak source the shorter the time required for the premise that the sensor tube acts as a continuous row of wells that can all be automatically sampled with one central pump/detector. The system precisely locates the leak. The benefit of this system is earlier detection and location of small leaks to minimize product loss to the environment. Dr. Wolfgang Issel developed Leak Alarm System for Pollutants, LASP, with the support of the German Ministry of Research and Technology to protect groundwater and other environmentally sensitive zones

  10. 78 FR 6732 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    2013-01-31

    ..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Rule... to numbering undocumented vessels and reporting boating accidents. The amendment affects three... agencies involved in issuing vessel registration and reporting boating accidents. This notice...

  11. Strategy generator in computerized accident management support system

    An increased interest for research in the field of accident management of nuclear power plants can be noted. Several international programmes have been started in order to be able to understand the basic physical and chemical phenomena in accident conditions. A feasibility study has shown that it would be possible to design and develop a computerized support system for plant staff in accident situations. To achieve this goal the Halden Project has initiated a research programme on Computerized Accident Management Support (CAMS project). The aim is to utilize the capabilities of computerized tools to support the plant staff during the various accident stages. The system will include identification of the accident state, assessment of the future development of the accident and planning of accident mitigation strategies. A prototype is developed to support operators and the Technical Support Centre in decision making during serious accidents in nuclear power plants. A rule based system has been built to take care of the strategy generation. This system assists plant personnel in planning control proposals and mitigation strategies from normal operation to severe accident conditions. The idea of a safety objective tree and knowledge from the emergency procedures have been used. Future prediction requires good state identification of the plant status and some knowledge about the history of some critical variables. The information needs to be validated as well. Accurate calculations in simulators and a large database including all important information from the plant will help the strategy planning. (orig.). (40 refs., 20 figs.)

  12. The function of the alarm system in advanced control rooms: an analysis of operator visual activity during a simulated nuclear power plant disturbance

    In 1996, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Brookhaven National Laboratory (US), and the OECD Halden Reactor Project conducted a large experiment, investigating the effects of alarm reduction and display on operator and plant performance (O'Hara et al., 1997), The results from this experiment indicated that the number of alarms presented to the operators, and the type of alarm display, had no impact on human performance during simulated disturbances. One possible interpretation of these surprising results is that operators in advanced control rooms use the alarm system only for limited purposes, i.e., the introduction of process formats, trend curves, overview displays, and computerized support systems have made the alarm system superfluous. Given the massive efforts put into the design and development of sophisticated alarm systems intended to maximize safety, this would be a paradoxical conclusion. To explore the role of the alarm system in more detail, we performed an analysis of eye-movement tracking data collected in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB). The objective of the study was to examine to which extent, and for what purposes, licensed operators use the alarm system in advanced control rooms during complex problem solving. According to Funke (1991), complex problem solving situations are non-transparent, ill-defined, and dynamic, i.e., the underlying state of the system must be inferred from symptoms, the goal state is ambiguous, and the problem is in continuous change. This seems to be an appropriate description of the working conditions when operators are confronted with challenging scenarios in a full scope nuclear simulator. Five experts on nuclear power plant operation from the OECD Halden Reactor Project were convened in order to generate initial hypotheses about the operators' use of the alarm system. The expert panel estimated that operators in advanced control rooms would use the alarm system less than 10 percent of the available

  13. A new diagnosis method using alarm annunciation for FBR power plants

    We discuss the methodology diversity for diagnosis reasoning in autonomous operation system, and propose a new diagnosis method using alarm annunciation system. The methodology diversity is assured by preparing plural agents, each of which is based on its own different methodology, therefore, it is expected for the reliability in diagnosis to be improved. Meanwhile, the combination of annunciated alarms is expected to be peculiar to the anomalous phenomenon or accident. Moreover, as the state of affairs is developing, each appearance of the pattern is changing with time peculiarly to each anomaly or accident. The matter is utilized for the new diagnosis method. The patterns of annunciated alarms with progress of the events are prepared in advance under the condition of the anomalies or accidents by use of plant simulatory. The diagnostic reasoning can be done by comparing the obtained combination of annunciated alarms with the reference templates, pattern matching method. On the other hand, we have another method, called as COBWEB used for conceptual classification in cognitive science, to reason for diagnosis. We have carried out the experiments using the loop type LMFBR plant simulator to obtain the various combinations of annunciated alarms with progress of the events under the conditions of anomalies and accidents. The examined cases were related to the anomalies and accidents in the water/steam system of the LMFBR power plant. We have obtained the conclusions that it is effective to reason the causes of anomalies using the annunciated alarms. We are going to apply the pattern matching technique or COBWEB method into the diagnostic reasoning to confirm the performance of the proposed diagnosis method based on the alarm annunciation. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs

  14. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Peddi Anudeep

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the previous speed in every second through a Microcontroller Unit. Whenever the speed will be below the specified speed, it will assume that an accident has occurred. The system will then send the accident location acquired from the GPS along with the time and the speed by utilizing the GSM network. This will help to reach the rescue service in time and save the valuable human life.

  15. Alarm setpoint determination method of gaseous effluent radiation monitoring systems based on ICRP-60 recommendations

    Kim, H. G.; Ha, G. H.; Park, G.; Eum, H. M. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Korean Atomic Laws require assurance that radioactive materials within gaseous effluents do not exceed Effluent Concentration Limits (ECL) as set forth in the Korean radiation protection standards. This simply means that any effluent that could possibly contain radioactivity must be monitored. Besides the legal implications, sound industrial hygiene practices require that personnel be protected against the possibility of exposure to excessive radiation from any source. Off-line gas and particulate monitors are particularly the case with a stack or duct where effluent is released into environment. The sample passes through the particulate and iodine filters, then through the gas sample volume to the pumping system and back to the process stack/duct. The alarm setpoint for the low range effluent noble gas monitors shall be established to ensure that the dose rates due to noble gas releases do not exceed a total body dose rate of 500 mrem/yr at the site boundary for combined releases from all units. The initial operational period of the unit will utilize the FSAR 1% failed fuel source term values for design basis release rate for each operating unit. The revised radiation protection guidelines in Korea were based largely on the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP recommended a dose limit of 1 mSv/yr in its 1990 recommendations. This study was requested to obtain a preliminary estimate of the impacts on the setpoint of effluent radiation monitoring systems at Korea Nuclear Power Plants of any reduction in the dose limits.

  16. Gynecological cancer alarm symptoms:

    Balasubramaniam, Kirubakaran; Ravn, Pernille; dePont Christensen, René;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To determine the proportion of patients who were referred to specialist care after reporting gynecological cancer alarm symptoms to their general practitioner. To investigate whether contact with specialist care was associated with lifestyle factors or socioeconomic status. MATERIAL...... care and odds ratios (ORs) for associations between specialist care contact, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The study included 25 866 non-pregnant women; 2957 reported the onset of at least one gynecological cancer alarm symptom, and 683 of these (23.1%) reported symptoms to their.......17-2.95). CONCLUSIONS: Educational level influence contact with specialist care among patients with gynecological cancer alarm symptoms. Future studies should investigate inequalities in access to the secondary healthcare system. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions N-CRAFT. System design

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP. This can either be due to leakages of the containment or due to a filtered containment venting in order to ensure the overall integrity of the containment. During the containment venting process aerosols and iodine can be retained by the FCVS which prevents long term ground contamination. Noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS. From this it follows that a large amount of radioactive noble gases (e.g. xenon, krypton) might be present in the nearby environment of the plant dominating the activity release, depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. Accident management measures are necessary in case of severe accidents and the prolonged stay of staff inside the main control room (MCR) or emergency response center (ERC) is essential. Therefore, the in leakage and contamination of the MRC and ERC with airborne activity has to be prevented. The radiation exposure of the crises team needs to be minimized. The entrance of noble gases cannot be sufficiently prevented by the conventional air filtration systems such as HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. With the objective to prevent an unacceptable contamination of the MCR/ERC atmosphere by noble gases AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas retention system. The noble gas control room accident filtration system CRAFT is designed for this case and provides supply of fresh air to the MCR/ERC without time limitation. The retention process of the system is based on the dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. These cycles ensure a periodic load and flushing of the delay lines retaining the noble gases from entering the MCR. CRAFT allows a minimization of the dose rate inside MCR/ERC and ensures a low radiation exposure to the staff on shift maintaining

  18. Wireless Reporting System for Accident Detection at Higher Speeds u

    Peddi Anudeep; K. Hari Bab

    2014-01-01

    Speed is one of the basic reasons for vehicle accident. Many lives could have been saved if emergency service could get accident information and reach in time. Nowadays, GPS has become an integral part of a vehicle system. This paper proposes to utilize the capability of a GPS receiver to monitor speed of a vehicle and detect accident basing on monitored speed and send accident location to an Alert Service Center. The GPS will monitor speed of a vehicle and compare with the pr...

  19. Line supervision of alarm communications

    The objective of this paper is to explain the role and application of alarm communication link supervision in security systems such as for nuclear facilities. The vulnerabilities of the various types of alarm communication links will be presented. Throughout the paper, an effort has been made to describe only those technologies commercially available and to avoid speculative theoretical solutions

  20. Traffic Accident, System Model and Cluster Analysis in GIS

    Veronika Vlčková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the many often frequented topics as normal journalism, so the professional public, is the problem of traffic accidents. This article illustrates the orientation of considerations to a less known context of accidents, with the help of constructive systems theory and its methods, cluster analysis and geoinformation engineering. Traffic accident is reframing the space-time, and therefore it can be to study with tools of technology of geographic information systems. The application of system approach enabling the formulation of the system model, grabbed by tools of geoinformation engineering and multicriterial and cluster analysis.

  1. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... modeling technique (MFM) which represents a process in terms of its goals, functions and operating requirements. The reasoning capabilities of MFM enable identification of operational situations which threaten to generate an alarm and derivation of potential response scenarios. The design methodology can...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not...

  2. Statistical method application to knowledge base building for reactor accident diagnostic system

    In the development of a knowledge based expert system, one of key issues is how to build the knowledge base (KB) in an efficient way with keeping the objectivity of KB. In order to solve this issue, an approach has been proposed to build a prototype KB systematically by a statistical method, factor analysis. For the verification of this approach, factor analysis was applied to build a prototype KB for the JAERI expert system DISKET. To this end, alarm and process information was generated by a PWR simulator and the factor analysis was applied to this information to define taxonomy of accident hypotheses and to extract rules for each hypothesis. The prototype KB thus built was tested through inferring against several types of transients including double-failures. In each diagnosis, the transient type was well identified. Furthermore, newly introduced standards for rule extraction showed good effects on the enhancement of the performance of prototype KB. (author)

  3. Approaching Behaviour Monitor and Vibration Indication in Developing a General Moving Object Alarm System (GMOAS

    Haiwei Dong

    2013-07-01

    this boundary a fan‐shape grid is constructed to obtain an evenly distributed spatial partitioning of the data. These partitions are efficiently clustered into continuous objects which are then tracked through time using an object association algorithm based on updating a deviation matrix that represents angle, distance and size variations of the objects. The speed of the tracked objects is monitored throughout the algorithm. When the speed of an approaching object surpasses the safety threshold, the alarm necklace is triggered indicating the approaching direction of the fast moving object. The alarm necklace is equipped with three motors that can indicate five directions with respect to the user: left, back, right, left‐ back and right‐back. We performed three types of outdoor experiments (object passing, approaching and crossing that empirically verified the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm. Furthermore, we analyzed the time and direction response based on neck vibrations. The statistical analysis (including hypothesis test suggests that the chosen alarm necklace can provide a rapid indication for a quick human response.

  4. Development of solution behavior observation system under criticality accident conditions

    A solution behavior observation system was developed for observing the behavior of fissile solution and radiolytic voids under criticality accident conditions in TRACY. The system consisted of a radiation-resistive optical fiberscope and a CCD color video camera. The system functioned properly in the mixed high radiation fields of gamma rays and neutrons under criticality accident conditions, and it succeeded in taking the images of their behavior. They provide an important information to understand phenomena of fuel solution at criticality accidents and to construct computational kinetic models. The images can also be used as teaching materials for plant workers and students in universities. (author)

  5. EDUCATIONAL USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND AT-MEGA MICROCONTROLLER - A CASE STUDY OF AN ALARM SYSTEM

    Tomasz Cieplak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' projects and an home alarm system with use of a Cloud Computing services will be described.

  6. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  7. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)

  8. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as ApacheR, IISR, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as NetscapeR, Microsoft Internet ExplorerR, Mozilla FirefoxR, OperaR, and others. (authors)

  9. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS ...

  10. Transient accident analysis of the glovebox system in a large process room

    Local transient hydrogen concentrations were evaluated inside a large process room when the hydrogen gas was released by three postulated accident scenarios associated with the process tank leakage and fire leading to a loss of gas confinement. The three cases considered in this work were fire in a room, loss of confinement from a process tank, and loss of confinement coupled with fire event. Based on these accident scenarios in a large and unventilated process room, the modeling calculations of the hydrogen migration were performed to estimate local transient concentrations of hydrogen due to the sudden leakage and release from a glovebox system associated with the process tank. The modeling domain represented the major features of the process room including the principal release or leakage source of gas storage system. The model was benchmarked against the literature results for key phenomena such as natural convection, turbulent behavior, gas mixing due to jet entrainment, and radiation cooling because these phenomena are closely related to the gas driving mechanisms within a large air space of the process room. The modeling results showed that at the corner of the process room, the gas concentrations migrated by the Case 2 and Case 3 scenarios reached the set-point value of high activity alarm in about 13 seconds, while the Case 1 scenario takes about 90 seconds to reach the concentration. The modeling results were used to estimate transient radioactive gas migrations in an enclosed process room installed with high activity alarm monitor when the postulated leakage scenarios are initiated without room ventilation. (authors)

  11. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  12. How tissue injury alarms the immune system and causes a systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Pugin, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is very prevalent among critically ill patients, particularly those with extensive tissue injury. Although downstream mediators (cytokines) and effector cells (phagocytes) have been identified, proximal mediators originating from injured tissues remained elusive. Alarmins (“danger signals”) released by necrotic/injured cells have been identified recently and certainly play a role in triggering local and systemic inflammation in critically ill patients. The most promising...

  13. Severe Accident Management System On-line Network SAMSON

    SAMSON is a computational tool used by accident managers in the Technical Support Centers (TSC) and Emergency Operations Facilities (EOF) in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. SAMSON examines over 150 status points monitored by nuclear power plant process computers during a severe accident and makes predictions about when core damage, support plate failure, and reactor vessel failure will occur. These predictions are based on the current state of the plant assuming that all safety equipment not already operating will fail. SAMSON uses expert systems, as well as neural networks trained with the back propagation learning algorithms to make predictions. Training on data from an accident analysis code (MAAP - Modular Accident Analysis Program) allows SAMSON to associate different states in the plant with different times to critical failures. The accidents currently recognized by SAMSON include steam generator tube ruptures (SGTRs), with breaks ranging from one tube to eight tubes, and loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), with breaks ranging from 0.0014 square feet (1.30 cm2) in size to breaks 3.0 square feet in size (2800 cm2). (author)

  14. Predictive accident modeling approach inrelation to workover systems

    Jermstad, Lene Bøkseth

    2011-01-01

    Hydro carbon releases are the main contributor to the major accident risk on oil and gas platforms, and the Petroleum Safety Authority Norway (PSA) has thus set a target for reducing such releases. Traditionally topside equipment has been the main focus of study in risk analysis, but to obtain the reduction goals it is important to focus on drilling and well intervention as well. This is due to the complexity of the systems, and the lessons learned from several accidents during such operation...

  15. Development of emergency response support system for accident management

    Specific measures for the accident management (AM) are proposed to prevent the severe accident and to mitigate their effects in order to upgrade the safety of nuclear power plants even further. To ensure accident management effective, it is essential to grasp the plant status accurately. In consideration of the above mentioned background, the Emergency Response Support System (ERSS) was developed as a computer assisted prototype system by a joint study of Japanese BWR group. This system judges and predicts the plant status at the emergency condition in a nuclear power plant. This system displays the results of judgment and prediction. The effectiveness of the system was verified through the test and good prospects for applying the system to a plant was obtained. 7 refs., 10 figs

  16. Optimizing severe accident containment filtered vent systems - Severe accident analysis and the dry and scrubber filter technology

    The accident at Fukushima has re-emphasized the importance of the capability to protect containment integrity during severe accidents. In the area of containment filtered vent systems, advances have been made since the original systems were installed in some plants in the late eighties and nineties. The paper describes new work in developing design specific requirements and system design.

  17. Detection and classification of alarm threshold violations in condition monitoring systems working in highly varying operational conditions

    Strączkiewicz, M.; Barszcz, T.; Jabłoński, A.

    2015-07-01

    All commonly used condition monitoring systems (CMS) enable defining alarm thresholds that enhance efficient surveillance and maintenance of dynamic state of machinery. The thresholds are imposed on the measured values such as vibration-based indicators, temperature, pressure, etc. For complex machinery such as wind turbine (WT) the total number of thresholds might be counted in hundreds multiplied by the number of operational states. All the parameters vary not only due to possible machinery malfunctions, but also due to changes in operating conditions and these changes are typically much stronger than the former ones. Very often, such a behavior may lead to hundreds of false alarms. Therefore, authors propose a novel approach based on parameterized description of the threshold violation. For this purpose the novelty and severity factors are introduced. The first parameter refers to the time of violation occurrence while the second one describes the impact of the indicator-increase to the entire machine. Such approach increases reliability of the CMS by providing the operator with the most useful information of the system events. The idea of the procedure is presented on a simulated data similar to those from a wind turbine.

  18. Severe accident tests and development of domestic severe accident system codes

    According to lessons learned from Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, the safety evaluation will be started based on the NRA's New Safety Standards. In parallel with this movement, reinforcement of Severe Accident (SA) Measures and Accident Managements (AMs) has been undertaken and establishments of relevant regulations and standards are recognized as urgent subjects. Strengthening responses against nuclear plant hazards, as well as realistic protection measures and their standardization is also recognized as urgent subjects. Furthermore, decommissioning of Fukushima-Daiichi Unit1 through Unit4 is promoted diligently. Taking into account JNES's mission with regard to these SA Measures, AMs and decommissioning, movement of improving SA evaluation methodologies inside and outside Japan, and prioritization of subjects based on analyses of sequences of Fukushima-Daiichi NPS accidents, three viewpoints was extracted. These viewpoints were substantiated as the following three groups of R and D subjects: (1) Obtaining near term experimental subjects: Containment venting, Seawater injection, Iodine behaviors. (2) Obtaining mid and long experimental subjects: Fuel damage behavior at early phase of core degradation, Core melting and debris formation. (3) Development of a macroscopic level SA code for plant system behaviors and a mechanistic level code for core melting and debris formation. (author)

  19. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  20. Cognitive systems engineering analysis of the JCO criticality accident

    The JCO Criticality Accident is analyzed with a framework based on cognitive systems engineering. With the framework, analysis is conducted integrally both from the system viewpoint and actors viewpoint. The occupational chemical risk was important as safety constraint for the actors as well as the nuclear risk, which is due to criticality accident, to the public and to actors. The inappropriate actor's mental model of the work system played a critical role and several factors (e.g. poor training and education, lack of information on criticality safety control in the procedures and instructions, and lack of warning signs at workplace) contributed to form and shape the mental model. Based on the analysis, several countermeasures, such as warning signs, information system for supporting actors and improved training and education, are derived to prevent such an accident. (author)

  1. Fundamental principles of alarm design

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional modeling technique (MFM) which represents a process in terms of its goals, functions and operating requirements. The reasoning capabilities of MFM enable identification of operational situations which threaten to generate an alarm and derivation of potential response scenarios. The design methodology can be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal with alarm presentation or display design issues. A hydraulically powered grinding process is employed as an industrially relevant system to show the applicability of the proposed design methodology with promising results. (author)

  2. Process criticality accident likelihoods, consequences, and emergency planning

    Evaluation of criticality accident risks in the processing of significant quantities of fissile materials is both complex and subjective, largely due to the lack of accident statistics. Thus, complying with standards such as ISO 7753 which mandates that the need for an alarm system be evaluated, is also subjective. A review of guidance found in the literature on potential accident magnitudes is presented for different material forms and arrangements. Reasoned arguments are also presented concerning accident prevention and accident likelihoods for these material forms and arrangements. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  3. CERN alarms data management: state and improvements

    The CERN Alarms System - LASER is a centralized service ensuring the capturing, storing and notification of anomalies for the whole accelerator chain, including the technical infrastructure at CERN. The underlying database holds the pre-defined configuration data for the alarm definitions, for the Operators alarms consoles as well as the time-stamped, run-time alarm events, propagated through the Alarms Systems. The article will discuss the current state of the Alarms database and recent improvements that have been introduced. It will look into the data management challenges related to the alarms configuration data that is taken from numerous sources. Specially developed Extract-Transform-Load (ETL) processes must be applied to this data in order to transform it into an appropriate format and load it into the Alarms database. The recorded alarms events together with some additional data, necessary for providing events statistics to users, are transferred to the long-term alarms archive. The article will cover as well the data management challenges related to the recently developed suite of data management interfaces in respect of keeping data consistency between the alarms configuration data coming from external data sources and the data modifications introduced by the end-users. (authors)

  4. Noble gas control room accident filtration system for severe accident conditions (N-CRAFT)

    Severe accidents might cause the release of airborne radioactive substances to the environment of the NPP either due to containment leakages or due to intentional filtered containment venting. In the latter case aerosols and iodine are retained, however noble gases are not retainable by the FCVS or by conventional air filtration systems like HEPA filters and iodine absorbers. Radioactive noble gases nevertheless dominate the activity release depending on the venting procedure and the weather conditions. To prevent unacceptable contamination of the control room atmosphere by noble gases, AREVA GmbH has developed a noble gas control room accident filtration system (CRAFT) which can supply purified fresh air to the control room without time limitation. The retention process is based on dynamic adsorption of noble gases on activated carbon. The system consists of delay lines (carbon columns) which are operated by a continuous and simultaneous adsorption and desorption process. CRAFT allows minimization of the dose rate inside the control room and ensures low radiation exposure to the staff by maintaining the control room environment suitable for prolonged occupancy throughout the duration of the accident. CRAFT consists of a proven modular design either transportable or permanently installed. (author)

  5. Analysis of Criticality Accident Transients of Uranium Solution System

    DUAN; Ming-hui; DU; Kai-wen; LIU; Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the nuclear fuel cycle, fissile materials are often dissolved in water. Criticality accidents are likely to happen in the uranium solution system and release a large amount of energy and radioactive materials. Therefore, the criticality safety of uranium solution system is very important in the nuclear safety technology research.

  6. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Dang, Vinh N [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-08-15

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method.

  7. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method

  8. Plant system utilization for accident mitigation. Working material

    The 25 participants from 10 countries reviewed and assessed the current status and future trends in the use of available and/or additional systems to prevent and mitigate severe accidents at nuclear power plants and evaluated the implementation of corresponding guidelines to the operating and support staff. They presented 16 papers on the subject and provided comments for the preparation of a draft report on the use of plant systems for accident management. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Accident sequence quantification of phased mission systems using Markov approach

    A Markov approach to incorporate a phased mission analysis into an accident sequence quantification is developed in this study. The Markov approach describes more accurately the dynamic characteristics of phased mission systems, dependency among various phases, and repair of failed components than a cut set approach. For comparison, an accurate cut set approach to quantify the accident sequences is also presented in this study. The results show that it is desirable to use the Markov approach in phased missions systems with large failure rates of components or long mission time intervals. Furthermore, the Markov approach is not constrained by the magnitudes of failure rates or mission time intervals. (author)

  10. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems

  11. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T.; Jow, Hong-Nian (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. This document, Volume 1, the Users's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems.

  12. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projections, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management

  13. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs

  14. MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)

    Jow, H.N.; Sprung, J.L.; Ritchie, L.T. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Chanin, D.I. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-02-01

    This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways including food and water ingestion, early and latent health effects, and economic costs. The MACCS code can be used for a variety of applications. These include (1) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, (2) sensitivity studies to gain a better understanding of the parameters important to PRA, and (3) cost-benefit analysis. This report is composed of three volumes. Volume I, the User's Guide, describes the input data requirements of the MACCS code and provides directions for its use as illustrated by three sample problems. Volume II, the Model Description, describes the underlying models that are implemented in the code, and Volume III, the Programmer's Reference Manual, describes the code's structure and database management. 59 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. 46 CFR 169.732 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 169.732 Section 169.732 Shipping... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.732 Carbon dioxide alarm. Each carbon dioxide alarm must be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.”...

  16. EAC european accident code. A modular system of computer programs to simulate LMFBR hypothetical accidents

    One aspect of fast reactor safety analysis consists of calculating the strongly coupled system of physical phenomena which contribute to the reactivity balance in hypothetical whole-core accidents: these phenomena are neutronics, fuel behaviour and heat transfer together with coolant thermohydraulics in single- and two-phase flow. Temperature variations in fuel, coolant and neighbouring structures induce, in fact, thermal reactivity feedbacks which are added up and put in the neutronics calculation to predict the neutron flux and the subsequent heat generation in the reactor. At this point a whole-core analysis code is necessary to examine for any hypothetical transient whether the various feedbacks result effectively in a negative balance, which is the basis condition to ensure stability and safety. The European Accident Code (EAC), developed at the Joint Research Centre of the CEC at Ispra (Italy), fulfills this objective. It is a modular informatics structure (quasi 2-D multichannel approach) aimed at collecting stand-alone computer codes of neutronics, fuel pin mechanics and hydrodynamics, developed both in national laboratories and in the JRC itself. EAC makes these modules interact with each other and produces results for these hypothetical accidents in terms of core damage and total energy release. 10 refs

  17. Technical Basis for the Use of Alarming Personal Criticality Detectors to Augment Permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in Areas Not Normally Occupied

    Yates, K R

    2003-01-01

    The technical basis for the use of alarming personal criticality detectors (APCDs) to augment permanent Nuclear Incident Monitor (NIM) Systems in areas not normally occupied is evaluated. All applicable DOE O 420.1A and ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 criticality alarm system requirements and recommendations are evaluated for applicability to APCDs. Based on this evaluation, design criteria and administrative requirements are presented for APCDs. Siemens EPD/Mk-2 and EPD-N devices are shown to meet the design criteria. A definition of not normally occupied is also presented.

  18. KESS-2, a system for simulation of core melt accidents

    KESS was able to simulate core melt accidents resulting from a 2 F break (low pressure cases). Risk studies and the accident at TMI-2 have revealed that this is not sufficient. Therefore it was decided to further develop the KESS system. The result is KESS-2. One can treat general accident situations with the new system. Thermalhydraulic conditions can be determined either by special programs or by a primary circuit model which is part of KESS-2. Due to the use of advanced software technologies it became possible to utilize the KESS-2 system in two different ways. Models and program sequences are provided for standard accident sequences as defined in the German Risk Study Phase B. They may be parameterised or adapted to different conditions. This can be done in a way similar to the use of conventional programs. Due to the modular design of KESS-2 it is also possible to use the system as a tool which allows to react on new situations. However this requires an understanding of both, the physics and the models provided in KESS-2. Both ways to utilise KESS-2 are demonstrated by several examples. (orig./HP)

  19. Changes in Default Alarm Settings and Standard In-Service are Insufficient to Improve Alarm Fatigue in an Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Project

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Paper, Bruce Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical alarm systems safety is a national concern, specifically in intensive care units (ICUs) where alarm rates are known to be the highest. Interventional projects that examined the effect of changing default alarm settings on overall alarm rate and on clinicians’ attitudes and practices toward clinical alarms and alarm fatigue are scarce. Objective To examine if (1) a change in default alarm settings of the cardiac monitors and (2) in-service nursing education on cardiac monit...

  20. Tracking alarm causes by logic diagram

    An operator should provide the correct and fast actions on a cause of alarms and failure for reducing the effect of failure. There are a lot of study. But most of those studies may use a physical knowledges or causal relationships. Most of those studies impose on high level information like the physical knowledges or causal relationships of failure rather than the logical states or process signals as the detail causes of failure. It is very difficult that the physical knowledges or causal relationships are to be implemented and verified. This paper proposes a methodology for tracking alarm by logic of alarms. This methodology uses the proper logical knowledges on the proven logic and alarm diagram or electrical alarm relay logic than the uncertain physical knowledges or causal relationships. This system is to display the highlighted alarm procedure related to the causes. The system can be used for operator to identify the detail causes of alarm without checking all candidates for causes in alarm response procedure and the logical states of alarm with alarm logic disgrams provided on CRT dynamically

  1. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  2. Advocating System Safety Concept in Preventing Airline Accidents

    Lu, Chien-tsung; Wetmore, Michael; Smith, John

    2005-01-01

    System safety was conceptualized by the aerospace industry in the late 1940s in the United States (U.S.). Traditionally, users of system safety applied analysis to identify operational hazards and subsequently provide countermeasures before or after an accident. Unfortunately, very few aviation safety researches from the airlines had utilized it to promote aviation safety. To enrich this knowledge and contribute interest from academia, this paper adopted the inductive techniques of system saf...

  3. Neural network-based expert system for severe accident management

    This paper presents the results of the second phase of a three-phase Severe Accident Management expert system program underway. The primary objectives of the second phase were to develop and demonstrate four capabilities of neural networks with respect to nuclear power plant severe accident monitoring and prediction. A second objective of the program was to develop an interactive graphical user interface which presented the system's information in an easily accessible and straightforward manner to the user. This paper describes the technical and regulatory foundation upon which the expert system is based and provides a background on the development of a new severe accident management tool. This tool provides data to assist in; (1) planning and developing priorities for recovery actions, (2) evaluating recovery action feasibility, (3) identifying recovery action options, and (4) assessing the timing and possible effects of potential recovery strategies. These performance characteristics represent the goals identified for the Severe Accident Management Strategies Online Network (SAMSON) which is currently under development. 4 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  5. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Weili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency.

  6. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs

  7. URBAN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT ANALYSIS BY USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Meltem SAPLIOĞLU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, traffic accidents that cause more social and economic losses than that of natural disasters,have become a national problem in Turkey. To solve this problem and to reduce the casualties, road safety programs are tried to be developed. It is necessary to develop the most effective measures with low investment cost due to limited budgets allocated to such road safety programs. The most important program is to determine dangerous locations of traffic accidents and to improve these sections from the road safety view point. New Technologies are driving a cycle of continuous improvement that causes rapid changes in the traffic engineering and any engineering services within it. It is obvious that this developed services will be the potential for forward-thinking engineering studies to take a more influence role. In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS was used to identify the hazardous locations of traffic accidents in Isparta. Isparta city map was digitized by using Arcinfo 7.21. Traffic accident reports occurred between 1998-2002 were obtained from Directory of Isparta Traffic Region and had been used to form the database. Topology was set up by using Crash Diagrams and Geographic Position Reference Systems. Tables are formed according to the obtained results and interpreted.

  8. Development of Integrated Evaluation System for Severe Accident Management

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Park, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Choi, Y

    2007-06-15

    The objective of the project is twofold. One is to develop a severe accident database (DB) for the Korean Standard Nuclear Power plant (OPR-1000) and a DB management system, and the other to develop a localized computer code, MIDAS (Multi-purpose IntegrateD Assessment code for Severe accidents). The MELCOR DB has been constructed for the typical representative sequences to support the previous MAAP DB in the previous phase. The MAAP DB has been updated using the recent version of MAAP 4.0.6. The DB management system, SARD, has been upgraded to manage the MELCOR DB in addition to the MAAP DB and the network environment has been constructed for many users to access the SARD simultaneously. The integrated MIDAS 1.0 has been validated after completion of package-wise validation. As the current version of MIDAS cannot simulate the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequence, point-kinetics model has been implemented. Also the gap cooling phenomena after corium relocation into the RPV can be modeled by the user as an input parameter. In addition, the subsystems of the severe accident graphic simulator are complemented for the efficient severe accident management and the engine of the graphic simulator was replaced by the MIDAS instead of the MELCOR code. For the user's convenience, MIDAS input and output processors are upgraded by enhancing the interfacial programs.

  9. Investigations on pressure suppression system loads at accident conditions

    For simulation of the integral behavior of pressure suppresion systems at accident conditions a mathematical model was developed which simulates a wide range of the loads occurring during a loss-of coolant accident. The multi-zone point model DRASYS serves for mathematical simulation of quasistatic (pressure and temperature build-up in the dry well and the suppression chamber) as well as dynamic loads (free-blowing process, water throw-up and condensing oscillations) in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. For determination of the state variations with time in the individual pressure sections thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between steam and water phases. Thermal non-equilibrium states are taken into account if phase separation interfaces between water and steam/air mixture exist. The flows between the individual pressure sections are treated as homogeneous, nonsteady, incompressible flows. For verification of the mathematical model recalculations were made of experiments performed at various test stands. Teh recalculations showed that the mathematical model has got a wide range of application and is suited for design and assessment of pressure suppression systems at accident conditions. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS [MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System] input

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs

  11. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Quantification of major input parameters: MAACS (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) input

    Sprung, J.L.; Jow, H-N (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Rollstin, J.A. (GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Helton, J.C. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Estimation of offsite accident consequences is the customary final step in a probabilistic assessment of the risks of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Recently, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission reassessed the risks of severe accidents at five US power reactors (NUREG-1150). Offsite accident consequences for NUREG-1150 source terms were estimated using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS). Before these calculations were performed, most MACCS input parameters were reviewed, and for each parameter reviewed, a best-estimate value was recommended. This report presents the results of these reviews. Specifically, recommended values and the basis for their selection are presented for MACCS atmospheric and biospheric transport, emergency response, food pathway, and economic input parameters. Dose conversion factors and health effect parameters are not reviewed in this report. 134 refs., 15 figs., 110 tabs.

  12. Development of radiation dose assessment system for radiation accident (RADARAC)

    The possibility of radiation accident is very rare, but cannot be regarded as zero. Medical treatments are quite essential for a heavily exposed person in an occurrence of a radiation accident. Radiation dose distribution in a human body is useful information to carry out effectively the medical treatments. A radiation transport calculation utilizing the Monte Carlo method has an advantageous in the analysis of radiation dose inside of the body, which cannot be measured. An input file, which describes models for the accident condition and quantities of interest, should be prepared to execute the radiation transport calculation. Since the accident situation, however, cannot be prospected, many complicated procedures are needed to make effectively the input file soon after the occurrence of the accident. In addition, the calculated doses are to be given in output files, which usually include much information concerning the radiation transport calculation. Thus, Radiation Dose Assessment system for Radiation Accident (RADARAC) was developed to derive effectively radiation dose by using the MCNPX or MCNP code. RADARAC mainly consists of two parts. One part is RADARAC-INPUT, which involves three programs. A user can interactively set up necessary resources to make input files for the codes, with graphical user interfaces in a personnel computer. The input file includes information concerning the geometric structure of the radiation source and the exposed person, emission of radiations during the accident, physical quantities of interest and so on. The other part is RADARAC-DOSE, which has one program. The results of radiation doses can be effectively indicated with numerical tables, graphs and color figures visibly depicting dose distribution by using this program. These results are obtained from the outputs of the radiation transport calculations. It is confirmed that the system can effectively make input files with a few thousand lines and indicate more than 20

  13. Intelligent system for accident identification in NPP

    Accidental situations in NPP are great concern for operators, the facility, regulatory bodies and the environmental. This work proposes a design of intelligent system aimed to assist the operator in the process of decision making initiator events with higher relative contribution to the reactor core damage occur. The intelligent System uses the results of the pre-operational Probabilistic safety Assessment and the Thermal hydraulic Safety Analysis of the NPP Juragua as source for building its knowledge base. The nucleus of the system is presented as a design of an intelligent hybrid from the combination of the artificial intelligence techniques fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. The system works with variables from the process of the first circuit, second circuit and the containment and it is presented as a model for the integration of safety analyses in the process of decision making by the operator when tackling with accidental situations

  14. 46 CFR 113.25-30 - General emergency alarm systems for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations...

    2010-10-01

    ... more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. 113.25-30 Section 113.25-30... for barges of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for more than six persons. The general emergency alarm system for a barge of 300 or more gross tons with sleeping accommodations for...

  15. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy

  16. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses and its applications

    Chang, Soon Hong; Cheon, Moon Heon; Cho, Nam jin; No, Hui Cheon; Chang, Hyeon Seop; Moon, Sang Kee; Park, Seok Jeong; Chung, Jee Hwan [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-12-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in Nuclear Power Plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct individual plant examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident resistance. The scope and contents of this study are as follows : development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analyses, development of severe accident management strategy.

  17. System of accidents notification: the ROSIS experience

    ROSIS is short for 'Radiation Oncology Safety Information System' and it is a voluntary web-based safety information database for Radiotherapy. The system is based on professional front-line staff in radiotherapy clinics reporting incidents and corrective actions over the Internet to a database. On a six years period, 120 health establishments registered more than 1200 events. Almost 98% of statements concern external radiotherapy. The reports can be consulted on the Internet site (www.clin.radfys.lu.se/) besides, a mini training to the risk management in the field of radiotherapy based on the Rosis data has been finalized and proposed for six years. (N.C.)

  18. Simulation of Intelligent Fire Detection and Alarm System for a W d p .

    V. B. Pati; Joshi, S.P.; R. Sowmianarayanan; M. Vedavath; R.K. Rana

    1989-01-01

    Fire is one of the major hazards in warships. A warship being avery complex structure, with sophisticated weapons, machinery, fueland ammunition is always at risk of fire. Restrictions on movement of ship's personnel and equipment requires automation in fire detectionand control systems. This paper describes the limitations of conventional fire detection systems, followed by the features of modern fire detection and alarnr (the so-called intelligent) systems and thetypes of fire detectors use...

  19. Black Juveniles in the Juvenile Justice System: A Cause for Alarm.

    LeFlore, Larry

    This report examines the representation of black youth in the juvenile justice system, describes changes in juvenile justice philosophy, and discusses policy implications. Black youth are overrepresented at all stages of the juvenile justice system compared to white youth. Positivist theories explain this overrepresentation as the result of…

  20. An Intelligent Alarm Based Visual Eye Tracking Algorithm for Cheating Free Examination System

    Ali Javed

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern and well established education system is a backbone of any nation’s success. High reputation in international platform can only be achieved when best and deserving students represent your country and earn reputation on their ability and dedication. For this purpose an education system must be a cheating free system so that non-deserving students should not get the positions which they don’t deserve. This research aims to develop such a system which can be used in exam halls to avoid the cheating based on student’s eye movement. The algorithm detects the human from the scene followed by the face detection and recognition. The next phase involves eye detection followed by eye's movement tracking to analyze and decide about whether the student is involved in cheating or not. The system can be used on a large scale in educational institutions as well as in corporate sector wherever exams have been conducted.

  1. Simulation of Intelligent Fire Detection and Alarm System for a W d p .

    V. B. Pati

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the major hazards in warships. A warship being avery complex structure, with sophisticated weapons, machinery, fueland ammunition is always at risk of fire. Restrictions on movement of ship's personnel and equipment requires automation in fire detectionand control systems. This paper describes the limitations of conventional fire detection systems, followed by the features of modern fire detection and alarnr (the so-called intelligent systems and thetypes of fire detectors used in fire detection systems. The experimentalset-up used for simulating a simple system having 24 sensors connecteato the micro computer via digital input card is explained in detail withthe limitations of the experimental set-up and improvements that canbe made by incorporating serial communication in a loop, using fibre optics data links. and intelligent loop/interface units.

  2. Implementation guidance for industrial-level security systems using radio frequency alarm links

    Swank, R.G.

    1996-07-12

    Spread spectrum (SS) RF transmission technologies have properties that make the transmitted signal difficult to intercept, interpret, and jam. The digital code used in the modulation process results in a signal that has high reception reliability and supports multiple use of frequency bands and selective addressing. These attributes and the relatively low installation cost of RF systems make SSRF technologies candidate for communications links in security systems used for industrial sites, remote locations, and where trenching or other disturbances of soil or structures may not be desirable or may be costly. This guide provides a description of such a system and presents implementation methods that may be of engineering benefit.

  3. WIRELESS ACCIDENT INFORMATION SYSTEM USING GSM AND GPS

    R.RATHINAKUMAR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about designing a Smart Display and Control [SDC] which will monitor the zone and maintains the specified speed in the zone levels, which runs on an embedded system. This system includes three modules; automatic speed control module, accident detection and information sending module and security enabling module. Automatic speed control module includes RF transmitter placed in specific location and RF receiver in the vehicle. Accident detection module includes GSM and GPS technology. Security enabling module includes sensory units which ensures the condition of seat belt and the driver. This module includes alcohol sensor and eye sensor. The smart display and control is composed of two separate units: Zone status Transmitter unit and Receiver (speed Display and Control Unit.

  4. Development and operation of an alarm and monitoring systems for fuel element transports from nuclear facilities

    A fast measuring system using a NaJ(Tl) scintillator is described which can distinguish between fuel element transports, transports of high- and medium-activity nuclear waste, and transports of other radioactive emitters. (orig.)

  5. Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels for LWRS - A Preliminary Systems Analysis

    Gilles Youinou; R. Sonat Sen

    2013-09-01

    The severe accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plants illustrates the need for continuous improvements through developing and implementing technologies that contribute to safe, reliable and cost-effective operation of the nuclear fleet. Development of enhanced accident tolerant fuel contributes to this effort. These fuels, in comparison with the standard zircaloy – UO2 system currently used by the LWR industry, should be designed such that they tolerate loss of active cooling in the core for a longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, and design-basis events. This report presents a preliminary systems analysis related to most of these concepts. The potential impacts of these innovative LWR fuels on the front-end of the fuel cycle, on the reactor operation and on the back-end of the fuel cycle are succinctly described without having the pretension of being exhaustive. Since the design of these various concepts is still a work in progress, this analysis can only be preliminary and could be updated as the designs converge on their respective final version.

  6. Application of CAN Bus Technology in Industrial Alarm Network System%CAN总线技术在工业报警网络系统中的应用

    柴钰; 张奇

    2011-01-01

    To satisfy the strict requirements on reliability and anti-interference capability for industrial alarm system, through analyzing the applicable background of various buses used in industrial areas, and classifying the common seen alarm types, the alarm network structure based on CAN bus is proposed and at the basis of the low layer CAN bus, the high layer CAN bus protocol better suitable for industrial alarm system has been designed, the real-time performance of bus data transmission and the transmission processing of the alarm information are analyzed;the practical hardware system of this communication network is established. The experiments verify the effectiveness of this design method.%为满足工业中报警系统对可靠性、抗干扰性方面的严格要求,通过分析工业中各种总线类型的应用背景,以及对目前常见报警类型进行分类,提出了一种基于CAN总线的报警网络结构.在CAN总线底层协议的基础上,设计了一种更加适用于工业报警系统的较高层CAN总线协议,分析了总线数据传输的实时性和报警信息的传输处理,搭建了该通信网络的实际硬件系统.实验论证了该设计方法的有效性.

  7. Development of accident diagnosis and prediction system for research reactor

    A pilot system of early fault detection expert system has been developed. The early fault detection expert system is one of subsystems in the accident diagnosis and prediction system for the research reactor JRR-3 in JAERI. Functions of the pilot system are to detect deviations of process parameters from the steady state in the early stage of the transient and, if possible, to provide procedures to operators to avoid scram actuation. The reactor accident diagnosis system, DISKET, which had been developed in JAERI, was applied for developing the pilot system by extending functions as follows. (1) A frame structure has been introduced to a part of the knowledge base of DISKET in order to infer efficiently. (2) Numerical equation has been introduced to rule representation in order to calculate numerical value for rules. The pilot system was tested against some simulated transients to validate the effectiveness of the extension mentioned above as well as the performance of the system. This report describes development of the pilot system and the results of the test. (author)

  8. Design of Alarm Clock

    Budík, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to create alarm clock, which respect the functional, technical and aesthetic requirements of this device and attain an attractive design of this product. The final draft should be innovative, original and user attractive alarm clock.

  9. 75 FR 25137 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    2010-05-07

    ... Boating Accident Report Database CFR Code of Federal Regulations DHS Department of Homeland Security FR... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). D..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS....

  10. The Importance of E-Learning and GSM Alarm System in the Medical Engineering

    Maria-Lavinia POPESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present social context is disturbed by questions, diversity, complexity, and the time and space parameters. Thus it is justifying the change of institution activity at news requirements which oblige and which sometimes are contradictory. That is why a special importance presents the adaptation capacity of entities to continuum improvement of their offers. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present new aspects which can increase the medical services quality. Much more, the paper represents an interdisciplinary approach because it presents the importance of integration of technical aspects with the learning system founded by technology, Internet and electronic materials, all integrated of medical engineering.

  11. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and dose not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively.

  12. Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and dose not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively

  13. 46 CFR 130.450 - Machinery alarms.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery alarms. 130.450 Section 130.450 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.450 Machinery alarms....

  14. Experience and improvements in advanced alarm annunciation systems in nuclear power plants. Proceedings

    The objective of the meeting is to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion on R and D, in-plant experiences and improvements to annunciation systems. In planning the meeting, we have fully recognized that annunciation is an integral part of control centre design and plant operation. However, we have proposed to keep the meeting focussed on annunciation-related topics so as to maximize the benefits from the discussions. Among us this week, we have 62 participants from 9 countries presenting 22 papers. Further, these representatives are from utilities, design/engineering, research and development, and regulatory organizations. The meeting is organized into 7 session, focussing on a specific aspect or perspective on annunciation. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. The CANDU alarm analysis tool (CAAT)

    AECL undertook the development of a software tool to assist alarm system designers and maintainers based on feedback from several utilities and design groups. The software application is called the CANDU Alarm Analysis Tool (CAAT) and is being developed to: Reduce by one half the effort required to initially implement and commission alarm system improvements; improve the operational relevance, consistency and accuracy of station alarm information; record the basis for alarm-related decisions; provide printed reports of the current alarm configuration; and, make day-to-day maintenance of the alarm database less tedious and more cost-effective. The CAAT assists users in accessing, sorting and recording relevant information, design rules, decisions, and provides reports in support of alarm system maintenance, analysis of design changes, or regulatory inquiry. The paper discusses the need for such a tool, outlines the application objectives and principles used to guide tool development, describes the how specific tool features support user design and maintenance tasks, and relates the lessons learned from early application experience. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  16. Reducing False Intracranial Pressure Alarms using Morphological Waveform Features

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern re...

  17. An Accident Precursor Analysis Process Tailored for NASA Space Systems

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael; Dezfuli, Homayoon; Maggio, Gaspare

    2010-01-01

    Accident Precursor Analysis (APA) serves as the bridge between existing risk modeling activities, which are often based on historical or generic failure statistics, and system anomalies, which provide crucial information about the failure mechanisms that are actually operative in the system and which may differ in frequency or type from those in the various models. These discrepancies between the models (perceived risk) and the system (actual risk) provide the leading indication of an underappreciated risk. This paper presents an APA process developed specifically for NASA Earth-to-Orbit space systems. The purpose of the process is to identify and characterize potential sources of system risk as evidenced by anomalous events which, although not necessarily presenting an immediate safety impact, may indicate that an unknown or insufficiently understood risk-significant condition exists in the system. Such anomalous events are considered accident precursors because they signal the potential for severe consequences that may occur in the future, due to causes that are discernible from their occurrence today. Their early identification allows them to be integrated into the overall system risk model used to intbrm decisions relating to safety.

  18. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  19. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    We are investigating air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions. In this paper we present a program overview and highlight recent results of our investigations. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. We also describe the test facilities we use to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  20. Development of system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Jang, H. S.; Jeon, M. H.; Cho, N. J. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    The objectives of this study is to develop a system of computer codes for postulated severe accident analyses in nuclear power plants. This system of codes is necessary to conduct Individual Plant Examination for domestic nuclear power plants. As a result of this study, one can conduct severe accident assessments more easily, and can extract the plant-specific vulnerabilities for severe accidents and at the same time the ideas for enhancing overall accident-resistance. Severe accident can be mitigated by the proper accident management strategies. Some operator action for mitigation can lead to more disastrous result and thus uncertain severe accident phenomena must be well recognized. There must be further research for development of severe accident management strategies utilizing existing plant resources as well as new design concepts.

  1. Decision-making and response strategies in interaction with alarms: the impact of alarm reliability, availability of alarm validity information and workload.

    Manzey, Dietrich; Gérard, Nina; Wiczorek, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Responding to alarm systems which usually commit a number of false alarms and/or misses involves decision-making under uncertainty. Four laboratory experiments including a total of 256 participants were conducted to gain comprehensive insight into humans' dealing with this uncertainty. Specifically, it was investigated how responses to alarms/non-alarms are affected by the predictive validities of these events, and to what extent response strategies depend on whether or not the validity of alarms/non-alarms can be cross-checked against other data. Among others, the results suggest that, without cross-check possibility (experiment 1), low levels of predictive validity of alarms ( ≤ 0.5) led most participants to use one of two different strategies which both involved non-responding to a significant number of alarms (cry-wolf effect). Yet, providing access to alarm validity information reduced this effect dramatically (experiment 2). This latter result emerged independent of the effort needed for cross-checkings of alarms (experiment 3), but was affected by the workload imposed by concurrent tasks (experiment 4). Theoretical and practical consequences of these results for decision-making and response selection in interaction with alarm systems, as well as the design of effective alarm systems, are discussed. PMID:25224606

  2. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-10

    Four bounding accidents postulated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing a hydrogen explosion, and a fire breaching filter vessel and enclosure. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  3. K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) E-F Annular Filter Vessel Accident Calculations

    RITTMANN, P.D.

    1999-10-07

    Three bounding accidents postdated for the K West Basin integrated water treatment system are evaluated against applicable risk evaluation guidelines. The accidents are a spray leak during fuel retrieval, spray leak during backflushing, and a hydrogen explosion. Event trees and accident probabilities are estimated. In all cases, the unmitigated dose consequences are below the risk evaluation guidelines.

  4. Study of design-basis accident approach in various national legal systems

    This is a comparative study of the Design Basis Accident Approach in various national legal systems. There is no distinction in the Federal Republic of Germany between design basis accident and a so-called ''severe accident''; therefore the legal effects are the same in both cases. The author compares the methods (deterministic or probabilistic) used in the US, the UK, France and the Federal Republic of Germany to determine the severity of accidents. (NEA)

  5. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  6. Introduction of severe accidents mitigating systems used in TNPS

    Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant (TNPS) is a Russian WWER nuclear power plant (NPP). It is an improved type of the WWER 1000/V320 series. Also this NPP is the most advanced of the operated NPP in recent China. Many advanced safety concepts are used in the design of this NPP, so the safety level of TNPS is better than most of the NPPs in the world. Some systems designed in TNPS to mitigate the severe accidents impacts are firstly used in China, even in the world. These systems include Core Catcher, Reactor inspection shaft water emergency use system, Emergency gas removal system, Containment hydrogen removal system, and so on. This paper focus on the introduction of components and working principles of these systems. (author)

  7. Functional alarming and information retrieval

    This paper deals with two facets of the design and efficient utilisation by operating personnel of computer-based interfaces for monitoring and the supervisory control of complex industrial systems - e.g., power stations, chemical plants, etc. These are alarming and information retrieval both of which are extremely sensitive to computerisation. For example, the advent of computers for display requires that some means of assuring easy and rapid access to large amounts of relevant stored information be found. In this paper, alarming and information retrieval are linked together through a multilevel functional description of the target plant. This representation serves as a framework for structuring the access to information as well as defining associated ''alarms'' at the various descriptive levels. Particular attention is paid to the level where mass and energy flows and balances are relevant. It is shown that the number of alarms here is reduced considerably while information about content and interrelationships is enhanced - which at the same time eases the retrieval problem. (author)

  8. The development of a nuclear accident risk information system

    The computerized system NARIS (Nuclear Accident Risk Information System) was developed in order to support the estimation of health effects and the establishment the effective risk reduction strategies. Using the system, we can analyze the distribution of health effects easily by displaying the results on the digital map of the site. Also, the thematic mapping allows the diverse analyses of the distribution of the health effects. The NARIS can be used in the emergency operation facilities in order to analyze the distribution of the health effects resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant. Also, the rapid analysis of the health effect is possible by storing the health effect results in the form of a database. Therefore, the staffs of the emergency operation facilities can establish the rapid and effective emergency response strategies. The module for the optimization of the costs and benefits and the decision making support will be added. The technical support for the establishment of the optimum and effective emergency response strategies will be possible using this system

  9. A Modular Telerobot Control System for Accident Response

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART (Sandia's Modular Architecture for Robotic and Teleoperation) was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements eight different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system

  10. Accident sequence modeling: human actions, system response, intelligent decision support

    In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of large technological systems, accident sequence modeling represents the synthesis of expert judgement, system modeling, and operational evidence. This book contains the papers that were presented at a two-day Seminar that was held in Munich in August 1987. The aim of this Seminar was to provide a forum for in-depth discussion in a workshop atmosphere of the key elements in the modeling process, such as operator actions and system response, and to assess the possibilities of using such models to design operator decision support systems in the form of expert systems or interactive man computer structures. While this evaluation of the state of the art was done in the context of nuclear power reactor safety, most of the models and ideas advanced by the participants have wide applicability and can be used in safety assessments and reliability enhancement programs for other fields, for example the chemical process and aerospace industries. (author)

  11. Smart smoke alarm

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-04-28

    Methods and apparatus for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a smoke detector uses linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to determine whether observed conditions indicate that an alarm is warranted.

  12. International intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry system. SILENE 2002

    Sixty laboratories issued from 29 countries participated in an international intercomparison of criticality accident dosimetry systems, which took place in France in June 2002, at the SILENE reactor and at a pure gamma source. This intercomparison was jointly organised by the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) with the help of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and was partly supported by the European Communities. This paper describes the different aspects of this intercomparison. The dosimetric quantities measured and reported by the participants are summarised, analysed and compared to the reference values. (author)

  13. Development of supporting system for emergency response to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material

    National Maritime Research Institute has developed a supporting system for emergency response of competent authority to maritime transport accidents involving radioactive material. The supporting system for emergency response has functions of radiation shielding calculation, marine diffusion simulation, air diffusion simulation and radiological impact evaluation to grasp potential hazard of radiation. Loss of shielding performance accident and loss of sealing ability accident were postulated and impact of the accidents was evaluated based on the postulated accident scenario. Procedures for responding to emergency were examined by the present simulation results

  14. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  15. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies

  16. Development of the severe accident risk information database management system SARD

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Dong Ha

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to introduce essential features and functions of a severe accident risk information management system, SARD (Severe Accident Risk Database Management System) version 1.0, which has been developed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, and database management and data retrieval procedures through the system. The present database management system has powerful capabilities that can store automatically and manage systematically the plant-specific severe accident analysis results for core damage sequences leading to severe accidents, and search intelligently the related severe accident risk information. For that purpose, the present database system mainly takes into account the plant-specific severe accident sequences obtained from the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs), base case analysis results for various severe accident sequences (such as code responses and summary for key-event timings), and related sensitivity analysis results for key input parameters/models employed in the severe accident codes. Accordingly, the present database system can be effectively applied in supporting the Level 2 PSA of similar plants, for fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for the specific plant whose information was previously stored in the database system, and development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  17. Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids

    Preter, Maurice; KLEIN, DONALD F.

    2007-01-01

    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attac...

  18. Developement of integrated evaluation system for severe accident management

    Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, K. R.; Park, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.; Park, J. H

    2005-04-01

    The scope of the project includes four activities such as construction of DB, development of data base management tool, development of severe accident analysis code system and FP studies. In the construction of DB, level-1,2 PSA results and plant damage states event trees were mainly used to select the following target initiators based on frequencies: LLOCA, MLOCA, SLOCA, station black out, LOOP, LOFW and SGTR. These scenarios occupy more than 95% of the total frequencies of the core damage sequences at KSNP. In the development of data base management tool, SARD 2.0 was developed under the PC microsoft windows environment using the visual basic 6.0 language. In the development of severe accident analysis code system, MIDAS 1.0 was developed with new features of FORTRAN-90 which makes it possible to allocate the storage dynamically and to use the user-defined data type, leading to an efficient memory treatment and an easy understanding. Also for user's convenience, the input (IEDIT) and output (IPLOT) processors were developed and implemented into the MIDAS code. For the model development of MIDAS concerning the FP behavior, the one dimensional thermophoresis model was developed and it gave much improvement to predict the amount of FP deposited on the SG U-tube. Also the source term analysis methodology was set up and applied to the KSNP and APR1400.

  19. 46 CFR 130.460 - Placement of machinery alarms.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Placement of machinery alarms. 130.460 Section 130.460..., AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Automation of Unattended Machinery Spaces § 130.460 Placement of machinery alarms. (a) Visible and audible alarms must be installed at the pilothouse to...

  20. Development of ultrasonic high temperature system for severe accidents research

    The aims of this study are to find a gap formation between corium melt and the reactor lower head vessel, to verify the principle of the gap formation and to analyze the effect of the gap formation on the thermal behavior of corium melt and the lower plenum. This report aims at suggesting development of a new high temperature measuring system using an ultrasonic method which overcomes the limitations of the present thermocouple method used for severe accident experiments. Also, this report describes the design and manufacturing method of the ultrasonic system. At that time, the sensor element is fabricated to a reflective element using 1mm diameter and 50 mm and 80 mm long tungsten alloy wires. This temperature measuring system is intended to measure up to 2800 deg C

  1. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author)

  2. Severe accident instrumentation systems for BWR water level and temperature in primary containment vessel measurements

    The severe accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (TF1 accident) in March 2011 brought the lost of the functions of many instrumentation systems. In order to enable the measurements of the important parameters such as reactor water level, temperature and so on even in a case such as the TF1 accident occurs, severe accident instrumentation systems are being developed. In this paper, new system configurations of BWR water level measurement and temperature measurement in primary containment vessels are proposed. Then performance tests for prototype sensors of these measurement systems under high temperature conditions are described. (author)

  3. SMS-baserat alarm med positionering : GPS based alarm with positioning

    Nors, Niclas; Rehnström, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates how to design a low-cost, versatile event messaging system using SMS. A typical use case is a fire alarm or intrusion detector when equipped with appropriate sensors. With a GPS receiver connected, the actual position is included in the message, allowing for use as theft alarm in e.g. a car or in mobile home.

  4. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment

  5. A database system for the management of severe accident risk information, SARD

    Ahn, K. I.; Kim, D. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce main features and functions of a PC Windows-based database management system, SARD, which has been developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for automatic management and search of the severe accident risk information. Main functions of the present database system are implemented by three closely related, but distinctive modules: (1) fixing of an initial environment for data storage and retrieval, (2) automatic loading and management of accident information, and (3) automatic search and retrieval of accident information. For this, the present database system manipulates various form of the plant-specific severe accident risk information, such as dominant severe accident sequences identified from the plant-specific Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and accident sequence-specific information obtained from the representative severe accident codes (e.g., base case and sensitivity analysis results, and summary for key plant responses). The present database system makes it possible to implement fast prediction and intelligent retrieval of the required severe accident risk information for various accident sequences, and in turn it can be used for the support of the Level 2 PSA of similar plants and for the development of plant-specific severe accident management strategies.

  6. Pre-alarm closed circuit television verification to reduce false alarm impact

    Closed circuit television (CCTV) plays an important role in modern security systems for protection of nuclear material. The functions of video are for detection and to assist in classification or assessment of alarms from other sensors. A nuclear facility with an extensive security system can experience a very high alarm rate, including false, nuisance and alarms occurring as part of routine operations. Video systems which include the Pre-Alarm Image Recall feature continuously capture and store a number of images from each camera. The images leading up to, at the instant of, and immediately after an alarm, can be displayed as a very valuable aid in assessment. The technology and operation of this feature is described, together with actual operating experience and a summary of the benefits which have been obtained from its use. (author)

  7. Multistation alarm system for eruptive activity based on the automatic classification of volcanic tremor: specifications and performance

    Langer, Horst; Falsaperla, Susanna; Messina, Alfio; Spampinato, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    With over fifty eruptive episodes (Strombolian activity, lava fountains, and lava flows) between 2006 and 2013, Mt Etna, Italy, underscored its role as the most active volcano in Europe. Seven paroxysmal lava fountains at the South East Crater occurred in 2007-2008 and 46 at the New South East Crater between 2011 and 2013. Month-lasting lava emissions affected the upper eastern flank of the volcano in 2006 and 2008-2009. On this background, effective monitoring and forecast of volcanic phenomena are a first order issue for their potential socio-economic impact in a densely populated region like the town of Catania and its surroundings. For example, explosive activity has often formed thick ash clouds with widespread tephra fall able to disrupt the air traffic, as well as to cause severe problems at infrastructures, such as highways and roads. For timely information on changes in the state of the volcano and possible onset of dangerous eruptive phenomena, the analysis of the continuous background seismic signal, the so-called volcanic tremor, turned out of paramount importance. Changes in the state of the volcano as well as in its eruptive style are usually concurrent with variations of the spectral characteristics (amplitude and frequency content) of tremor. The huge amount of digital data continuously acquired by INGV's broadband seismic stations every day makes a manual analysis difficult, and techniques of automatic classification of the tremor signal are therefore applied. The application of unsupervised classification techniques to the tremor data revealed significant changes well before the onset of the eruptive episodes. This evidence led to the development of specific software packages related to real-time processing of the tremor data. The operational characteristics of these tools - fail-safe, robustness with respect to noise and data outages, as well as computational efficiency - allowed the identification of criteria for automatic alarm flagging. The

  8. Radiation monitor system for nuclear power plants

    The system has 8 kinds of radiation monitors and 2 stage microcomputers designed for processing the data from each monitor, storaging the information, printing out and displaying on the colour CRT. The function of the system includes high-value alarm, warm alarm and failure alarm, so called three-level alarms. Two functions of the alarms are the threshold alarm and the tendency alarm, so that this system is an intelligency system. This system has high reliability and very wide range when LOCA accident takes place. It is aseismic and immune to industrial interference. The system can meet IEC-761-1 standard and is of nuclear safety 3rd class. Also the following monitors were designed: 133Xe monitor, 131I monitor, low-level liquid monitor and high radiation γ area monitor. The system can meet the requirements of nuclear power plants

  9. Forgotten electrical accidents and the birth of shockproof X-ray systems

    Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Kütterer, Gerhard; Wright, Andrew; Jones, Frank; Behary, Jeff; Hofman, Jan A. M.; Wildberger, Joachim E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To commemorate victims of electrical accidents that occurred in the first decades of radiology and relate these accidents to the evolution of the X-ray apparatus. Methods Digitised newspapers, scientific journals, books and reports of legal procedures were searched for electrical accidents involving X-ray systems. Information on the historical systems was retrieved from the scientific literature and brochures from manufacturers. Results We found 51 fatal and 62 non-fatal but seriou...

  10. Accident management advisor system (AMAS): A Decision Aid for Interpreting Instrument Information and Managing Accident Conditions in Nuclear Power Plants

    Accident management can be characterized as the optimized use of all available plant resources to stop or mitigate the progression of a nuclear power plant accident sequence which may otherwise result i n reactor vessel and containment failure. It becomes important under conditions that have low probability of occurring. However, given that these conditions may lead to extremely severe financial consequences and public health effects, it is now recognized that it is important for the plant owners to develop realistic strategies and guidelines. Recent studies have classified accident management strategies as: - the use of alternative resources (i.e., air, water, power), - the use of alternative equipment (i.e., pumps, water lines, generators), the use of alternative actions (i.e., manual depressurization and injection, 'feed and bleed', etc.) The matching of these alternative actions and resources to an actual plant condition represents a decision process affected by a high degree of uncertainty in several of its fundamental inputs. This uncertainty includes the expected accident progression phenomenology (e.g., the issue of high pressure core ejection from the vessel in a PWR plant with possible 'direct containment heating'), as well as the expected availability and behavior of plant systems and of plant instrumentation. To support the accident management decision process with computer-based decision aids, one needs to develop accident progression models that can be stored in a computer knowledge based and retrieved at will for comparison with actual plant conditions, so that these conditions can be recognized and dealt with accordingly. Recent Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) [1] show the progression of a severe accident through and beyond the core melt stages via multi-branch accident progression trees. Although these 'accident tree models' were originally intended for accident probability assessment purposes, they do provide a basis of initial information

  11. An accident-tolerant control drum system for a small space reactor

    Highlights: • An accident-tolerant control drum system for space reactor was proposed. • The neutronic performance of the proposed control drum system was investigated. • The new system improved reactor safety during various launch accidents. • A mass reduction can be achieved as well by adopting the new system. - Abstract: In this paper, an accident-tolerant control drum system was proposed to enhance the safety of space reactors in various launch accidents and the safety enhancement was demonstrated for a LEU-fueled and a HEU-fueled space reactors. The space reactors with an accident-tolerant control drum system remain subcritical even when all the control drums are missing while the reactors with a control rod system become supercritical when a control rod is missing without any damage in reflector. The heterogeneous LEU-fueled space reactor with an accident-tolerant control drum system remains subcritical even when it is immersed in dry sand, wet sand, or water with two adjacent control drums are rotated to the operation position. The HEU-fueled space reactor with an accident-tolerant control drum system remains subcritical even when it is immersed in various surrounding materials with one or two control drums rotated to the operation position depending on the thickness of the reflector. Besides the safety enhancement, a reduction of the total reactor mass was achieved by adopting an accident-tolerant control drum system instead of a control rod system

  12. Submerged demineralize system processing of TMI-2 accident waste water

    Accident-generated radioactive waste at Three Mile Island Unit 2 includes a varity of high and low specific-activity waste. The high-specific-activity waste, particularly over one million gallons of contaminated water, required special processing and secondary waste handling. General public utilities and its contractors developed a zeolite-based ion-exchange system called the Submerged Demineralizer System to reduce contamination levels in the water to below allowable limits. Testing and modifications resulted in an operating system that had successfully processed waste water from the Reactor Coolant Bleed Tanks, the Reactor Building Basement, and the Reactor Coolant System as of August 1982. System design objectives were met and decontamination criteria established in 10 CFR 20 were attained. Additional wastes that could not be handled routinely were generated by another water-processing system, called EPICOR II. EPICOR II wastes are discussed. Low-specific-activity (LSA) wastes such as trash and resin-bed waste canisters are also included in handling. LSA wastes are routinely handled and shipped according to existing industry practice. Plant records are summarized to provide approximate yearly volumes and curie loadings of low-specific-activity wastes being shipped off the Island to a commercial burial site

  13. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  14. A Remote Health Care System Combining a Fall Down Alarm and Biomedical Signal Monitor System in an Android Smart-Phone

    Ching-Sung Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available First aid and immediate help are very important following an accident. The earlier the detection and treatment is carried out, the better the prognosis and chance of recovery of the patients. It is even more important when considering the elderly. Once the elderly have an accident, they not only physically injure their body, but also impair their mental and social ability, and may develop severe sequela. In the last few years, the continuously developed Android cell phone has been applied to many fields. Despite the nature of the GPS positioning system that the mobile phone currently uses, most applications used are SMS and file transfers. However, these biomedical measurement signals, passing through a transferring interface and uploading to the mobile, result the little really successful cases with the remote health care feasibility. This research will develop an Android cell phone which combines the functionality of an ECG, pulsimeter, SpO2, and BAD (Body Activity Detector for real-time monitoring of the activity of a body. When an accident occurs, the signals go through Android smart phone, immediately notifying the remote ends and providing first time help.

  15. Applications of the Petri net to simulate, test, and validate the performance and safety of complex, heterogeneous, multi-modality patient monitoring alarm systems.

    Sloane, E B; Gelhot, V

    2004-01-01

    This research is motivated by the rapid pace of medical device and information system integration. Although the ability to interconnect many medical devices and information systems may help improve patient care, there is no way to detect if incompatibilities between one or more devices might cause critical events such as patient alarms to go unnoticed or cause one or more of the devices to become stuck in a disabled state. Petri net tools allow automated testing of all possible states and transitions between devices and/or systems to detect potential failure modes in advance. This paper describes an early research project to use Petri nets to simulate and validate a multi-modality central patient monitoring system. A free Petri net tool, HPSim, is used to simulate two wireless patient monitoring networks: one with 44 heart monitors and a central monitoring system and a second version that includes an additional 44 wireless pulse oximeters. In the latter Petri net simulation, a potentially dangerous heart arrhythmia and pulse oximetry alarms were detected. PMID:17271039

  16. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of an emergency alarm and response system: a case study of a long-term care program.

    Ruchlin, H S; Morris, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Cost-benefit analyses are routinely included in evaluations of acute care programs. In the case of long-term care, it is frequently alleged that cost-benefit analysis cannot be fruitfully applied. This article demonstrates the utility of applying cost-benefit analysis to evaluations of long-term care programs. A case study is presented in which cost-benefit analysis is used to evaluate an emergency alarm and response system developed to monitor the safety of vulnerable and disabled persons in...

  18. Development of a reactor vessel failure diagnosis system for accident management

    Diagnosis of vessel failure provides for operators and TSC personnel very important information to manage the severe accident in nuclear power plant. However, operators can not diagnose the reactor vessel failure by watching the temporal trends of some parameters because they never have experienced the severe accident. Therefore, this study proposes a method on the diagnosis of the PWR vessel failure using a Spatiotemporal Neural Network (STN). STNs can deal directly with both the spatial and the temporal aspects of input signals and can well identify a time-varying problem. The target patterns are generated from MAAP code. Vessel failure diagnosis has been performed for 8 accidents and the developed STNs have been verified for untrained three severe accidents. STNs identifies the vessel failure time and the initiating events. For example, when large break LOCA (break size = 0.16 m2) is used for input accident scenario, only the output value for the target pattern of LBLOCA is activated greater than the threshold value near the real vessel failure. To validate vessel failure diagnosis system and to train severe accident to operators, extensive severe accident simulator is to be an absolute necessity. Therefore, a simplified severe accident simulator, SIMAAP (severe accident Simulator based on MAAP), has been developed. SIMAAP simulates the various severe accident progress through on-line communication with MAAP

  19. The Level of Europium-154 Contaminating Samarium-153-EDTMP Activates the Radiation Alarm System at the US Homeland Security Checkpoints

    Mohammed Najeeb Al Hallak

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available 153Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical composed of EDTMP (ethylenediamine-tetramethylenephosphonate and Samarium-153 [1]. 153Sm-EDTMP has an affinity for skeletal tissue and concentrates in areas with increased bone turnover; thus, it is successfully used in relieving pain related to diffuse bone metastases [1]. The manufacturing process of 153Sm-EDTMP leads to contamination with 154Eu (Europium-154 [2]. A previous study only alluded to the retention of 154Eu in the bones after receiving treatment with 153Sm-EDTMP [2]. Activation of the alarm at security checkpoints after 153Sm-EDTMP therapy has not been previously reported. Two out of 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center (Fargo, N. Dak., USA activated the radiation activity sensors while passing through checkpoints; one at a US airport and the other while crossing theAmerican-Canadian border. We assume that the 154Eu which remained in the patients’ bones activated the sensors. Methods: In order to investigate this hypothesis, we obtained the consent from 3 of our 15 patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP within the previous 4 months to 2 years, including the patient who had activated the radiation alarm at the airport. The patients were scanned with a handheld detector and a gamma camera for energies from 511 keV to 1.3 MeV. Results: All three patients exhibited identical spectral images, and further analysis showed that the observed spectra are the result of 154Eu emissions. Conclusion: Depending on the detection thresholds and windows used by local and federal authorities, the remaining activity of 154Eu retained in patients who received 153Sm-EDTMP could be sufficient enough to increase the count rates above background levels and activate the sensors. At Roger Maris Cancer Center, patients are now informed of the potential consequences of 153Sm-EDTMP therapy prior to initiating treatment. In addition, patients treated with 153Sm-EDTMP at Roger Maris Cancer Center

  20. Modeling of pipe break accident in a district heating system using RELAP5 computer code

    Reliability of a district heat supply system is a very important factor. However, accidents are inevitable and they occur due to various reasons, therefore it is necessary to have possibility to evaluate the consequences of possible accidents. This paper demonstrated the capabilities of developed district heating network model (for RELAP5 code) to analyze dynamic processes taking place in the network. A pipe break in a water supply line accident scenario in Kaunas city (Lithuania) heating network is presented in this paper. The results of this case study were used to demonstrate a possibility of the break location identification by pressure decrease propagation in the network. -- Highlights: ► Nuclear reactor accident analysis code RELAP5 was applied for accident analysis in a district heating network. ► Pipe break accident scenario in Kaunas city (Lithuania) district heating network has been analyzed. ► An innovative method of pipe break location identification by pressure-time data is proposed.

  1. The application of VMEbus system to the safety related parameters indication and alarm system for nuclear power plants

    This report presents the basic feature, the status of technical development, and it's application for the VMEbus which has been utilized in industrial application such as controller, robotics, automation control. The application software of VMEbus is also reviewed. The design considerations are presented when applying the system to the instrumentation and control technique of nuclear power plants. The conceptual design of safety related parameter using the integrated VMEbus system. The results indicate that the application of VMEbus has advantages such as easy maintenance, accurate and reliable operation, easy expansion and upgrade. Also, the integrated VMEbus system is capable of limited real-time processing because it can be processed by multi-processors and can reduce the effort of software development by using off-the-shelf software. However, the adoption of digital system is produced problems such as software common mode failure, EMI and RFI, and verification and validation methods of off-the-shelf hardware and software. To resolve these problems in the future, further research are required. (author). 7 tabs., 19 figs., 24 refs

  2. Off-gas and air cleaning systems for accident conditions in nuclear power plants

    This report surveys the design principles and strategies for mitigating the consequences of abnormal events in nuclear power plants by the use of air cleaning systems. Equipment intended for use in design basis accident and severe accident conditions is reviewed, with reference to designs used in IAEA Member States. 93 refs, 48 figs, 23 tabs

  3. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    Lamb, Logan M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  4. Classification of alarm processing techniques and human performance issues

    Human factors reviews indicate that conventional alarm systems based on the one sensor, one alarm approach, have many human engineering deficiencies, a paramount example being too many alarms during major disturbances. As an effort to resolve these deficiencies, various alarm processing systems have been developed using different techniques. To ensure their contribution to operational safety, the impacts of those systems on operating crew performance should be carefully evaluated. This paper briefly reviews some of the human factors research issues associated with alarm processing techniques and then discusses a framework with which to classify the techniques. The dimensions of this framework can be used to explore the effects of alarm processing systems on human performance

  5. Clinical Alarms in Intensive Care Units: Perceived Obstacles of Alarm Management and Alarm Fatigue in Nurses

    Cho, Ok Min; Kim, Hwasoon; Lee, Young Whee; Cho, Insook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this descriptive study was to investigate the current situation of clinical alarms in intensive care unit (ICU), nurses' recognition of and fatigue in relation to clinical alarms, and obstacles in alarm management. Methods Subjects were ICU nurses and devices from 48 critically ill patient cases. Data were collected through direct observation of alarm occurrence and questionnaires that were completed by the ICU nurses. The observation time unit was one hour block. On...

  6. 75 FR 49869 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    2010-08-16

    ... in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Reopening of Comment Period On May 7, 2010, we published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register (75 FR 25137..., Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report Database AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS....

  7. Sociological study on the course of the traffic system and the traffic accidents

    Erjem, Yaşar

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this research is the operation of the traffic system and traffic accidents from a sociological perspective. In the research , the traffic system is taken as a sub-system of the social system. In this context the effects of the social, cultural and demographic factors on traffic accidents are examined . The data were collected from 681 people of whom 300 are drivers 300 pedestrians, 4 directors and 20 instructors of driving courses in Konya in Turkey. The research findings showe...

  8. General methods for alarm reduction; Larmsanering med generella metoder

    Ahnlund, Jonas; Bergquist, Tord; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2003-10-01

    The information in the control rooms has increased due to the technological advances in process control. Large industries produce large data quantities, where some information is unnecessary or even incorrect. The operator needs support from an advanced and well-adjusted alarm system to be able to separate a real event from a minor disturbance. The alarms must be of assistance and not a nuisance. An enhanced alarm situation qualifies an increased efficiency with fewer production disturbances and an improved safety. Yet, it is still unusual that actions are taken to improve the situation. An alarm cleanup with general methods can shortly be described as taking advantage of the control systems built-in functions, the possibility to modify or create function blocks and fine-tune the settings in the alarm system. In this project, we make use of an intelligent software, Alarm Cleanup Toolbox, that simulate different signal processing methods and tries to find improved settings on all the signals in the process. This is a fast and cost-efficient way to improve the overall alarm situation, and lays a foundation for more advanced alarm systems. An alarm cleanup has been carried out at Flintraennan district heating plant in Malmoe, where various signal processing methods has been implemented in a parallel alarm system. This made it possible to compare the two systems under the same conditions. The result is very promising, and shows that a lot of improvements can be achieved with very little effort. An analysis of the alarm system at Vattenreningen (the water purification process) at Heleneholmsverket in Malmoe has been carried out. Alarm Cleanup Toolbox has, besides suggesting improved settings, also found logical errors in the alarm system. Here, no implementation was carried out and therefore the results are analytical, but they validate the efficiency of the general methods. The project has shown that an alarm cleanup with general methods is cost-efficient, and that the

  9. Locomotive Alarm Outfire Monitoring System Based on ARM%基于ARM的机车报警灭火监控系统

    王祖麟; 赵志成

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounds the necessity ofconfigurating effective fire extinguishing device on the locomotive, and designs a alarm outfire monitoring system based on ARM. This system is detecting and monitoring in real time for running train, it makes the locomotive security system more perfect. It has a good practicability and expansibility.%本文阐述了在机车上配置有效灭火装置的必要性,设计了基于ARM的机车报警灭火监控系统。该系统对行进中的列车实时进行探测和监控,使机车的安保系统更加完善,具有良好的实用性和扩展性。

  10. Means and methods used to check radiation detection, signalling and alarm devices in the centralized environment control systems of the INB of CEN-Saclay

    Having reviewed the prescribed technical measures concerning 'systematic environment controls' in INB (Installations nucleaires de base - basic nuclear facilities) and published in the J.O. (French Official Journal) the authors briefly describe the main radiation detection, signalling and alarm systems at present installed in INB of CEN-Saclay and weigh up the extent to which their characteristics comply with the statutory texts. They then develop the means and methods set up to check on the good working order of these devices which are integrated in centralised one-piece modular analogue or informatics type control systems possible functioning anomalies being classed in two categories: logic type anomalies corresonding to a straightforward breakdown where detection is permanent; developing anomalies corresponding to poor functioning where detection requires a more critical and periodic control. The authors demonstrate the advantages offered by centralised computer type control systems

  11. Alarm management in gas pipeline plant: a case study

    Araujo, Juliano; Lima, Marcelo; Leitao, Gustavo; Guedes, Luiz Affonso [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Branco, Nicolau; Coelho, Robson; Elias, Gustavo Passos; Nunes, Marcelo [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil (TBG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the requirements of industrial processes, many decision support systems have been introduced in recent years. In this context, the alarm management systems have great relevance. On the other hand, the informatics revolution allowed a great increase of information concerning the operation of the industrial processes. Currently, process operators handle an excessive number of about 1.500 alarms per day. Thus, this overdose of information implies in the discredit of alarms. Then, in order to improve the operation activities of industrial processes, it is mandatory to incorporate procedures to evaluate and rationalize alarms. Since the EMMUA191 Standard is the reference guide to alarm management, but it does not specify how to execute an alarm management procedure, in this paper, a systematic procedure to evaluate alarms configurations in industrial processes is proposed. This procedure is in line with EMMUA191 and is composed by the following steps: to use statistics analyses to identify problematic alarms, such as occurrence, intermittency, correlation, and flooding calculation; to indicate problematic alarm group; and to propose a set of actions to be implemented. To validate our proposal, we present a case study in a gas pipeline plant using the BR-AlarmExpert software. (author)

  12. Database for a systems analytical approach to studying the medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    The main elements of the program data base were the all-Union distribution register and the SDACHA computer system (Chernobyl accident data system) which ensured reliable functioning of the PRIORRA expert system (acronym stands for ''taking of optimum decisions in the event of a radiation accident''). The development of criteria for the optimum selection of countermeasures follows three paths - medical, economic and social - and is based on a regulatory document entitled ''criteria for taking decisions or measures to protect the population in the event of a reactor accident''. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs

  13. Review of current status for designing severe accident management support system

    Jeong, Kwang Sub

    2000-05-01

    The development of operator support system (OSS) is ongoing in many other countries due to the complexity both in design and in operation for nuclear power plant. The computerized operator support system includes monitoring of some critical parameters, early detection of plant transient, monitoring of component status, plant maintenance, and safety parameter display, and the operator support system for these areas are developed and are being used in some plants. Up to now, the most operator support system covers the normal operation, abnormal operation, and emergency operation. Recently, however, the operator support system for severe accident is to be developed in some countries. The study for the phenomena of severe accident is not performed sufficiently, but, based on the result up to now, the operator support system even for severe accident will be developed in this study. To do this, at first, the current status of the operator support system for normal/abnormal/emergency operation is reviewed, and the positive aspects and negative aspects of systems are analyzed by their characteristics. And also, the major items that should be considered in designing the severe accident operator support system are derived from the review. With the survey of domestic and foreign operator support systems, they are reviewed in terms of the safety parameter display system, decision-making support system, and procedure-tracking system. For the severe accident, the severe accident management guideline (SAMG) which is developed by Westinghouse is reviewed; the characteristics, structure, and logical flow of SAMG are studied. In addition, the critical parameters for severe accident, which are the basis for operators decision-making in severe accident management and are supplied to the operators and the technical support center, are reviewed, too.

  14. FAULT DIAGNOSIS WITH MULTI-STATE ALARMS IN A NUCLEAR POWER CONTROL SIMULATOR

    Austin Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Ronald L. Boring

    2012-10-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effect of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. We used sensitivity and criterion based on Signal Detection Theory to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  15. Fault Diagnosis with Multi-State Alarms in a Nuclear Power Control Simulation

    Stuart A. Ragsdale; Roger Lew; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-09-01

    This research addresses how alarm systems can increase operator performance within nuclear power plant operations. The experiment examined the effects of two types of alarm systems (two-state and three-state alarms) on alarm compliance and diagnosis for two types of faults differing in complexity. We hypothesized the use of three-state alarms would improve performance in alarm recognition and fault diagnoses over that of two-state alarms. Sensitivity and criterion based on the Signal Detection Theory were used to measure performance. We further hypothesized that operator trust would be highest when using three-state alarms. The findings from this research showed participants performed better and had more trust in three-state alarms compared to two-state alarms. Furthermore, these findings have significant theoretical implications and practical applications as they apply to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of nuclear power plant operations.

  16. Internet of Car: Accident Sensing, Indication and Safety with Alert system

    Md. Maminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Detecting an accident before occurring it can save human life. To do this, advance accurate human detection and accident detection capability is needed. Several researches are going on regarding pre-crash detection & avoidance system from obstacle. To implement this system, priorities crash is essential for human or animal compared to obstacle. How the system will operate when it faces a situation to between human and obstacle? Differentiating human or animals and obstacles is more important ...

  17. Modeling alternative clad behavior for accident tolerant systems

    The US Department of Energy Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has a key goal of helping develop accident tolerant fuels (ATF) through investigating fuel and clad forms. In the current work thermochemical modeling and experiment are being used to assess fuel and clad alternatives. Cladding alternatives that have promise to improve fuel performance under accident conditions include the FeCrAl family of alloys and SiC-based composites. These are high strength and radiation resistant alloys and ceramics that have increased resistance to oxidation as compared to zirconium alloys. Accident modeling codes have indicated substantially increased time to failure and resulting effects. In the current work the thermochemical behavior of these materials are being assessed and the work reported here. (author)

  18. Sisifo-gas a computerised system to support severe accident training and management

    Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) will have to be prepared to face the management of severe accidents, through the development of Severe Accident Guides and sophisticated systems of calculation, as a supporting to the decision-making. SISIFO-GAS is a flexible computerized tool, both for the supporting to accident management and for education and training in severe accident. It is an interactive system, a visual and an easily handle one, and needs no specific knowledge in MAAP code to make complicate simulations in conditions of severe accident. The system is configured and adjusted to work in a BWR/6 technology plant with Mark III Containment, as it is Cofrentes NPP. But it is easily portable to every other kind of reactor, having the level 2 PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) of the plant to be able to establish the categories of the source term and the most important sequences in the progression of the accident. The graphic interface allows following in a very intuitive and formative way the evolution and the most relevant events in the accident, in the both system's way of work, training and management. (authors)

  19. Development of Highly Survivable Power and Communication System for NPP Instruments under Severe Accident

    According to the detail report from the Fukushima nuclear accident, the failure of conventional instruments is mainly due to the following reasons. 1) Insufficient backup battery capacity after the station black out (SBO) 2) The malfunction or damage of instruments due to the extremely harsh ambient condition after the severe accident 3) The cut-off of power and communication cable due to the physical shocks of hydrogen explosion after the severe accident Since the current equipment qualification (EQ) for the NPP instruments is based on the design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA), conventional instruments, which are examined under EQ condition, cannot guarantee their normal operation during the severe accident. A 7m-long-distance wireless power transfer and a radio frequency (RF) communication were introduced with conventional wired system to increase a redundancy. A heat isolation box and a harness are adopted to provide a protection from the expected physical shocks such as missiles and drastic increase of ambient temperature and pressure. A detail design principle of the highly survivable power and communication system, which has 4 sub-systems of a DCRS wireless power transfer, a Zigbee wireless communication, a GFRP harness, and a passive type router with a fly back regulator, has been presented in this paper. Each sub-system has been designed to have a robust operation characteristic regardless of the estimated physical shocks after the severe accident

  20. Development of Highly Survivable Power and Communication System for NPP Instruments under Severe Accident

    Yoo, Seung J.; Gu, Beom W.; Nguyen, Duy T.; Choi, Bo H.; Rim, Chun T. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So I. [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    According to the detail report from the Fukushima nuclear accident, the failure of conventional instruments is mainly due to the following reasons. 1) Insufficient backup battery capacity after the station black out (SBO) 2) The malfunction or damage of instruments due to the extremely harsh ambient condition after the severe accident 3) The cut-off of power and communication cable due to the physical shocks of hydrogen explosion after the severe accident Since the current equipment qualification (EQ) for the NPP instruments is based on the design basis accident such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA), conventional instruments, which are examined under EQ condition, cannot guarantee their normal operation during the severe accident. A 7m-long-distance wireless power transfer and a radio frequency (RF) communication were introduced with conventional wired system to increase a redundancy. A heat isolation box and a harness are adopted to provide a protection from the expected physical shocks such as missiles and drastic increase of ambient temperature and pressure. A detail design principle of the highly survivable power and communication system, which has 4 sub-systems of a DCRS wireless power transfer, a Zigbee wireless communication, a GFRP harness, and a passive type router with a fly back regulator, has been presented in this paper. Each sub-system has been designed to have a robust operation characteristic regardless of the estimated physical shocks after the severe accident.

  1. Analysis of accidents for magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material in magnetic resonance systems

    The purpose of this study was to improve magnetic resonance (MR) safety, we surveyed the accidents caused by large ferromagnetic materials brought into MR systems accidentally. We sent a questionnaire to 700 Japanese medical institutions and received 405 valid responses (58%). A total of 97 accidents in 77 institutions were observed and we analyzed them regarding incidental rate, the detail situation and environmental factors. The mean accident rate of each institute was 0.7/100,000 examinations, which was widely distributed (0-25.6/100,000) depending on the institute. In this survey, relatively small institutes with less than 500 beds tend to have these accidents more frequently (p<0.01). The institutes in which daily MR examination counts are more than 10 patients have fewer accidents than those with less than 10 daily examinations. The institutes with 6-10 MR examinations daily have significantly more accidents than that with more than 10 daily MR examinations (p<0.01). The main mental factors of the accidents were considered to be ''prejudice'' and ''carelessness'' but some advocate ''ignorance.'' Though we could not find significant reduction in the institutes that have lectures and training for MR safety, we should continue lectures and training for MR safety to reduce accidents due to ''ignorance.'' (author)

  2. 让切尔诺贝利核事故的警钟长鸣——纪念切尔诺贝利核事故25周年%Let the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident Alarm Bells Ring Forever

    李宗明

    2011-01-01

    一次严重事故发生后总引发业内人士颇有兴趣的讨论并相应地对核安全框架做出修改,但每次重大事故的起因并非相同,触及到的问题也不一样。25年前的切尔诺贝利核事故让世界震惊;25年中5个堆发生堆熔远远超出了国际上对严重事故发生概率的规定;25年中因堆熔事故11个机组报废、两个厂址变成了人们不敢前往的地方。面对这一切,我们需要有全新的核安全思维。%Abstract:Whenever a serious accident the scientific community of experts is quite interested in general discussion on nuclear safety and accordingly makes changes to the nuclear safety framework,but every major cause of the accident is not the same,and the problems involved are not the same.25 years ago,the Chernobyl nuclear accident shocked the world.In the past 25 years,reactor core melt occurred in five reactors,far beyond the international provisions to the probability of a serious accident.In the past 25 years due to melting reactor accident 11 reactor units scrapped,two sites became places where people dare not go.With all this,we need new nuclear safety thinking.

  3. Information processing system and neural network utilization for accident management support

    Tuerkcan, E. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Ciftcioglu, Oe. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Electrical and Electronic Engineering; Verhoef, J.P. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Ouden, A.C.B. den [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands)

    1996-03-01

    Information processing system with data sensor fusion technology together with potential application of neural network is developed. System is designed for operator in the form of Accident Management Support (AMS) with verification and validation (V and V) for cases of severe accident. To this end, primarily noise analysis techniques are used and their merits are merged for exhaustive information extraction in accident cases where the data from sensors may be obscured by drift, modulation so forth or even incomplete. The information from different methodologies are processed in synergetic form (data sensor fusion) by means of statistical distance measures and neural networks with optimal decisions. (orig.).

  4. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    This paper addresses spent fuel and high level waste transportation history and prospects, discusses accident histories of radioactive material transport, discusses emergency responder needs and provides a general description of the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS) design. The key objectives of the monitoring system are twofold: (1) to facilitate effective emergency response to accidents involving a radioactive waste transportation package, while minimizing risk to the public and emergency first-response personnel, and (2) to allow remote monitoring of transportation vehicle and payload conditions to enable research into radioactive material transportation for normal and accident conditions. (J.P.N.)

  5. Information processing system and neural network utilization for accident management support

    Information processing system with data sensor fusion technology together with potential application of neural network is developed. System is designed for operator in the form of Accident Management Support (AMS) with verification and validation (V and V) for cases of severe accident. To this end, primarily noise analysis techniques are used and their merits are merged for exhaustive information extraction in accident cases where the data from sensors may be obscured by drift, modulation so forth or even incomplete. The information from different methodologies are processed in synergetic form (data sensor fusion) by means of statistical distance measures and neural networks with optimal decisions. (orig.)

  6. System 80+TM PRA insights on severe accident prevention and mitigation

    The System 80+ design is ABB-CE's standardized evolutionary Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) design. It incorporates design enhancements based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) insights, guidance from the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), and US NRC's Severe Accident Policy. Major severe accident prevention and mitigation design features of the System 80+ design are described. The results of the System 80+ PRA are presented and the insights gained from the PRA sensitivity analyses are discussed. ABB-CE considered defense-in-depth for accident prevention and mitigation early in the design process and used robust design features to ensure that the System 80+ design achieved a low core damage frequency, low containment conditional failure probability, and excellent deterministic containment performance under severe accident conditions and to ensure that the risk was properly allocated among design features and between prevention and mitigation. (author)

  7. Development of a database system for hypothetical criticality accident evaluation of MOX fuel fabrication facility

    A system has been developed at JAERI, which includes a database that supports the analysis of criticality accident evaluation codes. In this system, which is accessible through LAN, free software PostgreSQL is used as database management system and Tomcat 5.0 s adopted as a Web server. The main functions of this database system are: to generate input data for criticality accident evaluation codes, to control execution of criticality accident evaluation codes, to process the output of criticality accident evaluation codes, to update the database, to survey information, to display graph output. The following analytic parameters have been stored on the database for various MOX fuel conditions. static parameters : k-infinity, critical mass, critical diameter, critical volume. kinetic parameters : delayed neutron fraction, life time, decay constant. (author)

  8. An evaluation approach for alarm processing improvement

    In light of the need to improve MMIS of NPPs, the advanced I and C research team of KAERI has embarked on developing an Alarm and Diagnosis-Integrated Operator Support System, called ADIOS, to filter or suppress unnecessary or nuisance alarms and diagnose abnormality of the plant process. ADIOS has been built in an object-oriented AI environment of G-2 expert system software tool, as presented in a companion paper. ADIOS then is evaluated according to the plan in three steps; (1) preliminary tests to refine the knowledge base and inference structure of ADIOS in such a dynamic environment, and also to evaluate the appropriateness of alarm-processing algorithms; (2) to ensure correctness, consistency, and completeness in the knowledge base using COKEP (Checker Of Knowledge base using Extended Petri net); and (3) the cognitive performance evaluation using the Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model (SACOM) in the KAERI's Integrated Test Facility (ITF). (author). 5 figs, 1 tab

  9. ETH-CHEMRISK: A pilot decision support system for industrial accidents emergency planning and preparedness

    ETH-CHEMRISK is designed in accordance with the principles and methods of emergency planning and preparedness as applied to the case of industrial (chemical) accidents. The outline of this decision support system design follows from both the features that nuclear and chemical accident consequence analysis share, and those that make the two different from each other. It uses and integrates concepts such as: data base, geographical information system, risk assessment, graphic driven software environment

  10. Evaluation of RCS injection strategy by normal residual heat removal system in severe accident management

    Highlights: • Integrated severe accident analysis model of ALWR RCS, ESF and containment is built. • Large-break loss of coolant accident and loss of feed water accident are analyzed. • Effectiveness of RNS injection strategy and plant system response are investigated. • Impact of RNS injection on hydrogen generation and distribution is evaluated. • Negative impact induced by different RCS depressurization measures is investigated. - Abstract: Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SAMGs) suggests mitigating the consequence of severe accident scenarios by using the non-safety systems if the safety systems are unavailable. For 1000 MWe advanced passive pressurized water reactor (PWR), the normal residual heat removal system (RNS) is proposed to implement the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) injection strategy during severe accidents if safety systems fail. Therefore, evaluation of the effectiveness and negative impact of RNS injection strategy is performed, in which two typical severe accident sequences are selected, which are the typical low-pressure core melt accident sequence induced by Large-break Loss of Coolant Accident (LLOCA) with double-ended guillotine break at cold leg and the typical high-pressure core melt accident induced by Loss of Feed Water (LOFW), to analyze RCS response using the integrated severe accident analysis code. The plant model, including RCS, Engineering Safety Features (ESF), containment and RNS, is built to evaluate the effectiveness of RNS injection by comparing the sequences with and without RCS injection, which shows that RNS injection can terminate core melt progression and maintain core cooling in these accident sequences. However, hydrogen generated during the core reflooding is investigated for the negative impact, which shows that RNS may increase the hydrogen concentration in the containment. For the sequence induced by LOFW, two different RCS depressurization measurements are compared, which shows that opening ADS

  11. Alarm handling for health monitoring: operator strategies used in an electrical control room of a rail network

    Dadashi, Nastaran; Wilson, John R; Golightly, David; Sharples, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Alarm management is a key component of the successful operation of a prognostic or health-monitoring technology. Although alarms can alert the operator to critical information, false alarms and alarm flooding can cause major difficulties for successfully diagnosing and acting upon infrastructure faults. Human factors approaches seek to design more-effective alarm systems through a deep understanding of the contextual factors that influence alarm response, including strategies and heuristics u...

  12. Estimation of spray system efficiency in case of loss in coolant severe accident condition

    The results of pressurize surge line double ended break accident analysis in case of failure of ECCS at Armenian NPP are presented. Based on the analysis results the assessment of spray system efficiency on decreasing confinement pressure and amount radioactive material is carried out. Hydrogen behavior in confinement is analyzed. The occurrence of conditions for possible hydrogen burning in the confinement is assessed as well. Likelihood of accident is in the range of 10-7. However for accident analysis purposes of such kind of accidents needs to be taken into account. The analysis shows that the main contributor in release decrease is spray system availability factor. Unavailability of spray system could lead to the increase of radioactive release by factor 8

  13. Microcontroller 8051 Based Accident Alert System Using MEMS Accelerometer, GPS and GSM Technology

    Ms. Anju M. Vasdewani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The largest cause of unnatural deaths in the world today (apart from diseases is road accidents. With increase in population and thus in the number of vehicles, accidents are only going to increase. Most of these deaths are due to delay in medical attention to the injured. The major cause of this delay is lack of intimation or delayed intimation of the accident to emergency medical response authorities. This can be addressed by the system proposed. This system uses an accelerometer, GSM modem and a GPS device along with a microcontroller to report an accident. The system also incorporates a “panic switch” which when depressed will send a text message for help to stored numbers. This facility provides assistance in the case of some chronic medical condition like heart attack or robberies that are increasing on highways.

  14. An effect of containment filtered venting system on scale of contamination under severe accident

    Jeon, Ju young; Lee, Jai-ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Some countries are expected to expand the scope of the Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ) by the influence of Fukushima accident. However, if the equipment, which is able to mitigate the severe accident consequences, is installed, unnecessary costs for an expansion of emergency planning zone will be reduced. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAC) has suggested to mitigate severe accidents by installing The Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). The probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to calculate the effective radiation dose with and without FCVS to determine the effective reduction by the installation of a FCVS.

  15. An effect of containment filtered venting system on scale of contamination under severe accident

    Some countries are expected to expand the scope of the Emergency Planning Zone(EPZ) by the influence of Fukushima accident. However, if the equipment, which is able to mitigate the severe accident consequences, is installed, unnecessary costs for an expansion of emergency planning zone will be reduced. The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAC) has suggested to mitigate severe accidents by installing The Filtered Containment Venting System (FCVS). The probabilistic assessment code MACCS2 was used to calculate the effective radiation dose with and without FCVS to determine the effective reduction by the installation of a FCVS.

  16. Design of nuclear accident emergency monitoring system based on GPS/CDMA

    A mobile real-time data monitoring system is designed for nuclear accident emergency, and is composed of three subsystems: vehicle-mounted radiation environment field data monitoring system, wireless data transmission system, and data processing system in the monitoring center. It is confirmed, by many times practical test, that such system satisfies the requirements of nuclear emergency monitoring. (authors)

  17. A climate of alarm

    The conventional view among scientists is that man-made global warming is real and potentially devastating. Climate physicist Richard Lindzen tells Edwin Cartlidge why he disagrees. Lindzen believes that even if man were indeed responsible for the vast majority of the warming observed in the last 100 years, he thinks there is still no cause for alarm. He claims the climate models used by the IPCC are far too sensitive to changes in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and estimates that the Earth will in fact warm up by perhaps just a few tenths of a degree over the next century. Needless to say, this is a conclusion that other climate researchers strongly disagree with. Certainly in public, Richard Lindzen is in the minority when it comes to his belief that man is not seriously heating up the Earth. (U.K.)

  18. Study on event sequence of loss-of-coolant accident of primary systems for MNPP based on ESD

    According to the characteristics of accident analysis of nuclear power plant, the combination method of event sequence diagram (ESD) and operational safety analysis is used to build the ESD model for loss-of-coolant accident of marine reactor primary system from the operational safety view. The accident evolution and results are studied and the entire event sequences are required. (authors)

  19. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    Jang, S. H.; Chun, S. W.; Jang, H. S. and others [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-01-15

    As a continuing study for the development of a system of computer codes to analyze severe accidents which had been performed last year, major focuses were on the aspect of application of the developed code systems. As the first step, two most commonly used code packages other than STCP, i.e., MELCOR of NRC and MAAP of IDCOR were reviewed to compare the models that they used. Next, important heat transfer phenomena were surveyed as severe accident progressed. Particularly, debris bed coolability and molten core-concrete interaction were selected as sample models, and they were studied extensively. The recent theoretical works and experiments for these phenomena were surveyed, and also the relevant models adopted by major code packages were compared and assessed. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is expected to be able to take into account these phenomenological uncertainties when one uses the severe accident code packages for probabilistic safety assessments or accident management programs.

  20. Development of a system of computer codes for severe accident analysis and its applications

    As a continuing study for the development of a system of computer codes to analyze severe accidents which had been performed last year, major focuses were on the aspect of application of the developed code systems. As the first step, two most commonly used code packages other than STCP, i.e., MELCOR of NRC and MAAP of IDCOR were reviewed to compare the models that they used. Next, important heat transfer phenomena were surveyed as severe accident progressed. Particularly, debris bed coolability and molten core-concrete interaction were selected as sample models, and they were studied extensively. The recent theoretical works and experiments for these phenomena were surveyed, and also the relevant models adopted by major code packages were compared and assessed. Based on the results obtained in this study, it is expected to be able to take into account these phenomenological uncertainties when one uses the severe accident code packages for probabilistic safety assessments or accident management programs

  1. K Basins floor sludge retrieval system knockout pot basket fuel burn accident

    The K Basins Sludge Retrieval System Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report (HNF-2676) identified and categorized a series of potential accidents associated with K Basins Sludge Retrieval System design and operation. The fuel burn accident was of concern with respect to the potential release of contamination resulting from a runaway chemical reaction of the uranium fuel in a knockout pot basket suspended in the air. The unmitigated radiological dose to an offsite receptor from this fuel burn accident is calculated to be much less than the offsite risk evaluation guidelines for anticipated events. However, because of potential radiation exposure to the facility worker, this accident is precluded with a safety significant lifting device that will prevent the monorail hoist from lifting the knockout pot basket out of the K Basin water pool

  2. Preliminary Study on Information Display System for Operator Support in Severe Accident

    This paper proposes an information display system dedicated to a severe accident and presents the conceptual requirements to support a prompt decision of operators under severe accident conditions. In this paper, SIDS, which mainly supports the decision-making of operator under severe accident conditions, was proposed and its conceptual requirements were presented to support a prompt decision of operators under severe accident conditions. Also the conceptual requirements regarding the functions, performance, and information display were established. Further study on designing additional systems and equipment for severe accidents will be accomplished in the future after analyzing the SAMG, severe scenarios, and equipment survivability from instrument sensor to I and C facilities. This paper discusses the issues related to the severe accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Electric Power, which occurred on March 11, 2011, due to the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and the ensuing tsunami generated by the Earthquake. As a result of this severe accident, a large amount of radioactive material was released. From an I and C(instrumentation and control) point of view, I and C equipment did not function sufficiently or was shut off due to the loss of power supplies. The operator could not react effectively under these conditions because it was difficult to obtain the appropriate information needed to take countermeasures. Most commercial nuclear power plants use an operator support system such as an SPDS(safety parameter display system) under normal and emergency conditions to support the prompt decision of the operator. However, SPDS is suitable for emergency conditions, not for severe accident conditions

  3. Passive Decay Heat Removal Strategy of Integrated Passive Safety System (IPSS) for SBO-combined Accidents

    Kim, Sang Ho; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The weak points of nuclear safety would be in outmoded nuclear power plants like the Fukushima reactors. One of the systems for the safety enhancement is integrated passive safety system (IPSS) proposed after the Fukushima accidents. It has the five functions for the prevention and mitigation of a severe accident. Passive decay heat removal (PDHR) strategy using IPSS is proposed for coping with SBO-combined accidents in this paper. The two systems for removing decay heat before core-melt were applied in the strategy. The accidents were simulated by MARS code. The reference reactor was OPR1000, specifically Ulchin-3 and 4. The accidents included loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) because the coolant losses could be occurred in the SBO condition. The examples were the stuck open of PSV, the abnormal open of SDV and the leakage of RCP seal water. Also, as LOCAs with the failure of active safety injection systems were considered, various LOCAs were simulated in SBO. Based on the thermal hydraulic analysis, the probabilistic safety analysis was carried out for the PDHR strategy to estimate the safety enhancement in terms of the variation of core damage frequency. AIMS-PSA developed by KAERI was used for calculating CDF of the plant. The IPSS was applied in the PDHR strategy which was developed in order to cope with the SBO-combined accidents. The estimation for initiating SGGI or PSIS was based on the pressure in RCS. The simulations for accidents showed that the decay heat could be removed for the safety duration time in SBO. The increase of safety duration time from the strategy provides the increase of time for the restoration of AC power.

  4. Development experience and strategy for the combined algorithm on the alarm processing and diagnosis

    In this paper, I presented the development experience on the alarm processing and fault diagnosis which has been achieved from early 1988 to late 1995. The scope covered is the prototype stage, the development stage of on-line operator-aid system, and an intelligent human-machine interface system. In the second part, I proposed a new method (APEXS) of multi-alarm processing to select the causal alarm(s) among occurred alarms by using the time information of each occurred alarm and alarm tree knowledge and the corresponding diagnosis method based on the selected causal alarm(s) by using the prescribed qualitative model. With more knowledge base about the plant and some modification suitable for real environment, APEXS will be able to adapt to a real steam power plant. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  5. Increase of safety in the alarm and signal systems for defects at the electric power supply of the TRIGA-INR Pitesti reactor

    In the framework of the general objective of upgrading research reactors, a particular project has been approached, focusing the increase of TRIGA Reactor safety, by modernizing the system of alarm and identification of defects occurred at the electric power supply of the reactor. This had in view the elimination of the physically and morally worn equipment, most of which is of the 1970's generation. The increase of Nuclear Safety is closely connected to the safety of the electric system intended for warning and signaling defects, consisting of the instant identification of defects produced, by means of modern communication means both to the electrician in the electric shop and to the operator in the control room of the TRIGA Reactor. Thus, a fast decision can be taken and the intervention in the facility can take place immediately. This modernization is based on an integrated project utilizing information technology to foster the good operation of the electric system, and on a system for acquisition and processing of data related to functioning and operation. The system project has been carried out and assembled by subcontracting a specialized organization, based on specifications prepared by the Reactor Department. (authors)

  6. Application of GIS in prediction and assessment system of off-site accident consequence for NPP

    The assessment and prediction software system of off-site accident consequence for Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant (GNARD2.0) is a GIS-based software system. The spatial analysis of radioactive materials and doses with geographic information is available in this system. The structure and functions of the GNARD system and the method of applying ArcView GIS are presented

  7. Aerosol challenges to air cleaning systems during severe accidents in nuclear plants

    A variety of air cleaning systems may be operating in nuclear power plants and under severe accident conditions, these systems may be treating airborne concentrations of aerosols which are very high. Predictions of airborne aerosol concentrations in nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions are reviewed to provide a basis for evaluating the potential effects on the air cleaning systems. The air cleaning systems include filters, absorber beds, sprays, water pools, ice beds, and condensers. Not all of these were intended to operate as air cleaners but will in fact be good aerosol collectors. Knowledge of expected airborne concentrations will allow better evaluation of system performances

  8. Design of smarthome alarm system based on single chip microcomputer%基于单片机的智能家用报警系统设计

    毛静

    2015-01-01

    智能家居的发展已经成为一种趋势,传统的防盗门和防盗窗已经无法满足居民对智能化生活环境的需求。设计了一种新型的家用智能报警安防系统,讨论了家用智能报警系统的软硬件系统的设计方案。系统使用温度传感器检测室内温度并在数码管上显示;通过热释电红外传感器检测人体是否存在,由STC89C52单片机控制GSM模块发送短信给房屋主人,并发出报警信号。对系统进行了实验和测试,取得了良好的实验效果。系统的设计思想为智能防盗系统、智能家居的设计和开发提供了参考。%The development, of smart house has become a trend. In view of the traditional security system, such as the anti-theft door and anti-theft windowwhich cannot satisfy people demand for intelligent living environment, designed a new type of household intelligent security alarm system,discussed the hardware and software system .The system used temperature sensor to test the indoor temperature and displayed it in the digital pipe;make use of the infrared sensorto detect human existence. STC89C52 single chip controlled the GSM module to send text messages to the owner of the house, and send out alarm signal. The experiment and test result was good. The method provides a good reference to the development of intelligent anti-theft system and smart house.

  9. A Novel Real-Time Video And Data Capture Of Vehicular Accident In Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Fekri M. Abduljalil

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel real-time video and data cap ture of vehicle accident is proposed in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. The proposed scheme so lves the problem of huge storage needed for recording vehicle accident in the smart vehicle and in the remote ITS server. It works efficiently wit h small amount of storage size and guarantee saving acciden t video in secondary storage. It enables user to capture real-time video and data of running vehicle . It enables user to get vehicle accident video and data anytime anywhere. The scheme is implemented using t estbed and its performance is evaluated. The result s show that the proposed scheme guarantees record the vehicle accident in the ITS server. The proposed scheme has better results in comparison with full t ime video recording scheme.

  10. A web-based nuclear accident illumination system based on multilevel flow model - for risk communication and nuclear safety culture

    This paper introduces a new method to illuminate the nuclear accident by Multilevel Flow Model, and based on the method, a web-based nuclear accident illumination system is proposed to represent the current nuclear accident in nuclear power plant of Japan in an understandable way. The MFM is a means-end and part-whole modeling method to describe the structure and the intention of a plant process. The relationship between the MFM functions enables accident prediction for a plant process. Thus, a web-based accident illumination system based by MFM can describe the nuclear accident in the nuclear power plant clearly and be accessed by public to make the public get to know and understand the nuclear power and nuclear risk. The public can build their own confidence of the nuclear power by their understanding of the nuclear accident with this system and this is helpful to build a harmonious development environment for nuclear power. (author)

  11. Performance of the CEDS Accident Dosimetry System at the 1995 Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison

    In July 1995, LANL hosted an accident dosimetry intercomparison. When all reactors on the Oak Ridge Reservation were idled in 1988, the Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR), which had been used for 22 previous intercomparisons dating from 1965, was shut down for an indefinite period. The LANL group began characterization of two critical assemblies for dosimetry purposes. As a result, NAD-23 was conceived and 10 DOE facilities accepted invitations to participate in the intercomparison. This report is a summary of the performance of one of the participants, the Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a cooperative personnel dosimetry arrangement between three DOE sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Many successes and failures are reported herein. Generally, the TL dosimeters performed poorly and always over-reported the delivered dose. The TLD processing procedures contain efforts that would lead to large biases in the reported absorbed dose, and omit several key steps in the TLD reading process. The supralinear behavior of lithium fluoride (LiF) has not been characterized for this particular dosimeter and application (i.e., in high-dose mixed neutron/gamma fields). The use of TLD materials may also be precluded given the limitations of the LiF material itself, the TLD reading system, and the upper dose level to which accident dosimetry systems are required to perform as set forth in DOE regulations. The indium foil results confirm the expected inability of that material to predict the magnitude of the wearer's dose reliably, although it is quite suitable as a quick-sort material. Biological sample (hair) results were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for only one of the tests. Several questions as to the best methods for sample handling and processing remain

  12. Automatic Accident Detection and Ambulance Rescue with Intelligent Traffic Light System

    S.IYYAPPAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the road accidents in modern urban areas are increased to uncertain level. The loss of human life due to accident is to be avoided. Traffic congestion and tidal flow are major facts that cause delay to ambulance. To bar loss of human life due to accidents we introduce a scheme called ITLS (Intelligent Traffic Light system. The main theme behind this scheme is to provide a smooth flow for the emergency vehicles like ambulance to reach the hospitals in time and thus minimizing the delay caused by traffic congestion. The idea behind this scheme is to implement ITLS which would control mechanically the traffic lights in the path of the ambulance. The ambulance is controlled by the control unit which furnishes adequate route to the ambulance and also controls the traffic light according to the ambulance location and thus reaching the hospital safely. The controller identifies the location of the accident spot through the sensor systems in the vehicle which determined the accident and thus the controller walks through the ambulance to the spot. This scheme is fully automated, thus it finds the accident spot, controls the traffic lights, helping to reach the hospital in time.

  13. A Remote Health Care System Combining a Fall Down Alarm and Biomedical Signal Monitor System in an Android Smart-Phone

    Ching-Sung Wang; Chien-Wei Li; Teng-Hui Wang

    2013-01-01

    First aid and immediate help are very important following an accident. The earlier the detection and treatment is carried out, the better the prognosis and chance of recovery of the patients. It is even more important when considering the elderly. Once the elderly have an accident, they not only physically injure their body, but also impair their mental and social ability, and may develop severe sequela. In the last few years, the continuously developed Android cell phone has been applied to ...

  14. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  15. Water level measurement system in reactor pressure vessel of BWR and hydrogen concentration monitoring system for severe accident

    TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident caused severe accident to lose functions of many instrumentation systems. As a result, many important plant parameters couldn't be monitored. In order to monitor plant parameters in the case of severe accident, new instrumentation systems available in the severe conditions are being developed. Water level in reactor pressure vessel and hydrogen concentration in primary containment vessel are one of the most important parameters. Performance test results about water level measurement sensor and hydrogen sensor in severe environmental conditions are described. (author)

  16. Solved and unsolved problems in boiler systems. Learning from accidents

    This paper begins with a brief review on the similarity law of conventional fossil-fuel-fired boilers. The concept is based on the fact that the heat release due to combustion in the furnace is restricted by the furnace volume but the heat absorption is restricted by the heat transfer surface area. This means that a small-capacity boiler has relatively high specific furnace heat release rate, about 10 MW/m3, and on the contrary a large-capacity boiler has lower value. The surface-heat-flux limit is mainly dominated by the CHF inside the water-wall tubes of the boiler furnace, about 350 kW/m2. This heat-flux limit is almost the same order independently on the capacity of boilers. For the safety of water-walls, it is essential to retain suitable water circulation, i.e. circulation ratio and velocity of water. This principle is a common knowledge of boiler designer, but actual situation is not the case. Newly designed boilers often suffer from similar accidents, especially burnout due to circulation problems. This paper demonstrates recent accidents encountered in practical boilers, and raises problems of rather classical but important two-phase flow and heat transfer. (author)

  17. EXPRIME - an expert system to analyse primary heat transport system accidents

    In recent years a new branch of computer science has emerged, known as artificial intelligence. It represents a radical departure from standard procedural programming techniques currently in use. As such it has certain very interesting and powerful properties that can be exploited to solve problems beyond the scope of standard programming methods. The aim of the work currently being done by the authors is to exploit the new techniques available in the area of artificial intelligence to create an expert system to help operators determine the specific nature of a given primary heat transport system (PHTS) accident. The expert system will also be capable of recommending the appropriate actions that should be taken. The paper will have three parts. The first is an introduction to the field of expert systems. The second will be an examination of expert systems currently being developed in the nuclear industry and other potential applications. The third will be a description of the expert system currently being developed by the authors to treat PHTS accidents

  18. Description of the information and calculation system for combatment of accidents with hazardous materials

    On request of the Netherlands government by TNO a decision support system is developed for the assessment of the off-site consequences of an accident with toxic or radioactive materials. The interactive system supports the emergency planning in two ways. First, the risk to the residents in the surroundings of the accident is quantified in terms of severity and magnitude. Second, a set of countermeasures is evaluated by which an optimum strategy to reduce the impact of the accident can be determined. At this moment the system is in a development stage. It turned out that even the preliminary system provides information to the decision process that is urgently needed. This specifically refers to the introduction of the time aspects and the quantification of the damage. 7 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Bubbling-vacuum system for accident localization in WWER-type NPP

    The system is intended for standard dual-cycle NPP of Soviet type. It ensures safety by reduction of the post-accident pressure in the corresponding sealed spaces. The system quarantees economy of the special fittings and preservation of the environment from the concequencies of the possible emergency operational modes of NPP. The system has an enhanced functional reliability which is reached by simplification and switching of the self-closed overflow reverse fittings. Installing of at least one vibration-acoustic detector ensures timely indication of small and comparatively frequent loss-of-coolant accidents. 2 claims, 1 fig

  20. Alarm fatigue: a patient safety concern.

    Sendelbach, Sue; Funk, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that 72% to 99% of clinical alarms are false. The high number of false alarms has led to alarm fatigue. Alarm fatigue is sensory overload when clinicians are exposed to an excessive number of alarms, which can result in desensitization to alarms and missed alarms. Patient deaths have been attributed to alarm fatigue. Patient safety and regulatory agencies have focused on the issue of alarm fatigue, and it is a 2014 Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal. Quality improvement projects have demonstrated that strategies such as daily electrocardiogram electrode changes, proper skin preparation, education, and customization of alarm parameters have been able to decrease the number of false alarms. These and other strategies need to be tested in rigorous clinical trials to determine whether they reduce alarm burden without compromising patient safety. PMID:24153215

  1. EDUCATIONAL USE OF CLOUD COMPUTING AND AT-MEGA MICROCONTROLLER - A CASE STUDY OF AN ALARM SYSTEM

    Tomasz Cieplak; Dariusz Lecyk; Agnieszka Cieplak

    2016-01-01

    The article shows a case study of Cloud Computing model combined with AT-Mega microcontrollers for educational purposes. The presented system takes advantage of many aspects of Internet of Things model, thus conjoining Cloud Management system with measurement-execution module based on Arduino platform. One benefit of this solution is a cost-effective way of showcasing machine and device integration with distinct cloud services. This article is based on practical experience with students' proj...

  2. Diagnostic suite neuro-fuzzy in an advanced alarm monitoring and predictive diagnostic system for rotating machinery

    The 'Foxboro SCADA', former 'Automation Systems Division' of Nuovo Pignone, at the end of eighty years, has been involved in the development of a flexible and powerful Diagnostic System for Rotating Machinery designed and manufactured in other divisions of the Company. This system amalgamates, in a single computer, all the functionality nowadays necessary to correctly manage locally and remotely the Evolutionary Maintenance of rotating machines as well as the relevant plants. It's specially designed to plan preventive and emergency maintenance procedures and to help the maintenance staff/service in preventing the occurrence of failures or severe damage to complete turbo-machinery plant including turbine, compressor and other machines. The system is designed to supervise and to analyze the operating state of one or more turbo- machinery units such as turbo-compressors, turbo-generators and turbo-pumps giving an effective support to plan preventive and breakdown maintenance monitoring the performances of each turbo-group's element and analyzing a large number of thermodynamic and mechanical parameters related to high pressure turbines, low pressure turbines, combustion chambers, axial compressors and load (compressors, generators, and pumps). A brief presentation of the system is provided (author) (ml)

  3. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy

  4. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  5. The control, monitor, and alarm system for the ICT equipment of the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Gianotti, Fulvio; Fioretti, Valentina; Tanci, Claudio; Conforti, Vito; Tacchini, Alessandro; Leto, Giuseppe; Gallozzi, Stefano; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Trifoglio, Massimo; Malaguti, Giuseppe; Zoli, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    ASTRI is an Italian flagship project whose first goal is the realization of an end-to-end telescope prototype, named ASTRI SST-2M, for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The prototype will be installed in Italy during Fall 2014. A second goal will be the realization of the ASTRI/CTA mini-array which will be composed of seven SST-2M telescopes placed at the CTA Southern Site. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment necessary to drive the infrastructure for the ASTRI SST-2M prototype is being designed as a complete and stand-alone computer center. The design goal is to obtain basic ICT equipment that might be scaled, with a low level of redundancy, for the ASTRI/CTA mini-array, taking into account the necessary control, monitor and alarm system requirements. The ICT equipment envisaged at the Serra La Nave observing station in Italy, where the ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype will operate, includes computers, servers and workstations, network devices, an uninterruptable power supply system, and air conditioning systems. Suitable hardware and software tools will allow the parameters related to the behavior and health of each item of equipment to be controlled and monitored. This paper presents the proposed architecture and technical solutions that integrate the ICT equipment in the framework of the Observatory Control System package of the ASTRI/CTA Mini- Array Software System, MASS, to allow their local and remote control and monitoring. An end-toend test case using an Internet Protocol thermometer is reported in detail.

  6. Study on Security Management System of Construction Enterprises in Evaluation and Pre-alarm According to Extension Theory

    Zhang Limei; Liu Weiran; Fan Meng; Du Shoujun

    2013-01-01

    Safety is the most important problem to construction enterprises and the influent factors about safety are too many and complicated. Considering that the safety problems of construction enterprise are difficult to determine promptly and intuitively by current safety management evaluation methods, extension theory was used to study security management evaluate and warning system of construction enterprises in this study. Firstly, based of construction safety inspection experiences, security le...

  7. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  8. Possibility of the development of a Serbian protection system against chemical accidents

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a draft of a system model for responding in case of chemical accidents in accordance with the current legislation regarding the environment protection, the structure and elements of the existing response system in case of chemical accidents, other works dealing with the issue as well as the prospects planned by those responsible for the environmental protection. The paper discuss the possibilities of different institutions and agencies of the Republic of Serbia to engage in specialized methods of cooperation and protection against chemical hazards in accordance with Article X of the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.

  9. Is the current management system at Statoil sufficient to prevent potential major accidents from happening at the Snorre A platform?

    Mork, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Only small margins prevented the gas-blow out at one of Statoil's platforms, Snorre A, to develop into a major accident in 2004. The underlying reasons of the accident showed extensive improvement areas, including Statoil's management system. The purpose is to find out whether the current management system at Statoil is sufficient to prevent potential major accidents from happening at the Snorre A platform again. As a guidance, four questions have been deduced. These include if...

  10. Enterprise Strategy Information Monitoring and Alarming System%企业战略信息监控报警系统

    钱敬荣; 钱省三; 黄晓东

    2000-01-01

    With the planned economy changing into socialist market economy more deeply, the competition among enterprises is becoming keener. Any enterprise which wants to have competitive advantages must implement enterprise strategic management and at the same time take steps quickly according to circumstantial change to benefit itself or avoid risks. This article discusses the necessity of reinforcing the implementation and control of strategy and setting up the warning system of monitoring enterprise strategic information in the process of enterprise strategic management. It also gives information on how to determine strategic monitoring targets and accomplish this warning system on computer.%随着计划经济向社会主义市场经济转轨的深入,企业所面临的竞争越来越激烈。想要取得竞争的优势,就必须实施企业战略管理,并对环境变化作出迅速反应,做到趋利避险。本文论述了企业战略管理过程中加强战略实施控制与建立企业战略信息监控报警系统的必要性,并对如何确定战略监控指标及如何在计算机上实现该报警系统作了介绍。

  11. Applying of Reliability Techniques and Expert Systems in Management of Radioactive Accidents

    Accidents including radioactive exposure have variety of nature and size. This makes such accidents complex situations to be handled by radiation protection agencies or any responsible authority. The situations becomes worse with introducing advanced technology with high complexity that provide operator huge information about system working on. This paper discusses the application of reliability techniques in radioactive risk management. Event tree technique from nuclear field is described as well as two other techniques from nonnuclear fields, Hazard and Operability and Quality Function Deployment. The objective is to show the importance and the applicability of these techniques in radiation risk management. Finally, Expert Systems in the field of accidents management are explored and classified upon their applications

  12. An Intelligent Alarm and Messaging Based Surveillance System for Fall Detection and Absence Recognition of Unaccompanied Child

    Ali Javed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Video analytics refers to process the videos intelligently. Video analytics has its most important usage in the field of the surveillance. Surveillance has been used in various areas and one of them is the detection of unintentional fall of patients, senior citizens and children which can cause serious injuries and health threats to children as well as to old persons. Developed countries are progressing in the Surveillance and activity monitoring. But there are limitation and facing problems under certain circumstances. Advancement in the field of computer vision and the prominent decrease in the prices of digital cameras assisted and motivated researchers to propose very useful algorithms for fall detection. The proposed research work is based on the combination of motion history images and eclipse centroid calculation to detect the fall efficiently. The proposed system provides very effective and efficient results on the video sequences of simulated falls.

  13. The use of Grey System Theory in predicting the road traffic accident in Fars province in Iran

    Ali Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have become a more and more important factor that restrict the development of economy and threaten the safety of human beings. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the influencing factors on traffic accidents, traffic accident forecasting can be regarded as a grey system with unknown and known information, so be analyzed by grey system theory. Grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behavior of unknown systems. In this paper, first, the original predicted values of road traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1 model, the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. The results of these models on predicting road traffic accident show that the forecasting accuracy of the GM(1,1 is higher than the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. Then, the GM(1,1 model is applied to predict road traffic accident in Fars province.

  14. Accident precursors, near misses, and warning signs: Critical review and formal definitions within the framework of Discrete Event Systems

    An important consideration in safety analysis and accident prevention is the identification of and response to accident precursors. These off-nominal events are opportunities to recognize potential accident pathogens, identify overlooked accident sequences, and make technical and organizational decisions to address them before further escalation can occur. When handled properly, the identification of precursors provides an opportunity to interrupt an accident sequence from unfolding; when ignored or missed, precursors may only provide tragic proof after the fact that an accident was preventable. In this work, we first provide a critical review of the concept of precursor, and we highlight important features that ought to be distinguished whenever accident precursors are discussed. We address for example the notion of ex-ante and ex-post precursors, identified for postulated and instantiated (occurred) accident sequences respectively, and we discuss the feature of transferability of precursors. We then develop a formal (mathematical) definition of accident precursors as truncated accident sequences within the modeling framework of Discrete Event Systems. Additionally, we examine the related notions of “accident pathogens” as static or lurking adverse conditions that can contribute to or aggravate an accident, as well as “near misses”, “warning signs” and the novel concept of “accident pathway”. While these terms are within the same linguistic neighborhood as “accident precursors”, we argue that there are subtle but important differences between them and recommend that they not be used interchangeably for the sake of accuracy and clarity of communication within the risk and safety community. We also propose venues for developing quantitative importance measures for accident precursors, similar to component importance measures in reliability engineering. Our objective is to establish a common understanding and clear delineation of these terms, and

  15. Highly Reliable Power and Communication System for Essential Instruments under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    In this paper, three survivable strategies to overcome the problems listed above are proposed for the essential instruments under the severe accident of NPPs. First, wire/wireless multi power systems are adopted to the essential instruments for continuous power supply. Second, wire/wireless communication systems are proposed for reliable transmission of measuring information among instruments and operators. Third, a physical protection system such as a harness and a heat isolation box is introduced to ensure operable conditions for the proposed systems. In this paper, a highly reliable strategy, which consists of wire/wireless multi power and communication systems and physical protection system is proposed to ensure the survival of the essential instruments under harsh external conditions. The wire/wireless multi power and communication systems are designed to transfer power and data in spite of the failure of conventional wired systems. The physical protection system provides operable environments to the instruments. Therefore, the proposed system can be considered as a candidate of practical and urgent remedy for NPPs under the severe accident. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, survivability of essential instruments has been emphasized for immediate and accurate response. The essential instruments can measure environment conditions such as temperature, pressure, radioactivity and corium behavior inside nuclear power plants (NPPs) under a severe accident. Access to the inside of NPPs is restricted to human beings because of hazardous environment such as high radioactivity, high temperature and high pressure. Thus, monitoring the inside of NPPs is necessary for avoiding damage from the severe accident. Even though there were a number of instruments in Fukushima Daiichi NPP, they failed to obtain exact monitoring information. According to the details of the Fukushima nuclear accident, following problems can be counted as strong candidates of this instruments

  16. The Complex Alarming Event Detecting and Disposal Processing Approach for Coal Mine Safety Using Wireless Sensor Network

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Peng; Zhu Da; Chen Junliang

    2012-01-01

    Due to the complex environment of the coal mine, the accidents can occur at any time and often result in partial or total evacuation of mine personnel and could result in the loss of lives. Therefore, it is important and necessary to detect the accidents and generate a corresponding alarming disposal in time. This paper proposed a real-time complex alarming event detecting and disposal processing approach for coal mine safety using wireless sensor network. Firstly, we introduce the event and ...

  17. Waste management facility accident analysis (WASTE ACC) system: software for analysis of waste management alternatives

    This paper describes the Waste Management Facility Accident Analysis (WASTEunderscoreACC) software, which was developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to support the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). WASTEunderscoreACC is a decision support and database system that is compatible with Microsoft reg-sign Windows trademark. It assesses potential atmospheric releases from accidents at waste management facilities. The software provides the user with an easy-to-use tool to determine the risk-dominant accident sequences for the many possible combinations of process technologies, waste and facility types, and alternative cases described in the WM PEIS. In addition, its structure will allow additional alternative cases and assumptions to be tested as part of the future DOE programmatic decision-making process. The WASTEunderscoreACC system demonstrates one approach to performing a generic, systemwide evaluation of accident risks at waste management facilities. The advantages of WASTEunderscoreACC are threefold. First, the software gets waste volume and radiological profile data that were used to perform other WM PEIS-related analyses directly from the WASTEunderscoreMGMT system. Second, the system allows for a consistent analysis across all sites and waste streams, which enables decision makers to understand more fully the trade-offs among various policy options and scenarios. Third, the system is easy to operate; even complex scenario runs are completed within minutes

  18. Preventing Charlie's in a chocolate factory: a human factors perspective of alarm handling in confectionary manufacture

    Stanton, Neville A.

    1991-01-01

    The article analyses the results of a survey of a small population of Control Desk Engineers at a UK manufacturing plant. Specific objectives were to elicit the engineers' definition of the term `alarm', to examine their alarm handling activities, and to get information on problems with the alarm system

  19. 46 CFR 153.438 - Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. 153.438... Equipment Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.438 Cargo pressure or temperature alarms required. (a... vapor pressure described in § 153.371(b); or (2) An alarm that operates when the cargo's...

  20. analysis of reactivity accidents in MTR for various protection system parameters and core condition

    Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) core was modified to irradiate LEU (Low Enriched Uranium) plates in two irradiation boxes for fission 99Mo production. The old core comprising 29 fuel elements and one Co Irradiation Device (CID) and the new core comprising 27 fuel elements, CID, and two 99Mo production boxes. The in core irradiation has the advantage of no special cooling or irradiation loop is required. The purpose of the present work is the analysis of reactivity accidents (RIA) for ETRR-2 cores. The analysis was done to evaluate the accidents from different point of view:1- Analysis of the new core for various Reactor Protection System (RPS) parameters 2- Comparison between the two cores. 3- Analysis of the 99Mo production boxes.PARET computer code was employed to compute various parameters. Initiating events in RIA involve various modes of reactivity insertion, namely, prompt critical condition (p=1$), accidental ejection of partial and complete CID uncontrolled withdrawal of a control rod accident, and sudden cooling of the reactor core. The time histories of reactor power, energy released, and the maximum fuel, clad and coolant temperatures of fuel elements and LEU plates were calculated for each of these accidents. The results show that the maximum clad temperatures remain well below the clad melting of both fuel and uranium plates during these accidents. It is concluded that for the new core, the RIA with scram will not result in fuel or uranium plate failure.

  1. “Turn It Off!”: Diabetes Device Alarm Fatigue Considerations for the Present and the Future

    Shivers, Joseph P.; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that someti...

  2. A VR Based Anti-accident Training System for Airport’s Power

    Gu GuoDong; Mao XinLong; Tang ZhenMin

    2013-01-01

    A virtual environment of airport’s power supply is very useful for anti-accident training. In this paper, an effective method of anti-accident training for airport’s power supply based on Delta3D VR engine was proposed. The architecture of airport’s power supply training system was introduced. The electric closet’s operating simulation was accomplished based on the device’s operation logic. The model of fault and relay protection was designed according to electrical characteristics. A finite ...

  3. Extra-regulatory accident safety evaluation for the PWR S/F transport and storage system

    In the field of high speed crash, high speed impact analyses and test were performed for two systems, the dual purpose metal cask and the concrete cask considering the aircraft crash condition. Through the tests, the procedure and methodology of the assessment were successfully validated. In the field of transient fire, the computer simulation method for transient fire was drawn through the overseas status and methodology analysis. In the field of cumulative damage evaluation for transport accident, the analysis technique for assessment for cumulative damages which occurred from successive accident conditions was developed and proposed. And the sequential tests for the dual purpose cask were performed

  4. Hydrogen-control systems for severe LWR accident conditions - a state-of-technology report

    This report reviews the current state of technology regarding hydrogen safety issues in light water reactor plants. Topics considered in this report relate to control systems and include combustion prevention, controlled combustion, minimization of combustion effects, combination of control concepts, and post-accident disposal. A companion report addresses hydrogen generation, distribution, and combustion. The objectives of the study were to identify the key safety issues related to hydrogen produced under severe accident conditions, to describe the state of technology for each issue, and to point out ongoing programs aimed at resolving the open issues

  5. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  6. Comparison of accident risks in different energy systems: Comments from Russian specialists

    Many articles on accident risk analysis of different energy systems in comparison with nuclear power share certain stereotypical features. For example: When assessing the risks associated with the operation of such facilities, they ignore the effects of the upgrading of RBMK reactors which was carried out after the Chernobyl accident. In their integrated assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident they use numerous studies which frequently contain unreliable source data and unfounded predictions, and they ignore many socio-political factors which considerably increased the damage caused by the accident. Unfortunately, the study in question, despite its topicality and originality of approach, is also not without such shortcomings. After the Chernobyl accident, reconstruction and safety enhancement measures were implemented at nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors which were without precedent in world practice and have continued to this day. According to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) carried out with the assistance of international experts, the probability of serious accidents at RBMKs has decreased by a factor of two or more thanks to the above mentioned measures. The mean weighted safety index for all operational RBMK reactors is 10-4 l/year and is decreasing thanks to the ongoing and planned reconstruction of all units. All operational nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors are thus on a par with the successfully operating Soviet WWERs and western boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs), and satisfy the IAEA recommendations regarding the risk level of older generation nuclear power plants. The authors of the IAEA Bulletin article give estimates of the remote radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident which range from an estimated 10,000 to 30,000 fatal cases of radiation-induced cancer, and the literature on the subject contains even more extreme estimates. However, our 14 years' experience

  7. Environmental decision support system on base of geoinformational technologies for the analysis of nuclear accident consequences

    The report deals with description of the concept and prototype of environmental decision support system (EDSS) for the analysis of late off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents and analysis, processing and presentation of spatially distributed radioecological data. General description of the available software, use of modem achievements of geostatistics and stochastic simulations for the analysis of spatial data are presented and discussed

  8. "Turn it off!": diabetes device alarm fatigue considerations for the present and the future.

    Shivers, Joseph P; Mackowiak, Linda; Anhalt, Henry; Zisser, Howard

    2013-05-01

    Safe and widespread use of diabetes technology is constrained by alarm fatigue: when someone receives so many alarms that he or she becomes less likely to respond appropriately. Alarm fatigue and related usability issues deserve consideration at every stage of alarm system design, especially as new technologies expand the potential number and complexity of alarms. The guiding principle should be patient wellbeing, while taking into consideration the regulatory and liability issues that sometimes contribute to building excessive alarms. With examples from diabetes devices, we illustrate two complementary frameworks for alarm design: a "patient safety first" perspective and a focus on human factors. We also describe opportunities and challenges that will come with new technologies such as remote monitoring, adaptive alarms, and ever-closer integration of glucose sensing with insulin delivery. PMID:23759412

  9. Procedures and techniques for monitoring the radiation detection, signalization and alarm systems in the centralized ambience monitoring systems of the basic nuclear facilities of the CEN Saclay

    After referring to the regulations governing the 'systematic ambience monitoring' in the basic nuclear facilities, the main radiation detection, signalization and alarm devices existing at present in these facilities of the Saclay Nuclear Study Centre are described. The analysis of the operating defects of the measuring channels and detection possibilities leads to the anomalies being classified in two separate groups: the anomalies of the logical 'all or nothing' type of which all the possible origins are integrated into a so-called 'continuity' line and the evolutive anomalies of various origins corresponding to poor functioning extending possibly to a complete absence of signal. The techniques for testing the detection devices of the radiation monitoring board set up in the 'Departement de Rayonnements' at the Saclay Nuclear Study Centre are also described

  10. rf duress alarms: market survey and preliminary characterization

    This report represents the first phase of the duress alarm studies. Presented here are the results of an extensive market survey and some preliminary observations on the effectiveness of many system components

  11. Changes in 900 MW PWR alarm processing policy

    Following a brief description of the current 900 MW PWR alarm processing system, this document presents the feasibility study carried out within the scope of the Instrumentation and Control Refurbishment project (R2C). (author). 4 figs, tabs

  12. rf duress alarms: market survey and preliminary characterization

    Draper, B.L.

    1979-05-01

    This report represents the first phase of the duress alarm studies. Presented here are the results of an extensive market survey and some preliminary observations on the effectiveness of many system components.

  13. Mobile real-time data monitoring system for nuclear accident emergency

    A mobile real-time data monitoring system is designed for nuclear accident emergency, accomplished real-time data acquisition and transmission. For its special application, the system realized the real-time data acquisition of multi-serial device, GPS orientation and route record of the emergency monitoring vehicle, wireless data communications based on CDMA 1X network, database, etc. It is confirmed, by many times practical test, that such system satisfies the requirements of nuclear emergency monitoring. (authors)

  14. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added. PMID:22664682

  15. Response of personal radiation detectors to simulated criticality accident pulses

    Personal radiation detection instruments (PRDIs) are often used to augment the protection provided by the installed criticality accident alarm system (CAAS). ANSI/ANS-8.3-1997 provides examples of situations when PRDIs could be used, including hor ellipsisalarm system maintenance or testing, evacuation drills, activities in areas not normally occupied by personnel, or other special operations. These instruments were designed for use in radiological control applications. Consequently, documented performance capabilities under conditions typical of the initial pulse from a criticality accident are not readily available. This paper describes testing performed to demonstrate the capability of the PRDIs to respond to radiation pulses similar to that which would be expected to occur in the event of a criticality accident. Detector responses for low-power, oscillating, or slow excursions were either available from manufacturing data or bounded by the initial pulse

  16. An advanced accident-protective network system for the nuclear energy facilities

    As an opportunity of the TMI accident formed on March, 1979, some improvements on accident-protective countermeasure of nuclear energy by government and so on have been intended. Along this planning, the Atomic Energy Safety Technical Center has practised a business on accident-protection of nuclear energy under trust of government and so on. And then, the Center expanded some business, such as intention to spread the SPEEDI (system for prediction of environmental emergency dose information) network for the Center for First-aid Countermeasure in Emergency (called Off-site Center) and so on. Here were described on present status and future development of the business on accident protection at a center of the SPEEDI network system, which was a system rapidly to predict in-air concentration of radioactive materials, exposed dose, and so on at circumferential environment under informations on their emission sources (emitted nuclides, emission, emission time, and so on), meteorological conditions and topographical data if a lot of radioactive materials were or anxious to be emitted from a nuclear power station and so on. (G.K.)

  17. Interfacing systems loss-of-coolant accident in Oconee-1 pressurized water reactor

    The primary system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) operates at a relatively high pressure (15.5 MPa, 2250 psia) and consists of piping and components designed to withstand these pressures. The low-pressure-injection system (LPIS) connects to the primary system but possesses low-pressure piping passing outside the containment. Therefore, a potential exists for a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) outside the containment and concurrent damage to systems needed to cope with this problem. The emergency core-cooling system (ECCS) is assumed to be available for this event. A set of calculations were performed using the TRAC-PF1 code and a model of the Oconee-1 PWR to investigate the consequences of, and possible operator actions for, such an accident scenario

  18. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  19. The intelligent system for accident identification in nuclear power plant

    Accidental situations in NPP are of greet concern for operators, the facility, regulatory bodies and the environment. This work proposes a design of intelligent system aimed to assist the operator in the process of decision making when initiator events with higher relative contribution to the reactor core damage occur. The intelligent System uses the results of the pre operational Probabilistic Safety Assessment and the Thermal hydraulic Safety Analyses of the NPP Juragua as source for building its knowledge base. The nucleus of the system is presented as a design of an intelligent hybrid system from the combination of the artificial intelligence techniques: fussy logic and artificial neural networks. The system works with variables from the process of the firsts circuit, second circuit and the containment and it is presented as a model for the integration of safety analyses in the process of decision making by the operator when tackling with accidental situations

  20. The intelligent system for accident identification in NPP

    Accidental situations in NPP are of greet concern for operators, the facility, regulatory bodies and the environment. This work proposes a design of intelligent system aimed to assist the operator in the process of decision making when initiator events with higher relative contribution to the reactor core damage occur. The intelligent System uses the results of the pre operational Probabilistic Safety Assessment and the Thermal hydraulic Safety Analyses of the NPP Juragua as source for building its knowledge base. The nucleus of the system is presented as a design of an intelligent hybrid system from the combination of the artificial intelligence techniques: fussy logic and artificial neural networks. The system works with variables from the process of the firsts circuit, second circuit and the containment and it is presented as a model for the integration of safety analyses in the process of decision making by the operator when tackling with accidental situations

  1. Innovations of the VVER 440 accident localisation system

    The activities of VUEZ in the field of upgrading emergency systems in WWER-440 nuclear power plants are briefly described. The experience with preparation, design, implementation, testing and commissioning in the following fields is dealt with: containment leakage rate tests and repair of detected leaks; containment structural integrity tests and investigation of issues of reinforced concrete stressing; modification of emergency (ECCS, spray) system sumps in relation to theoretical and experimental analyses; design and installation of some specific components in NPP safety systems such as vacuum breakers, special valves, filters, etc.; installation of measuring and verification systems (both in NPPs and experimental facilities). VUEZ has thus proven its adequate attention to innovations, repairs and modifications of WWER NPP safety systems

  2. Internet of Car: Accident Sensing, Indication and Safety with Alert system

    Md. Maminul Islam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Detecting an accident before occurring it can save human life. To do this, advance accurate human detection and accident detection capability is needed. Several researches are going on regarding pre-crash detection & avoidance system from obstacle. To implement this system, priorities crash is essential for human or animal compared to obstacle. How the system will operate when it faces a situation to between human and obstacle? Differentiating human or animals and obstacles is more important by detecting them. If the system is unable to detect human then there will be a possibility to hit human rather than obstacle. Driver when drive a car in high speed may bypass humans, animals, or any obstacle for a few inches and the measurement is done by his own eyes which may occur an accident. Moreover, risk increases in foggy weather to see further that any animals, human or any obstacle is present in front of the car or any car is coming from opposite direction. Giving the priorities to human or animal, this paper work is done. By this system, a car will try to avoid obstacle after avoiding human or animal if there is any. Driver will also be notified with red lights indicating that obstacles are in front. However, if the system would not be able to avoid accident then our system will automatically generate a tweet in tweeter. For further safety, this system also contains relay and buzzer where relay will protect the car from battery ignition and buzzer will make noise to inform people surrounded

  3. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment

    Sammarco, J.; Gallagher, S.; Mayton, A.; Srednicki, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and withou...

  4. Tests of the carbon steel containment coating systems under design basis accident conditions

    During a Design Basis Accident (DBA) in nuclear power plants, conditions in the reactor containment will be characterized by elevated temperature and pressure. The Thermohydraulic Laboratory of CDTN have done tests, for evaluating protective coating systems test specimens for the steel containment, under simulated DBA conditions. Until this moment were tested 60 specimens of 6 coating systems. This paper presents the test installation, the tests performed and the temperature pattern specified for Angra II Power Plant. (author). 3 refs, 8 figs

  5. A weighted dissimilarity index to isolate faults during alarm floods

    Charbonnier, S; Gayet, P

    2015-01-01

    A fault-isolation method based on pattern matching using the alarm lists raised by the SCADA system during an alarm flood is proposed. A training set composed of faults is used to create fault templates. Alarm vectors generated by unknown faults are classified by comparing them with the fault templates using an original weighted dissimilarity index that increases the influence of the few alarms relevant to diagnose the fault. Different decision strategies are proposed to support the operator in his decision making. The performances are evaluated on two sets of data: an artificial set and a set obtained from a highly realistic simulator of the CERN Large Hadron Collider process connected to the real CERN SCADA system.

  6. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  7. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses’ perceptions and common clinical practices toward clini...

  8. 日盲紫外告警系统中成像滤光片的研制%Research of Imaging Filter in Solar Blind Ultraviolet Alarm System

    王正凤; 付秀华; 张静; 孔辉; 孙英杰

    2011-01-01

    Design and manufacture of ultraviolet imaging filters which meet the needs of imaging and realize accepting and detecting imaging of sun spectrum blind area in ultraviolet alarm detection systems are focused on. Hafnium oxide (HfO2), magnesium fluoride (MgF2), ultraviolet silicon dioxide (UV-SiO2 ) are deposited on the fused silica substrates (JGS1) with electron beam (EB) heating method and ion assisted deposition (IAD) method to coat ultraviolet filters. Quartz crystal oscillation method and photoelectric extremum method are utilized to monitor thickness of the filter. The filters could meet the demand of high transmittance range from 240~280 nm at an angle of incidence from 0°~25°. At wavelength from 300 ~ 620 nm. the filter can act as suppression filter. Through optimization of the coating design and investigation of the process parameters, the problem of film stripping, accuracy controlling of thickness, absorption of material and other issues are solved. The filter basically meets the demand of warning system through performance test.%为满足紫外告警系统成像需要,实现对太阳光谱盲区光子图像接受检测的作用,研制了一种紫外成像滤光片.采用电子束(EB)加热蒸发和离子辅助沉积(IAD)的方法,在熔融石英(JGS1)基底上镀氧化铪、氟化镁、紫外二氧化硅等薄膜材料,并借助石英晶体振荡法和光电极值法相结合的方式监控膜层厚度,镀制了满足入射角0°~25°范围内240~280 nm波段透射、300~620 nm波段抑制的紫外滤光片.通过对膜系优化设计和工艺参数的研究,解决了薄膜脱膜、膜厚的精确控制、材料的吸收等问题.制备的滤光片经膜层性能测试,基本满足告警系统的要求.

  9. Reactivity Accidents in CAREM-25 Core with and Without Safety Systems Actuation

    A reactivity accident in CAREM core can be provoked by different initiating events, a cold water injection in pressure vessel, a secondary side steam line breakage and a failure in the absorbing rods drive system.The present work analyses inadverted control rod withdraws transients.Maximum worth control rod (2.5 $) at normal velocity (1 cm/s) is adopted for the simulations (Reactivity ramp of 0.018 $/s).Different scenarios considering actuation of first shutdown system (FSS), second shutdown system (SSS) and selflimiting conditions were modeled.Results of the accident with actuation of FSS show that safety margins are well above critical values (DNBR and CPR).In the cases with failure of the FSS and success of SSS or selflimited, safety margins are below critical values, however, the SSS provides a reduction of elapsed time under advised margins

  10. ACCIDENT ANALYSES & CONTROL OPTIONS IN SUPPORT OF THE SLUDGE WATER SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2003-11-15

    This report documents the accident analyses and nuclear safety control options for use in Revision 7 of HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, ''K Basins Safety Analysis Report'' and Revision 4 of HNF-SD-SNF-TSR-001, ''Technical Safety Requirements - 100 KE and 100 KW Fuel Storage Basins''. These documents will define the authorization basis for Sludge Water System (SWS) operations. This report follows the guidance of DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', for calculating onsite and offsite consequences. The accident analysis summary is shown in Table ES-1 below. While this document describes and discusses potential control options to either mitigate or prevent the accidents discussed herein, it should be made clear that the final control selection for any accident is determined and presented in HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062.

  11. Adaptation of the ASTEC code system to accident scenarios in fusion installations

    Highlights: ► IRSN has a first version of ASTEC able to model an accident in ITER. ► Models are developed to make possible water/air ingress simulations in the vessel. ► Some thermal-hydraulic calculations in agreement with MELCOR are discussed. -- Abstract: ASTEC is a code system aiming to compute severe accident scenarios and their consequences in nuclear fission Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Its capabilities have been recently extended to address the main accident sequences which may occur in the fusion installations, in particular in ITER. The purpose of this paper is to present a synthesis of the work that has been performed on ASTEC as part of its adaptation to fusion ITER facility, in particular concerning the development of some specific models (dust behavior, jet impaction and wall oxidation), the state of validation of the code and some first calculations for accident transients considered in the basis design. Comparisons with the MELCOR code, selected by ITER for their own safety analysis are provided and show a good agreement between both codes

  12. Strength evaluation of a steam distribution device in the Ignalina NPP accident localisation system

    The Ignalina NPP has a pressure suppression type of confinement, which is referred to as the accident localization system (ALS). The ALS prevents the release of the radioactive material from the NPP to the environment during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Ten water pools are located in the two ALS towers (five pools in each tower), which separate the dry well from the wet well. These water pools condense the accident-generated steam and prevent high overpressures in the compartments. The steam distribution device (SDD), with the vertical vent pipes (nozzles) that are inserted under the water of the condensing pools, connects the dry well and the wet well. In case of an accident, these components must be capable of withstanding the dynamic loads generated by a LOCA for successful pressure suppression function. This paper presents the transient analysis of the SDD and their connections to the vertical steam corridors following a LOCA. A thermo-hydraulic analysis of the SDD was performed using the state-of-the-art COCOSYS code to determine pressure and temperature histories resulting from a LOCA. The finite element code NEPTUNE was used to evaluate the structural integrity of the SDD and its supporting reinforced concrete wall. Results show that, although portions of the SDD undergo plastic response and the outside surface of the vertical steam corridor reinforced concrete wall cracks, the structural integrity of the SDD and wall are maintained during a LOCA

  13. NPP accident analysis for spray safety system operation

    Different methods for calculating the NPP containment spray system are considered in brief. The spray system consists of three manifolds mounted in the upper part of the containment. Indicated are formulas for calculating the degree of the liquid jet warm-up+ comparison of theoretical and experimental valwes of temperature and pressure in transients, dependence of pressure decrease rate on cooling water initial temperature, heat removal intensity curves at different cooling water temperatures and pressure decrease curves at various estimations of the degree of liquid jet warm-up

  14. An experimental investigation of the effects of alarm processing and display on operator performance

    O`Hara, J.; Brown, W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Hallbert, B.; Skraaning, G. [Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Wachtel, J.; Persensky, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the program is to develop HFE review guidance for advanced alarm systems. As part of this program, guidance has been developed based on a broad base of technical and research literature. In the course of guidance development, aspects of alarm system design for which the technical basis was insufficient to support complete guidance development were identified. The primary purpose of the research reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of three of these alarm system design characteristics on operator performance in order to contribute to the understanding of potential safety issues and to provide data to support the development of design review guidance in these areas. Three alarm system design characteristics studied were (1) alarm processing (degree of alarm reduction), (2) alarm availability (dynamic prioritization and suppression), and (3) alarm display (a dedicated tile format, a mixed tile and message list format, and a format in which alarm information is integrated into the process displays). A secondary purpose was to provide confirmatory evidence of selected alarm system guidance developed in an earlier phase of the project. The alarm characteristics were combined into eight separate experimental conditions. Six, two-person crews of professional nuclear power plant operators participated in the study. Following training, each crew completed 16 test trials which consisted of two trials in each of the eight experimental conditions (one with a low-complexity scenario and one with a high-complexity scenario). Measures of process performance, operator task performance, situation awareness, and workload were obtained. In addition, operator opinions and evaluations of the alarm processing and display conditions were collected. No deficient

  15. Vehicle Fire Alarm System Design Based on MCU%基于单片机的车载火灾报警器设计

    张丽霞; 方建华; 何涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the personal and property damage due to spontaneous combustion of motor vehicles, this paper designs a vehicle fire alarm. It adopts MCU as the control chip, uses K type thermocouple and MAX6675 chip to real time detect the temperature of flashpoints and reference points on the motor vehicle, when the temperature difference between the flashpoints and reference points exceeds the allowed temperature difference value setting, alarm signal is sent. The running and testing experiments for the fire alarm are carried out, obtaining the expected results, which include the temperature difference between flashpoints and reference points values, so that the pre-alarm of motor vehicle's spontaneous combustion is implemented.%为了避免因机动车自燃带来的人身和财产损害,文章设计了车载火灾报警器,其用单片机做主控制芯片,采用K型热电偶和MAX6675芯片对机动车上的易燃点和基准点的温度进行实时检测,当比较到易燃点温度和基准点温度超过设定的允许温差值时,发出报警。进行了车载火灾报警器运行和测试实验,获得了预期的结果,检测到了机动车易燃点与基准点的温度差值,据此实现了对机动车自燃火灾的预报警。

  16. Behavior of HEPA filter systems under accident conditions

    With respect to the behavior of HEPA filters under high humidity conditions, emphasis was placed on the study of the differential pressure increase. Under fog conditions, the differential pressure of dust loaded filters increased within minutes, up to values sufficient to damage normal commercial filters units. The investigation into the failure mechanisms was completed with the development of an equation to calculate filter medium tensile stresses for two of the three most important modes of failure. Initial work was begun toward the development of a computer code to model transient fluiddynamic and thermodynamic conditions in complex air cleaning systems. Further investigation into the transmission of weak shock waves in air-cleaning system ductwork were carried out in branches of ducts with square cross-sections and with variable cross-sections. (orig./DG)

  17. Wildlife Exclusion Systems for Accident Mitigation on British Columbia Highways

    Sielecki, Leonard E.

    2005-01-01

    The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation (BCMoT) has been addressing the issue of motor vehicle-related wildlife mortality on Provincial highways with wildlife exclusion fencing and related engineered structures since the 1980's. As a result, British Columbia wildlife are protected by the most extensive network of wildlife exclusion systems constructed by a transportation agency in North America. The BCMoT wildlife exclusion infrastructure consists of over 470 km of wildlife exclusion ...

  18. New Work Environment for Reactor Safety Analysts: Integrated Training and Accident Analysis System

    Safety and risk analyses are complex by nature and require significant effort, extensive skills and experience, analytical tools and supporting information. To reduce the effort and to enhance the analytical capabilities for present and future generation of nuclear systems, an Integrated Training and Accident Analysis System (ITAAS) has been developed. The primary objective of the ITAAS combined software/hardware system is to provide a comprehensive and integrated accident and safety analysis capability for research and technical support organizations and other potential users (such as regulators) having responsibilities related to nuclear power plants (NPPs), research reactors, and other nuclear facilities. More specifically, and in the context of well executed accident and safety analyses, ITAAS provides: Proven Analytical Tools via the Deterministic Analysis Module based on RELAP5 and the Probabilistic Analysis Module based on SAHPIRE, Specialized Skill Development via a Training Module, and a Broad Knowledge Base via a Reference Module. The modular design and connectivity of ITAAS allows for enhancement of existing, and addition of new modules, primarily in the context of future implementation of new analysis tools and their associated training requirements. ITAAS can be configured for specific NPPs or other nuclear installations as may be dictated by facility, organization or country needs. The first ITAAS system has been installed at the Kursk 1 NPP in Russia. (authors)

  19. A large break pipe accident of the AP600 reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure boundary

    The large break pipe accident for AP600 has been analyzed. The analysis was done to evaluate the performance of protection system (Reactor Trip followed by Pump Trip) and mitigation system (CMT, ACC and IRWST) of the AP600 in order to limit the maximum fuel element cladding temperature so it does not exceed the acceptance criteria. Based on the accident sequences determined, the simulation was done by using PCTRAN Code. The analysis shows that the peak cladding temperature (PCT) which be reached is 698,8oC in case of cold leg break.This PCT is of course below the regulatory limit of 2200 of (1204oC) in the 10 CFR 50.46

  20. VICTORIA: A mechanistic model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system under severe accident conditions

    The VICTORIA model of radionuclide behavior in the reactor coolant system (RCS) of a light water reactor during a severe accident is described. It has been developed by the USNRC to define the radionuclide phenomena and processes that must be considered in systems-level models used for integrated analyses of severe accident source terms. The VICTORIA code, based upon this model, predicts fission product release from the fuel, chemical reactions involving fission products, vapor and aerosol behavior, and fission product decay heating. Also included is a detailed description of how the model is implemented in VICTORIA, the numerical algorithms used, and the correlations and thermochemical data necessary for determining a solution. A description of the code structure, input and output, and a sample problem are provided

  1. The effect of traffic light on accident probability in open and periodic boundaries system

    Mhirech, Abdelaziz; Alaoui-Ismaili, Assia

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we numerically study the dependence of car accident probability Pac, per site and per time step on cycle time T of traffic light, both in open and periodic boundaries system. In this study one traffic light is placed in the middle of the system. This work is based on Nagel and Schreckenberg (NaSch) model (Nagel and Schreckenberg (1992)) in parallel dynamics. The Pac dependence on T and the (α, β) phase diagrams are established. α and β are the injecting and extracting rates of cars in the traffic lane respectively. The increase of the cycle time light T causes an important decrease of the accident probability Pac both in the open and periodic cases.

  2. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    Weili Duan; Bin He

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the ...

  3. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost

  4. Portable Filtered Air Suction System for Released Radioactive Gases Prevention under a Severe Accident of NPPs

    Gu, Beom W.; Choi, Su Y.; Rim, Chun T. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention under a severe accident of NPP is proposed. This technology can prevent the release of the radioactive gases to the atmosphere and it can be more economical than FVCS because PoFASS can cover many NPPs with its high mobility. The conceptual design of PoFASS, which has the highest cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment condition such as wind velocity and precipitation, is suggested and the related previous research is introduced in this paper. The portable filtered air suction system (PoFASS) for released radioactive gases prevention can play a key role to mitigate the severe accident of NPP with its high cost effectiveness and robustness to the environment conditions. As further works, the detail design of PoFASS to fabricate a prototype for a demonstration will be proceeded. When released radioactive gases from the broken containment building in the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs) such as the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents occur, there are no ways to prevent the released radioactive gases spreading in the air. In order to solve this problem, several European NPPs have adopted the filtered vented containment system (FVCS), which can avoid the containment failure through a pressure relief capability to protect the containment building against overpressure. However, the installation cost of FVCS for a NPP is more than $10 million and this system has not been widely welcomed by NPP operating companies due to its high cost.

  5. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  6. Analysis of AP1000 containment passive cooling system during a loss-of-coolant accident

    Highlights: • GOTHIC code is used to model the AP1000 passive cooling system. • The pressure and temperature response compare with DCD. • Predicting the recirculation flow characteristics in secondary containment. • Predicting the nature circulation phenomena in AP1000 containment. - Abstract: A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is one of the design basis accidents (DBAs) in nuclear power plant safety. DBAs may cause containment failure as a result of high temperature or pressure from LOCAs. This study investigates the integrity of the protective mechanism of the AP1000 containment system during a LOCA. The performance of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) and the ability to perform decay heat removal for long-term cooling are evaluated in this study. The PCCS utilizes gravity-driven natural convection and naturally induced passive safety devices to move the decay heat of fuels to the atmosphere. In this study, two accidents are selected for analysis: a double-ended guillotine of a hot leg and a double-ended break of a main steam line. The analytical results are compared with the corresponding results provided in the AP1000 “Design Control Document” (DCD). The short-term calculations and comparisons with the DCD suggest that GOTHIC 7.2a with a natural convection model may properly represent the phenomenon of passive, safe heat removal. This paper also simulates the long-term calculations of spraying the outer primary containment with a water film and the steam condensation of the inner containment

  7. 基于物联网的山洪地质灾害预警系统%Mountain Torrent Disaster Prediction and Alarming System based on the IoT

    张传武; 公岷

    2013-01-01

    Geology and topography, rainfall and human activity are the three most important contributing factors for the mountain torrent disaster in China. The mountain torrent disaster prediction and alarming system is composed of several subsystems including information sensor and data acquisition, data transmission, information processing, and alarming. The mountain torrent disaster prediction and alarming system monitors the rainfall, hydrological condition, and mountain displacement in special area via the rainfall sensor, hydrological sensor, and displacement sensor. And the parameter information of rainfall, hydrological condition, and mountain displacement is transmitted to the mountain torrent disaster prediction and alarm center via IoT (Internet of Things), and then with the mountain torrent disaster prediction and alarm platform, this parameter information is processed, thus providing certain decision support for the handling of mountain torrents and geologal disasters.%  地质地形、降雨和人类活动是我国山洪灾害的3个主要成因因素。山洪地质灾害预警系统由信息感知与数据采集子系统、数据传输子系统、数据信息处理子系统和预警子系统组成。信息感知子系统利用雨量、水位和移位传感器对特定区域的雨量、水情和山体移位等关键参量进行监测,通过物联网技术将其接入到数据采集子系统;然后通过数据传输子系统将传感器的数据信息传输到数据处理子系统,利用山洪地质灾害预警平台对相关数据进行处理,并为山洪地质灾害的处理提供决策支持。

  8. Electromatic relief valve flow and primary system hydrogen storage during the TMI [Three Mile Island]-2 accident

    Based on valve test data and theory of critical flow through an orifice, the flow history through the TMI-2 electromatic relief valve during the accident is calculated. The cumulative flow amounts to 8.0 x 105 kg based on the Wyle test data, about 20% below the inventory depletion estimated for the Borated Water Storage Tank during the accident. Based on pressure changes during a period of valve cycling before system depressurization and hydrogen venting to the containment, the hydrogen stored in the primary system is calculated to be about 450 kg, consistent with other estimates of total hydrogen generation during the accident

  9. ESTIMATION OF THE COSTS OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN TURKEY: AN EVALUATION IN TERMS OF THE INSURANCE AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM

    Ozen, Ercan; Genc, Erhan; KAYA, Zubeyde

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to estimate the costs of traffic accidents in Turkey and to put forward conjectural magnitude of these costs within insurance and financial system. Another purpose is to predict the non-systemic costs which are difficult to be involved in records and that are caused by accidents. Different kinds of cost elements come out as a result of traffic accidents. In this study, great effort is spent to predict the cost elements such as material damage, medical care and labour l...

  10. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  11. The helpful or hindering effects of in-hospital patient monitor alarms on nurses: a qualitative analysis.

    Varpio, Lara; Kuziemsky, Craig; MacDonald, Charlotte; King, W James

    2012-04-01

    Patient monitors generate alarms to signal changes in vital signs. Some research suggests these alarms can improve patient safety. Other reports caution that these systems generate false alarms and create nursing workflow interruptions. These findings require contextualization by qualitatively investigating the lived experiences of nurses working with these monitors. Research into the dynamics involved in nursing responses to alarms can provide insights for monitor development and implementation. This study's purposes were (1) to describe the frequency of alarms generated by patient monitors and nursing responses and (2) to report nurses' explanations of the impact of alarms on workflow and strategies for responding to alarms. Forty-nine hours of observations and 14 interviews were conducted at a Canadian medical center. Four hundred forty-six monitor alarms (1 every 6.59 minutes) were observed. Of these, 70% had no immediate response from nurses. Furthermore, 34 red alarms (potential life-threatening) were observed, with 41% having no immediate response. Nurses reported feeling overloaded by alarm frequency. They described learning to interpret alarm data and developing workaround strategies (eg, ignoring alarms). Paradoxically, alarms prompted nurses to regularly consider and interpret patient information. We suggest the interpretive work associated with workarounds may hold benefits mitigating the potential harms of ignoring alarms. PMID:22156767

  12. RADE-AID, the development of a Radiological Accident DEcision AIDing system

    The objective of the project is the development of a Radiological Accident DEcision AIDing system. A prototype computer program was developed to assist in decision on countermeasures following radiological emergencies. In order to demonstrate the potential of this decision tool, some illustrative applications were developed. During the current contract the computer system will be further developed with particular reference to the user-interface, the decision logic and a database of model predictions supplied for use with the system. The objectives and results of the three contributions to the project for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.)

  13. Development of solution behavior observation system under criticality accident conditions in TRACY

    Understanding of radiolytic gas behavior in fissile solution is very important to evaluate feedback reactivity, amount of released radioactive materials and pressure increase under criticality accident conditions. For this purpose, an observation system has been developed to observe behavior of the solution and radiolytic gas on the solution surface in TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility). The system has been provided clear motion pictures, which can contribute the development of a computational code. This paper summarizes an outline of the system and experimental results. (author)

  14. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating) of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions

  15. Modeling of Spray System Operation under Hydrogen and Steam Emissions in NPP Containment during Severe Accident

    Vadim E. Seleznev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes one of the variants of mathematical models of a fluid dynamics process inside the containment, which occurs in the conditions of operation of spray systems in severe accidents at nuclear power plant. The source of emergency emissions in this case is the leak of the coolant or rupture at full cross-section of the main circulating pipeline in a reactor building. Leak or rupture characteristics define the localization and the temporal law of functioning of a source of emergency emission (or accrued operating of warmed up hydrogen and steam in the containment. Operation of this source at the course of analyzed accident models should be described by the assignment of the relevant Dirichlet boundary conditions. Functioning of the passive autocatalytic recombiners of hydrogen is described in the form of the complex Newton boundary conditions.

  16. Semi-supervised detection of intracranial pressure alarms using waveform dynamics

    Patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are usually set to trigger alarms when abnormal values are detected. Alarms are generated by threshold-crossing rules that lead to high false alarm rates. This is a recognized issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. Recently developed smart alarm models require alarms to be validated by experts during the training phase. The manual annotation process involved is time-consuming and virtually impossible to achieve for the thousands of alarms recorded in the ICU every week. To tackle this problem, we investigate in this study if the use of semi-supervised learning methods, that can naturally integrate unlabeled data samples in the model, can be used to improve the accuracy of the alarm detection. As a proof of concept, the detection system is evaluated on intracranial pressure (ICP) signal alarms. Specific morphological and trending features are extracted from the ICP signal waveform to capture the dynamic of the signal prior to alarms. This study is based on a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarms recorded from 108 neurosurgical patients. A comparative analysis is provided between kernel spectral regression (SR-KDA) and support vector machine (SVM) both modified for the semi-supervised setting. Results obtained during the experimental evaluations indicate that the two models can significantly reduce false alarms using unlabeled samples; especially in the presence of a restrained number of labeled examples. At a true alarm recognition rate of 99%, the false alarm reduction rates improved from 9% (supervised) to 27% (semi-supervised) for SR-KDA, and from 3% (supervised) to 16% (semi-supervised) for SVM. (paper)

  17. Visual and intelligent transients and accidents analyzer based on thermal-hydraulic system code

    Full text of publication follows: Many thermal-hydraulic system codes were developed in the past twenty years, such as RELAP5, RETRAN, ATHLET, etc. Because of their general and advanced features in thermal-hydraulic computation, they are widely used in the world to analyze transients and accidents. But there are following disadvantages for most of these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. Firstly, because models are built through input decks, so the input files are complex and non-figurative, and the style of input decks is various for different users and models. Secondly, results are shown in off-line data file form. It is not convenient for analysts who may pay more attention to dynamic parameters trend and changing. Thirdly, there are few interfaces with other program in these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. This restricts the codes expanding. The subject of this paper is to develop a powerful analyzer based on these thermal-hydraulic system codes to analyze transients and accidents more simply, accurately and fleetly. Firstly, modeling is visual and intelligent. Users build the thermalhydraulic system model using component objects according to their needs, and it is not necessary for them to face bald input decks. The style of input decks created automatically by the analyzer is unified and can be accepted easily by other people. Secondly, parameters concerned by analyst can be dynamically communicated to show or even change. Thirdly, the analyzer provide interface with other programs for the thermal-hydraulic system code. Thus parallel computation between thermal-hydraulic system code and other programs become possible. In conclusion, through visual and intelligent method, the analyzer based on general and advanced thermal-hydraulic system codes can be used to analysis transients and accidents more effectively. The main purpose of this paper is to present developmental activities, assessment and application results of the visual and intelligent

  18. 10 CFR 74.57 - Alarm resolution.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alarm resolution. 74.57 Section 74.57 Energy NUCLEAR... Quantities of Strategic Special Nuclear Material § 74.57 Alarm resolution. (a) Licensees subject to § 74.51 shall provide the MC&A alarm resolution capabilities described in paragraphs (b) through (f) of...

  19. 21 CFR 876.2040 - Enuresis alarm.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enuresis alarm. 876.2040 Section 876.2040 Food and... GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 876.2040 Enuresis alarm. (a) Identification. An enuresis... type of device includes conditioned response enuresis alarms. (b) Classification. Class II...

  20. Reliable and Efficient Access for Alarm-initiated and Regular M2M Traffic in IEEE 802.11ah Systems

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    IEEE 802.11ah is a novel WiFi-based protocol, aiming to provide an access solution for the machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive access mechanism that can be seamlessly incorporated into IEEE 802.11ah protocol operation and that supports all potential M2M...... reporting regimes, which are periodic, on-demand and alarm reporting. The proposed access method is based a periodically re- occurring pool of time slots, whose size is proactively determined on the basis of the reporting activity in the cell. We show that it is possible to both efficiently and reliably...

  1. Safety margins of RBMK-1500 accident localisation system at Ignalina NPP

    Accident localisation system (ALS) at Ignalina NPP forms the last barrier against release of radioactive material to environment. According to functional principle the ALS could be attributed to so called 'pressure suppression' type containment. It means, that ALS uses condensing pools, which condense the released steam in order to reduce the peak pressures that can be reached during any loss of coolant accident. The main safety function for ALS is to contain the radioactive materials released in the course of accident and to limit the releases within specified limits. The ALS performance during the accidents relies upon the ALS structure capability to withstand the loads. The maximal pressure, which can be reached during accident, is one of the most important parameters, defining ALS capability to remain intact and to perform its safety function. The maximal loads on ALS could be reached during the maximum design basis accident (MDBA). The MDBA is defined as the guillotine (i.e. complete) rupture of the pressure header of the main circulation pumps. The pressure header is a sizable element of the RBMK-1500 piping: the length of this component is ∼18.5 m, the inner diameter is 900 mm. Other important design basis event is the break of a Group Distribution Header (GDH). This break represents a medium size LOCA (internal diameter of GDH - 0.295 m), but it is important from the point of view of ALS performance, because GDH piping is located in a restricted space below the reactor core. The GDHs are fed from the pressure header and distribute coolant to fuel channels. There are 20 GDH units in a circulation loop, or a total of 40 in the plant.The behaviour of main thermal hydraulic parameters in ALS is presented in this paper for both of these LOCAs (MDBA and GDH break). The release rates through the breaks were calculated by applying the RELAP5 code. A number of calculations variants were performed in order to evaluate ALS response to MDBA as well as to GDH break

  2. Development of training system to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    Decommissioning workers need familiarization with working environments because working environment is under high radioactivity and work difficulty during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. On-the-job training of decommissioning works could effectively train decommissioning workers but this training approach could consume much costs and poor modifications of scenarios. The efficiency of virtual training system could be much better than that of physical training system. This paper was intended to develop the training system to prevent accidents for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The requirements for the training system were drawn. The data management modules for the training system were designed. The training system of decommissioning workers was developed on the basis of virtual reality which is flexibly modified. The visualization and measurement in the training system were real-time done according as changes of the decommissioning scenario. It can be concluded that this training system enables the subject to improve his familiarization about working environments and to prevent accidents during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  3. Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios. Volume 2 the Rade-Aid system post-Chernobyl action

    In the event of a nuclear accident, there is a need for a rapid assessment of the resulting levels of environmental contamination in order to facilitate decisions on possible countermeasures. Volume 2 describes the RADE-AID project to develop a computer system which can be used to support the formulation of decisions on countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides. The system is intended as an aid following an actual accident and a tool for assistance in planning and training

  4. Intelligent GIS-Based Road Accident Analysis and Real-Time Monitoring Automated System using WiMAX/GPRS

    Ahmad Rodzi Mahmud

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been a big concern for many people and government to reduce the amount of road accident specially in Malaysia since it could be a big threat to this country. Malaysian government has spent millions of money in order to reduce the number of accident occurrence through several modes of campaign. Unfortunately, from years to years the number keeps increasing. The lack of a comprehensive accident recording and analysis system in Malaysia can be effective in these kinds of problems. By making use of IRAS (Intelligent Road Accident System, the police would be control and manage whole accident events as a real-time monitoring system. This system exploits WiMAX and GPRS communications to connect to the server for transfer the specific data to the data center. This system can be used for a comprehensive intelligent GIS-based solution for accident analysis and management. The system is developed based on object and aspect oriented software design such as .NET technology.

  5. Development of an operator support system for accident management in Indian PHWRs

    Nuclear power plants are highly complex systems that are operated and monitored by human operators. When faced with an unplanned event, such as a plant accident scenario, the operator has to carry out diagnostic and corrective actions relatively faster, which involve complex judgments, making trade-offs between partly incompatible demands and requires expertise to take proper decision. The operator's response in some situations may be too late to mitigate or minimize any consequences due to short time and lack of expert knowledge. An artificial neural network (ANN) based diagnostic system for identifying accident scenarios in Indian PHWRs has been developed. This is an operator support system which continuously monitors the reactor conditions and identifies a transient quickly, and assists the operator to take corrective actions during abnormal operations of the reactor. As a pilot study, the large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in reactor inlet or outlet headers with or without the availability of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) has been considered and the break scenarios ranging from 20% to 200% of the header break have been analysed. The time dependent transient data for these break scenarios have been generated using RELAP5 and CONTRAN codes. The training and testing of neural networks has carried out using BIKAS neural networks simulator. Several blind case analyses have also been carried out to validate the trained neural network model. This entire system has been set up on a distributed network and has been demonstrated for online diagnosis purpose. Whenever an event is identified, this system will display the type of the event, time at which the event has occurred, relevant process parameters and their values at the time of initiation of the event and necessary operator actions for mitigation. (author)

  6. Assisting emergency operating procedures execution with AMAS, an Accident Management Advisor System

    In an accident situation, because any decisions that the operators make will depend on how instrumentation readings are ultimately interpreted, the issue of instrument uncertainty is of paramount importance. This uncertainty exists because instrument readings may not be available in the desired form - i.e., only indirect readings for a parameter of interest may exist, with uncertainty on which physical models may be used to deduce its value from these indirect indications -, or because readings may be coming from instruments whose accuracy and reliability in the face of the severe conditions produced by the accident are far from what may be expected under normal operating conditions. In following the EOPs, the operators must rely on instrumentation whose readings may not reflect the real situation. The Accident Management Advisor System (AMAS) is a decision aid intended to supplement plant Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) by accounting for instrumentation uncertainty, and by alerting the operators if they are on the wrong procedures, or otherwise performing an action that is not optimal in terms of preventing core damage. In AMAS, the availability and reliability of certain important instrument readings is treated in probabilistic, rather than deterministic terms. This issue is discussed in greater detail later in the paper, since it relates to one of the key characteristics of the AMAS decision aid. (author)

  7. Experimental assessment of accident scenarios for the high temperature reactor fuel system

    The High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is an advanced reactor concept with particular safety features. Fuel elements are constituted by a graphite matrix containing sub-mm-sized fuel particles with TRISO (tri-isotropic) coating designed to provide high fission product retention. Passive safety features of the HTR include a low power density in the core compared to other reactor designs; this ensures sufficient heat transport in a loss of coolant accident scenario. The temperature during such events would not exceed 1600 C, remaining well below the melting point of the fuel. An experimental assessment of the fuel behaviour under severe accident conditions is necessary to confirm the fission product retention of TRISO coated particles and to validate relevant computer codes. Though helium is used as coolant for the HTR system, additional corrosion effects come into play in case of an in-leakage affecting the primary circuit. The experimental scope of the present work focuses on two key aspects associated with the HTR fuel safety. Fission product retention at high temperatures (up to ∝1800 C) is analyzed with the so-called cold finger apparatus (KueFA: Kuehlfinger-Apparatur), while the performance of HTR fuel elements in case of air/steam ingress accidents is assessed with a high temperature corrosion apparatus (KORA: Korrosions-Apparatur). (orig.)

  8. A decision support system for emergency response to major nuclear accidents

    A methodology for the optimization of the short-term emergency response in the event of a nuclear accident is presented. The method seeks an optimum combination of protective actions in the presence of a multitude of conflicting objectives and under uncertainty. Conflicting objectives arise in the attempt to minimize simultaneously the potential adverse effects of an accident and the associated socioeconomic impacts. Additional conflicting objectives arise whenever an emergency plan tends to decrease a particular health effect, such as acute deaths, while it increases another, such as latent deaths. The uncertainty is due to the multitude of possible accident scenarios and their respective probability of occurrence, the stochastic variability in the weather conditions, and the variability and/or lack of knowledge of the parameters of the risk assessment models. A multiobjective optimization approach is adopted. An emergency protection plan consists of defining a protective action at each spatial cell around the plant. Three criteria are used as the objective functions of the problem, namely, acute fatalities, latent effects, and socioeconomic cost. The optimization procedure defines the efficient frontier, i.e., all emergency plans that are not dominated by another in all three criteria. No value trade-offs are necessary up to this point. The most preferred emergency plan is then chosen among the set of efficient plans. Finally, the methodology is integrated into a computerized decision support system, and its use is demonstrated in a realistic application

  9. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS)

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System (CAIRS) is a comprehensive data base containing more than 50,000 investigation reports of injury/illness, property damage and vehicle accident cases representing safety data from 1975 to the present for more than 150 DOE contractor organizations. A special feature is that the text of each accident report is translated using a controlled dictionary and rigid sentence structure called Factor Relationship and Sequence of Events (FRASE) that enhances the ability to retrieve specific types of information and to perform detailed analyses. DOE summary and individual contractor reports are prepared quarterly and annually. In addition, ''Safety Performance Profile'' reports for individual organizations are prepared to provide advance information to appraisal teams, and special topical reports are prepared for areas of concern such as an increase in the number of security injuries or environmental releases. The data base is open to all DOE and Contractor registered users with no access restrictions other than that required by the Privacy Act

  10. A smart phone-based pocket fall accident detection, positioning, and rescue system.

    Kau, Lih-Jen; Chen, Chih-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose in this paper a novel algorithm as well as architecture for the fall accident detection and corresponding wide area rescue system based on a smart phone and the third generation (3G) networks. To realize the fall detection algorithm, the angles acquired by the electronic compass (ecompass) and the waveform sequence of the triaxial accelerometer on the smart phone are used as the system inputs. The acquired signals are then used to generate an ordered feature sequence and then examined in a sequential manner by the proposed cascade classifier for recognition purpose. Once the corresponding feature is verified by the classifier at current state, it can proceed to next state; otherwise, the system will reset to the initial state and wait for the appearance of another feature sequence. Once a fall accident event is detected, the user's position can be acquired by the global positioning system (GPS) or the assisted GPS, and sent to the rescue center via the 3G communication network so that the user can get medical help immediately. With the proposed cascaded classification architecture, the computational burden and power consumption issue on the smart phone system can be alleviated. Moreover, as we will see in the experiment that a distinguished fall accident detection accuracy up to 92% on the sensitivity and 99.75% on the specificity can be obtained when a set of 450 test actions in nine different kinds of activities are estimated by using the proposed cascaded classifier, which justifies the superiority of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25486656

  11. 气体灭火系统的火灾自动报警和控制探讨%The Discussion about Gas fire extinguishing system of Fire auto-alarm and control

    黄彩萍

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborate the design for fire auto-alarm and control of Gas fire extinguishing system,introduce some security measures for protected area,with the related technical codes and the examples of project.%本文结合相关规范及工程实例,详细阐述了气体灭火系统的火灾自动报警和控制系统设计以及防护区内的安全措施。

  12. Helicopter emergency medical services accident rates in different international air rescue systems

    J Hinkelbein

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available J Hinkelbein1,2, M Schwalbe2, H V Genzwuerker2,31Department for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Germany; 2Working Group “Emergency Medicine and Air Rescue”, German Society of Aviation and Space Medicine (DGRLM eV; 3Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Neckar-Odenwald-Kliniken gGmbH, Hospitals Buchen and Mosbach, Buchen, GermanyAim: Each year approximately two to four helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS crashes occur in Germany. The aim of the present study was to compare crash rates and fatal crash rates in Germany to rates in other countries.Materials and methods: A MEDLINE search from 1970 to 2009 was performed using combinations of the keywords “HEMS”, “rescue helicopter”, “accident”, “accident rate”, “crash”, and “crash rate”. The search was supplemented by additional published data. Data were compared on the basis of 10,000 missions and 100,000 helicopter flying hours. These data were allocated to specific time frames for analyis.Results: Eleven relevant studies were identified. Five studies (three from Germany, one from the US, one from Australia analyzing HEMS accidents on the basis of 10,000 missions were identified. Crash rates per 10,000 missions ranged between 0.4 and 3.05 and fatal crash rates between 0.04 and 2.12. In addition, nine studies (six from the US, two from Germany, one from Australia used 100,000 flying hours as a denominator. Here, crash rates ranged between 1.7 and 13.4 and fatal crash rates between 0.91 and 4.7.Conclusions: Data and accident rates were inhomogeneous and differed significantly. Data analysis was impeded by publication of mean data, use of different time frames, and differences in HEMS systems.Keywords: fatal accident rate, rescue helicopter, fatal crash rate, helicopter emergency medical system, accident analysis

  13. Development of an Integrated Simulator and Real Time Information System for Training in Severe Accidents

    As part of a Research and Development project jointly undertaken by Nuclenor S.A. and the Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science of the University of Cantabria, at the beginning of 1995 a plant transient and accident simulator was released, based on the MAAP computer code, which is able to analyse emergency situations beyond the design basis. The use of this tool at Sta. Maria de Garona NPP has significantly improved the operators and support personnel training on Emergency Procedures. This simulator has an interactive graphic interface to control the simulation itself and the safeguard systems. It also allows the link with the SPDS. The simulator is designed in such a way that several users can interact simultaneously on the process. It currently consists of six monitors assigned both to control and to visualise systems. The instructor can provoke anomalies before and during the training exercises. The operators have several consoles (5) from which they can interact in real time to control operations and resolve the conflictive situations. It is important to note that the use of a common tool for training and safety analysis favors the collaboration of the plant and engineering personnel responsible for these two areas. An additional capacity already incorporated into the simulator is the possibility of visualising the real time plant data from the SCADA system. The same screens developed for the training simulator are used for this purpose and vice versa. This capacity can be achieved from any computer station at the network. The paper describes the following applications and benefits of the system: - The simulator is used for periodic retraining of Plant operators on abnormal and emergency operating procedures. Its use has facilitated the collaboration of the operator on the accident sequence analysis part of the PSA. Some human reliability aspects, especially those relating to operator response are better analysed with the help of the simulator

  14. Incident warning systems : accident review. DRIVE II Project V2002 Horizontal Project for the Evaluation of Safety HOPES, Deliverable 17, Workpackage 31, Activity 31.2.

    Oppe, S. Lindeijer, J.E. & Barjonet, P.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this accident review is to check what proportion of accidents recorded in the past could in principle have been prevented by using an incident warning system (IWS). The accident review was carried out for all three IWS test sites that are part of the HOPES evaluation study. These in

  15. 基于移动互联网的厨房气体检测与报警系统设计%Mobile Internet-Based Kitchen Gas Detection and AlarmSystem

    陈春梅; 张娟; 蒋和松

    2015-01-01

    随着无烟厨房的普及,一些无声无息的隐形杀手也随之而来,各种电气设备和人身安全问题变得越来越迫切。在当今火热的移动互联网背景下,文章开发了以STM32单片机为核心的厨房有害气体浓度检测与远程报警系统。通过在厨房安置CO和CH3等有害气体检测传感器,预先设定好各个传感器的灵敏度和警戒阈值,如果异常,便实施现场声光报警。与此同时,系统自动通过GSM模块发送警报短信,用户还可以通过一键式拨打绑定电话,从而实现远程紧急报警功能。%With the popularity of smoke-free kitchen, some of the silent invisible killer has cropped up, all kinds of electrical equipment and personal safety issues become more urgent. In today's mobile Internet hot background, the paper developed a kitchen STM32 microcontroller as the core of harmful gas concentration detection and remote alarm systems. By placement in the kitchen and CH3 CO and other harmful gas detection sensor, good sensitivity and caution preset threshold values for each sensor, if abnormal, then the implementation of on-site sound and light alarm. At the same time, the system automatically sends an alert by SMS GSM module, the user can also bound by a telephone call button, enabling remote emergency alarm.

  16. Alarm pheromone processing in the ant brain: an evolutionary perspective

    Makoto Mizunami

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Social insects exhibit sophisticated communication by means of pheromones, one example of which is the use of alarm pheromones to alert nestmates for colony defense. We review recent advances in the understanding of the processing of alarm pheromone information in the ant brain. We found that information about formic acid and n-undecane, alarm pheromone components, is processed in a set of specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus obscuripes. Alarm pheromone information is then transmitted, via projection neurons, to the lateral horn and the calyces of the mushroom body of the protocerebrum. In the lateral horn, we found a specific area where terminal boutons of alarm pheromone-sensitive projection neurons are more densely distributed than in the rest of the lateral horn. Some neurons in the protocerebrum responded specifically to formic acid or n-undecane and they may participate in the control of behavioral responses to each pheromone component. Other neurons, especially those originating from the mushroom body lobe, responded also to non-pheromonal odors and may play roles in integration of pheromonal and non-pheromonal signals. We found that a class of neurons receive inputs in the lateral horn and the mushroom body lobe and terminate in a variety of premotor areas. These neurons may participate in the control of aggressive behavior, which is sensitized by alarm pheromones and is triggered by non-pheromonal sensory stimuli associated with a potential enemy. We propose that the alarm pheromone processing system has evolved by differentiation of a part of general odor processing system.

  17. Managing Errors to Reduce Accidents in High Consequence Networked Information Systems

    Ganter, J.H.

    1999-02-01

    Computers have always helped to amplify and propagate errors made by people. The emergence of Networked Information Systems (NISs), which allow people and systems to quickly interact worldwide, has made understanding and minimizing human error more critical. This paper applies concepts from system safety to analyze how hazards (from hackers to power disruptions) penetrate NIS defenses (e.g., firewalls and operating systems) to cause accidents. Such events usually result from both active, easily identified failures and more subtle latent conditions that have resided in the system for long periods. Both active failures and latent conditions result from human errors. We classify these into several types (slips, lapses, mistakes, etc.) and provide NIS examples of how they occur. Next we examine error minimization throughout the NIS lifecycle, from design through operation to reengineering. At each stage, steps can be taken to minimize the occurrence and effects of human errors. These include defensive design philosophies, architectural patterns to guide developers, and collaborative design that incorporates operational experiences and surprises into design efforts. We conclude by looking at three aspects of NISs that will cause continuing challenges in error and accident management: immaturity of the industry, limited risk perception, and resource tradeoffs.

  18. A visual warning system to reduce struck-by or pinning accidents involving mobile mining equipment.

    Sammarco, J; Gallagher, S; Mayton, A; Srednicki, J

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes an experiment to examine whether a visual warning system can improve detection of moving machine hazards that could result in struck-by or pinning accidents. Thirty-six participants, twelve each in one of three age groups, participated in the study. A visual warning system capable of providing four different modes of warning was installed on a continuous mining machine that is used to mine coal. The speed of detecting various machine movements was recorded with and without the visual warning system. The average speed of detection for forward and reverse machine movements was reduced by 75% when using the flashing mode of the visual warning system. This translated to 0.485 m of machine travel for the fast speed condition of 19.8 m/min, which is significant in the context of the confined spaces of a mine. There were no statistically significant differences among age groups in the ability to detect machine movements for the visual warning modes in this study. The visual warning system shows promise as a safety intervention for reducing struck-by or pinning accidents involving continuous mining machines. The methods and results of this study could be applied to other moving machinery used in mining or other industries where moving machinery poses struck-by or pinning hazards. PMID:22503737

  19. Breaking the chain: An empirical analysis of accident causal factors by human factors analysis and classification system

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don

    2006-01-01

    This research analyzed 523 accidents in the R.O.C. Air Force between 1978 and 2002 using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) framework described by Wiegmann & Shappell (2003). This study provides an understanding, based upon empirical evidence, of how actions and decisions at higher levels in the organization to result in operational errors and accidents. Suggestions are made about intervention strategies focusing on the categories at higher levels of HFACS. Specific ...

  20. Alarm reduction with correlation analysis; Larmsanering genom korrelationsanalys

    Bergquist, Tord; Ahnlund, Jonas; Johansson, Bjoern; Gaardman, Lennart; Raaberg, Martin [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Information Technology

    2004-09-01

    This project's main interest is to improve the overall alarm situation in the control rooms. By doing so, the operators working environment is less overstrained, which simplifies the decision-making. According to a study of the British refinery industry, the operators make wrong decisions in four times out of ten due to badly tuned alarm systems, with heavy expenses as a result. Furthermore, a more efficiently alarm handling is estimated to decrease the production loss with between three and eight percent. This sounds, according to Swedish standards, maybe a bit extreme, but there is no doubt about the benefits of having a well-tuned alarm system. This project can be seen as an extension of 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' (VARMEFORSK--835), where the process improvements were the result of suggestions tailored for every signal. Here, instead causal dependences in the process are examined. A method for this, specially designed to fit process signals, has been developed. It is called MLPC (Multiple Local Property Correlation) and could be seen as an unprejudiced way of increase the information value in the process. There are a number of ways to make use of the additional process understanding a correlation analysis provides. In the report some are mentioned, foremost aiming to improve the alarm situation for operators. Signals from two heating plants have been analyzed with MLPC. In simulations, with the use of the result from these analyses as a base, a large number of alarms have been successfully suppressed. The results have been studied by personal with process knowledge, and they are very positive to the use of MLPC and they express many benefits by the clarification of process relations. It was established in 'General Methods for Alarm Reduction' that low pass filter are superior to mean value filter and time delay when trying to suppress alarms. As a result, a module for signal processing has been developed. The main purpose is

  1. The development of a nuclear accident risk information system(NARIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won Dea

    2001-03-01

    The computerized system, NARIS(Nuclear Accident Risk Information System) was developed in order to support the estimation of health effects and the establishment the effective risk reduction strategies. Using the system, we can analyze the distribution of health effects easily by displaying the results on the digital map of the site. Also, the thematic mapping allows the diverse analysis of the distribution of the health effects.The NARIS can be used in the emergency operation facilities in order to analyze the distribution of the health effects resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant. Also, the rapid analysis of the health effect is possible by storing the health effect results in the form of a database. Therefore, the staffs of the emergency operation facilities can establish the rapid and effective emergency response strategies. The module for the optimization of the costs and benefits and the decision making support will be added. The technical support for the establishment of the optimum and effective emergency response strategies will be possible using this system.

  2. Diagnostic system for identification of accident scenarios in nuclear power plants using artificial neural networks

    Santosh, T.V. [Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: santutv@barc.gov.in; Srivastava, A.; Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Health, Safety and Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents the work carried out towards developing a diagnostic system for the identification of accident scenarios in 220 MWe Indian PHWRs. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), which assists in identifying a transient quickly and suggests the operator to initiate the corrective actions during abnormal operations of the reactor. An operator support system, known as symptom-based diagnostic system (SBDS), has been developed using ANN that diagnoses the transients based on reactor process parameters, and continuously displays the status of the reactor. As a pilot study, the large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with and without the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in reactor headers has been considered. Several break scenarios of large break LOCA have been analyzed. The time-dependent transient data have been generated using the RELAP5 thermal hydraulic code assuming an equilibrium core, which conforms to a realistic estimation. The diagnostic results obtained from the ANN study are satisfactory. These results have been incorporated in the SBDS software for operator assistance. A few important outputs of the SBDS have been discussed in this paper.

  3. The development of a nuclear accident risk information system(NARIS)

    The computerized system, NARIS(Nuclear Accident Risk Information System) was developed in order to support the estimation of health effects and the establishment the effective risk reduction strategies. Using the system, we can analyze the distribution of health effects easily by displaying the results on the digital map of the site. Also, the thematic mapping allows the diverse analysis of the distribution of the health effects.The NARIS can be used in the emergency operation facilities in order to analyze the distribution of the health effects resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant. Also, the rapid analysis of the health effect is possible by storing the health effect results in the form of a database. Therefore, the staffs of the emergency operation facilities can establish the rapid and effective emergency response strategies. The module for the optimization of the costs and benefits and the decision making support will be added. The technical support for the establishment of the optimum and effective emergency response strategies will be possible using this system

  4. Diagnostic system for identification of accident scenarios in nuclear power plants using artificial neural networks

    This paper presents the work carried out towards developing a diagnostic system for the identification of accident scenarios in 220 MWe Indian PHWRs. The objective of this study is to develop a methodology based on artificial neural networks (ANNs), which assists in identifying a transient quickly and suggests the operator to initiate the corrective actions during abnormal operations of the reactor. An operator support system, known as symptom-based diagnostic system (SBDS), has been developed using ANN that diagnoses the transients based on reactor process parameters, and continuously displays the status of the reactor. As a pilot study, the large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with and without the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) in reactor headers has been considered. Several break scenarios of large break LOCA have been analyzed. The time-dependent transient data have been generated using the RELAP5 thermal hydraulic code assuming an equilibrium core, which conforms to a realistic estimation. The diagnostic results obtained from the ANN study are satisfactory. These results have been incorporated in the SBDS software for operator assistance. A few important outputs of the SBDS have been discussed in this paper

  5. Development of solution behavior observation system under criticality accident conditions in TRACY

    An observation system has been developed as a new instrumentation of TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility) in order to observe the behavior of uranyl nitrate solution and radiolytic gas voids under criticality accident conditions. The system consists of a radiation-resistive optical fiberscope, a light source and a radiation-resistive video camera. The severe radiation environment in TRACY and safety functions as the primary boundary of TRACY were considered in the design of the system. The system has been successfully utilized in the recent TRACY experiments, and provided clear color motion pictures showing the behavior of the solution and radiolytic gas voids. As a result, it was visually confirmed that there is the difference in the behavior of the solution and radiolytic gas voids depending on the conditions of the reactivity addition. The system provides detailed information on the behavior of the solution and voids, and will contribute to the development of a computational kinetics model. (author)

  6. Risk factors related to systemic arterial hypertension in victims of cerebral vascular accident

    Joselany Áfio Caetano; Verineida Lima; Enedina Soares; Zélia Maria de Sousa Araújo Santos

    2006-01-01

    The Cerebrovascular accident (AVC)is the third cause of death in the world.Apart systemic arterial hypertension (HAS),many other preventable factors are related to its appearance and evolution.This study aimed at identifying the risk factors for AVC in interned hypertensive patients.It was a descriptive study held at a philanthropic hospital in Sobral-Ceará,with fourteen patients taken ill with AVC.Among those,85.7%(n=12)were above 65 years old and the same quantitative were retired;71,4%(n=1...

  7. A rapid dose assessment and display system applicable to PWR accident

    The necessity of developing a rapid dose assessment system has been emphasized for an effective emergency response of mitigation of off-site radiological consequences. A microcomputer program based on a rapid dose assessment model of the off-site radiological consequences is developed for various accident sinarios for the Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. This model, which is consists of the user answering-question input format as a menu driven method and the output format of table and graphic types, is helpful to decision-making on Emergency Preparedness by being more rapidly able to implement the off-site dose assessment and to interpret the result. (Author)

  8. Current statistical tools, systems and bodies concerned with safety and accident statistics. Contribution to the OECD seminar `International Road Traffic and Accident Databases IRTAD', Helsinki, Finland, September 19, 1995.

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current use of road safety information systems and the few systems for international use are discussed. Recommendations are formulated for a more efficient, less costly and improved accident registration on the local, national and international levels.

  9. 77 FR 18689 - Changes to Standard Numbering System, Vessel Identification System, and Boating Accident Report...

    2012-03-28

    .... Abbreviations BARD Boating Accident Report Database DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register HIN... rulemaking (NPRM) bearing the same title as this final rule in the Federal Register (75 FR 25137). We... reopened the comment period to accept comments until October 15, 2010 (75 FR 49869, Aug. 16, 2010)....

  10. Design of Diaphragm Fracture Alarming Control System for Hydraulic Driven Diaphragm Pump%液压驱动隔膜泵隔膜破裂报警系统设计

    张洪生; 张宏利; 郭绍波; 张新国; 刘运昌

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragm pump which are used in petroleum, metallurgy, electrical power and some other industries , can't be used after diaphragm fracture and the normal production is affected. Aiming at the problem, a new design scheme about diaphragm fracture alarming control system was put forward, taking three single functional cylinders hydraulic driven diaphragm pump as research object.The scheme was that : If one diaphragm was broken, alarming signals could be sent out and the corresponding hydraulic cylinder was stopped after the staff conformed; If two or more diaphragms were broken, alarming signals could also be sent out at the time of pump stopping working. Using the logic control functions of FX2-64MR PLC produced by Mitsubishi company, programs for diaphragm fracture alarming were designed to achieve the functions, such as real-time alarming for diaphragm fracture, amounting the numbers of breaking diaphragms, stopping alarming, rearrangement of two hydraulic cylinders' work phases, stopping of pump, determination and adjustment of material pulp output. The field test shows that the new design scheme can guarantee diaphragm pump working normally under the condition of one diaphragm broken. It is an effective method.%针对目前石油、冶金、电力等行业中常用的隔膜泵存在的隔膜破裂后不能继续工作、影响正常生产的问题,以三缸单作用液压驱动隔膜泵为研究对象,提出一种新的隔膜破裂报警系统设计方案:当单个隔膜破裂时,系统可以发出报警信号,经工作人员确认后相应的液压缸停止工作,而其他两液压缸可以继续工作;两个或两个以上隔膜破裂时,系统发出报警信号的同时隔膜泵停止运转.基于PLC的逻辑控制功能,利用三菱FX2-64MR型PLC对这种隔膜破裂报警方案进行了程序设计,可实现隔膜破裂实时报警、隔膜破裂个数检测、停止报警、两液压缸工作相位调整、隔膜泵自动停机及料浆输出量测定和

  11. 自动喷水灭火系统湿式报警阀设置问题探讨%On the Fixation of Hydraulic Alarm Valve of Automatic Water-spray Fire System

    许剑方

    2011-01-01

    Wet alarm valve is a crucial part of automatic water-spray fire system.This paper focuses on whether an automatic water-spay fire system needs a wet alarm valve,whether it is in forms of concentration or distribution,and whether its location should be on the top of the building or at the bottom,and the number of sprays needed.%湿式报警阀是自动喷水灭火系统的重要组成部分。针对湿式报警阀的设置问题,重点探讨了自动喷水灭火系统是否都要设置湿式报警阀;湿式报警阀集中设置还是分散设置;湿式报警阀是底层设置还是楼层设置;湿式报警阀后所带喷头数目等几个问题,以真正发挥湿式报警阀的作用和自动喷水灭火系统的灭火效能。

  12. An approach to build a knowledge base for reactor accident diagnostic expert system disket

    In the development of a rule based expert system, one of key issues is how to acquire knowledge and to build knowledge base (KB). On building the KB of DISKET, which is an expert system for nuclear reactor accident diagnosis developed in JAERI, several problems have been experienced as follows. To write rules is a time consuming task, and it is difficult to keep the objectivity and consistency of rules as the number of rules increase. Further, certainty factors (CFs) must be often determined according to engineering judgement, i.e. empirically or intuitively. A systematic approach was attempted to handle these difficulties and to build an objective KB efficiently. The approach described in this report is based on the concept that a prototype KB, colloquially speaking ''an initial guess'', should first be generated in a systematic way and then is to be modified and/or improved by human experts for practical use. Statistical methods, principally Factor Analysis, were used as the systematic way to build a prototype KB for the DISKET using a PWR plant simulator data. The source information is a number of data obtained from the simulation of transients, such as the status of components and annunciators etc., and major process parameters like pressures, temperatures and so on. The results of diagnoses shows that the statistical method, Factor Analysis, is powerful for building a prototype of knowledge base of an expert system for reactor accident diagnosis like DISKET. (author)

  13. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Funck, E.; Neumaier, S.; Saez-Vergara, J.C.

    Since the Chernobyl accident many countries now operate large national networks of radiation detectors that continuously monitor radiation levels in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The networks are used to provide data to assist in determining the...... these detectors are used. During an accident the data produced by such systems will be exchanged between countries within the European Communities, (EC) and as required by the IAEA's Early Warning Convention between the rest of the world and Europe. It is therefore important to ensure that such data...... laboratory for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) in Germany. The main aim of the intercomparison was to help ensure that results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident will be consistent and comparable. It is important that during an emergency the measurements of the plume doses or...

  14. The development of design technology on the safety parameter display system for the operability improvement of the nuclear power plant

    The purpose of this study is, basically, threefold. Firstly, through detailed comparison, the difference between the safety parameters used in the EPG and CFMS is analyzed. Furthermore, to anticipate and extrapolate the problems that might be encountered when developing the CFMS system that utilizes safety parameters consistent with that of the EPG. Secondly, the setpoint analysis of the CFMS alarm algorithm was done for there is a possibility of causing spurious alarms since the alarm setpoint of the YGN 3,4 CFMS is not reflective of the plant operating conditions nor accident progression. Lastly, the analysis of the success path for each accident was done to help operator in mitigating the accident by using the pictorial path of the success path during an accident condition. Moreover, in this analysis, the contents of the concerns that KINS raised regarding the YGN 3,4 SPDS has been addressed from the designer's perspective. 33 figs., 16 refs. (Author) .new

  15. Development and operation of the network system for nuclear safety - Improvement of the following accident dose assessment system

    Kim, Enn Han; Han, Moon Hee; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The FADAS has been updates for calculating the real-time wind fields continuously at the nuclear sites in Korea. The system has been constructed to compute the wind fields using its own process for the dummy meteorological data, and does not effect on the overall wind field module. If the radioactive materials are released into the atmosphere in real situation, the calculations of wind fields and exposure dose in the previous FADAS are performed in the case of the recognition of the above situation in the source term evaluation module. The current version of FADAS includes the program for evaluating the effect of the predicted accident and the assumed scenario together. The dose assessment module is separated into the real-time and the supposed accident respectively. 8 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs. (Author)

  16. The new program system UFOMOD to assess the consequences of nuclear accidents

    The program system UFOMOD is a completely new accident consequence assessment (ACA) code. Its structure and modelling is based on the experience gained from applications of the old UFOMOD code during and after the German Risk Study - Phase A, the results of scientific investigations performed within both the ongoing Phase B and the CEC-Project MARIA, and the requirements resulting from the extended use of ACAs to help in decision making. One of the most important improvements is the introduction of different trajectory models for describing atmospheric dispersion in the near range and at larger distances. Protective actions and countermeasures modelling takes into account recommendations of international commissions. The dosimetric models contain completely new age-, sex- and time-dependent data of dose-conversion factors for external and internal radiation; the ingestion pathway is modelled to consider seasonal dependencies. New dose-risk-relationships for stochastic and non-stochastic health effects are implemented; a special algorithm developed for ACA codes allows individual and collective leukemia and cancer risks to be presented as a function of time after the accident. According to the modular structure of the new UFOMOD program system, an easy access to parameter values and the results of the various submodels exists what facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analyses

  17. The program system UFOMOD for assessing the consequences of nuclear accidents

    The programm system UFOMOD is a completely new accident consequence assessment (ACA) code. Its structure and modelling is based on the experience gained from applications of the old UFOMOD code during and after the German Risk Study - Phase A, the results of scientific investigations performed within the ongoing Phase B and the CEC-project MARIA, and the requirements resulting from the extended use of ACAs to help in decision-making. One of the most important improvements is the introduction of different trajecotry models for describing atmospheric dispersion in the near range and at larger distances. Emergency actions and countermeasures modelling takes into account recommendations of international commissions. The dosimetric models contain completely new age-, sex- and time-dependent data of dose-conversion factors for external and internal radiation; the ingestion pathway is modelled to consider seasonal dependencies. New dose-risk-relationships for stochastic and non-stochastic health effects are implemented; a special algorithm developed for ACA codes allows individual and collective leukemia and cancer risks to be presented as a function of time after the accident. According to the modular structure of the new program system UFOMOD, an easy access to parameter values and the results of the various submodels exists what facilitates sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (orig.)

  18. Fission products transport in CANDU Primary Heat Transport System in a severe accident

    Full text: The paper is intended to analyse the distribution of the fission products (FPs) in CANDU Primary Heat Transport (PHT) System by using the ASTEC code (Accident Source Term Evaluation Code). The complexity of the data required by ASTEC and the complexity of CANDU PHT were strong motivation to begin with a simplified geometry in order to avoid the introducing of unmanageable errors at the level of input deck. Thus only 1/4 of the PHT circuit was simulated, an simplified FPs inventory and some simplifications in the feeders geometry were also used. The circuit consists of 95 horizontal fuel channels connected to 95 horizontal out-feeders, then through vertical feeders to the outlet-header (a big pipe that collects the water from feeders); the circuit continues from the outlet-header with a riser and then with the steam generator and a pump. After this pump, the circuit was broken; in this point the FPs are transferred to the containment. The data related to the nodes' definitions, temperatures and pressure conditions were chosen as possible as real data from CANDU NPP loss of coolant accident sequence. Temperature and pressure conditions in the time of the accident were calculated by CATHENA code and the source term of FPs introduced into the PHT was estimated by ORIGEN code. The results consist of mass distributions in the nodes of the circuit and the mass transfer to the containment through the break for different species (FPs and chemical species). The study is completed by sensitivity analysis for the parameters with important uncertainties. (authors)

  19. A radioactive waste transportation package monitoring system for normal transport and accident emergency response conditions

    Shipments of radioactive material (RAM) constitute but a small fraction of the total hazardous materials shipped in the United States each year. Public perception, however, of the potential consequences of a release from a transportation package containing RAM has resulted in significant regulation of transport operations, both to ensure the integrity of a package in accident conditions and to place operational constraints on the shipper. Much of this attention has focused on shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high level wastes which, although comprising a very small number of total shipments, constitute a majority of the total curies transported on an annual basis. Shipment of these highly radioactive materials is made in what is described in the regulations as a Type B packaging. Type B transportation packages are designed to withstand a sequence of accident scenarios, including drop, puncture, fire, and immersion with virtually no release of contents. Due to the quantities of spent fuel and high level wastes carried in Type B casks and the public perception and apprehension regarding the potential consequences of a release, involvement of a packaging containing spent fuel or high level wastes in any accident will result in a very cautious emergency response until it can be determined that the integrity of the cask is maintained. Typically this involves closure of the transport link or pathway, evacuation of all unnecessary personnel, diversion of traffic from the area, and subsequent investigative and mitigative procedures from trained specialists. An onboard instrumentation/communications package has been developed that, when affixed to a radioactive materials cask, can monitor key indicators of the integrity of the cask and communicate these parameters to emergency responders through modules on the vehicle. Entitled the Transportation Intelligent Monitoring System (TRANSIMS), this package enables remote monitoring of the status and integrity of the cask

  20. Alarm management for storage and transportation terminals; Gerenciamento de alarmes para terminais de transferencia e estocagem

    Loureiro, Patricia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Feldman, Rafael Noac [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Recently, in many industrial segments, it has been taken into account the issues related to the high amount of alarms that are announced in the control rooms, even if the industrial process is under normal conditions. Recent studies and surveys have shown that the three major problems related to it are: alarms that remain active during normal operation; alarms that remain chattering during an operational period; the phenomenon called Alarm flood, that occurs when an extensive amount of alarms is announced and the operator does not have enough time to take effective actions. In order to reduce or to eliminate the two above mentioned causes, alarm analysis and housekeeping, called Alarm Rationalization, have been efficient in major cases, because such facts occur mainly due to inadequate limits definition and/or equipment and instruments out of service or in maintenance. Such alarms are called in the literature as bad-actors or villains, and their occurrences may reach up to 50% of the daily total amount of alarms. This paper aims to present the main results of a project named Alarm Management for Transfer and Storage Terminals. The project development is based on two different terminal surveys, in order not only to identify the most frequent causes of undesirable alarms, but also to generate design standards. The main phases of the project are: alarm rationalization based on bad-actors detection; generate a set of design and operation standards; generate an Alarm Philosophy document for the Terminals. (author)

  1. PSA-based expert system as an operator assistance during severe accidents

    In this work, an Expert System is presented, designed to assist the operator of the CAREM-25 Power Station during postulated Severe Accidents. CAREM-25 is a new generation, very low power (100 MWth, 25 Mwe net) nuclear station. The knowledge base of the Expert System was constructed from the Containment Events Trees of the corresponding PSA made for this Power Station. At the same time, the calculations of probabilities were improved. They were implemented in the different branches of the Containment Events Trees using fuzzy arithmetic. The Expert System has been designed in Fuzzy CLIPS V6.04A. In its present state of development it interacts with the user by asking questions that help to determine the state of damage of the plant. Like answers, it gives the data that characterize the state of the plant and the probable states at which the containment would arrive as well as the values from the associated probability. (author)

  2. Four loss-of-flow accidents in the SEAFP first wall/blanket cooling system

    This report presents the thermal-hydraulic analysis of four Loss-of-Flow Accidents (LOFAs) in the first wall/blanket cooling system of the alternative SEAFP reactor design. The LOFAs considered result from a loss of electrical power for the recirculation pump in the primary cooling circuit. The analyses have been performed using the thermal-hydraulic system analysis code RELAP5/MOD3. In the analyses, special attention has been paid to the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the cooling system and the temperature development in the first wall and blanket. For the LOFA without plasma shutdown, significant loss of heat removal due to dryout occurs at the midplane of the outboard first wall cooling pipes about 41 s after pump trip. For the three LOFA cases with emergency plasma shutdown that have been studied, the temperature increase in the Be-coating at the midplane of the outboard first wall is limited to about 30 K. (orig.)

  3. Information systems in Chernobyl accident after-effect elimination: On the way from youth to maturity

    10-years period of Information Systems in the Chernobyl Accident after-effects elimination (these systems we name Chernobyl Information Systems (ChIS) for simplicity of reference) creation is analyzed. It is claimed that ChIS are introducing into the maturity phase now. The paper consists of Introduction, four paragraphs and Conclusion. Short history of ChIS creation on the example of radioecological component is described in Introduction. Two phases: youth and maturity, are identified. The youth phase is divided on three periods: 1986-1988, 1988-1992, 1993-1995. The maturity phase has started in 1994 with accepting of new Conception of ChIS implementation. Main characteristics of each phase and period are described

  4. Comparison and verification of two computer programs used to analyze ventilation systems under accident conditions

    Two computer codes, TVENT and EVENT, which were developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the analysis of ventilation systems, have been modified to model air-cleaning systems that include active components with time-dependent flow-resistance characteristics. With both modified programs, fluid-dynamic transients were calculated for a test facility used to simulate accident conditions in air-cleaning systems. Experiments were performed in the test facility whereby flow and pressure transients were generated with the help of two quick-actuating air-stream control valves. The numerical calculations are compared with the test results. Although EVENT makes use of a more complex theoretical flow model than TVENT, the numerical simulations of both codes were found to be very similar for the flow conditions studied and to closely follow the experimental results

  5. The Effect of Containment Filtered Venting System on the Severe Accident Management Strategies of the CANDU6 Plant

    In March, 2011, Fukushima daichi nuclear power plants experienced a long term station blackout and severe core damages and released a large amount of radioactive materials outside of the plants. After this accident Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) decided to install a filtered containment venting system (CFVS) at all the operating nuclear power plants in Korean. To comply with NSSC's request, Wolsong Unit 1 has installed a CFVS. Current severe accident management guidance, which does not consider a CFVS has 6 severe accident management strategies for CANDU6 plant. These strategies are inject in to the primary heat transport system (PHTS), inject in to the calandria, inject into the calandria vault, reduce fission product releases, control containment conditions, reduce containment hydrogen. The CFVS is designed to open and to close isolation valves by an operator. An operator opens the CFVS isolation valve when the containment pressure exceeds the design pressure (124 kPa(g)) and closes isolation valves when the containment pressure decreases below 50 kPa(g). The operation of the CFVS not only influences the current strategies (adds a means of controlling containment conditions) but also requires the new strategies. This paper discusses the necessity of the new strategies, such as the prevention of containment vacuum and the injection into the containment. The necessity of the additional severe accident management strategies for CANDU6 plants which installed a CFVS is evaluated. The operation of a CFVS affects the water inventory in the basement also, but not significantly. The SBO accident requires the water injection into the containment at least 4 days after an accident initiation if a passive spray system fails. If a spray system operates, then the injection into the containment is required more than 10 days after an accident initiation even though a CFVS operates

  6. Applications of nano-fluids to enhance LWR accidents management in in-vessel retention and emergency core cooling systems

    Water-based nano-fluid, colloidal dispersions of nano-particles in water; have been shown experimentally to increase the critical heat flux and surface wettability at very low concentrations. The use of nano-fluids to enhance accidents management would allow either to increase the safe margins in case of severe accidents or to upgrade the power of an existing power plant with constant margins. Building on the initial work, computational fluid dynamics simulations of the nano-fluid injection system have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of a nano-fluid injection system for in-vessel retention application. A preliminary assessment was also conducted on the emergency core cooling system of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) to implement a nano-fluid injection system for improving the management of loss of coolant accidents. Several design options were compared/or their respective merits and disadvantages based on criteria including time to injection, safety impact, and materials compatibility. (authors)

  7. A Novel Thermal-Mechanical Detection System for Reactor Pressure Vessel Bottom Failure Monitoring in Severe Accidents

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in Japan, there is an increased need of enhanced capabilities for severe accident management (SAM) program. Among others, a reliable method for detecting reactor pressure vessel (RPV) bottom failure has been evaluated as imperative by many utility owners. Though radiation and/or temperature measurement are potential solutions by tradition, there are some limitations for them to function desirably in such severe accident as that in Japan. To provide reliable information for assessment of accident progress in SAM program, in this paper we propose a novel thermal-mechanical detection system (TMDS) for RPV bottom failure monitoring in severe accidents. The main components of TMDS include thermally sensitive element, metallic cables, tension controlled switch and main control room annunciation device. With TMDS installed, there shall be a reliable means of keeping SAM decision-makers informed whether the RPV bottom has indeed failed. Such assurance definitely guarantees enhancement of severe accident management performance and significantly improve nuclear safety and thus protect the society and people. (authors)

  8. Lessons learnt from an international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident

    Saez-Vergara, J.C.; Thompson, I.M.G.; Funck, E.;

    2003-01-01

    and at the Underground Laboratory for Dosimetry and Spectrometry (UDO) of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. The network systems are used continuously to monitor radiation levels throughout a country in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary...... implications. The radiation levels measured are used to estimate the radiation risks to people arising from the accident. Seven European countries participated in the intercomparison with detector systems used in their national network systems as well as with detectors being developed for future use. Since...

  9. Application of ITER Safety Analysis for KSTAR : Tritium Leakage from Fusion Power Termination System Failure Accident with MELCOR

    This extreme reactor condition makes serious material limitation and emphasizes the importance of safety analysis. To get permission of construction license, previous researches like preliminary safety research have been analyzed risk assessments of fusion reactors. To simulate the severe accidents in fusion reactor, a number of thermal hydraulic simulation codes were used(ECART, INTRA, ATHENA/RELAP and so on). Before construction, to obtain ITER license about safety issue, MELCOR is chosen as the thermal hydraulic code to be used to simulate radioactive material release from severe accidents. Capability of the simulation code in severe accident analysis is to simulate the cooling system in ITER, the transport of radionuclides during design basis accidents (DBAs) including beyond design basis accidents (BDBAs). MELCOR is fully integrated code that models the accidents in Light Water Reactor (LWR). To analyze the accidents in ITER, MELCOR 1.8.2 version is modified. The amount of release radioactive material is safety acceptance criteria in the nuclear fusion system. There are three kinds of radioactive materials in fusion reactor; tritium (or Tiritiated water: HTO), activation products from divertor or first-wall(AP) and activated corrosion products(ACP). In generic Site Safety Report (GSSR), table I lists the release guidelines for tritium and activation products for normal operation, incidents, and accidents. This small scale facility makes the experimental flexibility to develop fusion technology. Fusion source difference between KSTAR and ITER is D-D(Deuterium- Deuterium reaction) fusion and D-T(Deuterium- Tritium reaction) fusion. This D-D fusion makes Tritium in the 50 percent chance. The radioactivity of tritium is small to consider, but, the accident analysis is indispensable. In the present work, the conservatively estimated tritium inventory in KSTAR is used with one of the most severe accident in ITER; Fusion Power Termination System(FPTS) failure with

  10. Putative involvement of the nitrergic system on the consolidation, but not initiation, of behavioral sensitization after conspecific alarm substance in zebrafish.

    Lima, Monica Gomes; Silva, Suéllen de Nazaré Dos Santos; Silva, Rhayra Xavier do Carmo; Oliveira, Karen Renata Herculano Matos; Batista, Evander de Jesus Oliveira; Maximino, Caio; Herculano, Anderson Manoel

    2015-12-01

    Stressful manipulations can sensitize the behavior of an organism, increasing anxiety-like behavior after a delay; this long-term stress sensitization can represent the pathophysiological basis of trauma- and stress-related disorders (TRSDs), of which the most prevalent is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A role for the glutamate-nitric oxide pathway in this sensitization is implied by behavioral, neurophysiological and genomic data on different species. Here, we report on the long-term sensitization of anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish and the possible participation of nitric oxide in this process. Zebrafish exposed to a conspecific alarm substance (AS) show increased anxiety-like behavior at least 24h after stimulus delivery. Blocking nitric oxide synthesis with l-NAME (5mg/kg) 30min, but not 90min, after AS exposure blocks the sensitization of scototaxis and risk assessment, while treatment 90min after exposure blocks the sensitization of thigmotaxis and erratic swimming; l-NAME was not effective when administered 30min before AS exposure. These data suggest a participation of nitric oxide in the consolidation, but not in the initiation, of behavioral sensitization after predator threat. PMID:26257339

  11. Pressure and temperature transients of a cryogenic distillation system during abnormal operation or accidents

    Highlights: ► Cryogenic distillation process is being employed for tritium separation from tritiated hydrogen mixtures. ► We model a cryogenic distillation system and its behaviour for various accidents scenarios. ► We examine changes in pressure and temperature during the investigated situations. ► The article gives information and some references for the methodology that can be implemented for ITER Isotope Separation System. - Abstract: Cryogenic distillation system (CDS) is being employed, among other applications, in tritium separation technologies. CDS in combination with a Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) process or with a Combined Electrolytic Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is used for tritium removal/recovery from tritiated water. Large amounts of tritiated water can be produced during long time operation of CANDU reactors or in case of ITER mainly by the Detritiation System (DS). The CDS used to remove/recover tritium consists of a cascade of cryogenic distillation columns and a refrigeration unit which provides the cooling capacity for the condensers of CD columns. The columns, together with the condensers and the process heat-exchangers are accommodated in a vacuum insulated cold box. During abnormal events or accidents, significant amount of liquid hydrogen–deuterium–tritium or helium refrigerant can be spilt inside the cold box or even into the building. The paper analyzes some critical scenarios due to single failure mode or various combinations of failures such as: -loss of refrigerant in the columns; -loss of vacuum insulation; -process liquid spilt into the cold box; -refrigerant fails into cryogenic distillation columns. The study presented in the paper is concerning to Tritium Removal Facility from NPP Cernavoda but gives information and some references for the methodology that can be implemented for ITER Isotope Separation System.

  12. Construction of a technique plan repository and evaluation system based on AHP group decision-making for emergency treatment and disposal in chemical pollution accidents

    Highlights: • Different chemical pollution accidents were simplified using the event tree analysis. • Emergency disposal technique plan repository of chemicals accidents was constructed. • The technique evaluation index system of chemicals accidents disposal was developed. • A combination of group decision and analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was employed. • Group decision introducing similarity and diversity factor was used for data analysis. - Abstract: The environmental pollution resulting from chemical accidents has caused increasingly serious concerns. Therefore, it is very important to be able to determine in advance the appropriate emergency treatment and disposal technology for different types of chemical accidents. However, the formulation of an emergency plan for chemical pollution accidents is considerably difficult due to the substantial uncertainty and complexity of such accidents. This paper explains how the event tree method was used to create 54 different scenarios for chemical pollution accidents, based on the polluted medium, dangerous characteristics and properties of chemicals involved. For each type of chemical accident, feasible emergency treatment and disposal technology schemes were established, considering the areas of pollution source control, pollutant non-proliferation, contaminant elimination and waste disposal. Meanwhile, in order to obtain the optimum emergency disposal technology schemes as soon as the chemical pollution accident occurs from the plan repository, the technique evaluation index system was developed based on group decision-improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP), and has been tested by using a sudden aniline pollution accident that occurred in a river in December 2012

  13. TMACS test procedure TP001: Alarm management. Revision 6

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure addresses the Alarm Management requirements of the TMACS. The features to be tested are: real-time alarming on high and low level and discrete alarms, equipment alarms, dead-band filtering, alarm display color coding, alarm acknowledgement, and alarm logging

  14. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.;

    2000-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident many countries now operate large national networks of radiation detectors that continuously monitor radiation levels in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The networks are used to provide data to assist in determining the...... action that should be implemented in that country. However, each country has its own unique system of detection. These are based either on Geiger-Muller counters, high pressure ionisation chambers, scintillation detectors, proportional counters, passive detectors or spectrometry systems; or mixtures of...... these detectors are used. During an accident the data produced by such systems will be exchanged between countries within the European Communities, (EC) and as required by the IAEA's Early Warning Convention between the rest of the world and Europe. It is therefore important to ensure that such data...

  15. Quality systems for radiotherapy: Impact by a central authority for improved accuracy, safety and accident prevention

    High accuracy in radiotherapy is required for the good outcome of the treatments, which in turn implies the need to develop comprehensive Quality Systems for the operation of the clinic. The legal requirements as well as the recommendation by professional societies support this modern approach for improved accuracy, safety and accident prevention. The actions of a national radiation protection authority can play an important role in this development. In this paper, the actions of the authority in Finland (STUK) for the control of the implementation of the new requirements are reviewed. It is concluded that the role of the authorities should not be limited to simple control actions, but comprehensive practical support for the development of the Quality Systems should be provided. (author)

  16. Application of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) approach to structuring accident mitigation systems of a PWR

    The safety evaluation technology of PWRs has already been improved substantially because of large-scale safety verification tests and improvement of accuracy in analyses. However, for structuring accident mitigation systems (AMS), the selection of appropriate systems from various AMS candidates mainly depends on engineering judgements by design engineers. So systematic designing process should be established. Reliability of each AMS forms the basis for reliability of safety plant design as a whole. Therefore, explicitly understanding characteristics of each AMS's reliability is very important for safety design. Based on these facts as a background, the limitation of improving reliability by strengthening redundancy of AMS mainly consisting of active components was clarified by applying PSA. At the same time, reliability and other characteristics of AMS mainly consisting of passive components were also clarified with PSA. Through these studies, it is proved that the application of PSA for structuring AMS is effective. (author)

  17. Safety analysis for pipe rupture accidents of primary cooling system for HTTR

    In order to evaluate the magnitude of the effects on the integrity of the reactor facility due to the pipe rupture accidents of the primary cooling system, which are important in the safety evaluation of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), safety evaluation was performed concerning with the area of rupture for the failure of the co-axial double pipe and the inner pipe of the primary cooling system. It was found through the present work that a double-ended rupture of the co-axial double pipe was the severest from a viewpoint of the core damage in the failure of the co-axial double pipe and a double-ended rupture of the inner pipe was the severest from a viewpoint of the effect on the reactor vessel (reactor vessel temperature) in the failure of the inner pipe, respectively. (author)

  18. False alarm reduction in critical care.

    Clifford, Gari D; Silva, Ikaro; Moody, Benjamin; Li, Qiao; Kella, Danesh; Chahin, Abdullah; Kooistra, Tristan; Perry, Diane; Mark, Roger G

    2016-08-01

    High false alarm rates in the ICU decrease quality of care by slowing staff response times while increasing patient delirium through noise pollution. The 2015 PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge provides a set of 1250 multi-parameter ICU data segments associated with critical arrhythmia alarms, and challenges the general research community to address the issue of false alarm suppression using all available signals. Each data segment was 5 minutes long (for real time analysis), ending at the time of the alarm. For retrospective analysis, we provided a further 30 seconds of data after the alarm was triggered. A total of 750 data segments were made available for training and 500 were held back for testing. Each alarm was reviewed by expert annotators, at least two of whom agreed that the alarm was either true or false. Challenge participants were invited to submit a complete, working algorithm to distinguish true from false alarms, and received a score based on their program's performance on the hidden test set. This score was based on the percentage of alarms correct, but with a penalty that weights the suppression of true alarms five times more heavily than acceptance of false alarms. We provided three example entries based on well-known, open source signal processing algorithms, to serve as a basis for comparison and as a starting point for participants to develop their own code. A total of 38 teams submitted a total of 215 entries in this year's Challenge. This editorial reviews the background issues for this challenge, the design of the challenge itself, the key achievements, and the follow-up research generated as a result of the Challenge, published in the concurrent special issue of Physiological Measurement. Additionally we make some recommendations for future changes in the field of patient monitoring as a result of the Challenge. PMID:27454172

  19. The expert assistant in accident management

    In the event of a nuclear accident in proximity to an urban area, the consequences resulting from the complex processes of environmental transport of radioactivity would require complex countermeasures. Emphasis has been placed on either modelling the potential effects of such an event on the population, or on attempting to predict the geographical evolution of the release. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of accident management aids with a in-built data acquisition capability. Given the problems of predicting the evolution of an accidental release of activity, more emphasis should be placed on the development of small regional systems specifically engineered to acquire and display environmental data in the most efficaceous form possible. A wealth of information can be obtained from appropriately-sited outstations which can aid those responsible for countermeasures in their decision making processes. The substantial volume of data which would arrive within the duration and during the aftermath of an accident requires skilled interpretation under conditions of considerable stress. It is necessary that a management aid notonly presents these data in a rapidly assimilable form, but is capable of making intelligent decisions of its own, on such matters as information display priority and the polling frequency of outstations. The requirement is for an expert assistant. The XERSES accident management aid has been designed with the foregoing features in mind. Intended for covering regions up to approximately 100 kms square, it links with between 1 and 64 outstations supplying a variety of environmental data. Under quiescent conditions the system will operate unattended, raising alarms remotely only when detecting abnormal conditions. Under emergency conditions, the system automatically adjusts such operating parameters as data acquisition rate

  20. Electromagnetic system for detection and localization of the miners caught by accident in mine

    Pronenko, Vira; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the profession of a miner is one of the most dangerous in the world. Among the main causes of the people death in the underground coal mining enterprises is their untimely alerting of the accident, as well as the lack of information for the rescuers about the actual location of the miners after the accident. As world practice shows, the electromagnetic (EM) systems for the search and detection of people across a massive layer of rock are the most effective. Such systems are under development almost half a century in many countries dealing with mine industry. However, substantial progress related to the localization of personnel at a distance at least of 20-30 meters through the rock is not reached. In an emergency situation (failure or destruction of underground infrastructure), personnel search behind and beneath of obstruction should be provided urgently. But none of the standard technologies (RFID, DECT, WiFi, emitting cable), which use the stationary technical devices in mines, do not provide notification of people caught by accident location. The only technology that provides guaranteed delivery of messages about the accident to the mine personnel, regardless of their location and under any destruction in the mine, is low-frequency radio technology able to operate through the thickness of rocks. From the general theoretical considerations, it is clear that the miners localization system requires solving the inverse problem of the magnetic field source coordinates determining using the data of 3-component magnetic field measurements. A fundamentally new approach, based on the measurement of the magnetic field of the miner's responder beacon by two fixed and spaced three-component magnetic field receivers and solution of the inverse problem using the results of the magnetic field measurement, was proposed. As a result, the concept of the equipment for miners beacon search and localization implementation (MILES - miner's location emergency