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Sample records for accessory cell function

  1. Deleterious effect of ultraviolet-B radiation on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells

    The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) on accessory function of human blood adherent mononuclear cells (ADH) for antigen and mitogen-induced responses, and production by ADH of the amplifying cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) were examined. Responder lymphocytes were rendered accessory cell dependent by treatment of nonadherent cells with OKIal + complement. UV-B depressed accessory function of ADH in a dose-dependent manner. UV-B decreased accessory function of ADH for tetanus toxoid-induced responses and phytohaemagglutinin-induced responses. UV-B also decreased accessory activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells for a PPD-reactive T cell line. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) activity of supernatants of ADH was assayed on C3H/HeJ mouse thymocytes. Pretreatment of ADH with UV-B decreased lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-1 activity. Lysates of UV-B irradiated, LPS-stimulated ADH had no discernible IL-1 activity. Addition of IL-1 partially restored accessory activity of UV-B irradiated ADH for lymphocyte responses to TT. Exposure of ADH to TT or PHA for 30 min before irradiation blocked the inhibitory effect of UV-B on accessory activity. Thus, low doses of UV-B are deleterious to accessory function and to production of IL-1 by ADH. Interference with production of cytokines and with initial interactions of accessory cells with antigen and mitogen may be critical to the effects of UV-B on immunoregulatory function of ADH. (author)

  2. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  3. Ultra violet radiation-induced defects in accessory cell function in the human proliferative response to tetanus

    Ultraviolet B radiation (290-320 nm) has been shown to interfere with accessory cell function of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the generation of a proliferative response to tetanus. By altering the timing of irradiation of adherent cells and using short pulses of antigen, we have identified a minimum of two u.v. sensitive accessory cell functions. The first involves antigen presentation and is not readily reversible with time in culture after irradiation. The second is demonstrated by the ability of low doses of u.v. radiation given after the tetanus toxoid pulse to inhibit an event(s) occuring independent of antigen processing. Both occur within a range of doses which would penetrate to the vasculature of the skin of humans exposed to the sun or to phototherapy. (author)

  4. Functions of replication factor C and proliferating-cell nuclear antigen: Functional similarity of DNA polymerase accessory proteins from human cells and bacteriophage T4

    The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the replication factors A and C (RF-A and RF-C) are cellular proteins essential for complete elongation of DNA during synthesis from the simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication in vitro. All three cooperate to stimulate processive DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase δ on a primed single-stranded M13 template DNA and as such can be categorized as DNA polymerase accessory proteins. Biochemical analyses with highly purified RF-C and PCNA have demonstrated functions that are completely analogous to the functions of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase accessory proteins. A primer-template-specific DNA binding activity and a DNA-dependent ATPase activity copurified with the multisubunit protein RF-C and are similar to the functions of the phage T4 gene 44/62 protein complex. Furthermore, PCNA stimulated the RF-C ATPase activity and is, therefore, analogous to the phage T4 gene 45 protein, which stimulates the ATPase function of the gene 44/62 protein complex. Indeed, some primary sequence similarities between human PCNA and the phage T4 gene 45 protein could be detected. These results demonstrate a striking conservation of the DNA replication apparatus in human cells and bacteriophage T4

  5. Cast functional accessories for heat treatment furnaces

    A. Drotlew

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study gives examples of the cast functional accessories operating in furnaces for the heat treatment of metals and alloys. The describeddesign solutions of castings and their respective assemblies are used for charge preparation and handling. They were put in systematicorder depending on furnace design and the technological purpose of heat treatment. Basic grades of austenitic cast steel, used for castings of this type, were enumerated, and examples of general guidelines formulated for their use were stated. The functional accessories described in this study were designed and made by the Foundry Research Laboratory of West Pomeranian University of Technology.

  6. Comparison of murine hepatic accessory cells and splenic dendritic cells

    Accessory cells are required for proliferation and antibody synthesis of B lymphocytes and proliferation of T lymphocytes in primary immune responses in vitro. The obligatory cells derived from the spleen are referred to as dendritic cells. Accessory cells were isolated from normal adult livers which were functionally interchangeable with splenic DC. Both hepatic accessory cells (AC) and splenic DC adhere firmly to plastic culture dishes or wells within 2 hr; but hepatic AC, unlike splenic DC, do not detach during 22 hr additional incubation. Hepatic AC, unlike splenic DC, are not lysed or inactivated by monoclonal antibody 33D1 and C'. Hepatic AC and splenic DC are similarly sensitive to irradiation in vivo and insensitive to irradiation in vitro. Hepatic AC are separated with cells which are predominantly phagocytic and FcR+ and contain nonspecific esterase. Both hepatic AC and splenic DC are suppressed or eliminated by activation of NK cells in vivo, a phenomenon prevented by prior elimination of NK cells

  7. Activity Regulates Functional Connectivity from the Vomeronasal Organ to the Accessory Olfactory Bulb

    Hovis, Kenneth R.; Ramnath, Rohit; Dahlen, Jeffrey E.; Romanova, Anna L.; LaRocca, Greg; Bier, Mark E.; Urban, Nathaniel N.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian accessory olfactory system is specialized for the detection of chemicals that identify kin and conspecifics. Vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs), residing in the vomeronasal organ, project axons to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) where they form synapses with principle neurons, known as mitral cells. The organization of this projection is quite precise and is believed to be essential for appropriate function of this system. However, how this precise connectivity is established...

  8. CD117+ Dendritic and Mast Cells Are Dependent on RasGRP4 to Function as Accessory Cells for Optimal Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Responses to Lipopolysaccharide.

    Saijun Zhou

    Full Text Available Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein-4 (RasGRP4 is an evolutionarily conserved calcium-regulated, guanine nucleotide exchange factor and diacylglycerol/phorbol ester receptor. While an important intracellular signaling protein for CD117+ mast cells (MCs, its roles in other immune cells is less clear. In this study, we identified a subset of in vivo-differentiated splenic CD117+ dendritic cells (DCs in wild-type (WT C57BL/6 mice that unexpectedly contained RasGRP4 mRNA and protein. In regard to the biologic significance of these data to innate immunity, LPS-treated splenic CD117+ DCs from WT mice induced natural killer (NK cells to produce much more interferon-γ (IFN-γ than comparable DCs from RasGRP4-null mice. The ability of LPS-responsive MCs to cause NK cells to increase their expression of IFN-γ was also dependent on this intracellular signaling protein. The discovery that RasGRP4 is required for CD117+ MCs and DCs to optimally induce acute NK cell-dependent immune responses to LPS helps explain why this signaling protein has been conserved in evolution.

  9. CD117+ Dendritic and Mast Cells Are Dependent on RasGRP4 to Function as Accessory Cells for Optimal Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Responses to Lipopolysaccharide.

    Zhou, Saijun; Tanaka, Kumiko; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Qi, Miao; El-Assaad, Fatima; Weaver, James C; Chen, Gang; Weatherall, Christopher; Wang, Ying; Giannakopoulos, Bill; Chen, Liming; Yu, DeMint; Hamilton, Matthew J; Wensing, Lislaine A; Stevens, Richard L; Krilis, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein-4 (RasGRP4) is an evolutionarily conserved calcium-regulated, guanine nucleotide exchange factor and diacylglycerol/phorbol ester receptor. While an important intracellular signaling protein for CD117+ mast cells (MCs), its roles in other immune cells is less clear. In this study, we identified a subset of in vivo-differentiated splenic CD117+ dendritic cells (DCs) in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice that unexpectedly contained RasGRP4 mRNA and protein. In regard to the biologic significance of these data to innate immunity, LPS-treated splenic CD117+ DCs from WT mice induced natural killer (NK) cells to produce much more interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than comparable DCs from RasGRP4-null mice. The ability of LPS-responsive MCs to cause NK cells to increase their expression of IFN-γ was also dependent on this intracellular signaling protein. The discovery that RasGRP4 is required for CD117+ MCs and DCs to optimally induce acute NK cell-dependent immune responses to LPS helps explain why this signaling protein has been conserved in evolution. PMID:26982501

  10. CD117+ Dendritic and Mast Cells Are Dependent on RasGRP4 to Function as Accessory Cells for Optimal Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Responses to Lipopolysaccharide

    Zhou, Saijun; Tanaka, Kumiko; O’Keeffe, Meredith; Qi, Miao; El-Assaad, Fatima; Weaver, James C.; Chen, Gang; Weatherall, Christopher; Wang, Ying; Giannakopoulos, Bill; Chen, Liming; Yu, DeMint; Hamilton, Matthew J.; Wensing, Lislaine A.; Stevens, Richard L.; Krilis, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein-4 (RasGRP4) is an evolutionarily conserved calcium-regulated, guanine nucleotide exchange factor and diacylglycerol/phorbol ester receptor. While an important intracellular signaling protein for CD117+ mast cells (MCs), its roles in other immune cells is less clear. In this study, we identified a subset of in vivo-differentiated splenic CD117+ dendritic cells (DCs) in wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice that unexpectedly contained RasGRP4 mRNA and protein. In regard to the biologic significance of these data to innate immunity, LPS-treated splenic CD117+ DCs from WT mice induced natural killer (NK) cells to produce much more interferon-γ (IFN-γ) than comparable DCs from RasGRP4-null mice. The ability of LPS-responsive MCs to cause NK cells to increase their expression of IFN-γ was also dependent on this intracellular signaling protein. The discovery that RasGRP4 is required for CD117+ MCs and DCs to optimally induce acute NK cell-dependent immune responses to LPS helps explain why this signaling protein has been conserved in evolution. PMID:26982501

  11. Alloactivated HLA class II-positive T-cell lines induce IL-2 reactivity but lack accessory cell function in mixed leukocyte culture

    Odum, N; Dickmeiss, E; Hofmann, B;

    1989-01-01

    nonirradiated Ta stimulated primed lymphocytes directed against the relevant HLA class II antigens on the Ta. Interferon-gamma, recombinant interleukin 1, phorbol myristate acetate, calcium ionophore, and adherent cells had no effect on the stimulatory capability of Ta. The ability of irradiated Ta to stimulate...

  12. ACCESSORY FUNCTIONING BREAST TISSUE AS A LARGE MASS IN THE AXILLA

    Tripathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Accessory breasts are an uncommon entity & more un common when it is functioning. They may present as asymptomatic mass al ong the mammary ridge or symptoms evident during menarche, menstruation, pregnancy & l actation. We report a case of unilateral accessory breast in right axilla which was secretin g milk on day 3rd postpartum

  13. Chloroquine inhibits accessory cell presentation of soluble natural and synthetic protein antigens

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the in vitro effect of the lysosomotrophic agent, chloroquine, on the presentation of soluble protein antigens by guinea pig accessory cells. Chloroquine inhibited the capacity of antigen-pulsed accessory cells to stimulate proliferation in appropriately primed T cells. The effect...

  14. Crosslinking of the T cell-specific accessory molecules CD7 and CD28 modulates T cell adhesion

    1992-01-01

    Regulated adhesion enables T cells to migrate through tissue and transiently interact with an endless succession of cells. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) engagement of the CD3/T cell receptor (TCR) complex results in a rapid and transient augmentation of the adhesion function of LFA-1 and VLA integrin molecules on human T cells. We show in this study that mAb crosslinking of the T cell-specific accessory molecules CD7 and CD28, or treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, results in the rapid indu...

  15. Contactin-4 mediates axon-target specificity and functional development of the accessory optic system.

    Osterhout, Jessica A; Stafford, Benjamin K; Nguyen, Phong L; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Huberman, Andrew D

    2015-05-20

    The mammalian eye-to-brain pathway includes more than 20 parallel circuits, each consisting of precise long-range connections between specific sets of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and target structures in the brain. The mechanisms that drive assembly of these parallel connections and the functional implications of their specificity remain unresolved. Here we show that in the absence of contactin 4 (CNTN4) or one of its binding partners, amyloid precursor protein (APP), a subset of direction-selective RGCs fail to target the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT)--the accessory optic system (AOS) target controlling horizontal image stabilization. Conversely, ectopic expression of CNTN4 biases RGCs to arborize in the NOT, and that process also requires APP. Our data reveal critical and novel roles for CNTN4/APP in promoting target-specific axon arborization, and they highlight the importance of this process for functional development of a behaviorally relevant parallel visual pathway. PMID:25959733

  16. Note: Design and fabrication of a simple versatile microelectrochemical cell and its accessories

    Rajan, Viswanathan; Neelakantan, Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    A microelectrochemical cell housed in an optical microscope and custom-made accessories have been designed and fabricated, which allows performing spatially resolved corrosion measurements. The cell assembly was designed to directly integrate the reference electrode close to the capillary tip to avoid air bubbles. A hard disk along with an old optical microscope was re-engineered into a microgrinder, which made the vertical grinding of glass capillary tips very easy. A stepper motor was customized into a microsyringe pump to dispense a controlled volume of electrolyte through the capillary. A force sensitive resistor was used to achieve constant wetting area. The functionality of the developed instrument is demonstrated by studying μ-electrochemical behavior of worn surface on AA2014-T6 alloy.

  17. Versatile roles of V-ATPases accessory subunit Ac45 in osteoclast formation and function.

    An Qin

    Full Text Available Vacuolar-type H(+-ATPases (V-ATPases are macromolecular proton pumps that acidify intracellular cargos and deliver protons across the plasma membrane of a variety of specialized cells, including bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Extracellular acidification is crucial for osteoclastic bone resorption, a process that initiates the dissolution of mineralized bone matrix. While the importance of V-ATPases in osteoclastic resorptive function is well-defined, whether V-ATPases facilitate additional aspects of osteoclast function and/or formation remains largely obscure. Here we report that the V-ATPase accessory subunit Ac45 participates in both osteoclast formation and function. Using a siRNA-based approach, we show that targeted suppression of Ac45 impairs intracellular acidification and endocytosis, both are prerequisite for osteoclastic bone resorptive function in vitro. Interestingly, we find that knockdown of Ac45 also attenuates osteoclastogenesis owing to a reduced fusion capacity of osteoclastic precursor cells. Finally, in an effort to gain more detailed insights into the functional role of Ac45 in osteoclasts, we attempted to generate osteoclast-specific Ac45 conditional knockout mice using a Cathepsin K-Cre-LoxP system. Surprisingly, however, insertion of the neomycin cassette in the Ac45-Flox(Neo mice resulted in marked disturbances in CNS development and ensuing embryonic lethality thus precluding functional assessment of Ac45 in osteoclasts and peripheral bone tissues. Based on these unexpected findings we propose that, in addition to its canonical function in V-ATPase-mediated acidification, Ac45 plays versatile roles during osteoclast formation and function.

  18. Partial restoration of blink reflex function after spinal accessory-facial nerve anastomosis.

    Danziger, N; Chassande, B; Lamas, G.; Fligny, I; Soudant, J; Willer, J C

    1995-01-01

    Functional motor control requires perfect matching of the central connections of motoneurons with their peripheral inputs. It is not known, however, to what extent these central circuits are influenced by target muscles, either during development or after a lesion. Surgical interventions aimed at restoring function after peripheral nerve lesions provide an opportunity for studying this interaction in the mature human nervous system. A patient was studied in whom the spinal accessory nerve was...

  19. Chemical Library Screens Targeting an HIV-1 Accessory Factor/Host Cell Kinase Complex Identify Novel Anti-retroviral Compounds

    Emert-Sedlak, Lori; Kodama, Toshiaki; Lerner, Edwina C.; Dai, Weixiang; Foster, Caleb; Day, Billy W.; Lazo, John S.; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Nef is an HIV-1 accessory protein essential for AIDS progression and an attractive target for drug discovery. Lack of a catalytic function makes Nef difficult to assay in chemical library screens. We developed a high-throughput screening assay for inhibitors of Nef function by coupling it to one of its host cell binding partners, the Src-family kinase Hck. Hck activation is dependent upon Nef in this assay, providing a direct readout of Nef activity in vitro. Using this screen, a unique diphe...

  20. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats

    Portillo, Wendy; Unda, Nancy; Camacho, Francisco J.; Sánchez, María; Corona, Rebeca; Arzate, Dulce Ma.; Díaz, Néstor F.; Paredes, Raúl G.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  1. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Wendy Portillo; Díaz, Néstor F.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB) and main (MOB) olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 da...

  2. Ventricular Dyssynchrony and Function Improve following Catheter Ablation of Nonseptal Accessory Pathways in Children

    Sylvia Abadir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paradoxical or hypokinetic interventricular septal motion has been described in patients with septal or paraseptal accessory pathways. Data regarding nonseptal pathways is limited. Methods and Results. We quantified left ventricular dyssynchrony and function in 16 consecutive children, 14.2±3.7 years, weighing 53 ± 17 kg, prior to and following catheter ablation of bidirectional septal (N=6 and nonseptal (N=10 accessory pathways. Following ablation, the left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 4.9±2.1% (P=0.038 from a baseline value of 57.0%±7.8%. By tissue Doppler imaging, the interval between QRS onset and peak systolic velocity (Ts decreased from a median of 33.0 ms to 18.0 ms (P=0.013. The left ventricular ejection fraction increased to a greater extent following catheter ablation of nonseptal (5.9%±2.6%, P=0.023 versus septal (2.5%±4.1%, P=0.461 pathways. The four patients with an ejection fraction 50% after ablation. Similarly, the improvement in dyssynchrony was more marked in patients with nonseptal versus septal pathways (difference between septal and lateral wall motion delay before and after ablation 20.6±7.1 ms (P=0.015 versus 1.4±11.4 ms (P=0.655. Conclusion. Left ventricular systolic function and dyssynchrony improve after ablation of antegrade-conducting accessory pathways in children, with more pronounced changes noted for nonseptal pathways.

  3. Postnatal characterization of cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of wild type and reeler mice

    Eduardo eMartín-López

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is the most relevant chemosensory sense of the rodents. General odors are primarily detected by the main olfactory system while most pheromonal signals are received by the accessory olfactory system. The first relay in the brain occurs in the olfactory bulb, which is subdivided in the main and accessory olfactory bulb (MOB/AOB. Given that the cell generation time is different between AOB and MOB, and the cell characterization of AOB remains limited, the goal of this work was first, the definition of the layering of AOB/MOB and second, the establishment of cellular phenotypes in the AOB in a time window corresponding to the early postnatal development. Moreover, since reelin deficiency has been related to layering and olfactory learning deficits, those data were compared with reeler mice. Firstly, we compared the layering between AOB and MOB at early embryonic stages. Then, cell phenotypes were established using specific neuronal and glial markers as well as the reelin adaptor protein Dab1 to analyze differences in both genetic backgrounds. There was no apparent difference in the cell phenotypes among AOB and MOB or between wild type and reeler animals. However, it was outstanding a disruption in the granular cell layer of reeler with respect to wild type mice. In conclusion, the AOB in reelin deficient mice showed similar neuronal and glial cell types being only affected the layering of granular cells.

  4. Loss of Function of the Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein 2 Is Associated with Mammalian Obesity

    Asai, M; Ramachandrappa, S.; Joachim, M.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, R.; Nuthalapati, N.; V. Ramanathan; Strochlic, D. E.; Ferket, P.; Linhart, K.; Ho, C.; Novoselova, T. V.; Garg, S.; Ridderstrale, M.; Marcus, C

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) modulate signaling of melanocortin receptors in vitro. To investigate the physiological role of brain-expressed Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2), we characterized mice with whole body and brain-specific targeted deletion of Mrap2, both of which develop severe obesity at a young age. Mrap2 interacts directly with Melanocortin 4 Receptor (Mc4r), a protein previously implicated in mammalian obesity, and it enhances Mc4r-mediated...

  5. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  6. Migration of CD11b+ accessory cells during murine lung regeneration.

    Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C; Lee, Grace S; Ackermann, Maximilian; Konerding, Moritz A; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung leads to growth of the remaining lung to near-baseline levels. In studying post-pneumonectomy mice, we used morphometric measures to demonstrate neoalveolarization within 21 days of pneumonectomy. Of note, the detailed histology during this period demonstrated no significant pulmonary inflammation. To identify occult blood-borne cells, we used a parabiotic model (wild-type/GFP) of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. Flow cytometry of post-pneumonectomy lung digests demonstrated a rapid increase in the number of cells expressing the hematopoietic membrane molecule CD11b; 64.5% of the entire GFP(+) population were CD11b(+). Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the CD11b(+) peripheral blood cells migrated into both the interstitial tissue and alveolar airspace compartments. Pneumonectomy in mice deficient in CD11b (CD18(-/-) mutants) demonstrated near-absent leukocyte migration into the airspace compartment (pAdamts2, Ecm1, Egf, Mmp7, Npr1, Tgfb2 in the interstitial tissue (>4-fold regulation; p<.05). These data suggest that blood-borne CD11b(+) cells represent a population of accessory cells contributing to post-pneumonectomy lung growth. PMID:23376466

  7. Prolonged Intracellular Na+ Dynamics Govern Electrical Activity in Accessory Olfactory Bulb Mitral Cells.

    Asaph Zylbertal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent activity has been reported in many brain areas and is hypothesized to mediate working memory and emotional brain states and to rely upon network or biophysical feedback. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which persistent neuronal activity can be generated without feedback, relying instead on the slow removal of Na+ from neurons following bursts of activity. We show that mitral cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, which plays a major role in mammalian social behavior, may respond to a brief sensory stimulation with persistent firing. By combining electrical recordings, Ca2+ and Na+ imaging, and realistic computational modeling, we explored the mechanisms underlying the persistent activity in AOB mitral cells. We found that the exceptionally slow inward current that underlies this activity is governed by prolonged dynamics of intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i, which affects neuronal electrical activity via several pathways. Specifically, elevated dendritic [Na+]i reverses the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger activity, thus modifying the [Ca2+]i set-point. This process, which relies on ubiquitous membrane mechanisms, is likely to play a role in other neuronal types in various brain regions.

  8. Modulation of macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide: Stem cell requirements, accessory lymphocyte involvement, and IA-inducing factor production

    The mechanism of induction of murine macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 microgram of LPS resulted in a 3- to 10-fold increase in the number of IA-positive peritoneal macrophages (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence) and a 6-to 16-fold increase by radioimmunoassay. The isolated lipid A moiety of LPS was a potent inducer of macrophage Ia expression. Ia induction required a functional myelopoietic system as indicated by the finding that the response to LPS was eliminated in irradiated (900 rads) mice and reinstated by reconstitution with bone marrow cells. Comparison of LPS-induced Ia expression in normal and LPS-primed mice revealed a faster secondary response to LPS. The memory response could be adoptively transferred to normal mice with nonadherent spleen cells prepared 60 days after LPS injection. Spleen cells prepared 5 days after LPS injection caused Ia induction in LPS-nonresponder mice; such induction was not observed in irradiated (900 rads) recipients. The cell responsible for this phenomenon was identified as a Thy-1+, immunoglobulin-negative nonadherent cell. The biosynthesis and expression of Ia were not increased by direct exposure of macrophages to LPS in vitro. Small amounts of LPS inhibited Ia induction by gamma interferon. LPS showed positive regulatory effects on Ia expression by delaying the loss of Ia expression on cultured macrophages and by stimulating the production of Ia-inducing factors. Supernatants from cultured spleen cells stimulated with LPS in vitro contained antiviral and Ia-inducing activity that was acid labile, indicating that the active factor is gamma interferon. We conclude that induction of Ia expression by LPS in vivo is a bone-marrow-dependent, radiation-sensitive process which involves the stimulation of a gamma interferon-producing accessory lymphocyte and a delay in Ia turnover

  9. Accessory Olfactory Bulb Function is Modulated by Input from the Main Olfactory Epithelium

    Slotnick, Burton; Restrepo, Diego; Schellinck, Heather; Archbold, Georgina; Price, Stephen; Lin, Weihong

    2010-01-01

    While it is now established that sensory neurons in both the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ may be activated by both general and pheromonal odorants, it remains unclear what initiates sampling by the VNO. Anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase was used to determine that adequate intranasal syringing with zinc sulfate interrupted all inputs to the main olfactory bulb but left intact those to the accessory olfactory bulb. Adult male treated mi...

  10. Activation of resting T cells: distinct roles of intact accessory cells, phorbol myristate acetate and interleukin 1

    Davis, L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1986-03-05

    The accessory cell (AC) signals involved in the activation of resting guinea pig T lymphocytes stimulated with mitogen (PHA), or the calcium ionophore, ionomycin (Ion) were examined. Activation of T cells was assessed by cell cycle analysis after acridine orange staining and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. PHA-stimulated T cells depleted of all AC were unable to respond in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and/or interleukin 1 (IL 1). With suboptimal numbers of AC, PMA greatly augmented the number of T cells activated by PHA to enter and progress through the cell cycle, but only when present during the first few hours of culture. By contrast, IL 1 had little effect on the number of cells entering the cell cycle, although it enhanced S phase entry of the activated cells. IL 1 augmented DNA synthesis when added initially or later in culture. In contrast to the effects noted with PHA, PMA promoted activation and DNA synthesis of the majority of Ion stimulated cells in the complete absence of AC. IL 1 alone could not support Ion induced T cell activation although it enhanced T cell DNA synthesis in cultures stimulated by PMA and Ion. These studies indicate that intact AC, IL 1 and PMA-like signals play distinct roles in the progression of T cells through the initial cell cycle. Stimulation by Ion requires only PMA whereas PHA responses require intact AC and can be amplified by PMA. The major effect of IL 1 is to promote S phase entry of activated T cells.

  11. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators

    Guy eShpak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB and accessory (AOB olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican. In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states.

  12. Transient and sustained afterdepolarizations in accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells are mediated by distinct mechanisms that are differentially regulated by neuromodulators.

    Shpak, Guy; Zylbertal, Asaph; Wagner, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between mammalian conspecifics rely heavily on molecular communication via the main and accessory olfactory systems. These two chemosensory systems show high similarity in the organization of information flow along their early stages: social chemical cues are detected by the sensory neurons of the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. These neurons then convey sensory information to the main (MOB) and accessory (AOB) olfactory bulbs, respectively, where they synapse upon mitral cells that project to higher brain areas. Yet, the functional difference between these two chemosensory systems remains unclear. We have previously shown that MOB and AOB mitral cells exhibit very distinct intrinsic biophysical properties leading to different types of information processing. Specifically, we found that unlike MOB mitral cells, AOB neurons display persistent firing responses to strong stimuli. These prolonged responses are mediated by long-lasting calcium-activated non-selective cationic current (Ican). In the current study we further examined the firing characteristics of these cells and their modulation by several neuromodulators. We found that AOB mitral cells display transient depolarizing afterpotentials (DAPs) following moderate firing. These DAPs are not found in MOB mitral cells that show instead robust hyperpolarizing afterpotentials. Unlike Ican, the DAPs of AOB mitral cells are activated by low levels of intracellular calcium and are relatively insensitive to flufenamic acid. Moreover, the cholinergic agonist carbachol exerts opposite effects on the persistent firing and DAPs of AOB mitral cells. We conclude that these phenomena are mediated by distinct biophysical mechanisms that may serve to mediate different types of information processing in the AOB at distinct brain states. PMID:25642164

  13. Signals involved in T cell activation. II. Distinct roles of intact accessory cells, phorbol esters, and interleukin 1 in activation and cell cycle progression of resting T lymphocytes

    Davis, L.; Lipsky, P.E.

    1986-05-15

    The signals involved in the initiation of mitogen-induced activation of resting guinea pig T cells were examined. The combination of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) stimulated DNA synthesis by accessory cell (AC)-depleted T cells cultured at high density, but the use of low density cultures indicated that intact AC were absolutely necessary for PHA-stimulated T cell DNA synthesis even in the presence of PMA, interleukin 1 (IL 1), or interleukin 2 (IL 2). In contrast, AC-depleted T cells were able to respond to the combination of the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, and PMA regardless of the cell density at which they were cultured. Results of cell cycle analysis support the conclusion that intact AC, IL 1, and a PMA-like signal play distinct roles in the progression of mitogen stimulated T cells through the first round of the cell cycle.

  14. Accessory cells with a veiled morphology and movement pattern generated from monocytes after avoidance of plastic adherence and of NADPH oxidase activation. A comparison with GM-CSF/IL-4-induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Ruwhof, Cindy; Canning, Martha O; Grotenhuis, Kristel; de Wit, Harm J; Florencia, Zenovia Z; de Haan-Meulman, Meeny; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2002-07-01

    Veiled cells (VC) present in afferent lymph transport antigen from the periphery to the draining lymph nodes. Although VC in lymph form a heterogeneous population, some of the cells clearly belong on morphological grounds to the Langerhans cell (LC)/ dendritic cell (DC) series. Here we show that culturing monocytes for 24 hrs while avoiding plastic adherence (polypropylene tubes) and avoiding the activation of NADPH oxidase (blocking agents) results in the generation of a population of veiled accessory cells. The generated VC were actively moving cells like lymph-borne VC in vivo. The monocyte (mo)-derived VC population existed of CD14(dim/-) and CD14(brighT) cells. Of these the CD14(dim/-) VC were as good in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation as immature DC (iDC) obtained after one week of adherent culture of monocytes in granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. This underscores the accessory cell function of the mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC. Although the CD14(dim/-)VC had a modest expression of the DC-specific marker CD83 and were positive for S100, expression of the DC-specific markers CD1a, Langerin, DC-SIGN, and DC-LAMP were absent. This indicates that the here generated CD14(dim/-) VC can not be considered as classical LC/DC. It was also impossible to turn the CD14(dim/-) mo-derived VC population into typical DC by culture for one week in GM-CSF/IL-4 or LPS. In fact the cells died tinder such circumstances, gaining some macrophage characteristics before dying. The IL-12 production from mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC was lower, whereas the production of IL-10 was higher as compared to iDC. Consequently the T cells that were stimulated by these mo-derived VC produced less IFN-gamma as compared with T cells stimulated by iDC. Our data indicate that it is possible to rapidly generate a population of CD14(dim/-) veiled accessory cells from monocytes. The marker pattern and cytokine production of these VC indicate that this

  15. Positively selected Leu-11a (CD16+) cells require the presence of accessory cells or factors for the lysis of herpes simplex virus-infected fibroblasts but not herpes simplex virus-infected Raji.

    Fitzgerald-Bocarsly, P; Feldman, M; Curl, S; Schnell, J; Denny, T

    1989-08-15

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicated that human NK activity against HSV-infected fibroblasts (HSV-Fs) but not K562 targets was sensitive to treatment with anti-HLA-DR plus C. In the current study, we have selected Leu-11a+ (CD-16) cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting and found that although Leu-11a enriched populations lysed K562 targets in 14-h 51Cr-release assays, they were unable to kill HSV-Fs targets unless a Leu-11a-depleted population was added back to the effectors or unless known activators of NK cells (IFN-alpha or IL-2) were added to the assays. In contrast, Leu-11a-enriched populations were able to mediate ADCC against HSV-Fs in the presence of sera from HSV-seropositive individuals without the requirement for accessory cells. We have begun preliminary characterization of the accessory cells which allow lysis of HSV-Fs by NK cells: they are HLA-DR+ cells which enrich in the light density fractions of Metrizamide density gradients. They need be present in very small numbers for lysis to take place and are not MHC restricted in that heterologous add-backs between anti-HLA-DR plus C and anti-Leu-11b plus C-treated populations are capable of target cell lysis at levels similar to those achieved with the autologous add-backs. Further, the levels of lysis in heterologous add-back experiments reflected the lytic potential of the effector rather than the accessory cell donor. Finally, although the requirement for accessory cells for NK lysis has been demonstrated for fibroblasts infected with HSV-1, CMV, and VZV, lysis of HSV-infected Raji lymphoblastoid cells is relatively accessory-cell independent, indicating that the requirement for accessory cells for lysis by NK cells is not a property of all herpesvirus-infected targets. PMID:2526183

  16. Paced-mating increases the number of adult new born cells in the internal cellular (granular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Rebeca Corona

    Full Text Available The continuous production and addition of new neurons during life in the olfactory bulb is well accepted and has been extensively studied in rodents. This process could allow the animals to adapt to a changing environment. Olfactory neurogenesis begins in the subventricular zone where stem cells proliferate and give rise to young undifferentiated neuroblasts that migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb (OB. Olfaction is crucial for the expression of sexual behavior in rodents. In female rats, the ability to control the rate of sexual interactions (pacing has important physiological and behavioral consequences. In the present experiment we evaluated if pacing behavior modifies the rate of new cells that reach the main and accessory olfactory bulb. The BrdU marker was injected before and after different behavioral tests which included: females placed in a mating cage (control, females allowed to pace the sexual interaction, females that mated but were not able to control the rate of the sexual interaction and females exposed to a sexually active male. Subjects were sacrificed fifteen days after the behavioral test. We observed a significant increase in the density of BrdU positive cells in the internal cellular layer of the accessory olfactory bulb when females paced the sexual interaction in comparison to the other 3 groups. No differences in the cell density in the main olfactory bulb were found. These results suggest that pacing behavior promotes an increase in density of the new cells in the accessory olfactory bulb.

  17. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.;

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers of...... activity of NAG were found among Greenlandic men (mean difference 7.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI 3.0, 34), and in the aggregated cohort (mean difference 4.0 mU/ejaculate, 95% CI -0.2, 8.0). A positive association was observed between CB-153 and PSA as well as zinc among Kharkiv men. In the Swedish cohort, a...

  18. Distinct accessory cell requirements define two types of rat T cell hybridomas specific for unique determinants in the encephalitogenic 68-86 region of myelin basic protein

    Six clonotypically unique T cell hybridomas from Lewis rats were used to study accessory cell activities required for class II MHC restricted T cell responses to the 68-86 encephalitogenic sequence of myelin basic protein (MBP). T cell hybrids which were cultured with GP68-86 68-86 sequence of guinea pig MBP (GPMBP) and naive splenocytes (SPL) were induced to produce IL-2 as measured by the CTLL indicator cell line. The hybrids were categorized into two subsets (designated THYB-1 and THYB-2), because two distinct subset-specific pathways of communication between accessory cells and T cells were involved in GPMBP-induced IL-2 production. These pathways were distinguished by the following six observations. First, when the duration of a pulse of SPL with GPMBP was lengthened from 1 to 4 h, these SPL lost their ability to induce IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet nevertheless retained full stimulatory activity for THYB-1 hybrids. Second, paraformaldehyde fixation of GPMBP-pulsed SPL abrogated an activity necessary for Ag-induced IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids. These fixed SPL were nevertheless able to stimulate THYB-1 hybrids, albeit to a lesser extent than viable unfixed SPL. Third, the addition of either cycloheximide, cytochalasin B, or 2-deoxyglucose to an Ag pulse of SPL with GPMBP dramatically inhibited the subsequent responses of THYB-2 hybrids yet had little or no effect upon the reactivity of THYB-1 hybrids. Fourth, thymocytes lacked necessary activities for GPMBP evoked IL-2 production by THYB-2 hybrids yet strongly promoted THYB-1 hybrid responses. Fifth, exposure of SPL to as little as 500 rad of gamma-irradiation markedly attenuated THYB-2 hybrid response to GPMBP but did not affect THYB-1 responses. Sixth, anti-GPMBP responses by THYB-2 hybrids were observed only in the presence of both radioresistant adherent SPL and a distinct population of radiosensitive nonadherent SPL

  19. The T-cell accessory molecule CD4 recognizes a monomorphic determinant on isolated Ia

    Gay, D; Buus, S; Pasternak, J;

    1988-01-01

    The membrane protein CD4 is commonly found on mature T cells specific for antigen in association with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC; Ia) proteins. This correlation has led to the suggestion that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule on the antigen-presenting cell...... proteins into a planar membrane system, we show that different Ia molecules can greatly enhance the ability of a CD4+ but not a CD4- variant of this class I-restricted T hybrid to respond to isolated class I molecules. T-cell responses can be strongly augmented by the concurrent expression of CD4 on the T...... cell and any of four different Ia proteins on planar membranes, thus supporting the idea that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule and increases the avidity with which the T cell can interact with its target....

  20. Sexual stimulation increases the survival of new cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of the male rat.

    Nancy M Unda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior in rodents is modulated by the olfactory system. The olfactory bulb (OB is a structure that undergoes continues neurogenesis in adulthood. We have previously shown that 15 days after males rats pace the sexual interaction and ejaculate 1 or 3 times, there is an increase in the density of new cells that reach the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if sexual behavior in male rats increases the density of new neurons that survive 45 days after sexual behavior in the AOB and in the main OB (MOB. Male rats were randomly divided in four groups: 1 Control (Ctr, males without sexual interaction; 2 Exposed (Exp, males only exposed to a sexually receptive female; 3 No pacing (NP, males that mated in conditions in which the female paced the sexual interaction; 4 One ejaculation (1E, males that paced the sexual interaction with a receptive female and ejaculated once; and 5 Three ejaculations (3E, males that paced the sexual interaction and were allowed to ejaculate three times. All males were injected with the DNA synthesis marker 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, and were tested in one of the above conditions. 45 days later they were sacrificed, and the OBs were processed to identify new cells and evaluate if they had differentiated into neurons. Our data indicate that males that ejaculated 3 times showed an increase in the density of new cells that survive in the posterior part of the granular cell layer of the AOB and have more new neurons that the control group. However, no significant differences were found in the percentage of new cells that differentiate into neurons. No significant increase in the density of new cells was observed in the MOB. Our data show that pacing the sexual interaction until 3 ejaculations increases the density of new cells and neurons in the granular layer of the AOB, confirming that sexual behavior induces long-lasting plastic changes in the OB.

  1. Migration of CD11b+ Accessory Cells During Murine Lung Regeneration

    Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C.; Lee, Grace S.; Ackermann, Maximilian; KONERDING, MORITZ A.; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung leads to growth of the remaining lung to near-baseline levels. In studying post-pneumonectomy mice, we used morphometric measures to demonstrate neoalveolarization within 21 days of pneumonectomy. Of note, the detailed histology during this period demonstrated no significant pulmonary inflammation. To identify occult blood-borne cells, we used a parabiotic model (wild-type/GFP) of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. Flow cytometry of post-pneumon...

  2. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms that...... regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that...

  3. Melanocortin receptors and their accessory proteins

    Cooray, Sadani N.; Clark, Adrian J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The melanocortin receptor family consists of 5 members which belong to the GPCR superfamily. Their specific ligands, the melanocortins are peptide hormones which are formed by the proteolytic cleavage of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein. It is now recognised that certain GPCRs require accessory proteins for their function. Like these GPCRs the melanocortin receptor family is also known to be associated with accessory proteins that regulate their function. ...

  4. Small Engine & Accessory Test Area

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Small Engine and Accessories Test Area (SEATA) facilitates testaircraft starting and auxiliary power systems, small engines and accessories. The SEATA consists...

  5. Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line

    Behra Martine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals, supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans. Results In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells. Conclusions We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general.

  6. Painful accessory navicular

    Lawson, J.P.; Ogden, J.A.; Sella, E.; Barwick, K.W.

    1984-11-01

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice.

  7. The painful accessory navicular

    The accessory navicular is usually considered a normal anatomic and roentgenographic variant. The term may refer to two distinct patterns. First, a sesamoid bone may be present within the posterior tibial tendon (Type 1); this is anatomically separate from the navicular. Second, an accessory ossification center may be medial to the navicular (Type 2). During postnatal development this is within a cartilaginous mass that is continuous with the cartilage of the navicular. At skeletal maturity the accessory center usually fuses with the navicular to form a curvilinear bone. The Type 2 pattern may be associated with a painful foot, particularly in the athletic adolescent, and should not be arbitrarily dismissed as a roentgenologic variant in the symptomatic patient. The clinical, radiologic, pathologic, and surgical findings in ten cases are reviewed. Roentgenographically the ossicle is triangular or heartshaped. sup(99m)Tc MDP imaging may be of value when the significance of the ossicle is uncertain. Even when the roentgenographic variant is bilateral, increased radionuclide activity occurs only on the symptomatic side. Histologic examination of surgically excised specimens reveals inflammatory chondro-osseous changes in the navicular-accessory navicular synchondrosis compatible with chronic trauma and stress fracture. Nonsurgical treatment with orthotics or cast immobilization produces variable results and resection of the accessory navicular may be the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  8. Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins in adrenal disease and obesity

    Jackson, David S.; Ramachandrappa, Shwetha; Clark, Adrian J; Chan, Li F.

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortin receptor accessory proteins (MRAPs) are regulators of the melanocortin receptor family. MRAP is an essential accessory factor for the functional expression of the MC2R/ACTH receptor. The importance of MRAP in adrenal gland physiology is demonstrated by the clinical condition familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. The role of its paralog melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2), which is predominantly expressed in the hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucle...

  9. Localization of an accessory helicase at the replisome is critical in sustaining efficient genome duplication.

    Atkinson, John; Gupta, Milind K; Rudolph, Christian J; Bell, Hazel; Lloyd, Robert G; McGlynn, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Genome duplication requires accessory helicases to displace proteins ahead of advancing replication forks. Escherichia coli contains three helicases, Rep, UvrD and DinG, that might promote replication of protein-bound DNA. One of these helicases, Rep, also interacts with the replicative helicase DnaB. We demonstrate that Rep is the only putative accessory helicase whose absence results in an increased chromosome duplication time. We show also that the interaction between Rep and DnaB is required for Rep to maintain rapid genome duplication. Furthermore, this Rep-DnaB interaction is critical in minimizing the need for both recombinational processing of blocked replication forks and replisome reassembly, indicating that colocalization of Rep and DnaB minimizes stalling and subsequent inactivation of replication forks. These data indicate that E. coli contains only one helicase that acts as an accessory motor at the fork in wild-type cells, that such an activity is critical for the maintenance of rapid genome duplication and that colocalization with the replisome is crucial for this function. Given that the only other characterized accessory motor, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrm3p, associates physically with the replisome, our demonstration of the functional importance of such an association indicates that colocalization may be a conserved feature of accessory replicative motors. PMID:20923786

  10. Imaging diagnosis of accessory and cavitated uterine mass, a rare mullerian anomaly

    Nishchint Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory and Cavitated Uterine Mass (ACUM is a rare form of developmental Mullerian anomaly seen in young females, which presents as chronic recurrent pelvic pain and severe dysmenorrhea. It is an accessory cavity lying within an otherwise normal uterus. It is lined by functional endometrium and surrounded by myometrium-like smooth muscle cells; hence, it bears striking macroscopic and microscopic resemblance to the uterus. Hysterosalpingography (HSG, Ultrasonography (USG, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI form the mainstay of diagnostic imaging. The entity is often under diagnosed; therefore, a high index of suspicion combined with HSG and MRI imaging can help in making an accurate diagnosis.

  11. Regulation of T cell activation by HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpr acts via distinct mechanisms to cooperate with Nef in NFAT-directed gene expression and to promote transactivation by CREB

    Nef and Vpr are lentiviral accessory proteins that have been implicated in regulation of cellular gene expression. We noticed that Vpr can potentiate Nef-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent transcription. Unlike Nef, which stimulated calcium signaling to activate NFAT, Vpr functioned farther downstream. Similar to the positive effects of Vpr on most of the transcriptional test systems that we used, potentiation of NFAT-directed gene expression was relatively modest in magnitude (two- to threefold) and depended on the cell cycle-arresting capacity of Vpr. By contrast, we found that Vpr could cause more than fivefold upregulation of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-directed transcription via a mechanism that did not require Vpr-induced G2/M arrest. This effect, however, was only evident under suboptimal conditions known to lead to serine phosphorylation of the CRE binding factor (CREB) but not to CREB-dependent gene expression. This suggested that Vpr may act by stabilizing interactions with CREB and its transcriptional cofactor CREB binding protein (CBP). Indeed, this effect could be blocked by cotransfection of the adenoviral CBP inhibitor E1A. These results provide additional evidence for cell cycle-independent regulation of gene expression by Vpr and implicate CREB as a potentially important target for Vpr action in HIV-infected host cells

  12. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace of Vibrio cholerae.

    Tanaya Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders.

  13. Effects of Small Molecule Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Inhibitors on Structure and Function of Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace) of Vibrio cholerae

    Chatterjee, Tanaya; Sheikh, Irshad Ali; Chakravarty, Devlina; Chakrabarti, Pinak; Sarkar, Paramita; Saha, Tultul; Chakrabarti, Manoj K.; Hoque, Kazi Mirajul

    2015-01-01

    Cholera pathogenesis occurs due to synergistic pro-secretory effects of several toxins, such as cholera toxin (CTX) and Accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace) secreted by Vibrio cholerae strains. Ace activates chloride channels stimulating chloride/bicarbonate transport that augments fluid secretion resulting in diarrhea. These channels have been targeted for drug development. However, lesser attention has been paid to the interaction of chloride channel modulators with bacterial toxins. Here we report the modulation of the structure/function of recombinant Ace by small molecule calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitors, namely CaCCinh-A01, digallic acid (DGA) and tannic acid. Biophysical studies indicate that the unfolding (induced by urea) free energy increases upon binding CaCCinh-A01 and DGA, compared to native Ace, whereas binding of tannic acid destabilizes the protein. Far-UV CD experiments revealed that the α-helical content of Ace-CaCCinh-A01 and Ace-DGA complexes increased relative to Ace. In contrast, binding to tannic acid had the opposite effect, indicating the loss of protein secondary structure. The modulation of Ace structure induced by CaCC inhibitors was also analyzed using docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Functional studies, performed using mouse ileal loops and Ussing chamber experiments, corroborate biophysical data, all pointing to the fact that tannic acid destabilizes Ace, inhibiting its function, whereas DGA stabilizes the toxin with enhanced fluid accumulation in mouse ileal loop. The efficacy of tannic acid in mouse model suggests that the targeted modulation of Ace structure may be of therapeutic benefit for gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:26540279

  14. Spinal accessory nerve neurilemmoma

    A neurilemmoma of the spinal accessory nerve extending from the lower brain stem to the high cervical region, without typical jugular foramen syndome is presented. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high cervical intradural extramedullary lesion in patients with lower cranial nerve(s) dysfunction. The value of intrathecal and intravenous contrast enhancement computed tomography (CT) myelogram is emphasized. 13 refs.; 3 figs

  15. A group-specific inhibitor of lysosomal cysteine proteinases selectively inhibits both proteolytic degradation and presentation of the antigen dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine by guinea pig accessory cells to T cells

    Buus, S; Werdelin, O

    1986-01-01

    A limited intralysosomal proteolytic degradation is probably a key event in the accessory cell processing of large protein antigens before their presentation to T cells. With the aid of highly specific inhibitors of proteinases, we have examined the role of proteolysis in the presentation of anti...... inhibitor. Another inhibitor, pepstatin A, which selectively blocks aspartic proteinases, did not block the presentation of dinitrophenyl-poly-L-lysine. The results identify cysteine proteinases, probably lysosomal, as one of the groups of enzymes involved in antigen processing....

  16. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves

    The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves are closely related anatomically, and to a certain extent, functionally. We present an overview of their anatomy, highlighting the important clinical and imaging implications. The main pathologic lesions arising from these nerves are also discussed and the imaging features reviewed.

  17. The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves

    Ong, Cheng Kang [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: ongck22@hotmail.com; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, National University Health System, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-05-15

    The glossopharyngeal, vagus and spinal accessory nerves are closely related anatomically, and to a certain extent, functionally. We present an overview of their anatomy, highlighting the important clinical and imaging implications. The main pathologic lesions arising from these nerves are also discussed and the imaging features reviewed.

  18. Accessory scrotum in the perineum

    Pananghat A Kumar; Pavai Arunachalam; Kumar, Prasanna N.

    2011-01-01

    A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

  19. Accessory scrotum in the perineum

    Pananghat A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of accessory scrotum in a 2-day-old male infant is reported because of its rarity. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypotheses regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

  20. Isolated spinal accessory neuropathy and intracisternal schwannomas of the spinal accessory nerve

    Abdullah M. Al-Ajmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a 40-year-old female patient presenting with isolated left spinal accessory neuropathy that developed insidiously over 6 years. She complained of ill-defined deep neck and shoulder pain. On examination, prominent sternocleidomastoid and trapezoid muscle weakness and atrophy, shoulder instability, and lateral scapular winging were observed. MRI identified a small mass of the cisternal portion of the spinal accessory nerve. Its appearance was typical of schwannoma. Surgical treatment was not offered because of the small tumor size, lack of mass effect and the questionable functional recovery in the presence of muscular atrophy.

  1. Modulation of macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide: stem cell requirements, accessory lymphocyte involvement, and IA-inducing factor production.

    Wentworth, P A; Ziegler, H K

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of induction of murine macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 microgram of LPS resulted in a 3- to 10-fold increase in the number of IA-positive peritoneal macrophages (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence and a 6-to 16-fold increase by radioimmunoassay. The isolated lipid A moiety of LPS was a potent inducer of macrophage Ia expression. Ia induction required a functional myelopoietic system as indicated by the finding t...

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of B Cell receptor accessory molecule CD79 gene in humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus)

    Huang, Yucong; Yan, Xiuying; Cai, Shuanghu; Cai, Jia; Jian, Jichang; Lu, Yishan; Tang, Jufen; Wu, Zaohe

    2016-04-01

    CD79, a key component of the B cell antigen receptor complex, is composed of CD79α(Igα) and CD79β(Igβ) encoded by mb-1 and B29 respectively, and plays an important role in B cell signaling. In this study, we isolated and characterized mb-1 and B29 from humphead snapper ( Lutjanus sanguineus). Their tissue distribution and expression profiles after stimulations in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. The humphead snapper mb-1 and B29 contain open reading frames of 684 bp and 606 bp, encoding 227 amino acids and 201 amino acids, respectively. Both CD79α and CD79β possess signal peptide, extracellular Ig domain, transmembrane region and immunoreceptor tyrosine kinase activation motif (ITAM). Mb-1 is highly expressed in lymphoid organs (thymus, posterior kidney and spleen) and mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (gill and intestine), while B29 is mainly detected in posterior kidney, spleen, gill and skin. Furthermore, transcription of mb-1 and B29 in head kidney leucocytes was up-regulated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) stimulation, respectively, and their expression level in anterior kidney and spleen was also increased after challenged with formalin-inactived Vibrio harveyi. These results indicated that humphead snapper CD79 molecule might play an important role in immune response to pathogen infection.

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    Oh, Ki Keun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Kim, Mi Hye [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption.

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of accessory breast

    Accessory breast is an ectopic breast tissue from developmental remnants. It sometimes begins to make symptom, pain and swelling, during premenstrual period or pregnancy. For it has been known as a rear condition, it has occasionally misdiagnosed as a abnormal mass, such as lymphadenitis or hidradentis. We have analyzed 52 accessory breast tissues prospectively, to document the characteristic findings of accessory breast. In summary, the characteristic sonographic findings of accessory breast were the presence of breast tissue superficial to the axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla, resembling the patient's own breast pattern, the presence of converging appearance of dilated ducts, presence of nipple and/or areola, the obliteration of inner wall of dermis, the obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer, and the downward displacement of axillary fascia or underlying fascia if not in axilla without interruption

  5. Progress in the clinical imaging research of bone diseases on ankle and foot sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles

    Li, Xiaozhong; Shi, Lenian; Liu, Taiyun; Wang, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles are research focuses of foot and ankle surgery. Pains of the foot and ankle are related to sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles. The specific anatomical and functional relationship of sesamoid bones and accessory ossicles can cause such bone diseases as the dislocation of sesamoid bones and accessory bones, infection, inflammation and necrosis of sesamoid bones, cartilage softening, tenosynovitis of sesamoid bones and the sesamoid bone syndrome. However,...

  6. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  7. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  8. Accessory slips of the extensor digiti minimi.

    Li, Jing; Mao, Qing Hua

    2014-01-01

    During the educational dissection of a 69-year-old Chinese male cadaver, an extensor digiti minimi (EDM) with five slips on the right hand was discovered. Except for the two slips of the little finger, the two radial slips were inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger and the ring finger, respectively. The middle slip was connected to the junctura tendinum in the fourth intermetacarpal spaces. Variations in this region are of paramount importance for the reconstructive surgeons, who may utilize the accessory slips to restore functional capacity of the fingers. PMID:24970007

  9. 电生理法对豚鼠副嗅球功能分区的显示%Functional subdivisions of the guinea pig accessory olfactory bulb revealed by electrophysiology

    余青松; 须贝外喜夫

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨豚鼠副嗅球(AOB)是否存在多个功能分区。方法:在豚鼠副嗅球矢状位切片上,将双钨电极插入副嗅球前部或后部的犁鼻神经纤维层(VNL),以单个方波刺激传入神经纤维,用玻璃微电极记录AOB前部或后部外橄状层(EPL)细胞外场电位。结果:电刺激VNL,可在EPL记录到典型的衰减性场电位,且后EPL记录到的场电位的持续时间较前部分明显延长。刺激前VNL仅在前EPL记录到场电位,而刺激后VNL只在后EPL记录到场电位。结论:豚鼠副嗅球可分为前后两个亚区,两区存在解剖学上的差异,说明在犁鼻系统中至少存在两个不同的传入-传出通路。%Objective:To elucidate possible functional subdivisions in the guinea pig accessory olfactory bulb.Method:The guinea pig accessory olfactory bulbs were cut in sagittal slice.Bipolar tungsten electrodes were inserted into anterior or posterior vomeronasal nerve layers and single square-pulses were delivered through the eletrodes to activate afferent fibres.Glass microelectrodes were used to record extracellular field potentials of anterior or posterior external plexiform layers.Result:A single shook of the VNL provoked a characteristic damped oscillatory field potential and the oscillation in the pAOB was more distinct in wave form and longer in duration than those in the aAOB.The stimulation of anterior VNL elicited field potentials exelusively in the anterior region of EPL,whereas shocks to the posterior VNL provoked oscillatory responses only within the posterior EPL.Conclusion:The accessory olfactory bulb in the guinea-pig is distinctly segregated into the anterior and posterior subdivisions and an anatomical boundary exists in both regions.The results suggested that there are at least two different input-output pathways in vomeronasal systems.

  10. Accessory signals in T-T cell interactions between antigen- and alloantigen-specific, human memory T cells generated in vitro

    Odum, N; Ryder, L P; Georgsen, J;

    1990-01-01

    ), or a calcium ionophore (A23187) enabled Ta to elicit alloantigen-specific memory T-cell responses and to present purified protein derivative (PPD) to PPD-specific T-cell lines. The addition of irradiated, Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell lines (EBV-LCL) (but not their supernatants) had a similar but less...

  11. ``Backpack'' Functionalized Living Immune Cells

    Swiston, Albert; Um, Soong Ho; Irvine, Darrell; Cohen, Robert; Rubner, Michael

    2009-03-01

    We demonstrate that functional polymeric ``backpacks'' built from polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) can be attached to a fraction of the surface area of living, individual lymphocytes. Backpacks containing fluorescent polymers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and commercially available quantum dots have been attached to B and T-cells, which may be spatially manipulated using a magnetic field. Since the backpack does not occlude the entire cellular surface from the environment, this technique allows functional synthetic payloads to be attached to a cell that is free to perform its native functions, thereby synergistically utilizing both biological and synthetic functionalities. For instance, we have shown that backpack-modified T-cells are able to migrate on surfaces for several hours following backpack attachment. Possible payloads within the PEM backpack include drugs, vaccine antigens, thermally responsive polymers, nanoparticles, and imaging agents. We will discuss how this approach has broad potential for applications in bioimaging, single-cell functionalization, immune system and tissue engineering, and cell-based therapeutics where cell-environment interactions are critical.

  12. Dynamic expression pattern of kinesin accessory protein in Drosophila

    Ritu Sarpal; Krishanu Ray

    2002-09-01

    We have identified the Drosophila homologue of the non-motor accessory subunit of kinesin-II motor complex. It is homologous to the SpKAP115 of the sea urchin, KAP3A and KAP3B of the mouse, and SMAP protein in humans. In situ hybridization using a DmKAP specific cRNA probe has revealed a dynamic pattern of expression in the developing nervous system. The staining first appears in a subset of cells in the embryonic central nervous system at stage 13 and continues till the first instar larva stage. At the third instar larva stage the staining gets restricted to a few cells in the optic lobe and in the ventral ganglion region. It has also stained a subset of sensory neurons from late stage 13 and till the first instar larva stage. The DmKAP expression pattern in the nervous system corresponds well with that of Klp64D and Klp68D as reported earlier. In addition, we have found that the DmKAP gene is constitutively expressed in the germline cells and in follicle cells during oogenesis. These cells are also stained using an antibody to KLP68D protein, but mRNA in situ hybridization using KLP64D specific probe has not stained these cells. Together these results proved a basis for further analysis of tissue specific function of DmKAP in future.

  13. Building iPhone OS Accessories

    Maskrey, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a serious, in-depth look at Apple's External Accessory Framework and the iPhone Accessories API. You'll learn how to create new, integrated solutions that combine iPhone apps with dedicated hardware. The iPhone OS Accessories API expands the opportunities for innovative iPhone developers, allowing you to control and monitor external devices, whether you've built them yourself or obtained them from a third party. What you'll learn * Develop accessories and apps for the iPhone and iPod touch. * Use Apple's External Accessory Framework to create hardware/software interaction. *

  14. Modulation of innate antigen-presenting cell function by pre-patent schistosome infection.

    Christine E Ferragine

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are intravascular helminths that infect over 200 million people worldwide. Deposition of eggs by adult schistosomes stimulates Th2 responses to egg antigens and induces granulomatous pathology that is a hallmark of schistosome infection. Paradoxically, schistosomes require host immune function for their development and reproduction and for egress of parasite eggs from the host. To identify potential mechanisms by which immune cells might influence parasite development prior to the onset of egg production, we assessed immune function in mice infected with developing schistosomes. We found that pre-patent schistosome infection is associated with a loss of T cell responsiveness to other antigens and is due to a diminution in the ability of innate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate T cells. Diminution of stimulatory capacity by schistosome worms specifically affected CD11b(+ cells and did not require concomitant adaptive responses. We could not find evidence for production of a diffusible inhibitor of T cells by innate cells from infected mice. Rather, inhibition of T cell responsiveness by accessory cells required cell contact and only occurred when cells from infected mice outnumbered competent APCs by more than 3∶1. Finally, we show that loss of T cell stimulatory capacity may in part be due to suppression of IL-12 expression during pre-patent schistosome infection. Modulation of CD4(+ T cell and APC function may be an aspect of host immune exploitation by schistosomes, as both cell types influence parasite development during pre-patent schistosome infection.

  15. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    Shin Fujimaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease, and that may be caused by neural stem cell dysfunction. Additionally, diabetes induces skeletal muscle atrophy, the impairment of energy metabolism, and muscle weakness. Similar to neural stem cells, the proliferation and differentiation are attenuated in skeletal muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells. However, physical activity is very useful for preventing the diabetic alteration to the neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle. Physical activity improves neurogenic capacity of neural stem cells and the proliferative and differentiative abilities of satellite cells. The present review proposes physical activity as a useful measure for the patients in diabetes to improve the physiological functions and to maintain their quality of life. It further discusses the use of stem cell-based approaches in the context of diabetes treatment.

  16. Antigen-specific T8+ human clone of cells with a nonspecific augmenting function on the T4 cell-B cell helper interaction

    The authors isolated a T8+ T3+ Ia+ clone of cells from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy subject. The clone was expanded and maintained with autologous feed cells, interleukin 2, and a streptococcal antigen. The T8+ clone of cells responded specifically to the streptococcal antigen, in the absence of accessory cells,and released a soluble factor. Both the cloned cells and the corresponding soluble factor expressed augmenting helper but not suppressor activity. The augmenting helper activity for B cell antibody synthesis was demonstrable only in the presence of autologous T 4 cells. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure antibodies. Although stimulation of the T8+ cloned cells was antigen-specific, the resulting soluble factor elicited nonspecific antibody synthesis in the presence of T4 and B cells. The T8+ cloned cell-derived factor was adsorbed by B cells but not by T4 cells. Preliminary studies suggest that the factor has the properties of a B cell growth factor. They suggest that the T8+ population consists of functionally heterogeneous cell subsets, some that have suppressor function and others that augment the T4+ helper-inducer activity in B cell antibody synthesis

  17. Zolpidem, a selective GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit agonist, induces comparable Fos expression in oxytocinergic neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and accessory but not supraoptic nuclei in the rat

    Kiss, Alexander; Søderman, Andreas; Bundzikova, Jana;

    2006-01-01

    Functional activation of oxytocinergic (OXY) cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN), supraoptic (SON), and accessory (ACC) nuclei was investigated in response to acute treatment with Zolpidem (a GABA(A) receptor agonist with selectivity for alpha(1) subunits) utilizing dual Fos/OXY immun...

  18. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    Feldman, M.J.; Herndon, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators

    The choice of optimum mechanical accessories for mobile teleoperators involves matching the criteria for emergency response with the available technology. This paper presents a general background to teleoperations, a potpourri of the manipulator systems available, and an argument for force reflecting manipulation. The theme presented is that the accomplishment of humanlike endeavors in hostile environments will be most successful when man model capabilities are utilized. The application of recent electronic technology to manipulator development has made new tools available to be applied to emergency response activities. The development activities described are products of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 13 refs., 7 figs

  20. Role of self carriers in the immune response and tolerance. XI. Correlation of Ia expression and interleukin-1 production with delivery of immunogenic signals in vivo by hapten-modified accessory cell-like tumor lines.

    Cogswell, J P; Phipps, R P; Scott, D W

    1988-06-01

    It was recently demonstrated that a lymphoid dendritic-like tumor, P388AD.2, presented hapten-modified self (HMS) in an immunogenic fashion even after injection via the normally "tolerogenic" intravenous (iv) route. To determine whether this property was unique to the P388AD.2 line, other hapten-modified tumors were administered iv and the result of their presentation was measured by changes in the number of splenic plaque-forming cells (PFC) following in vitro challenge with thymic-independent antigens. Of the six tumors tested, two (P388 and J774.5R) primed for augmented PFC responses, while four others (P388NA.10, P388D1, WEHI-231, and 70Z/3) did not. When these tumors were compared for Ia expression and production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), it was discovered that (1) all of the immunogenic tumors were Ia+ and IL-1 producing (IL-1+), although not all Ia+,IL-1+ tumors could elicit augmented PFC responses; (2) none of the tumors that were deficient in either Ia expression or IL-1 production could prime B-cell responses in vivo; and (3) the ability to augment PFC responses was proportional to the density of Ia on the immunogenic tumors. These results demonstrated that P388AD.2 was not the only tumor line capable of presenting HMS iv as an immunogen, and that the accessory cell phenotype is critical for the induction of an immunogenic response in vivo. PMID:3259475

  1. Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Accessory Navicular

    Dobbs, Matthew B.; Walton, Tim

    2004-01-01

    The accessory navicular bone is one of the most symptomatic bones of the foot. Although it has been reported to be present in various members of the same family, there is a lack of knowledge about its inheritance pattern. We report two large pedigrees in which accessory navicular is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion with incomplete penetrance.

  2. Identification of an MRAP-Independent Melanocortin-2 Receptor: Functional Expression of the Cartilaginous Fish, Callorhinchus milii, Melanocortin-2 Receptor in CHO Cells

    Reinick, Christina L.; Liang, Liang; Angleson, Joseph K.; Dores, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the genome of the cartilaginous fish, Callorhynchus milii (elephant shark), encodes a melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) ortholog. Expression of the elephant shark mc2r cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells revealed that trafficking to the plasma membrane and functional activation of the receptor do not require coexpression with an exogenous melanocortin receptor-2 accessory protein (mrap) cDNA. Ligand selectivity studies indicated that elephant shark MC2R-...

  3. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  4. Carcinoma in accessory axillary breast.

    Khanna, Seema; Mishra, Shashi Prakash; Kumar, Satendra; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of carcinoma developing in an accessory breast. The patient presented with a progressive lump in her right axilla for 1 year. On examination, there was a well-developed nipple areola complex in the right axilla overlying a hard, fixed 5 × 3 cm lump. On investigation, core biopsy revealed poorly differentiated carcinoma of the breast. Mammography also revealed features of a malignant lesion with skin and muscle infiltration. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered followed by modified radical mastectomy after three cycles. Immunohistochemistry study showed positive status of oestrogen and progesterone receptors, and negative HER-2 neu. Three more cycles of chemotherapy along with 50 Gy radiotherapy were given in an adjuvant setting followed by hormone therapy. PMID:26260957

  5. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides...

  6. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provide...

  7. Mitochondrial functions of RECQL4 are required for the prevention of aerobic glycolysis-dependent cell invasion.

    Kumari, Jyoti; Hussain, Mansoor; De, Siddharth; Chandra, Suruchika; Modi, Priyanka; Tikoo, Shweta; Singh, Archana; Sagar, Chandrasekhar; Sepuri, Naresh Babu V; Sengupta, Sagar

    2016-04-01

    Germline mutations in RECQL4 helicase are associated with Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, which is characterized by a predisposition to cancer. RECQL4 localizes to the mitochondria, where it acts as an accessory factor during mitochondrial DNA replication. To understand the specific mitochondrial functions of RECQL4, we created isogenic cell lines, in which the mitochondrial localization of the helicase was either retained or abolished. The mitochondrial integrity was affected due to the absence of RECQL4 in mitochondria, leading to a decrease in F1F0-ATP synthase activity. In cells where RECQL4 does not localize to mitochondria, the membrane potential was decreased, whereas ROS levels increased due to the presence of high levels of catalytically inactive SOD2. Inactive SOD2 accumulated owing to diminished SIRT3 activity. Lack of the mitochondrial functions of RECQL4 led to aerobic glycolysis that, in turn, led to an increased invasive capability within these cells. Together, this study demonstrates for the first time that, owing to its mitochondrial functions, the accessory mitochondrial replication helicase RECQL4 prevents the invasive step in the neoplastic transformation process. PMID:26906415

  8. One nose, one brain: contribution of the main and accessory olfactory system to chemosensation

    Carla eMucignat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accessory olfactory system is present in most tetrapods. It is involved in the perception of chemical stimuli, being implicated also in the detection of pheromone. However, it is sensitive also to some common odorant molecules, which have no clear implication in intraspecific chemical communication. The accessory olfactory system may complement the main olfactory system, and may contribute different perceptual features to the construction of a unitary representation, which merges the different chemosensory qualities. Crosstalk between the main and accessory olfactory systems occurs at different levels of central processing, in brain areas where the inputs from the two systems converge. Interestingly, centrifugal projections from more caudal brain areas are deeply involved in modulating both main and accessory sensory processing. A high degree of interaction between the two systems may be conceived, and partial overlapping appears to occur in many functions. Therefore, the central chemosensory projections merge inputs from different organs to obtain a complex chemosensory picture.

  9. HIV-1 Nef and Vpu Are Functionally Redundant Broad-Spectrum Modulators of Cell Surface Receptors, Including Tetraspanins

    Haller, Claudia; Müller, Birthe; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Lamas-Murua, Miguel; Stolp, Bettina; Pujol, François M.; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Nef and Vpu are thought to optimize virus replication in the infected host, at least in part via their ability to interfere with vesicular host cell trafficking. Despite the use of distinct molecular mechanisms, Nef and Vpu share specificity for some molecules such as CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), while disruption of intracellular transport of the host cell restriction factor CD317/tetherin represents a specialized activity of Vpu not exerted by HIV-1 Nef. To establish a profile of host cell receptors whose intracellular transport is affected by Nef, Vpu, or both, we comprehensively analyzed the effect of these accessory viral proteins on cell surface receptor levels on A3.01 T lymphocytes. Thirty-six out of 105 detectable receptors were significantly downregulated by HIV-1 Nef, revealing a previously unappreciated scope with which HIV-1 Nef remodels the cell surface of infected cells. Remarkably, the effects of HIV-1 Vpu on host cell receptor exposure largely matched those of HIV-1 Nef in breadth and specificity (32 of 105, all also targeted by Nef), even though the magnitude was generally less pronounced. Of particular note, cell surface exposure of all members of the tetraspanin (TSPAN) protein family analyzed was reduced by both Nef and Vpu, and the viral proteins triggered the enrichment of TSPANs in a perinuclear area of the cell. While Vpu displayed significant colocalization and physical association with TSPANs, interactions of Nef with TSPANs were less robust. TSPANs thus emerge as a major target of deregulation in host cell vesicular transport by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu. The conservation of this activity in two independent accessory proteins suggests its importance for the spread of HIV-1 in the infected host. IMPORTANCE In this paper, we define that HIV-1 Nef and Vpu display a surprising functional overlap and affect the cell surface exposure of a previously unexpected breadth of cellular receptors. Our analyses

  10. Characterisation of different forms of the accessory gp3 canine coronavirus type I protein identified in cats.

    d'Orengiani, Anne-Laure Pham-Hung d'Alexandry; Duarte, Lidia; Pavio, Nicole; Le Poder, Sophie

    2015-04-16

    ORF3 is a supplemental open reading frame coding for an accessory glycoprotein gp3 of unknown function, only present in genotype I canine strain (CCoV-I) and some atypical feline FCoV strains. In these latter hosts, the ORF3 gene systematically displays one or two identical deletions leading to the synthesis of truncated proteins gp3-Δ1 and gp3-Δ2. As deletions in CoV accessory proteins have already been involved in tissue or host switch, studies of these different gp3 proteins were conducted in canine and feline cell. All proteins oligomerise through covalent bonds, are N-glycosylated and are maintained in the ER in non-infected but also in CCoV-II infected cells, without any specific retention signal. However, deletions influence their level of expression. In canine cells, all proteins are expressed with similar level whereas in feline cells, the expression of gp3-Δ1 is higher than the two other forms of gp3. None of the gp3 proteins modulate the viral replication cycle of heterologous genotype II CCoV in canine cell line, leading to the conclusion that the gp3 proteins are probably advantageous only for CCoV-I and atypical FCoV strains. PMID:25665789

  11. The Role of Antigenic Drive and Tumor-Infiltrating Accessory Cells in the Pathogenesis of Helicobacter-Induced Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    Mueller, Anne; O’Rourke, Jani; Chu, Pauline; Chu, Amanda; Michael F. Dixon; Bouley, Donna M.; Lee, Adrian; Falkow, Stanley

    2005-01-01

    Gastric B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type is closely linked to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Most clinical and histopathological features of the tumor can be reproduced by prolonged Helicobacter infection of BALB/c mice. In this study, we have addressed the role of antigenic stimulation in the pathogenesis of the lymphoma by experimental infection with Helicobacter felis, followed by antibiotic eradication therapy and subsequent re-infection. Antimicrobial the...

  12. GPCRs in Stem Cell Function

    Doze, Van A.; PEREZ, DIANNE M.

    2013-01-01

    Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology o...

  13. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Prachi Saffar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015 and presence of accessory spleen recorded. Tissue from the accessory spleen was also subjected to routine histological processing and slide prepared by haematoxylin and eosin staining. RESULTS Accessory spleen was present in two cadavers near the splenic hilum. One was 3.9 cm in the long axis and weighed about 48.4 grams, while the other was 1.2 cm in long axis and weighed about 12.5 grams. One had a separate arterial branch from the main splenic artery; that it was splenic tissue was confirmed histologically. DISCUSSION The presence of accessory spleen is considered to be due to embryonic non-fusion of the splenic aggregate with the main mass. CONCLUSION Though accessory spleen in itself pose no clinical problems, its significance cannot be undermined. Surgeons and radiologists are advised to look for and rule out the presence of accessory spleen, especially while evaluating a case of abdominal and perineal pathology, else it may be wrongly diagnosed as malignant tumour or enlarged lymph node leading to grave consequences.

  14. [Clinical features of accessory parotid gland tumors].

    Iguchi, Hiroyoshi; Wada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Hidefumi; Yamada, Kei; Matsushita, Naoki; Okamoto, Sachimi; Teranishi, Yuichi; Koda, Yuki; Kosugi, Yuki; Yamane, Hideo

    2013-12-01

    Accessory parotid gland tumors are relatively rare; hence, adequately detailed clinical analyses of these tumors are difficult to perform at a single institution. In this report, we describe the findings for 65 patients [29 men, 36 women; median age, 51 (9-81) years] with accessory parotid gland tumors, consisting of 4 cases documented by us and 61 cases previously reported by other Japanese authors. Approximately 50% of the patients were treated in an otolaryngology department, while the remaining patients were treated in plastic surgery, oral surgery, or dermatology departments. In 4 patients, the results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration cytology indicated that the tumor was benign; however, the postoperative histopathology results revealed malignant tumors. The frequencies of malignant and benign tumors were 44.6% (n = 29) and 55.4% (n = 36), respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma were the most frequent types of malignant and benign accessory parotid gland tumors, respectively. Among the various surgical methods that were used, such as direct cheek and intraoral incisions, a standard parotidectomy incision was the most preferred treatment approach for these tumors. Recently, an endoscopic approach has also been found to yield satisfactory results. An optimal approach should be selected after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. No definite guidelines are available regarding the choice of elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy for malignant accessory parotid gland tumors. Although tumor resection (plus elective neck dissection) and postoperative radiation therapy have been frequently performed for various kinds of malignant accessory parotid gland tumors to date, additional studies are needed regarding the criteria for selecting elective neck dissection and postoperative radiation therapy. Since the malignancy rate for accessory parotid gland tumors is higher than that for parotid gland

  15. An accessory protein required for anchoring and assembly of amyloid fibres in B. subtilis biofilms.

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibres, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibres. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previously YqxM) that serves both to anchor the fibres to the cell wall and to assemble TasA into fibres. TapA is found in discrete foci in the cell envelope and these foci disappear when cells are treated with a mixture of D-amino acids. Purified cell wall sacculi retain a functional form of this anchoring protein such that purified fibres can be anchored to the sacculi in vitro. In addition, we show that TapA is essential for the proper assembly of the fibres. Its absence results in a dramatic reduction in TasA levels and what little TasA is left produces only thin fibres that are not anchored to the cell. PMID:21477127

  16. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  17. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia.

    Alway, Stephen E; Myers, Matthew J; Mohamed, Junaith S

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  18. Accessory breast tissue mimicking pedunculated lipoma.

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Bhat, Ashraf; Hajini, Firdoos

    2014-01-01

    Accessory breast tissue is an uncommon condition which occurs in 0.4-6% of women. It is mostly located in the axilla where it can cause diagnostic difficulty, especially if it is unilateral and large. Usually it is bilateral and presents as an asymptomatic mass during pregnancy or lactation. The diagnosis of ectopic breast tissue is important as it can undergo the same pathological changes that occur in a normal breast, such as mastitis, fibrocystic disease and carcinoma. We present a case of a large right-sided accessory breast in a 32-year-old woman that was clinically diagnosed as pedunculated lipoma. However, subsequent histopathological examination proved it to be an accessory breast tissue with lactational changes. PMID:25006058

  19. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men

    Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether an impaired Leydig cell function is present in severely oligospermic men, serum testosterone (T), LH, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG levels in 357 idiopathic infertile men were compared with levels in 318 proven fertile men. In addition, the T/LH ratio, E(2)/T ratio, and...... fertile levels.Thus, the group of infertile men showed significant signs of impaired Leydig cell function in parallel to their impaired spermatogenesis. The association of decreased spermatogenesis and impaired Leydig cell function might reflect a disturbed paracrine communication between the seminiferous...... epithelium and the Leydig cells, triggered by distorted function of the seminiferous epithelium. On the other hand, the parallel impairment of spermatogenesis and Leydig cells may reflect a congenital dysfunction of both compartments caused by a testicular dysgenesis during fetal/infant development....

  20. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  1. Delay estimation for CMOS functional cells

    Madsen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Presents a new RC tree network model for delay estimation of CMOS functional cells. The model is able to reflect topological changes within a cell, which is of particular interest when doing performance driven layout synthesis. Further, a set of algorithms to perform worst case analysis on arbitr...... arbitrary CMOS functional cells using the proposed delay model, is presented. Both model and algorithms have been implemented as a part of a cell compiler (CELLO) working in an experimental silicon compiler environment.......Presents a new RC tree network model for delay estimation of CMOS functional cells. The model is able to reflect topological changes within a cell, which is of particular interest when doing performance driven layout synthesis. Further, a set of algorithms to perform worst case analysis on...

  2. Membrane elastic properties and cell function.

    Bruno Pontes

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the cell membrane, interacting with its attached cytoskeleton, is an important regulator of cell function, exerting and responding to forces. We investigate this relationship by looking for connections between cell membrane elastic properties, especially surface tension and bending modulus, and cell function. Those properties are measured by pulling tethers from the cell membrane with optical tweezers. Their values are determined for all major cell types of the central nervous system, as well as for macrophage. Astrocytes and glioblastoma cells, which are considerably more dynamic than neurons, have substantially larger surface tensions. Resting microglia, which continually scan their environment through motility and protrusions, have the highest elastic constants, with values similar to those for resting macrophage. For both microglia and macrophage, we find a sharp softening of bending modulus between their resting and activated forms, which is very advantageous for their acquisition of phagocytic functions upon activation. We also determine the elastic constants of pure cell membrane, with no attached cytoskeleton. For all cell types, the presence of F-actin within tethers, contrary to conventional wisdom, is confirmed. Our findings suggest the existence of a close connection between membrane elastic constants and cell function.

  3. Diabetes and Stem Cell Function

    Shin Fujimaki; Tamami Wakabayashi; Tohru Takemasa; Makoto Asashima; Tomoko Kuwabara

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common serious metabolic diseases that results in hyperglycemia due to defects of insulin secretion or insulin action or both. The present review focuses on the alterations to the diabetic neuronal tissues and skeletal muscle, including stem cells in both tissues, and the preventive effects of physical activity on diabetes. Diabetes is associated with various nervous disorders, such as cognitive deficits, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease, and that may b...

  4. Immunological functions of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Knolle, Percy A; Wohlleber, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) line the liver sinusoids and separate passenger leukocytes in the sinusoidal lumen from hepatocytes. LSECs further act as a platform for adhesion of various liver-resident immune cell populations such as Kupffer cells, innate lymphoid cells or liver dendritic cells. In addition to having an extraordinary scavenger function, LSECs possess potent immune functions, serving as sentinel cells to detect microbial infection through pattern recognition receptor activation and as antigen (cross)-presenting cells. LSECs cross-prime naive CD8 T cells, causing their rapid differentiation into memory T cells that relocate to secondary lymphoid tissues and provide protection when they re-encounter the antigen during microbial infection. Cross-presentation of viral antigens by LSECs derived from infected hepatocytes triggers local activation of effector CD8 T cells and thereby assures hepatic immune surveillance. The immune function of LSECs complements conventional immune-activating mechanisms to accommodate optimal immune surveillance against infectious microorganisms while preserving the integrity of the liver as a metabolic organ. PMID:27041636

  5. Nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast: a case report

    Shioi Yoshihiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nipple adenoma is a relatively rare benign breast neoplasm, and cases of the disease arising from the axillary accessory breast have very seldom been reported in the English literature. We report a case of nipple adenoma arising from axillary accessory breast including clinical and pathological findings. An 82-year-old woman presented with the complaint of a small painful mass in the right axilla. Physical examination confirmed a well-defined eczematous crusted mass that was 8 mm in size. The diagnosis of nipple adenoma was made from an excisional specimen on the basis of characteristic histological findings. Microscopic structural features included a compact proliferation of small tubules lined by epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and the merging of glandular epithelial cells of the adenoma into squamous epithelial cells in the superficial epidermal layer. Because clinically nipple adenoma may resemble Paget’s disease and pathologically can be misinterpreted as tubular carcinoma, the correct identification of nipple adenoma is an important factor in the differential diagnosis for axillary tumor neoplasms. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1186821489769063

  6. Standard—Cell Placement from Functional Descriptions

    KlausBuchenrieder

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a functional language for the unambiguous description of digital circuits,a method and algorithms to obtain a standard-cell layout,and a comparative evaluation of the developed functional standard-cell placement technique.The presented placement scheme is different from traditional methods because the complete layout grometry is specified and constructed automatically from a functional description.The construction relies on a translation that combines the simplicity of standard-cells with the elegance of functional programming.An evaluation of the method introduced shows that the quality of the resulting placement is close to the results achieved with simulated annealing while the computation time is significantly less.Furthermore,the evaluation suggests to employ the functional placement method in conjunction with low-temperature simulated annealing for running-time reduction and improvedresults.

  7. 21 CFR 890.3910 - Wheelchair accessory.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair accessory. 890.3910 Section 890.3910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3910...

  8. Mrap2 Accessory Linked to Obesity

    Liu, Tiemin; Elmquist, Joel K.; Williams, Kevin W.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors are critical modulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. Companion studies published in Science (Asai et al., 2013; Sebag et al., 2013) establish a role for melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (Mrap2) in regulating melanocortin receptor activity and in the development of obesity in zebrafish, rodents, and humans.

  9. Biting palsy of the accessory nerve.

    Paljärvi, L; Partanen, J

    1980-01-01

    A young man was bitten by his girl friend at the anterior border of the left trapezius muscle. Weakness of the trapezius resulted and a longstanding ache in the shoulder developed. Clinically and neurophysiologically, an axonotmesis type crush injury of the accessory nerve was verified.

  10. 21 CFR 884.6120 - Assisted reproduction accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction accessories. 884.6120... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6120 Assisted reproduction accessories. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction accessories are a group...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3980 - Endosseous dental implant accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant accessories. 872.3980... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3980 Endosseous dental implant accessories. (a) Identification. Endosseous dental implant accessories are manually powered devices...

  13. Unmasking of the trigemino-accessory reflex in accessory facial anastomosis

    Esteban, A.; Prieto, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the possible blink reflex responses in facial muscles reinnervated by the accessory nerve.
METHOD—Eleven patients with a complete facial palsy were submitted to a surgical repair by an accessory facial nerve anastomosis (AFA). In this pathological group, blink reflex was studied by means of percutaneous electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve and recording from the orbicularis oculi muscle. A control group comprised seven normal people an...

  14. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal; Chunli Deng

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the ano...

  15. Functional erythropoietin receptors on human tumor cells

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal regulator of red blood cell survival, growth and maturation and has achieved great clinical utility for the correction of anemia associated with renal failure, cancer and chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation. EPO increasingly is being recognized as a pleiotrophic growth factor, having actions on nonhematopoietic cells as well. Both EPO and erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) expression have been associated with cells of the endothelium, retina, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract and female reproductive system. The role of EPO in these nonhematopoietic sites is not thoroughly understood and in some instances may be site-specific. Promotion of angiogenesis and blood vessel integrity, increased cell proliferation, prevention of apoptosis, and protection against ischemic damage in the presence of hypoxia have all been described as possible functions of EPO in one or more of these cell types. On the other hand, EPO-R also have been identified on a variety of tumor cells (while in some cases not on the adjacent normal tissue), and several reports have suggested a role for EPO in the direct stimulation of cancer cell growth in vivo and in vitro. Among those tumor cells on which we and others have identified functional EPO-R are breast and ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, the work presented here describes the first evidence that transformed prostate epithelial cells, prostate cancer cell lines, and both normal and cancerous prostate tissue express EPO-R. All of the EPO-R bearing prostate cell lines tested underwent a significant dose-dependent proliferative response to EPO, and EPO triggered intracellular signaling in the cells as evidenced by protein phosphorylation. The results implicate EPO in the biology of both normal and malignant prostate cells and suggest the need for careful evaluation of the use of recombinant EPO as a therapeutic agent in prostate cancer

  16. Colored dual-functional photovoltaic cells

    Lee, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Jae Yong; Xu, Ting; Park, Hui Joon; Guo, L. Jay

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we review our recent efforts on multi-functional photovoltaic (PV) cells that can produce desired reflective, transmissive, or neutral colors, by controlling light interaction with semiconductors and electrode structures in a desired manner. The PV cells integrated with plasmonic color filtering schemes using subwavelength gratings, and other approaches exploiting photonic resonances in an optical nanocavity consisting of highly absorbing semiconductor media are described. For further enhancement of optical and electrical performance characteristics of the multi-functional PV cells, possible difficulties and the outlook for future work are discussed.

  17. Intervention of D-glucose ameliorates the toxicity of streptozotocin in accessory sex organs of rat

    Streptozotocin (STZ) is a naturally occurring compound isolated from Streptomyces achromogens. It is used extensively for inducing diabetes in experimental animals. Diabetes mellitus is known to have proven adverse effects on male sexual organs and their reproductive functions. The atrophy of prostate gland and other organs of the genitourinary tract were observed in experimental diabetic animals. STZ exhibits a structural resemblance to D-glucose due to the presence of sugar moiety in its structure. Pancreatic β-cells mainly contain GLUT1 and GLUT2 glucose transporters. Possibly due to structural resemblance, STZ and D-glucose, share a common recognition site for entry into the β-cells. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of D-glucose on STZ-induced toxicity in accessory sex organs of male rats. Animals were kept on overnight fasting. One group received vehicle and served as negative control, while all other groups were given STZ (45 mg/kg). Animals that received only STZ served as positive control. The effect of D-glucose was studied on STZ treated animals with different dosage of D-glucose (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg). Restoration of body weight, plasma glucose and plasma insulin was evident only at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg of D-glucose. The protective effect of D-glucose is evident only when it is administered simultaneously with STZ. In the present investigation, we report that simultaneous administration of D-glucose along with STZ ameliorates STZ-induced toxicity. This is evident from the restoration of accessory sex organ's weight, cellular morphology as well as insulin level

  18. Functional dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins

    Nishida, Noritaka; Osawa, Masanori; Takeuchi, Koh; Imai, Shunsuke; Stampoulis, Pavlos; Kofuku, Yutaka; Ueda, Takumi; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-04-01

    Cell surface receptors are integral membrane proteins that receive external stimuli, and transmit signals across plasma membranes. In the conventional view of receptor activation, ligand binding to the extracellular side of the receptor induces conformational changes, which convert the structure of the receptor into an active conformation. However, recent NMR studies of cell surface membrane proteins have revealed that their structures are more dynamic than previously envisioned, and they fluctuate between multiple conformations in an equilibrium on various timescales. In addition, NMR analyses, along with biochemical and cell biological experiments indicated that such dynamical properties are critical for the proper functions of the receptors. In this review, we will describe several NMR studies that revealed direct linkage between the structural dynamics and the functions of the cell surface membrane proteins, such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), ion channels, membrane transporters, and cell adhesion molecules.

  19. Jarid2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function by acting with polycomb repressive complex 2.

    Kinkel, Sarah A; Galeev, Roman; Flensburg, Christoffer; Keniry, Andrew; Breslin, Kelsey; Gilan, Omer; Lee, Stanley; Liu, Joy; Chen, Kelan; Gearing, Linden J; Moore, Darcy L; Alexander, Warren S; Dawson, Mark; Majewski, Ian J; Oshlack, Alicia; Larsson, Jonas; Blewitt, Marnie E

    2015-03-19

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a key role in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function. Analyses of mouse mutants harboring deletions of core components have implicated PRC2 in fine-tuning multiple pathways that instruct HSPC behavior, yet how PRC2 is targeted to specific genomic loci within HSPCs remains unknown. Here we use short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown to survey the function of PRC2 accessory factors that were defined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by testing the competitive reconstitution capacity of transduced murine HSPCs. We find that, similar to the phenotype observed upon depletion of core subunit Suz12, depleting Jarid2 enhances the competitive transplantation capacity of both fetal and adult mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of JARID2 enhances the in vitro expansion and in vivo reconstitution capacity of human HSPCs. Gene expression profiling revealed common Suz12 and Jarid2 target genes that are enriched for the H3K27me3 mark established by PRC2. These data implicate Jarid2 as an important component of PRC2 that has a central role in coordinating HSPC function. PMID:25645357

  20. Jarid2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell function by acting with polycomb repressive complex 2

    Kinkel, Sarah A.; Galeev, Roman; Flensburg, Christoffer; Keniry, Andrew; Breslin, Kelsey; Gilan, Omer; Lee, Stanley; Liu, Joy; Chen, Kelan; Gearing, Linden J.; Moore, Darcy L.; Alexander, Warren S.; Dawson, Mark; Majewski, Ian J.; Oshlack, Alicia; Larsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) plays a key role in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) function. Analyses of mouse mutants harboring deletions of core components have implicated PRC2 in fine-tuning multiple pathways that instruct HSPC behavior, yet how PRC2 is targeted to specific genomic loci within HSPCs remains unknown. Here we use short hairpin RNA–mediated knockdown to survey the function of PRC2 accessory factors that were defined in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by testing the competitive reconstitution capacity of transduced murine HSPCs. We find that, similar to the phenotype observed upon depletion of core subunit Suz12, depleting Jarid2 enhances the competitive transplantation capacity of both fetal and adult mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that depletion of JARID2 enhances the in vitro expansion and in vivo reconstitution capacity of human HSPCs. Gene expression profiling revealed common Suz12 and Jarid2 target genes that are enriched for the H3K27me3 mark established by PRC2. These data implicate Jarid2 as an important component of PRC2 that has a central role in coordinating HSPC function. PMID:25645357

  1. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  2. Surface Functionalization for Protein and Cell Patterning

    Colpo, Pascal; Ruiz, Ana; Ceriotti, Laura; Rossi, François

    The interaction of biological systems with synthetic material surfaces is an important issue for many biological applications such as implanted devices, tissue engineering, cell-based sensors and assays, and more generally biologic studies performed ex vivo. To ensure reliable outcomes, the main challenge resides in the ability to design and develop surfaces or artificial micro-environment that mimic 'natural environment' in interacting with biomolecules and cells without altering their function and phenotype. At this effect, microfabrication, surface chemistry and material science play a pivotal role in the design of advanced in-vitro systems for cell culture applications. In this chapter, we discuss and describe different techniques enabling the control of cell-surface interactions, including the description of some techniques for immobilization of ligands for controlling cell-surface interactions and some methodologies for the creation of well confined cell rich areas.

  3. Functional diversification of taste cells in vertebrates

    Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Abe, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Tastes are senses resulting from the activation of taste cells distributed in oral epithelia. Sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty tastes are called the five “basic” tastes, but why five, and why these five? In this review, we dissect the peripheral gustatory system in vertebrates from molecular and cellular perspectives. Recent behavioral and molecular genetic studies have revealed the nature of functional taste receptors and cells and show that different taste qualities are accounted for b...

  4. The ulcerative colitis marker protein WAFL interacts with accessory proteins in endocytosis

    You Fu Pan, Ing-Marie Viklund, Heng Hang Tsai, Sven Pettersson, Ichiro N. Maruyama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is one of the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease with unknown cause. A molecular marker, WAFL, has recently been found to be up-regulated in the inflamed colonic mucosa of UC patients. Towards understanding biological function of WAFL, we analyzed proteins interacting with WAFL in HEK-293 cells by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Among four proteins found to specifically interact with WAFL, both KIAA0196 and KIAA1033 bind to α-appendage of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP2, which acts as an interaction hub for accessory proteins in endocytosis mediated by clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV. The specific interaction between WAFL and KIAA0196 was also confirmed in human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells by co-immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. Meta-analyses of the databases of expressed genes suggest that the three genes are co-expressed in many tissues and cell types, and that their molecular function may be classified in the category of 'membrane traffic protein'. Therefore, these results suggest that WAFL may play an important role in endocytosis and subsequent membrane trafficking by interacting with AP2 through KIAA0196 and KIAA1033.

  5. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; Smolders, Irene; Koene, Joris M

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they...

  6. ACCESSORY SPLEEN: A CLINICALLY RELEVANT ANATOMIC ANOMALY

    Prachi Saffar; Amit Kumar; Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize on the clinical relevance of the presence of accessory spleen. It is not only a well-documented anatomic anomaly, it holds special significance in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal tumours and lymphadenopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty male cadavers from North Indian population above the age of 60 yrs. were dissected in the Anatomy Department of FMHS, SGT University, Gurgaon, over a period of 5 yrs. (Sep 2010-Aug 2015) and presence...

  7. Instruments and accessories for neutron scattering research

    This report describes neutron scattering instruments and accessories installed by four neutron scattering research groups at the ASRC (Advanced Science Research Center) of the JAERI and the recent topics of neutron scattering research using these instruments. The specifications of nine instruments (HRPD, BIX-I, TAS-1 and PNO in the reactor hall, RESA, BIX-II, TAS-2, LTAS and SANS-J in the guide hall of the JRR-3M) are summarized in this booklet. (author)

  8. Induction of Functional Hair-Cell-Like Cells from Mouse Cochlear Multipotent Cells

    Quanwen Liu; Yi Shen; Jiarong Chen; Jie Ding; Zihua Tang; Cui Zhang; Jianling Chen; Liang Li; Ping Chen; Jinfu Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a two-step-induction method of generating functional hair cells from inner ear multipotent cells. Multipotent cells from the inner ear were established and induced initially into progenitor cells committed to the inner ear cell lineage on the poly-L-lysine substratum. Subsequently, the committed progenitor cells were cultured on the mitotically inactivated chicken utricle stromal cells and induced into hair-cell-like cells containing characteristic stereocilia bund...

  9. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of solub...

  10. Phosphorylation regulates human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Rex function

    Ward Michael

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a pathogenic complex deltaretrovirus, which is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. In addition to the structural and enzymatic viral gene products, HTLV-1 encodes the positive regulatory proteins Tax and Rex along with viral accessory proteins. Tax and Rex proteins orchestrate the timely expression of viral genes important in viral replication and cellular transformation. Rex is a nucleolar-localizing shuttling protein that acts post-transcriptionally by binding and facilitating the export of the unspliced and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. HTLV-1 Rex (Rex-1 is a phosphoprotein and general protein kinase inhibition correlates with reduced function. Therefore, it has been proposed that Rex-1 function may be regulated through site-specific phosphorylation. Results We conducted a phosphoryl mapping of Rex-1 over-expressed in transfected 293 T cells using a combination of affinity purification and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We achieved 100% physical coverage of the Rex-1 polypeptide and identified five novel phosphorylation sites at Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-97, and Ser-106. We also confirmed evidence of two previously identified residues, Ser-70 and Thr-174, but found no evidence of phosphorylation at Ser-177. The functional significance of these phosphorylation events was evaluated using a Rex reporter assay and site-directed mutational analysis. Our results indicate that phosphorylation at Ser-97 and Thr-174 is critical for Rex-1 function. Conclusion We have mapped completely the site-specific phosphorylation of Rex-1 identifying a total of seven residues; Thr-22, Ser-36, Thr-37, Ser-70, Ser-97, Ser-106, and Thr-174. Overall, this work is the first to completely map the phosphorylation sites in Rex-1 and provides important insight into

  11. In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 μM concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

  12. Synchronous ipsilateral carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary lymphoma of the breast with subsequent rectal carcinoma: report of a case.

    Nishikawa, Akihiro; Kasai, Hide; Koyama, Yoshinori; Koide, Naohiko; Iijima, Akihiro; Shimojo, Hisashi; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi

    2014-01-01

    A case of synchronous carcinoma of the accessory mammary gland and primary breast lymphoma with subsequent rectal carcinoma has not been reported previously. We present a very rare case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the left breast diagnosed simultaneously with invasive lobular carcinoma of the left axillary accessory mammary gland and rectal adenocarcinoma. An 82-year-old Japanese woman presented with two palpable masses on the left chest wall. She was given a diagnosis of suspected breast malignant tumor and axillary accessory mammary gland. She underwent excision of the axillary accessory mammary gland and left mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and invasive lobular carcinoma of the axillary accessory mammary gland with lymph nodes metastasis. Three months after the surgery, primary rectal adenocarcinoma was also detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Hartmann's operation was performed, since which time the patient has been doing well. PMID:25217973

  13. Function of laccases in cell wall biosynthesis

    Larsen, Anders; Holm, Preben Bach; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidases capable of polymerizing monolignols. Histochemical assays have shown temporal and spatial correlation with secondary cell wall formation in both herbs and woody perennials. However, in plants laccases constitutes a relatively large group of isoenzymes with unique...... substrate specificities and expression patterns. As part of the strategic research centre Bio4Bio, the present project deals with laccase functions in relation to cell wall formation in grasses based on a study of the model species Brachypodium distachyon. Thirty-one isozymes have been retrieved from the...... hybridization. Specific isozymes that show high correlation with the process of secondary cell wall formation will be further studied in a reverse genetic study in which candidates will be knocked out using RNA interference. Phenotypes of knock-out mutants are to be described in relation to cell wall...

  14. Imaging of the symptomatic type Il accessory navicular bone

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type Il accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  15. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  16. Phenotypic and Functional Plasticity of Murine Intestinal NKp46+ Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Verrier, Thomas; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Serafini, Nicolas; Marie, Solenne; Di Santo, James P; Vosshenrich, Christian A J

    2016-06-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) actively participate in mucosal defense and homeostasis through prompt secretion of IL-17A, IL-22, and IFN-γ. Reports identify two ILC3 lineages: a CCR6(+)T-bet(-) subset that appears early in embryonic development and promotes lymphoid organogenesis and a CCR6(-)T-bet(+) subset that emerges after microbial colonization and harbors NKp46(+) ILC3. We demonstrate that NKp46 expression in the ILC3 subset is highly unstable. Cell fate mapping using Ncr1(CreGFP) × Rosa26(RFP) mice revealed the existence of an intestinal RFP(+) ILC3 subset (Ncr1(FM)) lacking NKp46 expression at the transcript and protein levels. Ncr1(FM) ILC3 produced more IL-22 and were distinguishable from NKp46(+) ILC3 by differential CD117, CD49a, DNAX accessory molecule-1, and, surprisingly, CCR6 expression. Ncr1(FM) ILC3 emerged after birth and persisted in adult mice following broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. These results identify an unexpected phenotypic instability within NKp46(+) ILC3 that suggests a major role for environmental signals in tuning ILC3 functional plasticity. PMID:27183613

  17. ARC3 is a stromal Z-ring accessory protein essential for plastid division

    Maple, Jodi; Vojta, Lea; Soll, Jurgen; Møller, Simon G

    2007-01-01

    In plants, chloroplast division is an integral part of development, and these vital organelles arise by binary fission from pre-existing cytosolic plastids. Chloroplasts arose by endosymbiosis and although they have retained elements of the bacterial cell division machinery to execute plastid division, they have evolved to require two functionally distinct forms of the FtsZ protein and have lost elements of the Min machinery required for Z-ring placement. Here, we analyse the plastid division component accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 3 (ARC3) and show that ARC3 forms part of the stromal plastid division machinery. ARC3 interacts specifically with AtFtsZ1, acting as a Z-ring accessory protein and defining a unique function for this family of FtsZ proteins. ARC3 is involved in division site placement, suggesting that it might functionally replace MinC, representing an important advance in our understanding of the mechanism of chloroplast division and the evolution of the chloroplast division machinery. PMID:17304239

  18. Cell phone usage and erectile function

    Al–Ali, Badereddin Mohamad; Patzak, Johanna; Fischereder, Katja; Pummer, Karl; Shamloul, Rany

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this pilot study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on erectile function (EF) in men. Material and Methods We recruited 20 consecutive men complaining of erectile dysfunction (ED) for at least six months (Group A), and another group of 10 healthy men with no complaints of ED (Group B). Anamnesis, basic laboratory investigations, and clinical examinations were performed. All men completed the German version of the Sexual Health...

  19. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 7a Accessory Protein Is a Viral Structural Protein

    Huang, Cheng; Ito, Naoto; Tseng, Chien-Te K.; Makino, Shinji

    2006-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCoV) 7a protein is one of the viral accessory proteins. In expressing cells, 7a protein exhibits a variety of biological activities, including induction of apoptosis, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, inhibition of host protein translation, and suppression of cell growth progression. Analysis of SCoV particles that were purified by either sucrose gradient equilibrium centrifugation or a virus capture assay, in...

  20. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  1. Giant accessory breast: a rare occurrence reported, with a review of the literature.

    Hiremath, Bharati; Subramaniam, Narayana; Chandrashekhar, Nayan

    2015-01-01

    Polymastia, or the presence of supranumerary breasts, occurs in 2-6% of the female population, the spectrum of the disorder ranging between a small mole and a fully functional ectopic breast. They are often asymptomatic but require treatment when symptomatic or if they harbour malignancy. We present a case of a 41-year-old woman with an accessory breast in the left inframammary fold, which increased in size over the decade following her first pregnancy, to reach a size almost three times that of her right breast. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration and ultrasound was suggestive of accessory breast tissue, distinct from the left breast. Intraoperatively, a 14×10×8 cm accessory breast was found in the inframammary fold, distinct from the left breast and having an accessory nipple areola complex as well. A simple mastectomy was performed with trimming and rotation of the inframammary flap. The patient was happy with the cosmetic outcome. This article also reviews the literature and covers classification of polymastia, diagnostic complexities and challenges associated with surgery. PMID:26542818

  2. 21 CFR 876.5090 - Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    .... This generic type of device includes the suprapubic catheter and tube, Malecot catheter, catheter punch... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories... Suprapubic urological catheter and accessories. (a) Identification. A suprapubic urological catheter...

  3. Torsion of Pedunculated Accessory Liver Lobe with Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis

    Khandelwal, Kamlesh K.; Gomes, Rachel M.; Bhagvat, Vikrant

    2012-01-01

    Accessory lobes of the liver are very uncommon and rarely symptomatic. We report the occurrence of torsion and infarction of a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver with acute cholecystitis. The speculated possibilities of the coexistent pathologies and its management are discussed.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5630 - Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. 876... Peritoneal dialysis system and accessories. (a) Identification. (1) A peritoneal dialysis system and... peritoneal dialysis, a source of dialysate, and, in some cases, a water purification mechanism. After...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-3 - Parts and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-3 Parts and accessories. (a) In general. The tax attaches with respect to parts and accessories for articles specified...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  7. Functions of Xyloglucan in Plant Cells

    Takahisa Hayashi; Rumi Kaida

    2011-01-01

    While an increase in the number of xyloglucan tethers between the cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls increases the walls' rigidity, the degradation of these tethers causes the walls to loosen. Degradation can occur either through the integration of xyloglucan oligosaccharides due to the action of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase or through direct hydrolysis due to the action of xyloglucanase. This is why the addition of xyloglucan and its fragment oligosac-charides causes plant tissue tension to increase and decrease so dramatically. Experiments involving the overexpression of xyloglucanase and cellulase have revealed the roles of xyloglucans in the walls. The degradation of wall xyloglucan in poplar by the transgenic expression of xyloglucanase, for example, not only accelerated stem elongation in the primary wall, but also blocked upright-stem gravitropism in the secondary wall. Overexpression of cellulase also reduced xyloglucan content in the walls as cellulose microfibrils were trimmed at their amorphous region, resulting in increased cell volume in Arabidopsis leaves and in sengon with disturbed leaf movements. The hemicellulose xyloglucan, in its function as a tether, plays a key role in the loosening and tightening of cellulose microfibrils: it enables the cell to change its shape in growth and differentiation zones and to retain its final shape after cell maturation.

  8. Physician accessories: Doctor, what you carry is every patient′s worry?

    Pandey Anita

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infections are on the rise worldwide and many a times they are carried by the health care personnel. Accessories used by physicians and healthcare personnel can be a potential source of nosocomial infection. Materials and Methods: We designed a survey with the aim to investigate the prevalence of microbial flora of accessories such as pens, stethoscopes, cell phones and white coat used by the physicians working in a tertiary care hospital. Observations: It was observed that 66% of the pens, 55% of the stethoscopes, 47.61% of the cell phones and 28.46% of the white coats used by the doctors were colonized with various microorganisms. Staphylococcus spp. was the predominant isolate followed by Escherichia coli. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was also found, which was a matter of concern. Conclusions: Awareness of appropriate hand hygiene is important in order to prevent potential transmission to patients.

  9. TMC function in hair cell transduction.

    Holt, Jeffrey R; Pan, Bifeng; Koussa, Mounir A; Asai, Yukako

    2014-05-01

    Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) proteins 1 and 2 are necessary for hair cell mechanotransduction but their precise function is controversial. A growing body of evidence supports a direct role for TMC1 and TMC2 as components of the transduction complex. However, a number of important questions remain and alternate hypotheses have been proposed. Here we present an historical overview of the identification and cloning of Tmc genes, a discussion of mutations in TMC1 that cause deafness in mice and humans and a brief review of other members of the Tmc gene superfamily. We also examine expression of Tmc mRNAs and localization of the protein products. The review focuses on potential functions of TMC proteins and the evidence from Beethoven mice that suggests a direct role for TMC1 in hair cell mechanotransduction. Data that support alternate interpretations are also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions for TMC research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:24423408

  10. Fluid assisted installation of electrical cable accessories

    Mayer, Robert W.; Silva, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical cable accessory includes a generally tubular member of elastomeric material which is to be installed by placement over a cylindrical surface to grip the cylindrical surface, when in appropriate assembled relation therewith, with a predetermined gripping force established by dilation of the tubular member, the installation being facilitated by introducing fluid under pressure, through means provided in the tubular member, between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, and simultaneously impeding the escape of the fluid under pressure from between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface by means adjacent one of the ends of the tubular member to cause dilation of the tubular member and establish a fluid layer between the tubular member and the cylindrical surface, thereby reducing the gripping force during installation.

  11. Origins of Protein Functions in Cells

    Seelig, Burchard; Pohorille, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    In modern organisms proteins perform a majority of cellular functions, such as chemical catalysis, energy transduction and transport of material across cell walls. Although great strides have been made towards understanding protein evolution, a meaningful extrapolation from contemporary proteins to their earliest ancestors is virtually impossible. In an alternative approach, the origin of water-soluble proteins was probed through the synthesis and in vitro evolution of very large libraries of random amino acid sequences. In combination with computer modeling and simulations, these experiments allow us to address a number of fundamental questions about the origins of proteins. Can functionality emerge from random sequences of proteins? How did the initial repertoire of functional proteins diversify to facilitate new functions? Did this diversification proceed primarily through drawing novel functionalities from random sequences or through evolution of already existing proto-enzymes? Did protein evolution start from a pool of proteins defined by a frozen accident and other collections of proteins could start a different evolutionary pathway? Although we do not have definitive answers to these questions yet, important clues have been uncovered. In one example (Keefe and Szostak, 2001), novel ATP binding proteins were identified that appear to be unrelated in both sequence and structure to any known ATP binding proteins. One of these proteins was subsequently redesigned computationally to bind GTP through introducing several mutations that introduce targeted structural changes to the protein, improve its binding to guanine and prevent water from accessing the active center. This study facilitates further investigations of individual evolutionary steps that lead to a change of function in primordial proteins. In a second study (Seelig and Szostak, 2007), novel enzymes were generated that can join two pieces of RNA in a reaction for which no natural enzymes are known

  12. microRNA and stem cell function

    Hatfield, Steven; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele

    2007-01-01

    The identification and characterization of stem cells for various tissues has led to a greater understanding of development, tissue maintenance, and cancer pathology. Stem cells possess the ability to divide throughout their life and to produce differentiated daughter cells while maintaining a population of undifferentiated cells that remain in the stem cell niche and that retain stem cell identity. Many cancers also have small populations of cells with stem cell characteristics. These cells ...

  13. An Accessory Protein Required for Anchoring and Assembly of Amyloid Fibers in B. subtilis Biofilms

    Romero, Diego; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cells within Bacillus subtilis biofilms are held in place by an extracellular matrix that contains cell-anchored amyloid fibers, composed of the amyloidogenic protein TasA. As biofilms age they disassemble because the cells release the amyloid fibers. This release appears to be the consequence of incorporation of D-tyrosine, D-leucine, D-tryptophan and D-methionine into the cell wall. Here, we characterize the in vivo roles of an accessory protein TapA (TasA anchoring/assembly protein; previo...

  14. Histone modifications rather than the novel regional centromeres of Zymoseptoria tritici distinguish core and accessory chromosomes

    Schotanus, Klaas; Soyer, Jessica; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Grandaubert, Jonathan; Happel, Petra; Smith, Kristina M.; Freitag, Michael; Stukenbrock, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Supernumerary chromosomes have been found in many organisms. In fungi, these “accessory” or “dispensable” chromosomes are present at different frequencies in populations and are usually characterized by higher repetitive DNA content and lower gene density when compared to the core chromosomes. In the reference strain of the wheat pathogen, Zymoseptoria tritici, eight discrete accessory chromosomes have been found. So far, no functional role has been assigned to these chromosomes; h...

  15. The need to accessorize: molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle.

    Anupam, Rajaneesh; Doueiri, Rami; Green, Patrick L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive studies of human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV)-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro, and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis. PMID:24062732

  16. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Yoon-Jin [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Si Young [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Ryong, E-mail: trlee@amorepacific.com [R and D Center, Amore Pacific Corporation, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-729 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shkim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Biology, Research Institute for Basic Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes.

  17. Transcriptional activation of melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein by PPARγ in adipocytes

    Highlights: •MRAP enhanced HSL expression. •ACTH-mediated MRAP reduced glycerol release. •PPARγ induced MRAP expression. •PPARγ bound to the MRAP promoter. -- Abstract: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rodents decreases lipid accumulation and body weight. Melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R) and MC2R accessory protein (MRAP) are specific receptors for ACTH in adipocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways such as adipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids. In this study we investigated the transcriptional regulation of MRAP expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Stimulation with ACTH affected lipolysis in murine mature adipocytes via MRAP. Putative peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) was identified in the MRAP promoter region. In chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we observed binding of PPARγ to the MRAP promoter. The mutagenesis experiments showed that the −1209/−1198 region of the MRAP promoter could function as a PPRE site. These results suggest that PPARγ is required for transcriptional activation of the MRAP gene during adipogenesis, which contributes to understanding of the molecular mechanism of lipolysis in adipocytes

  18. The association of hallux limitus with the accessory navicular.

    Evans, R D Lee; Averett, Ryan; Sanders, Stephanie

    2002-06-01

    Hallux limitus is one of the most prevalent, debilitating disorders of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, and it has many proposed etiologies. This article reviews these etiologies, focusing primarily on the pes planus foot. The pes planus foot type is often associated with symptomatic hallux limitus and the accessory navicular. This article discusses this correlation, although a causal relationship has not been proven. The prevalence and classification of the accessory navicular are also discussed. Clinical cases involving symptomatic hallux limitus occurring concomitantly with an accessory navicular are reviewed, including radiographic findings, symptoms, and surgical treatment. PMID:12070237

  19. Perineal Accessory Scrotum with Congenital Lipoma: A Rare Case Report

    Souvik Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of accessory scrotum in a 1-year-old boy is reported because of its rarity. A boy presented with a tumor mass attached with scrotum-like skin on its tip in the right side of perineum between the scrotum and anus. Both testes had descended into the scrotum. There was no other urological anomaly. Histological findings of the tumor indicated perineal lipoma, and the scrotum-like portion accessory scrotum. An overview of sequences during the normal development of male external genitalia has been provided and the deranged mechanism resulting in this anomaly has been reviewed with hypothesis regarding etiology of accessory scrotum.

  20. Oxytocin facilitates the induction of long-term potentiation in the accessory olfactory bulb.

    Fang, Long-Yun; Quan, Rong-Dan; Kaba, Hideto

    2008-06-20

    When female mice are mated, they form a memory to the pheromonal signal of their male partner. Several lines of evidence indicate that the neural changes underlying this memory occur in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) at the first stage of the vomeronasal system. The formation of this memory depends on the mating-induced release of noradrenaline in the AOB. In addition to noradrenaline, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is also released within the central nervous system during mating. Because OT has been implicated in social memory and its receptors are expressed in the AOB, we hypothesized that OT might promote the strength of synaptic transmission from mitral to granule cells in the AOB. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the lateral olfactory tract-evoked field potential that represents the granule cell response to mitral cell activation and its plasticity in parasagittal slices of the AOB. Of the 10-, 20-, 50-, and 100-Hz stimulations tested, the 100-Hz stimulation was optimal for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP). OT paired with 100-Hz stimulation that only produced short-term potentiation enhanced LTP induction in a dose-dependent manner. OT-paired LTP was blocked by both the selective OT antagonist desGly-NH(2),d(CH(2))(5)[Tyr(Me)(2),Thr(4)]-ornithine vasotocin and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. These results indicate that OT can function as a gate to modulate the establishment of NMDA receptor-dependent LTP at the mitral-to-granule cell synapse in the AOB. PMID:18468792

  1. Ion channels modulating mouse dendritic cell functions.

    Matzner, Nicole; Zemtsova, Irina M; Nguyen, Thi Xuan; Duszenko, Michael; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Lang, Florian

    2008-11-15

    Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways play a central regulatory role in dendritic cell (DC) responses to diverse Ags. However, the mechanisms leading to increased [Ca(2+)](i) upon DC activation remained ill-defined. In the present study, LPS treatment (100 ng/ml) of mouse DCs resulted in a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which was due to Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the cell membrane. In whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments, LPS-induced currents exhibited properties similar to the currents through the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels (CRAC). These currents were highly selective for Ca(2+), exhibited a prominent inward rectification of the current-voltage relationship, and showed an anomalous mole fraction and a fast Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. In addition, the LPS-induced increase of [Ca(2+)](i) was sensitive to margatoxin and ICAGEN-4, both inhibitors of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.5, respectively. MHC class II expression, CCL21-dependent migration, and TNF-alpha and IL-6 production decreased, whereas phagocytic capacity increased in LPS-stimulated DCs in the presence of both Kv channel inhibitors as well as the I(CRAC) inhibitor SKF-96365. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Ca(2+) influx in LPS-stimulated DCs occurs via Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channels, is sensitive to Kv channel activity, and is in turn critically important for DC maturation and functions. PMID:18981098

  2. Cell Phone’s Functions on Language Learning

    伍文忠; 王娜

    2012-01-01

      With the time passing by and development of this society, almost everyone has a cell phone, we may see that cell phone as a new fifth medium after computer, having its own characters and advantages, many learners research the communica⁃tive function of cell phone and some from the technological level. This thesis aims at trying to reveal cultural functions of culture, aiming at improve cell phone’ s learning and culture functions in a more proper way.

  3. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Carlos M. Carballosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  4. Accessory Fissures of the liver: CT and sonographic appearance

    Auh, Y.H.; Rubenstein, W.A.; Zirinsky, K.; Kneeland, J.B.; Pardes, J.C.; Engel, I.A.; Whalen, J.P.; Kazam, E.

    1984-09-01

    Invaginations of the liver by the diaphragm form accessory fissures that may mimic the major hepatic fissures on sectional images. Accessory fissures are most common in the superior right hepatic lobe. Their average incidence on computed tomographic (CT) scans is 25%. Their frequency increases with age, approaching 70% in the seventh and eighth decades. Their depth may equal or exceed 2 cm in one-third of cases. Multiple accessory fissures may mimic pathologic liver nodules on CT and may be associated with diaphragmatic scalloping or eventration on the chest film. When only parts of these fissures are seen sonographically, they may be mistaken for echogenic liver lesions. The differentiation of accessory fissures from the major hepatic fissures, from pathologic lesions, and from sonographic pseudofissure artifacts is discussed.

  5. Accessory Fissures of the liver: CT and sonographic appearance

    Invaginations of the liver by the diaphragm form accessory fissures that may mimic the major hepatic fissures on sectional images. Accessory fissures are most common in the superior right hepatic lobe. Their average incidence on computed tomographic (CT) scans is 25%. Their frequency increases with age, approaching 70% in the seventh and eighth decades. Their depth may equal or exceed 2 cm in one-third of cases. Multiple accessory fissures may mimic pathologic liver nodules on CT and may be associated with diaphragmatic scalloping or eventration on the chest film. When only parts of these fissures are seen sonographically, they may be mistaken for echogenic liver lesions. The differentiation of accessory fissures from the major hepatic fissures, from pathologic lesions, and from sonographic pseudofissure artifacts is discussed

  6. 21 CFR 878.1800 - Speculum and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 878.1800 Speculum and accessories.... Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart...

  7. Infrahyoid and accessory motoneurons in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    Ueyama, T; Satoda, T; Tashiro, T; Sugimoto, T; Matsushima, R; Mizuno, N

    1990-01-15

    The segmental and topographical organization of motoneurons innervating the infrahyoid (IH) and the spinal accessory (AC) muscles was studied in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method after application of HRP to the peripheral nerve branches supplying the IH and AC muscles. IH motoneurons constitute two distinct slender cell columns, a longer medial and a shorter lateral one. The medial cell column extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the lower levels of the second cervical (C2) cord segment. In the medial column, motoneurons supplying the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles are distributed at the medullary and C1 levels, while those innervating the omohyoid muscle are primarily distributed at the C2 level. The lateral cell column consists of motoneurons supplying the thyrohyoid muscle and extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the middle levels of the C1 cord segment. Axons of thyrohyoid motoneurons follow a dorsomedially directed bent emergent course, making a hairpin turn. AC motoneurons supplying the sternocleidomastoid (SC) and trapezius (TZ) muscles form a single slender cell column extending from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C6 cord segment. SC motoneurons are distributed from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C3 cord segment, while TZ motoneurons are distributed from the upper levels of the C2 cord segment to the lower levels of the C6 cord segment. At the levels of the C2 and C3 cord segments, both SC and TZ motoneurons are distributed in the AC cell column; the cluster of SC motoneurons is located dorsomedial to that of TZ motoneurons. PMID:2152765

  8. Accessory Nerve Schwannoma Containing Multiple Calcifed Foci: Unusual Presentation

    Leila Aghaghazvini; Habib Mazaher; Hashem Sharifian; Shirin Aghaghazvini

    2009-01-01

    "nIntroduction: Schwannomas are benign neural tumors which arise from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas of the accessory nerve are rare lesions. The clinical presentation of cranial nerve XI schwannomas relates to their location and extent: intracranial, jugular foramen, upper neck, or cervical spine. The extra cranial form is the least common reported. Calcified accessory schwannoma is rare. These lesions most often occur in the third to sixth decades of life. These tumors are slightly more...

  9. PAINFUL ACCESSORY NAVICULAR IN CHILDREN – CASE PRESENTATION

    RE Iacob; Daniela Iacob

    2010-01-01

    Accessory bones, called sesamoid bones, may be occasionally located in the foot. Such a situation is seen in the case of accessory navicular. Its presence is mostly asymptomatic, in some cases in teenagers and adults and more rarely before this age, leading to pains in the leg. This paper presents the case of a 10 year girl experiencing such a pathology that was managed surgically.

  10. Spinal accessory nerve schwannomas masquerading as a fourth ventricular lesion

    Shyam Sundar Krishnan; Sivaram Bojja; Madabhushi Chakravarthy Vasudevan

    2015-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign lesions that arise from the nerve sheath of cranial nerves. The most common schwannomas arise from the 8 th cranial nerve (the vestibulo-cochlear nerve) followed by trigeminal and facial nerves and then from glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. Schwannomas involving the oculomotor, trochlear, abducens and hypoglossal nerves are very rare. We report a very unusual spinal accessory nerve schwannoma which occupied the fourth ventricle and extended inferior...

  11. An incidental finding of the accessory inferior thyroid artery

    Sedy J

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of an incidental finding of the right accessory inferior thyroid artery, emerging from the thyrocervical trunk together with a typical inferior thyroid artery, present in a normal position. On the left side, only single inferior thyroid artery was present. Only one inferior thyroid vein was found on each side. The accessory inferior thyroid artery entered the thyroid gland approximately 1 cm above the normal inferior thyroid, above the superior parathyroid gland. Although acc...

  12. Accessory enzymes from Aspergillus involved in xylan and pectin degradation

    Vries, de, G.

    1999-01-01

    The xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzyme systems from Aspergillus have been the subject of study for many years. Although the main chain cleaving enzymes and their encoding genes have been studied in detail, little information is available about most of the accessory enzymes and their corresponding genes. This thesis describes the purification and characterisation of two accessory enzymes from Aspergillus , feruloyl esterase A (FaeA) andα-glucuronidase A (AguA), and the activities of these enz...

  13. Mammographic appearance of accessory breast tissue in the axilla

    Objective: To observe the mammographic appearance of accessory breast tissue in the axilla. Methods: In the past 3 years, 7562 women were underwent bilateral screen-film mammography. All of the mediolateral oblique (MLO) films were reviewed retrospectively to look for whether there was accessory breast tissue and what the mammographic features were like. Radiographically the accessory tissue resembled the main normal breast glandular tissue but was separated from it. Results: Of the 7652 case, accessory breast tissue in the axilla was detected in 161 cases. The prevalence was 2%. The age ranged from 17 to 70 years (mean, 39 years). 38% of them were found in the bilateral axilla, 42% only in the right, and 20% only in the left. The dimensions on the right ranged from 0.7 to 8.0 cm (mean, 3.5 cm), and that on the left ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 cm (mean, 3.3 cm). There were four types among the accessory breast tissue: patchy type was the most (35%), then the branched type (26%), mixed type (20%), and mass-like type (19%). 3 cases were proved by pathology. Conclusion: It is important that the radiologist be familiar with the mammographic appearance of accessory breast tissue in the axilla in order that they could be distinguished from other pathological changes

  14. Assessment of pancreatic islet cell function and survival

    Köhler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Function and survival of pancreatic islet insulin-producing beta-cells (β-cells) and glucagonproducing alpha-cells (α-cells) were studied, and methods for this purpose were developed or refined. Dynamic control of glucose metabolism is essential for β-cell stimulus-secretion coupling. ATP is an important metabolic parameter and therefore we set up a technique to monitor dynamic changes of ATP in insulin-producing cells using luciferase bioluminescence at the level of single...

  15. Restoration of shoulder abduction by transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach: a clinical study

    GUAN Shi-bing; HOU Chun-lin; CHEN De-song; GU Yu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve has become a routine procedure for restoration of shoulder abduction. However, the operation via the traditional supraclavicular anterior approach often leads to partial denervation of the trapezius muscle. The purpose of the study was to introduce transfer of the spinal accessory nerve through dorsal approach, using distal branch of the spinal accessory nerve, to repair the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction, and to observe its therapeutic effect.Methods From January to October 2003, a total of 11 patients with a brachial plexus injury and an intact or nearly intact spinal accessory nerve were treated by transferring the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach. The patients were followed up for 18 to 26 months [mean (23.5 ±5.2) months] to evaluate their shoulder abduction and function of the trapezius muscle. The outcomes were compared with those of 26 patients treated with traditional anterior approach. And the data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 10.5.Results In the 11 patients, the spinal accessory nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve through the dorsal approach successfully. Intact function of the upper trapezius was achieved in all of them. In the patients,the location of the two nerves was relatively stable at the level of superior margin of the scapula, the mean distance between them was (4.2±1.4) cm, both the nerves could be easily dissected and end-to-end anastomosed without any tension. During the follow-up, the first electrophysiological sign of recovery of the infraspinatus appeared at (6.8±2.7) months and the first sign of restoration of the shoulder abduction at (7.6±2.9) months after the operation, which were earlier than that after the traditional operation [(8.7±2.4) months and (9.9±2.8)months, respectively; P<0.05]. The postoperative shoulder abduction was 62.8°± 12

  16. Tau protein function in living cells

    1986-01-01

    Tau protein from mammalian brain promotes microtubule polymerization in vitro and is induced during nerve cell differentiation. However, the effects of tau or any other microtubule-associated protein on tubulin assembly within cells are presently unknown. We have tested tau protein activity in vivo by microinjection into a cell type that has no endogenous tau protein. Immunofluorescence shows that tau protein microinjected into fibroblast cells associates specifically with microtubules. The i...

  17. The need to accessorize: Molecular roles of HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 accessory proteins in the viral life cycle

    Rajaneesh eAnupam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 over the last three decades have provided detailed knowledge on viral transformation, host-viral interactions and pathogenesis. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL and multiple neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases while HTLV-2 disease association remains elusive, with few infected individuals displaying neurodegenerative diseases similar to HTLV-1. The HTLV group of oncoretroviruses has a genome that encodes structural and enzymatic proteins Gag, Pro and Env, regulatory proteins Tax and Rex, and several accessory proteins from the pX region. Of these proteins, HTLV-1 p30 and HTLV-2 p28 are encoded by the open reading frame (ORF II of the pX region. Like most other accessory proteins, p30 and p28 are dispensable for in vitro viral replication and transformation but are required for efficient viral replication and persistence in vivo. Both p30 and p28 regulate viral gene expression at the post-transcriptional level whereas p30 can also function at the transcriptional level. Recently, several reports have implicated p30 and p28 in multiple cellular processes, which provide novel insight into HTLV spread and survival and ultimately pathogenesis. In this review we summarize and compare what is known about p30 and p28, highlighting their roles in viral replication and viral pathogenesis.

  18. Colicin Killing: Foiled Cell Defense and Hijacked Cell Functions

    de Zamaroczy, Miklos; Chauleau, Mathieu

    , which help to advance our understanding of the molecular events governing colicin import. In particular, our review includes the following: (1) Structural data on the tripartite interaction of a colicin with the outer membrane receptor and the translocation machinery, (2) Comparison of the normal cellular functions of the Tol and Ton systems of the inner membrane with their "hijacked" roles during colicin import, (3) An analysis of the interaction of a nuclease-type colicin with its cognate immunity protein in the context of the immunity of producer cells, and of the dissociation of this complex in the context of the attack of the colicin on target cells, (4) Information on the endoproteolytic cleavage, which presumably accompanies the penetration of nuclease-type colicins into the cytoplasm. The new data presented here provides further insight into cellular functions "hijacked" or "borrowed" by colicins to permit their entry into target cells.

  19. Innate lymphoid cell function in the context of adaptive immunity.

    Bando, Jennifer K; Colonna, Marco

    2016-06-21

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of innate immune cells that have diverse functions during homeostasis and disease. Subsets of ILCs have phenotypes that mirror those of polarized helper T cell subsets in their expression of core transcription factors and effector cytokines. Given the similarities between these two classes of lymphocytes, it is important to understand which functions of ILCs are specialized and which are redundant with those of T cells. Here we discuss genetic mouse models that have been used to delineate the contributions of ILCs versus those of T cells and review the current understanding of the specialized in vivo functions of ILCs. PMID:27328008

  20. Microphthalmia transcription factor regulates pancreatic β-cell function.

    Mazur, Magdalena A; Winkler, Marcus; Ganic, Elvira; Colberg, Jesper K; Johansson, Jenny K; Bennet, Hedvig; Fex, Malin; Nuber, Ulrike A; Artner, Isabella

    2013-08-01

    Precise regulation of β-cell function is crucial for maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. Pax6 is an essential regulator of β-cell-specific factors like insulin and Glut2. Studies in the developing eye suggest that Pax6 interacts with Mitf to regulate pigment cell differentiation. Here, we show that Mitf, like Pax6, is expressed in all pancreatic endocrine cells during mouse postnatal development and in the adult islet. A Mitf loss-of-function mutation results in improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion but no increase in β-cell mass in adult mice. Mutant β-cells secrete more insulin in response to glucose than wild-type cells, suggesting that Mitf is involved in regulating β-cell function. In fact, the transcription of genes critical for maintaining glucose homeostasis (insulin and Glut2) and β-cell formation and function (Pax4 and Pax6) is significantly upregulated in Mitf mutant islets. The increased Pax6 expression may cause the improved β-cell function observed in Mitf mutant animals, as it activates insulin and Glut2 transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis shows that Mitf binds to Pax4 and Pax6 regulatory regions, suggesting that Mitf represses their transcription in wild-type β-cells. We demonstrate that Mitf directly regulates Pax6 transcription and controls β-cell function. PMID:23610061

  1. Histological Structure of the Vomeronasal Organ and Accessory Olfactory Bulb of Myospalax Cansus and Microtus oeconomus%甘肃鼢鼠与根田鼠的犁鼻器和副嗅球结构研究

    王茁; 张淑慧

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨地下鼠犁鼻系统与地面鼠的差异及其与地面鼠嗅觉功能相适应的特点,用组织学方法对甘肃鼢鼠(Myospalax cansus)与根田鼠(Microtus oeconomus)的副嗅球和犁鼻器结构并进行了差异性研究.结果表明,2种鼠的犁鼻器均位于鼻腔前端鼻中隔基部两侧,呈管状;甘肃鼢鼠犁鼻上皮厚度、副嗅球颗粒细胞和僧帽细胞带宽比根田鼠发达;甘肃鼢鼠犁鼻器、副嗅球的性二型分化比根田鼠显著.2种鼠各自犁鼻器和副嗅球的形态有一定的对应关系,甘肃鼢鼠犁鼻上皮、副嗅球厚而短;根田鼠犁鼻上皮、副嗅球薄而长.这种对应关系可能与犁鼻器和副嗅球之间存在着神经投射有关.%In order to explore the difference in the vomeronasal organs and olfactory functions of subterranean rats and ground rats, the histological and immunohistochemistrical methods were used to study the structure of the accessory olfactory bulb and vomeronasal organ in M. cansus and M. oeconomus. The vomeronasal organs of both rats are in the inboard wall of vomeronasal tube, while outside wall protrudes to the central cave slightly, which is pseudostratified epithelium, and its base is bone marrow of a triangle. The vomeronasal epidermis thickness and Ihe band width of accessory olfactory bulb granular cells and mitral cells in M. cansus are well developed than that of M. oeconomus. Compared with the M. oeconomus, the sexually dimorphic of accessory olfactory bulb and vomeronasal organ in M. cansus are significant. There is a certain corresponding relationship between the morphology of accessory olfactory bulb and vomeronasal organ. The vomeronasal epidermis and accessory olfactory bulb of M. cansus are thick and short, while that of M. oecoiwmus are thin and long. The possible reason of this corresponding relationship is related to the nerve projection between these two structures.

  2. Deficient natural killer cell function in preeclampsia

    Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour 51Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder

  3. Deficient natural killer cell function in preeclampsia

    Alanen, A.; Lassila, O.

    1982-11-01

    Natural killer cell activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured against K-562 target cells with a 4-hour /sup 51/Cr release assay in 15 primigravid women with preeclamptic symptoms. Nineteen primigravid women with an uncomplicated pregnancy and 18 nonpregnant women served as controls. The natural killer cell activity of preeclamptic women was observed to be significantly lower than that of both control groups. Natural killer cells in preeclamptic women responded normally to augmentation caused by interferon. These findings give further evidence for the participation of the maternal immune system in this pregnancy disorder.

  4. N-Acetylglucosamine Functions in Cell Signaling

    James B. Konopka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc is well known for the important structural roles that it plays at the cell surface. It is a key component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Interestingly, recent studies have also identified new roles for GlcNAc in cell signaling. For example, GlcNAc stimulates the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo changes in morphogenesis and expression of virulence genes. Pathogenic E. coli responds to GlcNAc by altering the expression of fimbriae and CURLI fibers that promote biofilm formation and GlcNAc stimulates soil bacteria to undergo changes in morphogenesis and production of antibiotics. Studies with animal cells have revealed that GlcNAc influences cell signaling through the posttranslational modification of proteins by glycosylation. O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to Ser and Thr residues regulates a variety of intracellular proteins, including transcription factors such as NFκB, c-myc, and p53. In addition, the specificity of Notch family receptors for different ligands is altered by GlcNAc attachment to fucose residues in the extracellular domain. GlcNAc also impacts signal transduction by altering the degree of branching of N-linked glycans, which influences cell surface signaling proteins. These emerging roles of GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signaling in fungi, animals, and bacteria will be the focus of this paper.

  5. Regulation of B cell function by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    Gujer, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are early sentinels of pathogen exposure and central in the initiation and orchestration of adaptive immune responses. Apart from the prominent role of DCs in the activation of T cells, DCs have been shown to influence humoral B cell mediated responses. DCs are therefore important cells for regulating immune responses to vaccines. Many of the vaccines under development today are against pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV-1 that likely r...

  6. Cell Adhesion on Surface-Functionalized Magnesium.

    Wagener, Victoria; Schilling, Achim; Mainka, Astrid; Hennig, Diana; Gerum, Richard; Kelch, Marie-Luise; Keim, Simon; Fabry, Ben; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2016-05-18

    The biocompatibility of commercially pure magnesium-based (cp Mg) biodegradable implants is compromised of strong hydrogen evolution and surface alkalization due to high initial corrosion rates of cp Mg in the physiological environment. To mitigate this problem, the addition of corrosion-retarding alloying elements or coating of implant surfaces has been suggested. In the following work, we explored the effect of organic coatings on long-term cell growth. cp Mg was coated with aminopropyltriehtoxysilane + vitamin C (AV), carbonyldiimidazole (CDI), or stearic acid (SA). All three coatings have been previously suggested to reduce initial corrosion and to enhance protein adsorption and hence cell adhesion on magnesium surfaces. Endothelial cells (DH1+/+) and osteosarcoma cells (MG63) were cultured on coated samples for up to 20 days. To quantify Mg corrosion, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was measured after 1, 3, and 5 days of cell culture. We also investigated the speed of initial cell spreading after seeding using fluorescently labeled fibroblasts (NIH/3T3). Hydrogen evolution after contact with cell culture medium was markedly decreased on AV- and SA-coated Mg compared to uncoated Mg. These coatings also showed improved cell adhesion and spreading after 24 h of culture comparable to tissue-treated plastic surfaces. On AV-coated cp Mg, a confluent layer of endothelial cells formed after 5 days and remained intact for up to 20 days. Together, these data demonstrate that surface coating with AV is a viable strategy for improving long-term biocompatibility of cp Mg-based implants. EIS measurements confirmed that the presence of a confluent cell layer increased the corrosion resistance. PMID:27089250

  7. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  8. Generation of functional organs from stem cells

    Liu Yunying

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We are now well entering the exciting era of stem cells. Potential stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of many diseases such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral-sclerosis, myocardial infarction, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, and etc. It is generally believed that transplantation of specific stem cells into the injured tissue to replace the lost cells is an effective way to repair the tissue. In fact, organ transplantation has been successfully practiced in clinics for liver or kidney failure. However, the severe shortage of donor organs has been a major obstacle for the expansion of organ transplantation programs. Toward that direction, generation of transplantable organs using stem cells is a desirable approach for organ replacement and would be of great interest for both basic and clinical scientists. Here we review recent progress in the field of organ generation using various methods including single adult tissue stem cells, a blastocyst complementation system, tissue decellularization/recellularization and a combination of stem cells and tissue engineering.

  9. Molecular structure and biological function of proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    2007-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the core component of replication complex in eukaryote.As a processive factor of DNA polymerase delta, PCNA coordinates the replication process by interacting with various replication proteins. PCNA appears to play an essential role in many cell events, such as DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, through the coordination or organization of different partners. PCNA is an essential factor in cell proliferation, and has clinical significance in tumor research. In this article we review the functional structure of PCNA, which acts as a function switch in different cell events.

  10. Functions of proteoglycans at the cell surface

    Höök, M; Woods, A; Johansson, S; Kjellén, L; Couchman, J R

    1986-01-01

    -associated proteoglycans, including: regulation of cell-substrate adhesion; regulation of cell proliferation; participation in the binding and uptake of extracellular components; and participation in the regulation of extracellular matrix formation. Evidence is discussed suggesting that the cell-associated heparan...... sulphate helps to connect the intracellular cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix in focal adhesions. This evidence includes: the co-localization of actin and heparan sulphate proteoglycan during the process of cell spreading, and in isolated focal adhesions; biochemical analyses of a hydrophobic...... heparan sulphate proteoglycan from isolated focal adhesions; and the formation of focal adhesions on substrates made from isolated fibronectin fragments requires the presence of a heparan sulphate-binding site....

  11. Defective antigen-presenting cell function in human neonates

    Velilla, Paula A.; Rugeles, Maria T.; Chougnet, Claire A.

    2006-01-01

    Immaturity of the immune system has been suggested as an underlying factor for the high rate of morbidity and mortality from infections in newborns. Functional impairment of neonatal T cells is frequently quoted as the main underlying mechanism for such immaturity. However, recent studies suggest that neonatal antigen-presenting cells (APCs) also exhibit functional alterations, which could lead to secondary defects of adaptive T cell responses. In this review, we summarize what is known on th...

  12. Immunomodulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells and possible mechanisms.

    Wang, Qing; Ding, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    In addition to their well-studied self-renewal capabilities and multipotent differentiation properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to possess profound immunomodulatory functions both in vitro and in vivo. More and more studies have shown that MSCs are capable of interacting closely with almost all subsets of immune cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils etc. The immunomodulatory property of MSCs may shed light on the treatment of a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related diseases. In this article, we will review the studies on the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of MSCs and the mechanisms responsible for the interaction between immune cells and MSCs, which could improve the development of promising approaches for cell-mediated immune therapies. PMID:26932157

  13. Continuous requirement for the T cell receptor for regulatory T cell function

    Levine, Andrew G; Arvey, Aaron; Jin, Wei; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2014-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) maintain immunological tolerance and their deficiency results in fatal multi-organ autoimmunity. Although heightened T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is critical for the differentiation of Treg cells, the role of TCR signaling in Treg cell function remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate inducible ablation of the TCR results in Treg cell dysfunction which cannot be attributed to impaired Foxp3 expression, decreased expression of Treg cell signature g...

  14. The Importance of the Nurse Cells and Regulatory Cells in the Control of T Lymphocyte Responses

    María Guadalupe Reyes García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes from the immune system are bone marrow-derived cells whose development and activities are carefully supervised by two sets of accessory cells. In the thymus, the immature young T lymphocytes are engulfed by epithelial “nurse cells” and retained in vacuoles, where most of them (95% are negatively selected and removed when they have an incomplete development or express high affinity autoreactive receptors. The mature T lymphocytes that survive to this selection process leave the thymus and are controlled in the periphery by another subpopulation of accessory cells called “regulatory cells,” which reduce any excessive immune response and the risk of collateral injuries to healthy tissues. By different times and procedures, nurse cells and regulatory cells control both the development and the functions of T lymphocyte subpopulations. Disorders in the T lymphocytes development and migration have been observed in some parasitic diseases, which disrupt the thymic microenvironment of nurse cells. In other cases, parasites stimulate rather than depress the functions of regulatory T cells decreasing T-mediated host damages. This paper is a short review regarding some features of these accessory cells and their main interactions with T immature and mature lymphocytes. The modulatory role that neurotransmitters and hormones play in these interactions is also revised.

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Mediated Functional Tooth Regeneration in Swine

    Wataru Sonoyama; Yi Liu; Dianji Fang; Takayoshi Yamaza; Byoung-Moo Seo; Chunmei Zhang; He Liu; Stan Gronthos; Cun-Yu Wang; Songlin Wang; Songtao Shi

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla). Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This wo...

  16. Human NK Cell Subset Functions Are Differentially Affected by Adipokines

    Huebner, Lena; Engeli, Stefan; Christiane D Wrann; Goudeva, Lilia; Laue, Tobias; Kielstein, Heike

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a risk factor for various types of infectious diseases and cancer. The increase in adipose tissue causes alterations in both adipogenesis and the production of adipocyte-secreted proteins (adipokines). Since natural killer (NK) cells are the host’s primary defense against virus-infected and tumor cells, we investigated how adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) affects functions of two distinct human NK cell subsets. Methods: Isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell...

  17. Dendritic cells in asthma: a function beyond sensitization

    Rijt, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this thesis is to characterize the involvement of dendritic cells in the induction and maintenance of the secondary immune response leading to an eosinophilic airway inflammation as seen in asthma. Special attention was attributed to the mechanisms by which these cells accumulate in the airways of challenged mice, to their interaction with primed CD4+ T cells as well as to their functional contribution to primed T cell activation. These questions were addressed in a wel...

  18. A mouse model of intestinal stem cell function and regeneration

    Slorach, E M; Campbell, F. C.; Dorin, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We present here an in vivo mouse model for intestinal stem cell function and differentiation that uses postnatal intestinal epithelial cell aggregates to generate a differentiated murine small intestinal mucosa with full crypt-villus architecture. The process of neomucosal formation is highly similar to that of intestinal regeneration. Both in vivo grafting and primary culture of these cells reveal two different epithelial cell populations, which display properties consistent with intestinal ...

  19. Ex vivo cytosolic delivery of functional macromolecules to immune cells.

    Armon Sharei

    Full Text Available Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach's potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies.

  20. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K.; Miriam Eckstein; Concepcion, Axel R.; Smith, Charles E.; Sonal Srikanth; Paine, Michael L.; Yousang Gwack; HUBBARD, MICHAEL J.; Stefan Feske; LACRUZ, Rodrigo S.

    2015-01-01

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca2+ yet the mechanisms mediating Ca2+ dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca2+ influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular pools followed by Ca2+ entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization...

  1. Either main or accessory olfactory system signaling can mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female chemosignals in sexually naive male mice.

    Korzan, Wayne J; Freamat, Mihael; Johnson, Adam G; Cherry, James A; Baum, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    A long-held view has been that interest of male mice in female body odors reflects an activation of reward circuits in the male brain following their detection by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and processing via the accessory olfactory system. We found that adult, sexually naive male mice acquired a conditioned place preference (CPP) after repeatedly receiving estrous female urine on the nose and being placed in an initially nonpreferred chamber with soiled estrous bedding on the floor. CPP was not acquired in control mice that received saline on the nose before being placed in a nonpreferred chamber with clean bedding. Robust acquisition of a CPP using estrous female odors as the reward persisted in separate groups of mice in which VNO-accessory olfactory function was disrupted by bilateral lesioning of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) or in which main olfactory function was disrupted by zinc sulfate lesions of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). By contrast, no CPP was acquired for estrous odors in males that received combined AOB and MOE lesions. Either the main or the accessory olfactory system suffices to mediate the rewarding effects of estrous female odors in the male mouse, even in the absence of prior mating experience. The main olfactory system is part of the circuitry that responds to chemosignals involved in motivated behavior, a role that may be particularly important for humans who lack a functional accessory olfactory system. PMID:23978150

  2. Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Function by STAT3

    Nicholas eCacalano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, key members of a distinct hempatopoietic lineage, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs, are critical effectors that mediate cytotoxicity toward tumor and virally-infected cells but also regulate inflammation, antigen presentation and the adaptive immune response. It has been shown that NK cells can regulate the development and activation of many other components of the immune response such as dendritic cells, which in turn, modulate the function of NK cells in multiple synergistic feed back loops driven by cell-cell contact and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines that control effector function and migration of cells to sites of immune activation. The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT-3 is involved in driving almost all of the pathways that control NK cytolytic activity as well as the reciprocal regulatory interactions between NK cells and other components of the immune system. In the context of tumor immunology, NK cells are a first line of defense that eliminates pre-cancerous and transformed cells early in the process of carcinogenesis, through a mechanism of immune surveillance. Even after tumors become established, NK cells are critical components of anti-cancer immunity: dysfunctional NK cells are often found in the peripheral blood of cancer patients and the lack of NK cells in the tumor microenvironment often correlates with poor prognosis. The pathways and soluble factors activated in tumor-associated NK cells, cancer cells, and regulatory myeloid cells which determine the outcome of cancer immunity are all critically regulated by STAT3. Using the tumor microenvironment as a paradigm, we present here an overview of the research that has revealed fundamental mechanisms through which STAT3 regulates all aspects of natural killer cell biology, including NK development, activation, target cell killing, and fine tuning of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  3. Molecular regulation of pancreatic stellate cell function

    Jaster Robert

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until now, no specific therapies are available to inhibit pancreatic fibrosis, a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. One major reason is the incomplete knowledge of the molecular principles underlying fibrogenesis in the pancreas. In the past few years, evidence has been accumulated that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs are the predominant source of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins in the diseased organ. PSCs are vitamin A-storing, fibroblast-like cells with close morphological and biochemical similarities to hepatic stellate cells (also known as Ito-cells. In response to profibrogenic mediators such as various cytokines, PSCs undergo an activation process that involves proliferation, exhibition of a myofibroblastic phenotype and enhanced production of ECM proteins. The intracellular mediators of activation signals, and their antagonists, are only partially known so far. Recent data suggest an important role of enzymes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family in PSC activation. On the other hand, ligands of the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ stimulate maintenance of a quiescent PSC phenotype. In the future, targeting regulators of the PSC activation process might become a promising approach for the treatment of pancreatic fibrosis.

  4. Natural killer cells: Biology, functions and clinical relevance

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Natural Killer cells (NK cells represent the subset of peripheral lymphocytes that play critical role in the innate immune response to virus-infected and tumor transformed cells. Lysis of NK sensitive target cells could be mediated independently of antigen stimulation and without requirement of peptide presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. NK cell activity and functions are controlled by a considerable number of cell surface receptors, which exist in both inhibitory and activating isoforms. There are several groups of NK cell surface receptors: 1 killer immunoglobulin like receptors-KIR, 2 C-type lectin receptors,3natural citotoxicity receptors-NCR and 4 Toll-like receptors-TLR. Functions of NK receptors. Defining the biology of NK cell surface receptors has contributed to the concept of the manner how NK cells selectively recognize and lyse tumor and virally infected cells while sparing normal cells. Further, identification of NK receptor ligands and their expression on the normal and transformed cells has led to the development of clinical approaches to manipulating receptor/ligand interactions that showed clinical benefit. NK cells are the first lymphocyte subset that reconstitute the peripheral blood following allogeneic HSCT and multiple roles for alloreactive donor NK cells have been demonstrated, in diminishing Graft vs. Host Disease (GvHD through selective killing recipient dendritic cells, prevention of graft rejection by killing recipient T cells and participation in Graft vs. Leukaemia (GvL effect through destruction of residual host tumor cells. Conclusion. Besides their role in HSCT, NK cell receptors have an important clinical relevance that reflects from the fact that they play a crucial role in the development of some diseases as well as in possibilities of managing all NK receptors through selective expansion and usage of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Regulation of Natural Killer Cell Function by STAT3

    Cacalano, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, key members of a distinct hematopoietic lineage, innate lymphoid cells, are not only critical effectors that mediate cytotoxicity toward tumor and virally infected cells but also regulate inflammation, antigen presentation, and the adaptive immune response. It has been shown that NK cells can regulate the development and activation of many other components of the immune response, such as dendritic cells, which in turn, modulate the function of NK cells in multiple synergistic feed back loops driven by cell–cell contact, and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines that control effector function and migration of cells to sites of immune activation. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is involved in driving almost all of the pathways that control NK cytolytic activity as well as the reciprocal regulatory interactions between NK cells and other components of the immune system. In the context of tumor immunology, NK cells are a first line of defense that eliminates pre-cancerous and transformed cells early in the process of carcinogenesis, through a mechanism of “immune surveillance.” Even after tumors become established, NK cells are critical components of anticancer immunity: dysfunctional NK cells are often found in the peripheral blood of cancer patients, and the lack of NK cells in the tumor microenvironment often correlates to poor prognosis. The pathways and soluble factors activated in tumor-associated NK cells, cancer cells, and regulatory myeloid cells, which determine the outcome of cancer immunity, are all critically regulated by STAT3. Using the tumor microenvironment as a paradigm, we present here an overview of the research that has revealed fundamental mechanisms through which STAT3 regulates all aspects of NK cell biology, including NK development, activation, target cell killing, and fine tuning of the innate and adaptive immune responses.

  6. 21 CFR 884.6190 - Assisted reproductive microscopes and microscope accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction.... Assisted reproduction microscopes and microscope accessories (excluding microscope stage warmers, which are classified under assisted reproduction accessories) are optical instruments used to enlarge images of...

  7. Impacts of Humanized Mouse Models on the Investigation of HIV-1 Infection: Illuminating the Roles of Viral Accessory Proteins in Vivo

    Eri Yamada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 encodes four accessory genes: vif, vpu, vpr, and nef. Recent investigations using in vitro cell culture systems have shed light on the roles of these HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif, Vpr, Vpu, and Nef, in counteracting, modulating, and evading various cellular factors that are responsible for anti-HIV-1 intrinsic immunity. However, since humans are the exclusive target for HIV-1 infection, conventional animal models are incapable of mimicking the dynamics of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Moreover, the effects of HIV-1 accessory proteins on viral infection in vivo remain unclear. To elucidate the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in the dynamics of viral infection in vivo, humanized mouse models, in which the mice are xenotransplanted with human hematopoietic stem cells, has been utilized. This review describes the current knowledge of the roles of HIV-1 accessory proteins in viral infection, replication, and pathogenicity in vivo, which are revealed by the studies using humanized mouse models.

  8. Phenotype and Functions of Memory Tfh cells in Human Blood

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh)-lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines. PMID:24998903

  9. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    K. Svechnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  10. Influence of nanomaterials on cell function

    Tian, Furong

    2006-01-01

    The intention of this work was the study of mechanisms of interactions between nanomaterials and cells. The experiments carried out during this thesis focused on two kinds of nanomaterials: single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and nanostructured hydrogels. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the field of nanomaterials such as SWCNTs and nanostructured hydrogels. In chapter 2, the effects of SWCNTs on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are investigated via quantitative PCR produ...

  11. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik

    2008-01-01

    Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders ...... our view of the emerging role of Leydig cell dysfunction with subsequent decreased testosterone levels in the pathogenesis of TDS....

  12. Molecular regulation of pancreatic stellate cell function

    Jaster Robert

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Until now, no specific therapies are available to inhibit pancreatic fibrosis, a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. One major reason is the incomplete knowledge of the molecular principles underlying fibrogenesis in the pancreas. In the past few years, evidence has been accumulated that activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are the predominant source of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the diseased organ. PSCs are vitamin A-storing...

  13. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle

    Shin Fujimaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise.

  14. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle.

    Fujimaki, Shin; Machida, Masanao; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise. PMID:26779264

  15. Special servicing equipment for reactor pressurized vessel stud hole and stud accessories

    The author briefly introduces the design and manufacture of nuclear island special servicing equipment of Nuclear Power Institute of China. Maintenance process of reactor pressurized vessel (RPV) stud hold and stud accessories the special servicing equipment include RPV flange dummy, closed-circuit television (CCTV) inspection equipment, RPV stud hole expandable comb, RPV stud hole polisher, RPV stud hold thread lubricating equipment, RPV stud hole thread miller and RPV stud hole camera. It is presented how eight kinds of special servicing equipment perform the maintenance process concerning their function, structure, and characteristics, their practical use on site is also introduced

  16. Brain-specific interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein in sleep regulation

    Taishi, Ping; Davis, Christopher J.; Bayomy, Omar; Zielinski, Mark R.; Liao, Fan; Clinton, James M.; Smith, Dirk E.; Krueger, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β is involved in several brain functions, including sleep regulation. It promotes non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep via the IL-1 type I receptor. IL-1β/IL-1 receptor complex signaling requires adaptor proteins, e.g., the IL-1 receptor brain-specific accessory protein (AcPb). We have cloned and characterized rat AcPb, which shares substantial homologies with mouse AcPb and, compared with AcP, is preferentially expressed in the brain. Furthermore, rat somatosensory cortex Ac...

  17. Antidromic Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Using a Concealed Retrograde Conducting Left Lateral Accessory Pathway.

    Gonzalez, Jaime E; Zipse, Matthew M; Nguyen, Duy T; Sauer, William H

    2016-03-01

    Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia is a common cause of undifferentiated supraventricular tachycardia. In patients with manifest or concealed accessory pathways, it is imperative to assess for the presence of other accessory pathways. Multiple accessory pathways are present in 4% to 10% of patients and are more common in patients with structural heart disease. In rare cases, multiple accessory pathways can act as the anterograde and retrograde limbs of the tachycardia. PMID:26920167

  18. Potential cell-specific functions of CXCR4 in atherosclerosis.

    Weber, Christian; Döring, Yvonne; Noels, Heidi

    2016-05-10

    The chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 form an important axis contributing to cellular functions in homeostasis and disease. In addition, the atypical CXCL12 receptor CXCR7 may shape the availability and function of CXCL12. Further to their role through progenitor cell mobilization, CXCL12 and CXCR4 may affect native atherogenesis by modifying atherosclerosis-relevant cellular functions. This short review intends to provide a concise summary of current knowledge with regards to cell-specific functions of CXCL12 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 with potential implications for the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:25586789

  19. Coating nanofiber scaffolds with beta cell membrane to promote cell proliferation and function

    Chen, Wansong; Zhang, Qiangzhe; Luk, Brian T.; Fang, Ronnie H.; Liu, Younian; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2016-05-01

    The cell membrane cloaking technique has emerged as an intriguing strategy in nanomaterial functionalization. Coating synthetic nanostructures with natural cell membranes bestows the nanostructures with unique cell surface antigens and functions. Previous studies have focused primarily on development of cell membrane-coated spherical nanoparticles and the uses thereof. Herein, we attempt to extend the cell membrane cloaking technique to nanofibers, a class of functional nanomaterials that are drastically different from nanoparticles in terms of dimensional and mechanophysical characteristics. Using pancreatic beta cells as a model cell line, we demonstrate successful preparation of cell membrane-coated nanofibers and validate that the modified nanofibers possess an antigenic exterior closely resembling that of the source beta cells. When such nanofiber scaffolds are used to culture beta cells, both cell proliferation rate and function are significantly enhanced. Specifically, glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the cells is increased by near five-fold compared with the same beta cells cultured in regular, unmodified nanofiber scaffolds. Overall, coating cell membranes onto nanofibers could add another dimension of flexibility and controllability in harnessing cell membrane functions and offer new opportunities for innovative applications.

  20. Structure and function of stem cell pools in mammalian cell renewal systems

    Stem cells play a key-role in the maintenance of the equilibrium between cell loss and cell production in cell renewal systems as well as in the understanding of the radiation pathophysiology of mammalian organisms. The integrity of mammalian organisms with the need to maintain a constant ''millieu interior'' is depending on the normal functioning of cell renewal systems, especially those of epithelial surfaces and blood cell forming organs. All cell renewal systems of bodies have a very similar functional structure consisting of functional, proliferative - amplifying and stem cell compartments. They differ in transit and cell cycle times and in the number of amplification division - aside from the difference in their functional and biochemical make-up. The stem cell pools are providing the cells capable of differentiation without depleting their own kind. This can be achieved by symmetrical or assymmetrical stem cell division. In normal steady state, 50% of the stem cell division remain in the stem cell pool, while the other 50% leave it to differentiate, proliferate and mature, hemopoietic system is distributed throughout bodies. This is an important factor in the radiation biology of mammalian organisms since the loss of function in one area can be compensated for by more production in other areas, and locally depleted sites can be reseeded with the stem cells migrating in from blood. (Yamashita, S.)

  1. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  2. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, A. Fletcher; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L.; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the “uncrossed” MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear to binaurally-presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection t...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4350 - Cryosurgical unit and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4350 Cryosurgical unit... to destroy tissue during surgical procedures by applying extreme cold. (2) Cryosurgical unit with a... and accessories is a device intended to destroy tissue during surgical procedures,...

  4. 21 CFR 876.4890 - Urological table and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological table and accessories. 876.4890 Section 876.4890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4890 Urological table...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5130 - Urological catheter and accessories.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urological catheter and accessories. 876.5130 Section 876.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5130...

  6. Forearm soft tissue mass caused by an accessory muscle

    Lopez Milena, G.; Ruiz Santiago, F.; Canadillas Barea, L. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain); Chamorro Santos, C. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Granada (Spain)

    2001-08-01

    We present a case of forearm soft tissue mass caused by an accessory muscle, distal and deep to flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. Imaging studies, mainly magnetic resonance and ultrasound, allow a specific diagnosis, and obviate unnecessary surgery. In this case, the symptoms associated with ulnar compression led to surgery and confirmed the preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. [Radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways in pre-excitation syndrome].

    Pfeiffer, D; Tebbenjohanns, J; Jung, W; Manz, M; Lüderitz, B

    1993-04-16

    Various parameters relating to the radio-frequency ablation of accessory pathways were studied in 53 patients (27 males, 26 females: mean age 38.5 [14-64] years) with a history of paroxysmal tachycardia (over 1 month to 50 years), shown to be caused by an accessory pathway (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome). In all patients the following values were obtained: (1) number of procedures necessary to achieve permanent blockage of the accessory pathway (1-4); (2) duration of each procedure (45-420 min); (3) duration of fluoroscopy (5-102 min); (4) number of necessary radio-frequency applications (1-48); and (5) cumulative energy per procedure. To ablate left-lateral pathways (n = 10) required fewer procedures, shorter duration per procedure, shorter fluoroscopy time, fewer current applications and less total energy than coagulation of right-sided pathways (n = 10). Those various parameters were greatest for ablation of septal and para-septal pathways (n = 9). Pathways which conducted only retrogradely (n = 15) were more difficult to ablate than those with anterograde conduction (n = 38). There were two complications. In one case a tension pneumothorax occurred after faulty puncture of the subclavian vein; in the other, the left ventricle was perforated causing an acute tamponade which required pericardiocentesis with subsequent suture closure of the perforation. It is concluded that, in principle, all accessory pathways, regardless of their conduction potential and site, can be ablated by a radio-frequency current. PMID:8472633

  8. Cancer of the accessory breast - a case report

    Breast neoplasm may develop in ectopically located glandular tissue. This paper presents an interesting and rare case of a 50-year-old female who despite regular mammography screening examination developed an invasive accessory breast cancer. Clinical examination revealed a 2 cm - tumour localized 4 cm below the left infra mammary fold. The lesion was immobile, the skin and the atrophic nipple were retracted, the tumour infiltrated the thoracic wall. Oligo biopsy and additional examinations showed an invasive stage IIIB ductal breast cancer (Bloom II, G-2). The receptor status was: ER(+), PGR(+), HER2(-). The increased level of cancer antigen 15.3 was found. The patient was submitted to pre-operative chemotherapy. She also underwent surgery and subsequently post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On the basis of the presented case, it could be concluded that the accessory mammary glands are out of the image of screening breast examinations. Accessory breast cancer is usually diagnosed by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Preventive resection of accessory breast in women at high risk of developing breast cancer can be considered as the treatment of choice in most patients. (authors)

  9. Accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    A case of accessory thyroid in the anterior mediastinum, physically separated from the thyroid gland, is reported. The mediastinal thyroid was incidentally discovered during the preoperative evaluation of a patient with breast carcinoma. The extreme rarity of the case is outlined

  10. Secretory activity and endocrine regulation of male accessory glands in the blood-sucking bug Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Lêda Regis

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The epithelial cells of Panstrongylus megistus male accessory glands (MAG present ultrastructural characteristics of a secretory cell. Their secretory products are accumulated in the lumen of the four MAG lobes. During the first 8 days of adult life a strong secretion activity occurs, accumulating enough material to produce the first spermatophore. Cerebral neurosecretions as well as juvenile hormone are both involved in MAG secretory activity regulation. Juvenile hormone seems to be the responsible for the stimulation of most protein synthesis in male accessory glands. Cerebral neurosecretion seems to be necessary to stimulate juvenile hormone production and release by the corpus allatum. Furthermore, neurosecretion is required for some polypeptides synthesis by MAG. Although topic application of precocene II to adult males does not reproduce the same effects on MAG as does allatectomy, this compound causes strong reduction on male reproductive capacity.

  11. 76 FR 585 - In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of...

    2011-01-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories and Packaging Thereof; Notice of... States after importation of certain handbags. luggage, accessories and packaging thereof by reason of... certain handbags, luggage, accessories and packaging thereof that infringe the `594 trademark; the...

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine.

    Wataru Sonoyama

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for regenerative medicine for a wide range of applications. Here we report a new population of stem cells isolated from the root apical papilla of human teeth (SCAP, stem cells from apical papilla. Using a minipig model, we transplanted both human SCAP and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs to generate a root/periodontal complex capable of supporting a porcelain crown, resulting in normal tooth function. This work integrates a stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration strategy, engineered materials for structure, and current dental crown technologies. This hybridized tissue engineering approach led to recovery of tooth strength and appearance.

  13. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and Leydig cell function

    Joensen, U.N.; Jorgensen, N.; Rajpert-De, Meyts E.;

    2008-01-01

    Fertility among human beings appear to be on the decline in many Western countries, and part of the explanation may be decreasing male fecundity. A hypothesis has been put forward that decreasing semen quality may be associated with a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), a spectrum of disorders...... originating in early foetal life. TDS comprises various aspects of impaired gonadal development and function, including testicular cancer. A growing body of evidence, including animal models and research in human beings, points to lifestyle factors and endocrine disrupters as risk factors for TDS. We present...

  14. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  15. Adult neural stem cells-Functional potential and therapeutic applications

    YANG Lin; ZHU Jianhong

    2004-01-01

    The adult brain has been thought traditionally as a structure with a very limited regenerative capacity. It is now evident that neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain is a prevailing phenomenon. Neural stem cells with the ability to self-renew, differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes reside in some regions of the adult brain. Adult neurogenesis can be stimulated by many physiological factors including pregnancy. More strikingly, newborn neurons in hippocampus integrally function with local neurons, thus neural stem cells might play important roles in memory and learning function. It seems that neural stem cells could transdifferentiate into other tissues, such as blood cells and muscles. Although there are some impediments in this field, some attempts have been made to employ adult neural stem cells in the cell replacement therapy for traumatic and ischemic brain injuries.

  16. Generation of functional hepatocytes from human spermatogonial stem cells.

    Chen, Zheng; Sun, Min; Yuan, Qingqing; Niu, Minghui; Yao, Chencheng; Hou, Jingmei; Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Liu, Yun; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2016-02-23

    To generate functional human hepatocytes from stem cells and/or extra-hepatic tissues could provide an important source of cells for treating liver diseases. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have an unlimited plasticity since they can dedifferentiate and transdifferentiate to other cell lineages. However, generation of mature and functional hepatocytes from human SSCs has not yet been achieved. Here we have for the first time reported direct transdifferentiation of human SSCs to mature and functional hepatocytes by three-step induction using the defined condition medium. Human SSCs were first transdifferentiated to hepatic stem cells, as evidenced by their morphology and biopotential nature of co-expressing hepatocyte and cholangiocyte markers but not hallmarks for embryonic stem cells. Hepatic stem cells were further induced to differentiate into mature hepatocytes identified by their morphological traits and strong expression of CK8, CK18, ALB, AAT, TF, TAT, and cytochrome enzymes rather than CK7 or CK19. Significantly, mature hepatocytes derived from human SSCs assumed functional attributes of human hepatocytes, because they could produce albumin, remove ammonia, and uptake and release indocyanine green. Moreover, expression of β-CATENIN, HNF4A, FOXA1 and GATA4 was upregulated during the transdifferentiation of human SSCs to mature hepatocytes. Collectively, human SSCs could directly transdifferentiate to mature and functional hepatocytes. This study could offer an invaluable source of human hepatocytes for curing liver disorders and drug toxicology screening and provide novel insights into mechanisms underlying human liver regeneration. PMID:26840458

  17. Smooth muscle cells largely develop independently of functional hemogenic endothelium

    Monika Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular smooth muscle cells represent a major component of the cardiovascular system. In vitro studies have shown that FLK1+ cells derived from embryonic stem (ES cells can differentiate into both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. These FLK1+ cells also contain a mesodermal precursor, the hemangioblast, able to produce endothelial, blood and smooth muscle cells. The generation of blood precursors from the hemangioblast was recently shown to occur through a transient cell population of specialised endothelium, a hemogenic endothelium. To date, the lineage relationship between this cell population and smooth muscle cell progenitors has not been investigated. In this study, we generated a reporter ES cell line in which expression of the fluorescent protein H2B-VENUS is driven by the α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA regulatory sequences. We demonstrated that this reporter cell line efficiently trace smooth muscle development during ES cell differentiation. Although some smooth muscle cells are associated with broad endothelial development, we established that smooth muscle cells are mostly generated independently from a specialised functional hemogenic endothelium. This study provides new and important insights into hematopoietic and vascular development, which may help in driving further progress towards the development of bioengineered vascular grafts for regenerative medicine.

  18. Lead poisoning and brain cell function

    Goldstein, G.W. (Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA) Kennedy Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Exposure to excessive amounts of inorganic lead during the toddler years may produce lasting adverse effects upon brain function. Maximal ingestion of lead occurs at an age when major changes are occurring in the density of brain synaptic connections. The developmental reorganization of synapses is, in part, mediated by protein kinases, and these enzymes are particularly sensitive to stimulation by lead. By inappropriately activating specific protein kinases, lead poisoning may disrupt the development of neural networks without producing overt pathological alterations. The blood-brain barrier is another potential vulnerable site for the neurotoxic action of lead. protein kinases appear to regulate the development of brain capillaries and the expression of the blood-brain barrier properties. Stimulation of protein kinase by lead may disrupt barrier development and alter the precise regulation of the neuronal environment that is required for normal brain function. Together, these findings suggest that the sensitivity of protein kinases to lead may in part underlie the brain dysfunction observed in children poisoned by this toxicant.

  19. Electroporation of Functional Bacterial Effectors into Mammalian Cells

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Mihai, Cosmin; Orr, Galya; Savchenko, Alexei; Skarina, Tatiana; Cui, Hong; Cort, John R.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Brown, Roslyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Electroporation was used to insert purified bacterial virulence effector proteins directly into living eukaryotic cells. Protein localization was monitored by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. This method allows for studies on trafficking, function, and protein-protein interactions using active exogenous proteins, avoiding the need for heterologous expression in eukaryotic cells.

  20. Epithelioid granuloma formation requiring no T-cell function.

    Tanaka, A.; Emori, K; Nagao, S.; Kushima, K.; Kohashi, O; Saitoh, M.; Kataoka, T.

    1982-01-01

    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a minimal structure in bacterial cell walls essential for their adjuvant activity, was incorporated in a water-in-oil emulsion and injected into the footpads of nude rats devoid of functional T cells. MDP thus injected evoked massive epithelioid granulomas in the draining lymph nodes, indicating that MDP induced epithelioid granuloma formation requires no T cells. This finding with other data available strongly suggest that epithelioid granulomas can be induced withou...

  1. Switching roles: the functional plasticity of adult tissue stem cells

    Wabik, A.; Jones, P H

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms have to adapt to survive, and the same is true for their tissues. Rates and types of cell production must be rapidly and reversibly adjusted to meet tissue demands in response to both local and systemic challenges. Recent work reveals how stem cell (SC) populations meet these requirements by switching between functional states tuned to homoeostasis or regeneration. This plasticity extends to differentiating cells, which are capable of reverting to SCs after injury. The concept...

  2. Mitochondrial function in normal and diabetic beta-cells

    Maechler, Pierre; Wollheim, Claes

    2001-01-01

    The aetiology of type 2, or non-insulin-dependent, diabetes mellitus has been characterized in only a limited number of cases. Among these, mitochondrial diabetes, a rare subform of the disease, is the consequence of pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which is distinct from the nuclear genome. The impact of such mutations on beta-cell function reflects the importance of mitochondria in the control of insulin secretion. The beta-cell mitochondria serve a...

  3. The staphylococcal accessory regulator, SarA, is an RNA-binding protein that modulates the mRNA turnover properties of late-exponential and stationary phase Staphylococcus aureus cells

    John M Morrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of mRNA turnover is gaining recognition as a mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus regulates gene expression, but the factors that orchestrate alterations in transcript degradation are poorly understood. In that regard, we previously found that 138 mRNA species, including the virulence factors protein A (spa and collagen binding protein (cna, are stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner during exponential phase growth, suggesting that SarA protein may directly or indirectly effect the RNA turnover properties of these transcripts. Herein, we expanded our characterization of the effects of sarA on mRNA turnover during late exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results revealed that the locus affects the RNA degradation properties of cells during both growth phases. Further, using gel mobility shift assays and RIP-ChIP, it was found that SarA protein is capable of binding mRNA species that it stabilizes both in vitro and within bacterial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SarA post-transcriptionally regulates S. aureus gene expression in a manner that involves binding to and consequently altering the mRNA turnover properties of target transcripts.

  4. Amine-functionalized polypyrrole: Inherently cell adhesive conducting polymer.

    Lee, Jae Y; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) have been recognized as novel biomaterials that can electrically communicate with biological systems. For their tissue engineering applications, CPs have been modified to promote cell adhesion for improved interactions between biomaterials and cells/tissues. Conventional approaches to improve cell adhesion involve the surface modification of CPs with biomolecules, such as physical adsorption of cell adhesive proteins and polycationic polymers, or their chemical immobilization; however, these approaches require additional multiple modification steps with expensive biomolecules. In this study, as a simple and effective alternative to such additional biomolecule treatment, we synthesized amine-functionalized polypyrrole (APPy) that inherently presents cell adhesion-supporting positive charges under physiological conditions. The synthesized APPy provides electrical activity in a moderate range and a hydrophilic surface compared to regular polypyrrole (PPy) homopolymers. Under both serum and serum-free conditions, APPy exhibited superior attachment of human dermal fibroblasts and Schwann cells compared to PPy homopolymer controls. Moreover, Schwann cell adhesion onto the APPy copolymer was at least similar to that on poly-l-lysine treated PPy controls. Our results indicate that amine-functionalized CP substrates will be useful to achieve good cell adhesion and potentially electrically stimulate various cells. In addition, amine functionality present on CPs can further serve as a novel and flexible platform to chemically tether various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, antibodies, and chemical drugs. PMID:25294089

  5. Lung function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children

    Uhlving, Hilde Hylland; Larsen Bang, Cæcilie; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Buchvald, Frederik Fouirnaies; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Heilmann, Carsten Johan; Müller, Klaus Gottlob

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in pulmonary function (PF) has been reported in up to 85% of pediatric patients during the first year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Our understanding of the etiology for this decrease in lung function is, however, sparse. The aim of this study was to describe PF...

  6. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  7. Potential of bursa-immigrated hematopoietic precursor cells to differentiate to functional B and T cells

    The potential of hematopoietic precursor cells, recently immigrated into the 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursa, to migrate to the thymus and to differentiate to functional T cells was investigated. Chromosomally marked cell populations obtained from 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursas were transferred i.v. to 780 R γ-irradiated chick embryos of equivalent age. When appropriate chimeras were examined at 4 to 12 weeks after cell transfer, donor cells were found to proliferate primarily in the bursa. Significant donor cell influx into the thymus was not detected. In correlation with these findings, Con A- and PHA-responsive T cells in thymus and spleen cell cultures of recipients remained of host origin whereas the number of anti-CIg responsive B cells of donor type increased gradually in the spleens of recipients. An initial lag period preceded the accumulation of functional donor B cells in the spleens of recipients, despite the predominant presence of dividing donor cells in the bursa. This suggests that the transferred bursal cell population required substantially longer to mature and emigrate from the bursa as functional B cells than the host cell population remaining in the irradiated bursas at time of cell transfer. The failure to detect significant influx of donor cells into the thymus and their failure to differentiate to functional T cells suggest that the recently bursa-immigrated hematopoietic stem cells of 13- and 14-day-old embryos may not be pluripotential cells, but rather cells already committed to the B cell line of differentiation

  8. Interaural attention modulates outer hair cell function.

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Keil, Andreas; Stratis, Kyle; Osborne, Aaron F; Cerwonka, Colin; Wong, Jennifer; Rieger, Brenda L; Polcz, Valerie; Smith, David W

    2014-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that auditory attention tasks may modulate the sensitivity of the cochlea by way of the corticofugal and the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent pathways. Here, we studied the extent to which a separate efferent tract, the 'uncrossed' MOC, which functionally connects the two ears, mediates inter-aural selective attention. We compared distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) in one ear with binaurally presented primaries, using an intermodal target detection task in which participants were instructed to report the occurrence of brief target events (visual changes, tones). Three tasks were compared under identical physical stimulation: (i) report brief tones in the ear in which DPOAE responses were recorded; (ii) report brief tones presented to the contralateral, non-recorded ear; and (iii) report brief phase shifts of a visual grating at fixation. Effects of attention were observed as parallel shifts in overall DPOAE contour level, with DPOAEs relatively higher in overall level when subjects ignored the auditory stimuli and attended to the visual stimulus, compared with both of the auditory-attending conditions. Importantly, DPOAE levels were statistically lowest when attention was directed to the ipsilateral ear in which the DPOAE recordings were made. These data corroborate notions that top-down mechanisms, via the corticofugal and medial efferent pathways, mediate cochlear responses during intermodal attention. New findings show attending to one ear can significantly alter the physiological response of the contralateral, unattended ear, probably through the uncrossed-medial olivocochlear efferent fibers connecting the two ears. PMID:25302959

  9. Recovery of vestibular function following hair cell destruction by streptomycin

    Jones, T. A.; Nelson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Can the vestibular periphery of warm-blooded vertebrates recover functionally from severe sensory hair cell loss? Recent findings in birds suggest a mechanism for recovery but in fact no direct functional evidence has been reported. We produced vestibular hair cell lesions using the ototoxic agent streptomycin sulfate (600 mg/kg/day, 8 days, chicks, Gallus domesticus). Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were used as a direct measure of peripheral vestibular function. Vestibular thresholds, neural activation latencies and amplitudes were documented. Eight days of drug treatment elevated thresholds significantly (P morphologies including activation latencies and amplitudes required an additional 6-8 weeks.

  10. Study on reduction of accessory horsepower requirements. Eleventh quarterly progress report

    1977-04-30

    Progress in a program for optimizing automotive accessory systems to achieve greater vehicle fuel economy and improved accessory performance is reported. The major technical accomplishments during this reporting period were: all candidate advanced air conditioning concepts were evaluated; advanced air conditioning and hybrid accessory drive component trade-studies were completed; improved alternator, water pump and power steering system concepts were evaluated; the vehicle integrated accessory systems trade-study was completed; and the technical summary report for the Phase V Automotive Accessory Systems Optimization Program was initiated. (LCL)