WorldWideScience

Sample records for accessing human knowledge

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  2. Accessing vs Sourcing Knowledge

    Awate, Snehal; Larsen, Marcus M.; Mudambi, Ram

    2015-01-01

    to get on par with industry leaders. An in-depth comparison of knowledge flows reveals that within AMNEs, headquarters often serves the primary source of knowledge for R&D subsidiaries. In contrast, within EMNEs, headquarters accesses knowledge from R&D subsidiaries in advanced economies for...

  3. Accessing Remote Knowledge

    Maskell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Work on clusters during the last few decades convincingly demonstrates enhanced opportunities for local growth and entrepreneurship, but external upstream knowledge linkages are often overlooked or taken for granted. This article is an attempt to remedy this situation by investigating why and how...

  4. Open Access to Knowledge: Initiatives in India

    Bandi, Anand; Bandi, Shekappa

    2011-01-01

    Study traces major Open Access Initiatives in a digital environment. Major National Open Access initiatives briefly enumerated to give an overview of the movement. Study strives to illustrate initiatives on open access to information and knowledge. Some of the common open access channels found are digital libraries, open access journals, institutional repositories, national-level repositories, open courseware, metadata harvesting services, etc. Most of the open access initiatives are supporte...

  5. Online Access to Knowledge: System Design.

    Meadow, Charles T.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reports on design and rationale of Online Access to Knowledge, a computer intermediary developed by Online Access to Knowledge Project to enable users with little or no training or experience in bibliographic searching to conduct their own searches. Topics covered include software design, tutorials and assistance programs, and conclusions based on…

  6. Learning Task Knowledge from Dialog and Web Access

    Vittorio Perera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present KnoWDiaL, an approach for Learning and using task-relevant Knowledge from human-robot Dialog and access to the Web. KnoWDiaL assumes that there is an autonomous agent that performs tasks, as requested by humans through speech. The agent needs to “understand” the request, (i.e., to fully ground the task until it can proceed to plan for and execute it. KnoWDiaL contributes such understanding by using and updating a Knowledge Base, by dialoguing with the user, and by accessing the web. We believe that KnoWDiaL, as we present it, can be applied to general autonomous agents. However, we focus on our work with our autonomous collaborative robot, CoBot, which executes service tasks in a building, moving around and transporting objects between locations. Hence, the knowledge acquired and accessed consists of groundings of language to robot actions, and building locations, persons, and objects. KnoWDiaL handles the interpretation of voice commands, is robust regarding speech recognition errors, and is able to learn commands involving referring expressions in an open domain, (i.e., without requiring a lexicon. We present in detail the multiple components of KnoWDiaL, namely a frame-semantic parser, a probabilistic grounding model, a web-based predicate evaluator, a dialog manager, and the weighted predicate-based Knowledge Base. We illustrate the knowledge access and updates from the dialog and Web access, through detailed and complete examples. We further evaluate the correctness of the predicate instances learned into the Knowledge Base, and show the increase in dialog efficiency as a function of the number of interactions. We have extensively and successfully used KnoWDiaL in CoBot dialoguing and accessing the Web, and extract a few corresponding example sequences from captured videos.

  7. Open Access to Scientific Knowledge: Policy Perspectives and National Initiatives

    Das, Anup-Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Various initiatives are taken globally to make knowledge repositories more accessible to researchers by exploiting the internet platform and developing a model that allows free access. India is also actively participating in this new initiative. Open access to scientific knowledge is an integral part of India’s S&T policy intervention. Some of the major international and Indian national initiatives are highlighted. Further efforts that would be required to make Indian participation more fruit...

  8. SW Architecture for Access to Medical Information for Knowledge Execution

    Kim, Suntae; Shim, Bingu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, many approaches have been studied to author medical knowledge and verify doctor's diagnosis based on the specified knowledge. During the verification, intensive access to medical information is unavoidable. Also, the access approach should consider modifiability in order to cover diverse medical information from the variety of hospitals. This paper presents an approach to generating query language from medical knowledge, and shows software architecture for accessing medical information from hospitals by executing generated query languages. Implementation of this architecture has been deployed in a hospital of South Korea so that it shows the feasibility of the architecture.

  9. UPCommons: Global Access to UPC Knowledge

    Prats-Prat, Jordi; Torn, Pep; López-Vivancos, Marta; Gómez-Enrich, Roser

    2007-01-01

    Institutional Repositories give the opportunity to faculties and researchers from universities and research institutes to freely publish and facilitate open access to their publicly funded research activities results. Publishing Sci Tech Information into Institutional Repositories is also a good chance for Scholars and Research Communities to highly increase their visibility in the world and their impact factor and for university libraries is the opportunity to document, organize and pr...

  10. Knowledge Access Based on the Rough Set Theory

    HAN Yan-ling; YANG Bing-ru; CAO Shou-qi

    2005-01-01

    During the procedure of fault diagnosis for large-scale complicated equipment, the existence of redundant and fuzzy information results in the difficulty of knowledge access. Aiming at this characteristic, this paper brought forth the Rough Set (RS) theory to the field of fault diagnosis. By means of the RS theory which is predominant in the way of dealing with fuzzy and uncertain information,knowledge access about fault diagnosis was realized. The foundation ideology of the RS theory was exhausted in detail, an amended RS algorithm was proposed, and the process model of knowledge access based on the amended RS algorithm was researched. Finally, we verified the correctness and the practicability of this method during the procedure of knowledge access.

  11. Regional Productivity and Accessibility to Knowledge and Dense Markets

    KARLSSON Charlie; Pettersson, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Accessibility to knowledge and local service markets can be assumed to explain regional growth performance. The role of regional supply of services and educated labour with respect to regional development are stressed by many researchers. In this paper we make an empirical analysis using panel data for Swedish municipalities. The purpose is to analyse the relationship between regional productivity measures as gross regional product per square kilometre and accessibility to educated labour. We...

  12. Open Access Journals: Knowledge and Attitudes among Cuban Health Researchers

    Sánchez Tarragó, Nancy; Fernández Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional study is presented whose objective was to determine the level of knowledge about and the attitudes toward open access journals among Cuban health researchers. To this end, a printed questionnaire was distributed between March and June 2007 to a group of researchers from Cuban national health institutes, who were chosen through stratified random sampling (160 researchers from 11 institutes). Variables included level of information about Open Access Movement terms...

  13. Open access to scientific knowledge and feudalism knowledge: Is there a connection?

    Vladimir M. Moskovkin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of universities and transnational corporations in the circulation of scientific knowledge is considered. If institutions generate, mostly scientific knowledge, trying to facilitate its free circulation, then transnational companies, contrarily, try to remove most significant and cutting-edge scientific knowledge from free circulation and its commercialization and reintroduction into an open, but now commercial, circulation in the TRIPS. However, paradoxical, the open access movement to scientific knowledge, eventually, facilitates feudalism of knowledge. We call this phenomenon the "open access - paradox". Based on the experiments done with Google Scholar and Google Patents, it is shown that universities generates, mostly scientific knowledge (scientific articles, and transnational companies generates, mostly technological knowledge (patents.

  14. Ontology-Based Federated Data Access to Human Studies Information

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson W.; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James; Mollah, Shamim A.; Burke, Karl; Lehmann, Harold P.; Chakraborty, Swati; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Pollock, Brad H.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Huser, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    Human studies are one of the most valuable sources of knowledge in biomedical research, but data about their design and results are currently widely dispersed in siloed systems. Federation of these data is needed to facilitate large-scale data analysis to realize the goals of evidence-based medicine. The Human Studies Database project has developed an informatics infrastructure for federated query of human studies databases, using a generalizable approach to ontology-based data access. Our ap...

  15. Access to Knowledge and High School Vocational Education.

    Lotto, Linda S.; Murphy, Joseph F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors examine access to knowledge in public secondary education to determine if students who concentrate in vocational education programs are being systematically denied valuable instructional resources and outcomes. Emphasis is placed on the possibility that vocational education is being used to perpetuate social class distinctions. (CH)

  16. Open access to scientific knowledge and feudalism knowledge: Is there a connection?

    Vladimir M. Moskovkin

    2011-01-01

    The role of universities and transnational corporations in the circulation of scientific knowledge is considered. If institutions generate, mostly scientific knowledge, trying to facilitate its free circulation, then transnational companies, contrarily, try to remove most significant and cutting-edge scientific knowledge from free circulation and its commercialization and reintroduction into an open, but now commercial, circulation in the TRIPS. However, paradoxical, the open access movement ...

  17. Human Knowledge Resources and Interorganizational Systems

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Ribbers, Piet; Bettonvil, B.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses how human knowledge resources affect capabilities and subsequently attainment of operational and strategic benefits. We test a conceptual model using data from two qualitative case studies and a quantitative field study. The findings indicate that human knowledge positively influences IOS capabilities related to cross-organizational business processes and transfer of knowledge. The data show that strategic benefits are the consequence of knowledge transfer, whe...

  18. Traditional Knowledge and Human Rights

    Haugen, Hans Morten

    2005-01-01

    In the realm of intellectual property protection, traditional knowledge has been receiving increasing attention in the past few years. Presently, however, there is no international treaty regulating traditional knowledge.’ Nonetheless, the efforts of the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources, Traditional Knowledge and Folklore (GRTKFw) ithin the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) might just result in the creation of such an inte...

  19. Human Knowledge Resources and Interorganizational Systems

    M.K.M. Ibrahim (Mohammed); P.M.A. Ribbers (Piet); B.W.M. Bettonvil

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses how human knowledge resources affect capabilities and subsequently attainment of operational and strategic benefits. We test a conceptual model using data from two qualitative case studies and a quantitative field study. The findings indicate that human knowledge posi

  20. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    with a potential to inform housing standards addressing accessibility that accommodate adult people with physical functional limitations using/not using mobility devices (Helle et al., 2011), it was found that the existing knowledge: • Derived from the field of anthropometry and ergonomics • Focused on isolated...... component of the Nordic version of the Housing Enabler instrument (Iwarsson and Slaug, 2008). Participants 60 years of age or older; living in ordinary dwellings; used to preparing lunch and coffee and cleaning up afterwards; having physical functional limitations were included. Thirty participants were...... on the rollator or in the lap of those using a wheelchair. Forcing a threshold with a cup of coffee differs substantially from forcing it without, because the coffee will likely topple, which will decrease accessibility. In addition, half of those using a rollator sat on it during parts of the activity...

  1. Towards universal access to all knowledge-Internet Archive

    KAHLE Brewster

    2005-01-01

    Advances in computing and communications mean that we can cost-effectively store every book, sound recording,movie, software package, and public Web page ever created, and provide access to these collections via the Internet to students and adults all over the world. By mostly using existing institutions and funding sources, we can build this as well as compensate authors within the current worldwide library budget. We should take advantage of our new technologies and our open societies to make a Universal Library again, and go the next step and make all knowledge easily available to every man, woman and child around the world.

  2. Feminist knowledge and human security

    Truong, T-D.

    2009-01-01

    The essay proposes to re-orient feminist debates on epistemology towards the care-security nexus as a pathway that can plausibly provide an integral understanding of a human-centred and eco-minded security. Seeing "gender" in binary terms tends to produce an understanding of "care" as "female" and "security" as "male". Care, when free from the constraints of gender as a binary construct, can play an important role in revealing the depth of ethical-political concerns and help expand the unders...

  3. VIALACTEA knowledge base homogenizing access to Milky Way data

    Molinaro, Marco; Bandieramonte, Marilena; Becciani, Ugo; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Costa, Alessandro; Di Giorgio, Anna M; Elia, Davide; Hajnal, Akos; Gabor, Hermann; Kacsuk, Peter; Liu, Scige J; Molinari, Sergio; Riccio, Giuseppe; Schisano, Eugenio; Sciacca, Eva; Smareglia, Riccardo; Vitello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The VIALACTEA project has a work package dedicated to Tools and Infrastructure and, inside it, a task for the Database and Virtual Observatory Infrastructure. This task aims at providing an infrastructure to store all the resources needed by the, more purposely, scientific work packages of the project itself. This infrastructure includes a combination of: storage facilities, relational databases and web services on top of them, and has taken, as a whole, the name of VIALACTEA Knowledge Base (VLKB). This contribution illustrates the current status of this VLKB. It details the set of data resources put together; describes the database that allows data discovery through VO inspired metadata maintenance; illustrates the discovery, cutout and access services built on top of the former two for the users to exploit the data content.

  4. Human Capital in the Knowledge Based Management

    Ion PETRESCU

    2010-01-01

    All over the world, the problem of human capital acknowledge, it’s ways and means of shaping in order to improve it’s creative potential, tends to occupy a suitable place in the ensemble of all the organization’s management science and practice concerns. This study aims that, according to the theoretical ang pragmatical aquisitions, to present conceptual boundries about the human capital involvement in the knowledge based management. It starts with presenting the relations ballance and philos...

  5. "The architecture of access to scientific knowledge: just how badly we have messed this up"

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In this talk, Professor Lessig will review the evolution of access to scientific scholarship, and evaluate the success of this system of access against a background norm of universal access.While copyright battles involving artists has gotten most of the public's attention, the real battle should be over access to knowledge, not culture. That battle we are losing.

  6. Human Resource Development in the Knowledge Economy

    Jørgensen, Sanne Lehmann

    . In this line of thinking, the aim is to propose a model for analysing the progress of knowledge improvements in developing countries as an outcome of the management of human, social and organisational capital. In this regard, the paper considers relevant practices and strategies in the context of developing...

  7. Ontology-based federated data access to human studies information.

    Sim, Ida; Carini, Simona; Tu, Samson W; Detwiler, Landon T; Brinkley, James; Mollah, Shamim A; Burke, Karl; Lehmann, Harold P; Chakraborty, Swati; Wittkowski, Knut M; Pollock, Brad H; Johnson, Thomas M; Huser, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    Human studies are one of the most valuable sources of knowledge in biomedical research, but data about their design and results are currently widely dispersed in siloed systems. Federation of these data is needed to facilitate large-scale data analysis to realize the goals of evidence-based medicine. The Human Studies Database project has developed an informatics infrastructure for federated query of human studies databases, using a generalizable approach to ontology-based data access. Our approach has three main components. First, the Ontology of Clinical Research (OCRe) provides the reference semantics. Second, a data model, automatically derived from OCRe into XSD, maintains semantic synchrony of the underlying representations while facilitating data acquisition using common XML technologies. Finally, the Query Integrator issues queries distributed over the data, OCRe, and other ontologies such as SNOMED in BioPortal. We report on a demonstration of this infrastructure on data acquired from institutional systems and from ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:23304360

  8. Importance of Knowledge Management in Human Resource Development

    Human resource management and knowledge management: • In human resource management - important to identify crucial knowledge base on which competitiveness of company depends → according this ensure appropriate development of human resources. • Era of so-called knowledge economy - only individual and organizational knowledge could give competitive advantage. • From operational perspective, knowledge management - systematic processes by which an organization identifies, creates, captures, acquires, shares and increase knowledge

  9. Employees and Creativity: Social Ties and Access to Heterogeneous Knowledge

    Huang, Chiung-En; Liu, Chih-Hsing Sam

    2015-01-01

    This study dealt with employee social ties, knowledge heterogeneity contacts, and the generation of creativity. Although prior studies demonstrated a relationship between network position and creativity, inadequate attention has been paid to network ties and heterogeneity knowledge contacts. This study considered the social interaction processes…

  10. Knowledge unbound selected writings on Open Access, 2002-2011

    Suber, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peter Suber has been a leading advocate for open access since 2001 and has worked full time on issues of open access since 2003. As a professor of philosophy during the early days of the internet, he realized its power and potential as a medium for scholarship. As he writes now, "it was like an asteroid crash, fundamentally changing the environment, challenging dinosaurs to adapt, and challenging all of us to figure out whether we were dinosaurs." When Suber began putting his writings and course materials online for anyone to use for any purpose, he soon experienced the benefits of that wider exposure. In 2001, he started a newsletter -- the Free Online Scholarship Newsletter, which later became the SPARC Open Access Newsletter -- in which he explored the implications of open access for research and scholarship. This book offers a selection of some of Suber's most significant and influential writings on open access from 2002 to 2010. In these texts, Suber makes the case for open access to research; answers c...

  11. Some Thoughts on the Solutions to Public Knowledge Access: Symposium to Celebrate 50 Anniversary of Shih-Hsin University

    Mei-Mei Wu; Chien-San Feng; Ting-Ming Lai

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we record the issues on the solutions to public knowledge access discussed in the symposium celebrating 50 anniversary of Shih Hsin University. Through the dialogue, those issues and concepts which involves with public access, free access, public knowledge, efforts towards public knowledge, and barriers to public knowledge accessibility are reviewed; moreover, topics on legal aspects of intellectual property and policy for public knowledge are discussed. The report also conclu...

  12. Geography matters: Mapping human development and digital access

    Birdsall, Stephanie; Birdsall, William

    2005-01-01

    Policy circles have long made the assumption that information and communications technologies promote human development. In mapping the Human Development Index (HDI) against the Digital Access Index (DAI) we explore the statistical and spatial relationship between human development and digital access. The results suggest information and communications technologies may not play as strong a role in promoting human development as is usually asserted and that public policies might need to be cent...

  13. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... guaranteed QoS requirements to a variety of ATM applications....

  14. Liberal Education Reconsidered: Cultivating Humanity in the Knowledge Society

    Hong, Eunsook

    2014-01-01

    In the knowledge society, there is a conflict between "education for profit" and "education for humanity." Education for profit is needed for students' economic survival and success in the knowledge economy. Education for humanity is needed for their existential lives worthy of human beings. This paper deals with the…

  15. Human Knowledge and a Commonsensical Measure of Human Capital: A Proposal

    Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature demonstrates clearly that knowledge is the sum of common knowledge and uncommon knowledge. Common knowledge is mostly inherited and it may or may not have scientific bases. Uncommon knowledge is mainly a product of the motions of science and technology. Scientific and technological motions depend on human capital, so that world knowledge is human capital by implication. From here analysis is not so unusual as the concept of human capital is not new. Through out history pe...

  16. Towards a Reference Model for Open Access and Knowledge Sharing, Lessons from Systems Research

    Paola Di Maio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Open Access Movement has been striving to grant universal unrestricted access to the knowledge and data outputs of publicly funded research. leveraging the real time, virtually cost free publishing opportunities offered by the internet and the web. However, evidence suggests that in the systems engineering domain open access policies are largely ignored. This paper presents the rationale, methodology and results of an evidence based inquiry that investigates the dichotomy between policy and practice in Open Access (OA of systems engineering research in the UK, explores entangled dimensions of the problem space from a socio-technical perspective, and issues a set of recommendations, including a reference model outline for knowledge sharing in systems research.

  17. Towards a Reference Model for Open Access and Knowledge Sharing, Lessons from Systems Research

    Di Maio, Paola

    2011-01-01

    The Open Access Movement has been striving to grant universal unrestricted access to the knowledge and data outputs of publicly funded research. leveraging the real time, virtually cost free publishing opportunities offered by the internet and the web. However, evidence suggests that in the systems engineering domain open access policies are not widely adopted. This paper presents the rationale, methodology and results of an evidence based inquiry that investigates the dichotomy between policy and practice in Open Access (OA) of systems engineering research in the UK, explores entangled dimensions of the problem space from a socio-technical perspective, and issues a set of recommendations, including a reference model outline for knowledge sharing in systems research

  18. Open Access and its impact on the Knowledge Society: Latin American Case Studies Insights

    María Soledad RAMÍREZ MONTOYA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a changing society, open access may represent an alternative growth and resources to the educational community, from the opportunities given to students, to teachers, researchers and administrators of educational institutions. The aim of this paper is to analyze the opportunities and challenges that gives open access to the educational community, through the presentation of a conceptual vision and practical cases in Latin America, on the issue of open educational resources, repositories, journals and open access policies –from universities and government agencies or financing– and its link to a knowledge society. The findings are presented on three key elements: opportunities, challenges and opportunities open to access the knowledge society.

  19. From Information to Knowledge Online Access to Legal Information Methodologies, Trends and Perspectives

    Biasiotti, MA

    2011-01-01

    Access to accurate legal information is of great importance. Certainty of the law, creating the conditions necessary to equality and fairness in a legal system and improving the functioning of democratic institutions, depends upon it. Citizens have a right to information about the laws which govern their conduct and governments have an obligation to enable access to the law by means of all available and practicable tools. This book presents papers delivered at the workshop 'From Information to Knowledge - Online Access to Legal Information', held in Florence, Italy, in May 2011. This workshop

  20. Ontology management in a service-oriented architecture: Architecture of an knowledge base access service

    Moßgraber, Jürgen; Rospocher, M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of information systems integrate semantic data stores for managing ontologies. To access these knowledge bases most of the available implementations provide application programming interfaces (APIs). The implementations of these APIs normally do not support any kind of network protocol or service interface. This works fine as long as a monolithic system is developed. If the need arises to integrate such a knowledge base into a service-oriented architecture a different app...

  1. Accessing world knowledge: Evidence from N400 and reaction time priming

    Chwilla, D.J.; Kolk, H.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    How fast are we in accessing world knowledge? In two experiments, we tested for priming for word triplets that described a conceptual script (e.g., DIRECTOR-BRIBE-DISMISSAL) but were not associatively related and did not share a category relationship. Event-Related Brain Potentials were used to trac

  2. Conscious knowledge of learning: accessing learning strategies in a final year high school biology class

    Conner, Lindsey; Gunstone, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative case study investigation of the knowledge and use of learning strategies by 16 students in a final year high school biology class to expand their conscious knowledge of learning. Students were provided with opportunities to engage in purposeful inquiry into the biological, social and ethical aspects of cancer. A constructivist approach was implemented to access prior content and procedural knowledge in various ways. Students were encouraged to develop evaluation of their learning skills independently through activities that promoted metacognition. Those students who planned and monitored their work produced essays of higher quality. The value and difficulties of promoting metacognitive approaches in this context are discussed, as well as the idea that metacognitive processes are difficult to research, because they have to be conscious in order to be identified by the learner, thereby making them accessible to the researcher.

  3. Nursing knowledge and human science: ontological and epistemological considerations.

    Mitchell, G J; Cody, W K

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the meaning of human science in relation to extant nursing knowledge. The origins of the human science tradition are traced to the philosopher Wilhelm Dilthey, who challenged the dominance of the positivist perspective for generating knowledge of the human lifeworld. Specific ontological and epistemological criteria for human science are proposed. Four nursing frameworks, Paterson and Zderad's humanistic nursing, Newman's model of health as expanding consciousness, Watson's human science and human care, and Parse's theory of human becoming, are found to have consistencies and inconsistencies with the human science tradition. It is proposed that the human science perspective is present in and will continue to be reflected in the evolution of nursing science. PMID:1584506

  4. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: Expanding the open-access conversation on health care

    Huddle Thomas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural philosophy once spanned the fields of philosophy, science, and medicine. Scientific disciplines and medical specialties have rapidly achieved independence, and the availability of the internet and open-access publishing promises a further expansion of knowledge. Nevertheless, a consideration of the grounding concepts and ethical principles that underlie health care remains paramount. It is timely, therefore, to contribute to the global conversation on health care with an open-access journal that focuses on addressing the conceptual basis of medicine and related disciplines, considering the ethical aspects of clinical practice, and exploring its intersection with the humanities (including history of medicine.

  5. Public access to community documents: a fundamental human right?

    Roy W. Davis

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a marked difference between the culture of open government in some Member States, particularly Sweden, and the culture of secrecy in Britain. Recent calls for a uniform interpretation of the law regarding public access to documents held by the Community Institutions seem to suggest that a Swedish-style right of access should be adopted at EU level, on the grounds that public access to government-held information is a fundamental human right. To date, however, it seems that insufficient arguments have been advanced in order to justify this particular claim. Notable constitutional lawyers remain sceptical, as do some Member State governments. Furthermore, in the absence of a convincing philosophical justification for the claim, a situation may be created in which certain people are said to enjoy a fundamental human right, not because they are human beings, but by virtue of their status as citizens or residents of an EU Member State. This appears to be counter-intuitive, if it is accepted that fundamental human rights should be enjoyed by all and should therefore be justified on the basis of universally-shared fundamental values. It therefore seems that further explanation of the importance of public access to documents is required, and further justification of the claim that this is, or should be regarded as, a fundamental human right.

  6. MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO BUILD A COMPETITIVE HUMAN CAPITAL KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    N. V. Nikolaychuk

    2012-01-01

    ???????? ?????? ??????????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ??????????????????????????????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????. ?????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????? ???????? ? ??????? ?????????? ???????????? ?????????. The analysis of the directions of the formation mechanism of competitiveness management of humancapital in the origin and development of the knowledge economy. The conditions for effective public policy inthe field of human capital managem...

  7. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  8. Development of Human Factors Ontology for Business Knowledge Management

    Monica Philippart; Waldemar Karwowski

    2011-01-01

    Employee knowledge and cognitive skills are key assets to achieving business success, yet are often mismanaged. By promoting the human-centered design approach, the discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HF/E) can significantly contribute to optimizing business processes through effective management of employee knowledge. However, a comprehensive methodology is needed to help organizations integrate the HF/E principles across various business processes. This paper introduces a novel meth...

  9. Factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge: The case of smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania

    Wulystan P. Mtega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to agricultural knowledge is important in transforming livelihoods of those relying on agriculture for a living and in enhancing food security. This access to agricultural knowledge is influenced by infrastructure needed for information dissemination. However, information infrastructure is not uniformly distributed within and between countries. It is because of this that some of the farming communities are information rich while others are information poor. In Tanzania, the agricultural sector is characterised by poor research-extension-farmers linkage and inaccessibility of agricultural knowledge at farm levelObjective: The study investigated the factors influencing access to agricultural knowledge among smallholder rice farmers in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. Specifically, the study identified categories of agricultural knowledge needed by farmers, determined how farmers access agricultural knowledge, and assessed the factors limiting the accessibility of agricultural knowledge among rice farmers in the Kilombero district.Method: Quantitative data were collected via semi-structured questionnaires administered face-to-face with rice farmers, community leaders, and agricultural agents in four villages at the Kilombero district of the Morogoro region in Tanzania.Results: The key finding indicates that farmers accessed and used agricultural knowledge in undertaking agricultural activities. It was further revealed that the level of acquisition of agricultural knowledge increased with an increase in age. Farmers needed agricultural knowledge on land preparation, seed selection, and rice planting, while few acquired knowledge on agricultural markets. Among the agricultural knowledge sources used, demonstration plots and agricultural extension agents were found to be used by the majority of the farmers. It was also found that a limited number of demonstration plots, late delivery of information services, a limited number of

  10. HealthNet: Improving Access to Knowledge Resources in a Community-Based Integrated Delivery System

    Pine, Donald; Bissen, Joan; Abelson, David; Roller, Scott

    1998-01-01

    HealthNet is a browser-based environment that connects HealthSystem Minnesota (HSM) health care providers to multiple information components needed in the process of providing care to patients. Its goal is to provide context-based access to professional knowledge at or near the point of care. HSM is a large integrated health care system including a hospital and 30 community clinic sites that provide health care to about sixteen percent of the Twin Cities residents.

  11. Retrospective of Open Access Repositories and Trends in the Socialization of Knowledge

    Silvia Irene Adame Rodríguez; Luis Lloréns Baez; Michel Schorr Wiener

    2013-01-01

    While searching for information on the Web is an everyday activity, finding free, reliable and quality information is a challenge, hence the interest in sharing part of a research project about repositories. The aim of this documentary research study is to present an overview of open access digital repositories and some trends in the socialization of knowledge produced by institutions of higher education, which in some way already mark a path toward a culture of sharing and reusing scientific...

  12. Developing accessible cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities in the national disability community: theory, practice, and policy.

    Myhill, William N; Cogburn, Derrick L; Samant, Deepti; Addom, Benjamin Kwasi; Blanck, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Since publication of the Atkins Commission report in 2003, the national scientific community has placed significant emphasis on developing cyberinfrastructure-enabled knowledge communities, which are designed to facilitate enhanced efficiency and collaboration in geographically distributed networks of researchers. This article suggests that the new cyberinfrastructure movement may not fully benefit those participants with disabilities, unless closer attention is paid to legal mandates and universal design principles. Many technology-enhanced learning communities provide geographically distributed collaboration opportunities that expand the inclusion of diverse peoples and help close the digital divide. However, to date, most collaboratory efforts have not emphasized the need for access among people with disabilities nor meeting minimum standards for technological accessibility. To address these concerns, this article reports on two pilot collaboratory studies that explore the role advanced information, communication, and collaboration technologies play in enhancing geographically distributed collaboration among specific research and applied networks within the national disability community. Universal design principles inform the design of the collaboratory and its use and our efforts to ensure access for all. Data for this article come from Web-based surveys, interviews, observations, computer logs, and detailed, mixed-methods accessibility testing. Emerging results suggest that with deliberate and systematic efforts, cyberinfrastructure can be more accessible and generate benefits among persons with disabilities. The authors provide lessons learned and recommendations for future research, policy, law, and practice. PMID:18939656

  13. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage, and Access

    HIPP,JAMES R.; MOORE,SUSAN G.; MYERS,STEPHEN C.; SCHULTZ,CRAIG A.; SHEPHERD,ELLEN; YOUNG,CHRISTOPHER J.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process they call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fir the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  14. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage and Access.

    Hipp, J. R.; Young, C. J.; Moore, S. G.; Shepherd, E. R.; Schultz, C. A.; Myers, S. C.

    1999-10-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process we call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fit the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation.

  15. Integrating across episodes: Investigating the long-term accessibility of self-derived knowledge in 4-year-old children.

    Varga, Nicole L; Stewart, Rebekah A; Bauer, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    Semantic memory, defined as our store of knowledge about the world, provides representational support for all of our higher order cognitive functions. As such, it is crucial that the contents of semantic memory remain accessible over time. Although memory for knowledge learned through direct observation has been investigated previously, we know very little about the retention of knowledge derived through integration of information acquired across separate learning episodes. The current research investigated cross-episode integration in 4-year-old children. Participants were presented with novel facts via distinct story episodes and tested for knowledge extension through cross-episode integration as well as for retention of the information over a 1-week delay. In Experiment 1, children retained the self-derived knowledge over the delay, although performance was primarily evidenced in a forced-choice format. In Experiment 2, we sought to facilitate the accessibility and robustness of self-derived knowledge by providing a verbal reminder after the delay. The accessibility of self-derived knowledge increased irrespective of whether participants successfully demonstrated knowledge of the integration facts during the first visit. The results suggest that knowledge extended through integration remains accessible after delays even in a population where this learning process is less robust. The findings also demonstrate the facilitative effect of reminders on the accessibility and further extension of knowledge over extended time periods. PMID:26774259

  16. Knowledge machines digital transformations of the sciences and humanities

    Meyer, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    In Knowledge Machines, Eric Meyer and Ralph Schroeder argue that digital technologies have fundamentally changed research practices in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Meyer and Schroeder show that digital tools and data, used collectively and in distributed mode -- which they term e-research -- have transformed not just the consumption of knowledge but also the production of knowledge. Digital technologies for research are reshaping how knowledge advances in disciplines that range from physics to literary analysis. Meyer and Schroeder map the rise of digital research and offer case studies from many fields, including biomedicine, social science uses of the Web, astronomy, and large-scale textual analysis in the humanities. They consider such topics as the challenges of sharing research data and of big data approaches, disciplinary differences and new forms of interdisciplinary collaboration, the shifting boundaries between researchers and their publics, and the ways that digital tools promote o...

  17. Overcoming Human Barrier as a Measure towards Improved Knowledge Management

    Siti Alida John Abdullah; Hjh. Sabitha Marican

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge management involves delivering of information to a person or a set of people, which necessitates two or more people communicating directly face to face, indirectly or in a virtual environment. Human barrier in this paper refers to sexual harassment behaviors that are unwanted and unwelcome that occurs in the form of verbal, non verbal, physical and visual actions among workers at workplace. It acts a as communication barrier to knowledge sharing, which works best when the people who...

  18. The challenges for human factors in knowledge work

    Ipsen, Christine; Møller, Niels; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2011-01-01

    The development towards a service and knowledge intensive economy arise new challenges for ergonomics and human factors. Knowledge on work within mass service production exists, but the challenges within knowledge work have still to be addressed. The focus of this paper is on some of the challeng...... with the demands of the knowledge intensive work when KPI’s are central management tools. Especially handling the balance between high motivation and enthusiasm and burn out will be addressed....... in knowledge intensive work to establish productive and satisfying jobs by a case study of our own place of work: a university department. Testimonials from a young associate professor, a first line manager and the department manager lead us to identify some of the major challenges for ergonomics to comply...

  19. Towards a humane school in modern knowledge society: Antique guidelines

    Đukić Mara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of humane schools in the context of contemporary knowledge society, from pedagogical aspect. The authors specifically indicate that the knowledge society achieves its true meaning and proper importance as well as full pedagogical potential, only when the values on which it is based are defined, and what kind of knowledge it implies. The basic features of humane school are discussed, their interdependence explained and major paradoxes that may occur in this regard perceived. Listening to the voices of some ancient thinkers that can be clearly heard, the authors discover deep roots and distant traces of important arguments in favor of the implementation of a school of thought in a new way, that is authentic humane school. Accordingly, it is concluded that on the uncertain and laden with contradictions road towards European knowledge society for the 21st century and the humane school in it, we need solid guidelines. By all accounts, these guidelines may be sought and found in the creatively transformed and newly assumed ideas of ancient Greek philosophers and in their global application on lifelong education for all people, i.e. for each man as a conscious and self-responsible human being.

  20. Retrospective of Open Access Repositories and Trends in the Socialization of Knowledge

    Silvia Irene Adame Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While searching for information on the Web is an everyday activity, finding free, reliable and quality information is a challenge, hence the interest in sharing part of a research project about repositories. The aim of this documentary research study is to present an overview of open access digital repositories and some trends in the socialization of knowledge produced by institutions of higher education, which in some way already mark a path toward a culture of sharing and reusing scientific, academic and cultural information for the benefit of the academic community and the general public.

  1. neXtProt: a knowledge platform for human proteins.

    Lane, Lydie; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Britan, Aurore; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula D; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gaudet, Pascale; Gleizes, Anne; Masselot, Alexandre; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos

    2012-01-01

    neXtProt (http://www.nextprot.org/) is a new human protein-centric knowledge platform. Developed at the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), it aims to help researchers answer questions relevant to human proteins. To achieve this goal, neXtProt is built on a corpus containing both curated knowledge originating from the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase and carefully selected and filtered high-throughput data pertinent to human proteins. This article presents an overview of the database and the data integration process. We also lay out the key future directions of neXtProt that we consider the necessary steps to make neXtProt the one-stop-shop for all research projects focusing on human proteins. PMID:22139911

  2. Measuring Athletic Facility Managers’ Knowledge Of Access And The Americans With Disabilities Act: A Pilot Study

    Joshua R. Pate

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory research was measuring facility managers’ knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, and it may assist in decreasing the gap in knowledge between facility managers and the needs of people with physical disabilities. An existing survey examining ADA knowledge was slightly modified and used for this study. Four athletic facility managers from universities in a large Bowl Championship Series conference participated in the study. Results provided a preliminary sketch of who athletic facility manages may be, and how athletic facility managers may be educating themselves and others about accessibility. This exploratory study shows that facility managers may be knowledgeable of specific ADA requirements but may not have a firm grasp on more general issues patrons with physical disabilities face and that have often been the point of contention in the courts such as parking, entranceways, seating, and sightlines. Additionally, athletic facility managers may not be seeking to expand their education on ADA-related matters or educate others on the topics, which could be a missed opportunity to position themselves as a topic expert in the field of ADA compliance for athletic facilities.

  3. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  4. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  5. The impact of mobile phones on knowledge access and transfer of small-scale horticultural farmers in Tanzania

    Krone, Madlen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is the main economic activity in Tanzania and the country´s largest employer, providing livelihood for at least 80 % of the economically active population. Many studies have identified key challenges facing the sector for Africa in general – among these lack of access to knowledge. For agricultural producers, access to knowledge is important for an improved productivity and competitiveness. The fast diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICT such as mobile phones across Africa in the last years has resulted in an improved access and transfer of agricultural knowledge. Studies have shown that rural actors like farmers in remote areas even use mobile phones for their farming business. Based on qualitative interviews in the Mwanza Region in northwestern Tanzania, this study aims to identify and categorise the different types of knowledge which are transferred via mobile phones. Our results show that mobile phones enlarge the ability of farmers to access business-relevant knowledge at an increasing spatial scale. However, the effects of the use depend on the type of knowledge and other factors. The results add to existing studies by deepening the understanding of the benefits of ICT on knowledge access and transfer for the context of rural small-scale framers in Tanzania.

  6. Access to Awareness for Faces during Continuous Flash Suppression Is Not Modulated by Affective Knowledge

    Rabovsky, Milena; Stein, Timo; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-01-01

    It is a controversially debated topic whether stimuli can be analyzed up to the semantic level when they are suppressed from visual awareness during continuous flash suppression (CFS). Here, we investigated whether affective knowledge, i.e., affective biographical information about faces, influences the time it takes for initially invisible faces with neutral expressions to overcome suppression and break into consciousness. To test this, we used negative, positive, and neutral famous faces as well as initially unfamiliar faces, which were associated with negative, positive or neutral biographical information. Affective knowledge influenced ratings of facial expressions, corroborating recent evidence and indicating the success of our affective learning paradigm. Furthermore, we replicated shorter suppression durations for upright than for inverted faces, demonstrating the suitability of our CFS paradigm. However, affective biographical information did not modulate suppression durations for newly learned faces, and even though suppression durations for famous faces were influenced by affective knowledge, these effects did not differ between upright and inverted faces, indicating that they might have been due to low-level visual differences. Thus, we did not obtain unequivocal evidence for genuine influences of affective biographical information on access to visual awareness for faces during CFS. PMID:27119743

  7. Human Disease Insight: An integrated knowledge-based platform for disease-gene-drug information.

    Tasleem, Munazzah; Ishrat, Romana; Islam, Asimul; Ahmad, Faizan; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the Human Disease Insight (HDI) database is not limited to researchers or physicians as it also provides basic information to non-professionals and creates disease awareness, thereby reducing the chances of patient suffering due to ignorance. HDI is a knowledge-based resource providing information on human diseases to both scientists and the general public. Here, our mission is to provide a comprehensive human disease database containing most of the available useful information, with extensive cross-referencing. HDI is a knowledge management system that acts as a central hub to access information about human diseases and associated drugs and genes. In addition, HDI contains well-classified bioinformatics tools with helpful descriptions. These integrated bioinformatics tools enable researchers to annotate disease-specific genes and perform protein analysis, search for biomarkers and identify potential vaccine candidates. Eventually, these tools will facilitate the analysis of disease-associated data. The HDI provides two types of search capabilities and includes provisions for downloading, uploading and searching disease/gene/drug-related information. The logistical design of the HDI allows for regular updating. The database is designed to work best with Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome and is freely accessible at http://humandiseaseinsight.com. PMID:26631432

  8. Human-centered design of a distributed knowledge management system.

    Rinkus, Susan; Walji, Muhammad; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A; Malin, Jane T; Turley, James P; Smith, Jack W; Zhang, Jiajie

    2005-02-01

    Many healthcare technology projects fail due to the lack of consideration of human issues, such as workflow, organizational change, and usability, during the design and implementation stages of a project's development process. Even when human issues are considered, the consideration is typically on designing better user interfaces. We argue that human-centered computing goes beyond a better user interface: it should include considerations of users, functions and tasks that are fundamental to human-centered computing. From this perspective, we integrated a previously developed human-centered methodology with a Project Design Lifecycle, and we applied this integration in the design of a complex distributed knowledge management system for the Biomedical Engineer (BME) domain in the Mission Control Center at NASA Johnson Space Center. We analyzed this complex system, identified its problems, generated systems requirements, and provided specifications of a replacement prototype for effective organizational memory and knowledge management. We demonstrated the value provided by our human-centered approach and described the unique properties, structures, and processes discovered using this methodology and how they contributed in the design of the prototype. PMID:15694881

  9. Open Access to scientific knowledge: a methodological model for scientific information and knowledge management at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa)

    Leite, Fernando César Lima; Bertin, Patrícia Rocha Bello; Pereira, Fernando do Amaral

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological model for the establishment of Open Access to scientific information at Embrapa, as a strategy for scientific information and knowledge management. The model consists of elements that speed up scientific communication processes and allow for the research output management. The aim is to provide the necessary mechanisms to capture, store, organize, preserve and widely disseminate the scientific knowledge produced by Embrapa and by the scientific community i...

  10. Network Based Educational Environment How Libraries and Librarians Become Organizers of Knowledge Access and Resources

    Pettenati, M C; Pettenati, Corrado

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we will highlight some important issues which will influence the redefinition of roles and duties of libraries and librarians in a networked based educational environment. Although librarians will also keep their traditional roles of faculty support services as well as reference service and research assistance, we identify the participation in the instructional design process, the support in the evaluation, development and use of a proper authoring system and the customization of information access, as being the domains where libraries and librarians should mainly involve themselves in the next future and make profit of their expertise in information and knowledge organization in order to properly and effectively support the institutions in the use of Information Technology in education.

  11. The focal account: Indirect lie detection need not access unconscious, implicit knowledge.

    Street, Chris N H; Richardson, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    People are poor lie detectors, but accuracy can be improved by making the judgment indirectly. In a typical demonstration, participants are not told that the experiment is about deception at all. Instead, they judge whether the speaker appears, say, tense or not. Surprisingly, these indirect judgments better reflect the speaker's veracity. A common explanation is that participants have an implicit awareness of deceptive behavior, even when they cannot explicitly identify it. We propose an alternative explanation. Attending to a range of behaviors, as explicit raters do, can lead to conflict: A speaker may be thinking hard (indicating deception) but not tense (indicating honesty). In 2 experiments, we show that the judgment (and in turn the correct classification rate) is the result of attending to a single behavior, as indirect raters are instructed to do. Indirect lie detection does not access implicit knowledge, but simply focuses the perceiver on more useful cues. PMID:26301728

  12. Access to pain treatment as a human right

    Amon Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost five decades ago, governments around the world adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, in addition to addressing the control of illicit narcotics, obligated countries to work towards universal access to the narcotic drugs necessary to alleviate pain and suffering. Yet, despite the existence of inexpensive and effective pain relief medicines, tens of millions of people around the world continue to suffer from moderate to severe pain each year without treatment. Discussion Significant barriers to effective pain treatment include: the failure of many governments to put in place functioning drug supply systems; the failure to enact policies on pain treatment and palliative care; poor training of healthcare workers; the existence of unnecessarily restrictive drug control regulations and practices; fear among healthcare workers of legal sanctions for legitimate medical practice; and the inflated cost of pain treatment. These barriers can be understood not only as a failure to provide essential medicines and relieve suffering but also as human rights abuses. Summary According to international human rights law, countries have to provide pain treatment medications as part of their core obligations under the right to health; failure to take reasonable steps to ensure that people who suffer pain have access to adequate pain treatment may result in the violation of the obligation to protect against cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.

  13. Semi-automated knowledge discovery: identifying and profiling human trafficking

    Poelmans, Jonas; Elzinga, Paul; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.

    2012-11-01

    We propose an iterative and human-centred knowledge discovery methodology based on formal concept analysis. The proposed approach recognizes the important role of the domain expert in mining real-world enterprise applications and makes use of specific domain knowledge, including human intelligence and domain-specific constraints. Our approach was empirically validated at the Amsterdam-Amstelland police to identify suspects and victims of human trafficking in 266,157 suspicious activity reports. Based on guidelines of the Attorney Generals of the Netherlands, we first defined multiple early warning indicators that were used to index the police reports. Using concept lattices, we revealed numerous unknown human trafficking and loverboy suspects. In-depth investigation by the police resulted in a confirmation of their involvement in illegal activities resulting in actual arrestments been made. Our human-centred approach was embedded into operational policing practice and is now successfully used on a daily basis to cope with the vastly growing amount of unstructured information.

  14. HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT. IMPLICATIONS IN DEVELEOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Simona Buta

    2015-01-01

    In terms of the organization, the human capital theory and human resource management raises a number of issues, namely: human capital issues (they relate to attracting, maintaining, developing and rewarding human resources in order to create and maintain a skilled, dedicated and motivated personnel); issues related to the structural capital (with reference to the size and development of organizational structures that stimulate the processes of creating, capturing and sizing of knowledge); iss...

  15. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  16. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  17. A Matter of Discipline: Open Access, the Humanities, and Art History

    Tomlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Recent events suggest that open access has gained new momentum in the humanities, but the slow and uneven development of open-access initiatives in humanist fields continues to hinder the consolidation of efforts across the university. Although various studies have traced the general origins of the humanities' reticence to embrace open access, few…

  18. Advocacy for Open Access

    Das, Anup-Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In the scholarly communications world, the concept of open access publishing has proliferated at faster pace since the global open access declarations such as the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) in February 2002 and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in October 2003. After one decade of these two epoch-making declarations, we see growing instances of open access resources due to collective efforts put by the advocacy organizations, advocac...

  19. Cancer's Margins: Trans* and Gender Nonconforming People's Access to Knowledge, Experiences of Cancer Health, and Decision-Making

    Bryson, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research in Canada and the United States indicates that minority gender and sexuality status are consistently associated with health disparities and poor health outcomes, including cancer health. This article investigates experiences of cancer health and care, and access to knowledge for trans* and gender nonconforming people diagnosed with and treated for breast and/or gynecologic cancer. Our study contributes new understandings about gender minority populations that will advance knowledge concerning the provision of culturally appropriate care. This is the first study we are aware of that focuses on trans* and gender nonconforming peoples' experiences of cancer care and treatment, support networks, and access to and mobilization of knowledge. Methods: This article analyzes trans* and gender nonconforming patient interviews from the Cancer's Margins project (www.lgbtcancer.ca): Canada's first nationally-funded project that investigates the complex intersections of sexual and/or gender marginality, cancer knowledge, treatment experiences, and modes of the organization of support networks. Results: Our analysis documents how different bodies of knowledge relative to cancer treatment and gendered embodiment are understood, accessed, and mobilized by trans* and gender nonconforming patients. Findings reported here suggest that one's knowledge of a felt sense of gender is closely interwoven with knowledge concerning cancer treatment practices; a dynamic which organizes knowledge mobilities in cancer treatment. Conclusions: The findings support the assertion that cisgender models concerning changes to the body that occur as a result of biomedical treatment for breast and/or gynecologic cancer are wholly inadequate in order to account for trans* and gender nonconforming peoples' experiences of cancer treatments, and access to and mobilization of related knowledge. PMID:26789402

  20. Organizing conceptual knowledge in humans with a gridlike code.

    Constantinescu, Alexandra O; O'Reilly, Jill X; Behrens, Timothy E J

    2016-06-17

    It has been hypothesized that the brain organizes concepts into a mental map, allowing conceptual relationships to be navigated in a manner similar to that of space. Grid cells use a hexagonally symmetric code to organize spatial representations and are the likely source of a precise hexagonal symmetry in the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. Humans navigating conceptual two-dimensional knowledge showed the same hexagonal signal in a set of brain regions markedly similar to those activated during spatial navigation. This gridlike signal is consistent across sessions acquired within an hour and more than a week apart. Our findings suggest that global relational codes may be used to organize nonspatial conceptual representations and that these codes may have a hexagonal gridlike pattern when conceptual knowledge is laid out in two continuous dimensions. PMID:27313047

  1. Intellectual Property Rights, Legislated Protection, Sui Generis Models and Ethical Access in the Transformation of Indigenous Traditional Knowledge

    Young-Ing, Greg

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation arises out of deep concerns over how Indigenous Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge should be ethically accessed and used and reviews existing mechanisms of protection. It focuses on how Indigenous Intellectual Property and Traditional Knowledge should best be ethically, legislatively and legally treated in the public domain and in other public usage - and what mechanisms are required to protect it - particularly regarding Indigenous cultural expression. The di...

  2. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Simona Buta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best human resources policies in companies in the crisis context? Given that the subject of the research is "knowledge and human capital", in this paper we refer to the induced effects of the crisis on human capital and innovation. We will also identify the key steps that can be taken during crisis, and not only, to stimulate human capital.

  3. Open Access to Knowledge Resources in Science and Technology : The Role of Digital Reference Service to Facilitate Accessing Scholarly Information

    Chandra, Harish

    2005-01-01

    The present paper discusses the importance, objectives and major developments in open access initiatives. It further examines the specific use of digital information services including the digital reference service. The paper also highlights the various steps taken in this direction at the Central Library of IIT Madras.

  4. HINT-KB: The human interactome knowledge base

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions are considered to play a significant role in many cellular processes. The identification of Protein-Protein interactions (PPIs) in human is an open research area. Many Databases, which contain information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data, have been developed. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://150.140.142.24:84/Default.aspx) which is a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, estimates a set of features of interest and computes a confidence score for every candidate protein interaction using a modern computational hybrid methodology. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  5. The Challenges of Human Resources Management Practice in a Knowledge Based Organization

    Antohi Ionut

    2013-01-01

    Human resources represent an important asset for modern organizations especially in the context of knowledge based economy. The main competitive advantage is represented by knowledge possessed by the employee of an organization. Human resources management practice needs a different approach meant to attract develop and fully use such knowledge. This paper aims to analyse the growing impact of knowledge over human resources management practice. Mainly we discuss the manner in which the human r...

  6. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya

    Sofia Gruskin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods: We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration activities at four sites: the Academic Model of Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH facility, where the Legal Aid Centre of Eldoret (LACE operates, in Eldoret; Kenyatta National Hospital's Gender-based Violence Recovery Centre, which hosts the COVAW legal integration program; and Christian Health Association of Kenya (CHAK facilities in Mombasa and Naivasha. In consultation with the organizations implementing the programs, we designed a conceptual logic model grounded in human rights principles, identified relevant indicators and then coded structure, process and outcome indicators for the rights-related principles they reflect. The evaluation included a resource assessment questionnaire, a review of program records and routine data, and semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with clients and service providers. Data were collected in May–August 2010 and April–June 2011. Results: Clients showed a notable increase in practical knowledge and awareness about how to access legal aid and claim their rights, as well as an enhanced ability to communicate with healthcare providers and to improve their access to healthcare and justice. In turn, providers became more adept at identifying human rights violations and other legal difficulties, which enabled them to give clients basic information about their rights, refer them to legal aid and assist them in accessing needed support. Methodological challenges in evaluating such activities point to

  7. Digital Humanities: Challenges of the Transformation of Tools and Objects of Knowledge in Contemporary Humanities

    Camus, Alexandre; Paneva-Marinova, Dessislava; Luchev, Detelin

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to sketch some bases for the problematization of digital tools as objects of knowledge for Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH). Our purpose is to raise some relevant questions about the Digital Humanities (DH) and how SSH and Computer Sciences (CS) can work together to face new challenges. We discuss some tension points and propose a model for SSH and CS collaboration for joint projects in cultural digitization.

  8. Human Capital and Knowledge Emergence. Induced Effects of the Global Crisis on Human capital and Innovation

    Simona Buta

    2014-01-01

    In the global crisis context crossed by organizations and countries in the past six years we assist also at conflicting measures in which regards knowledge, innovation and human capital; for example, countries such as England and France have reduced their costs for education, while Germany and other countries (Australia, Austria, Canada and Norway) maintained the same allocations for education. What will be the effects of such measures on human capital in the near future? What are the best hu...

  9. Human Resource Management & Knowledge-Based Management -- A study of HR practices in performance-related knowledge management

    Huang, Keke

    2007-01-01

    Human resource management has increasingly become to a significant part of organizational management. The existing literatures related to Strategic HRM currently are closely referred to the resource-based view of the firm to explain and analyze the correlation between human capital and the sustention of competitive advantage. In view of resource-based development under the competitive dynamic environment, the economy has changed from the product-based to mainly knowledge-based. Knowledge-rela...

  10. Offenheit und wissenschaftliche Werke: Open Access, Open Review, Open Metrics, Open Science & Open Knowledge

    Herb, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Open Access - so die wohl weithin akzeptierte Definition - bezeichnet die Forderung nach freiem Zugang zu wissenschaftlicher Literatur. Der Grad der Offenheit, den er verlangt, ist nur vage definiert und gemessen an anderen Open Initiatives eher gering: Die meisten Wissenschaftler dürften nicht mehr als entgeltfreie Nutzung wissenschaftlicher Texte darunter verstehen. Dennoch hielten mit Open Access Offenheit und Transparenz Einzug in der Wissenschaft. Vor allem Open-Access-Befürworter plädie...

  11. Critiquing Human Judgment Using Knowledge-Acquisition Systems

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1990-01-01

    Automated knowledge-acquisition systems have focused on embedding a cognitive model of a key knowledge worker in their software that allows the system to acquire a knowledge base by interviewing domain experts just as the knowledge worker would. Two sets of research questions arise: (1) What theories, strategies, and approaches will let the modeling process be facilitated; accelerated; and, possibly, automated? If automated knowledge-acquisition systems reduce the bottleneck associated with a...

  12. Web Accessibility Knowledge and Skills for Non-Web Library Staff

    McHale, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Why do librarians and library staff other than Web librarians and developers need to know about accessibility? Web services staff do not--or should not--operate in isolation from the rest of the library staff. It is important to consider what areas of online accessibility are applicable to other areas of library work and to colleagues' regular job…

  13. Knowledge Management, Human Resource Management, and Higher Education: A Theoretical Model

    Brewer, Peggy D.; Brewer, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written on the importance of knowledge management, the challenges facing organizations, and the important human resource management activities involved in assuring the acquisition and transfer of knowledge. Higher business education plays an important role in preparing students to assume the knowledge management and human resource…

  14. On the Design of an Architecture for Partitioned Knowledge Management in Autonomic Multimedia Access and Aggregation Networks

    Latré, Steven; Verstichel, Stijn; de Vleeschauwer, Bart; de Turck, Filip; Demeester, Piet

    The recent emergence of multimedia services, such as Network Based Personal Video Recording and Broadcast TV over traditional DSL based access networks, has introduced stringent Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements. It is generally assumed that the wide variety of services and user profiles introduces the need for a per-user or per-subscriber QoE management. Such a complex QoE management requires real-time knowledge about the managed services, which is available amongst the different nodes in the network. However, even for managing a few services, a relatively large amount of, constantly updated, knowledge is needed. Propagating all the knowledge to all nodes is therefore not feasible. As not all knowledge is relevant to all nodes, it is important to perform an intelligent knowledge distribution and management. In this position paper, we introduce the concept of a cognitive model that describes the knowledge requirements of each node. Based on the information stated in this cognitive model, we discuss how filter queries, that typically describe what needs to be queried from other nodes, can be automatically generated leading to an efficient partitioning of the knowledge through the distributed nodes.

  15. Cancer's Margins: Trans* and Gender Nonconforming People's Access to Knowledge, Experiences of Cancer Health, and Decision-Making

    Taylor, Evan T.; Bryson, Mary K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research in Canada and the United States indicates that minority gender and sexuality status are consistently associated with health disparities and poor health outcomes, including cancer health. This article investigates experiences of cancer health and care, and access to knowledge for trans* and gender nonconforming people diagnosed with and treated for breast and/or gynecologic cancer. Our study contributes new understandings about gender minority populations that will a...

  16. 77 FR 18247 - Request for Comments on Issues of Privacy and Access With Regard to Human Genome Sequence Data

    2012-03-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Request for Comments on Issues of Privacy and Access With Regard to Human Genome Sequence... availability of large-scale human genome sequence data, with regard to privacy and data access and the... is examining issues of privacy and access as pertains to large-scale human genome sequence...

  17. Rethinking Development as Knowledge: Implications for Human Development

    Mukherjee Reed, Ananya

    2000-01-01

    The idea that knowledge is critical for development is neither new nor controversial, yet its full implications cannot be assessed unless we clarify at least two sets of issues: (a) how exactly knowledge is conceptualised or, what constitutes knowledge; and (b) the conditions under which such knowledge is produced, evaluated and ‘exchanged' or ‘transferred'. This paper will attempt to provide some tentative answers to these two questions, with the ultimate objective of identifying the conditi...

  18. Open-Access Textbooks and Financial Sustainability: A Case Study on Flat World Knowledge

    Hilton, John, III; Wiley, David

    2011-01-01

    Many college students and their families are concerned about the high costs of textbooks. A company called Flat World Knowledge both gives away and sells open-source textbooks in a way it believes to be financially sustainable. This article reports on the financial sustainability of the Flat World Knowledge open-source textbook model after one…

  19. Open Access von A bis Z

    Stieg, Kerstin; Pavlovic, Karlo

    2012-01-01

    The glossary „Open Access from A to Z“ comprises essential key terms on Open Access such as arXiv, The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), Creative Commons (CC), the Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), the EU project Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER), the Finch Report,...

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about human papillomavirus in educated adolescents

    Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a

  1. Knowledge of human papillomavirus and the human papillomavirus vaccine in European adolescents: a systematic review.

    Patel, H; Jeve, YB; Sherman, SM; Moss, EL

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls in many European countries, however there is huge variation in vaccine uptake. METHODS: A mixed methods systematic review to ascertain the level of HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge that exists among European adolescents. Two electronic databases, Ovid Medline and PsychInfo, were searched from origin to September 2014. Meta-analysis was performed for the two primary outcome measures ('have you heard of HPV?' an...

  2. Visual categorization: accessing abstraction in non-human primates.

    Fabre-Thorpe, Michèle

    2003-01-01

    Evolution might have set the basic foundations for abstract mental representation long ago. Because of language, mental abilities would have reached different degrees of sophistication in mammals and in humans but would be, essentially, of the same nature. Thus, humans and animals might rely on the same basic mechanisms that could be masked in humans by the use of sophisticated strategies. In this paper, monkey and human abilities are compared in a variety of perceptual tasks including visual...

  3. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities. PMID:22789042

  4. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Ezenwa BN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization

  5. Knowledge Representation for Robots through Human-Robot Interaction

    Bastianelli, Emanuele; Bloisi, Domenico; Capobianco, Roberto; Gemignani, Guglielmo; Iocchi, Luca; Nardi, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The representation of the knowledge needed by a robot to perform complex tasks is restricted by the limitations of perception. One possible way of overcoming this situation and designing "knowledgeable" robots is to rely on the interaction with the user. We propose a multi-modal interaction framework that allows to effectively acquire knowledge about the environment where the robot operates. In particular, in this paper we present a rich representation framework that can be automatically buil...

  6. Initial funding for high-quality open access journals in the humanities and social sciences

    Reckling, Falk; Scherag, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In coordination with the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research (BMWF), the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) launched an initiative to provide initial funding for innovative open access journals in the humanities and social sciences. The initiative targeted media owners operating in Austria and enabled them to submit funding applications for the establishment of new open access journals and for conversion from classic subscription models to open access.

  7. DOCUMENTING OF THE PROCESS OF ACCUMULATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL HUMAN CAPITAL

    Yermolenko V. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge and development of the intellectual human capital is considered in this article. The purpose of the article is the research of theoretical approaches of documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge, development of the intellectual human capital and the analysis of domestic public corporations on documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge. The solution of research tasks in article is proposed: the analysis of the contents of theories of development of the human capital in the conditions of economy of knowledge is carried out; domestic practice of public corporations on documenting of process of accumulation of knowledge is studied; features of documenting of knowledge as maintenance of development of the human capital are marked out. The particular emphasis in the article is placed on disclosure of such problems, as: methodological and theoretical aspects of development of the intellectual human capital; formation of mechanisms and ways of documenting of knowledge in the conditions of knowledge economy; formation of corporate institutes of formation and the development of the intellectual human capital, realizing reproduction of the intellectual capital and engineering of knowledge; formation of organizational innovations and dumping of old organizational routines. Documenting of knowledge is presented as maintenance of development of the human capital, the project of introduction of knowledge management and its documentary maintenance in corporations, and also ways of network documenting of knowledge of the human capital in the process of joint design activity is offered. Development of a special control system and its organizational and methodical providing which will allow to increase efficiency of work with documents during projects of development of the intellectual human capital is necessary for management of the documentary massif of knowledge of the

  8. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  9. Access to pain treatment as a human right

    Amon Joseph J; Schleifer Rebecca; Lohman Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Almost five decades ago, governments around the world adopted the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs which, in addition to addressing the control of illicit narcotics, obligated countries to work towards universal access to the narcotic drugs necessary to alleviate pain and suffering. Yet, despite the existence of inexpensive and effective pain relief medicines, tens of millions of people around the world continue to suffer from moderate to severe pain each year with...

  10. Massive Access Control Aided by Knowledge-Extraction for Co-Existing Periodic and Random Services over Wireless Clinical Networks.

    Du, Qinghe; Zhao, Weidong; Li, Weimin; Zhang, Xuelin; Sun, Bo; Song, Houbing; Ren, Pinyi; Sun, Li; Wang, Yichen

    2016-07-01

    The prosperity of e-health is boosted by fast development of medical devices with wireless communications capability such as wearable devices, tiny sensors, monitoring equipments, etc., which are randomly distributed in clinic environments. The drastically-increasing population of such devices imposes new challenges on the limited wireless resources. To relieve this problem, key knowledge needs to be extracted from massive connection attempts dispersed in the air towards efficient access control. In this paper, a hybrid periodic-random massive access (HPRMA) scheme for wireless clinical networks employing ultra-narrow band (UNB) techniques is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme towards accommodating a large population of devices include the following new features. On one hand, it can dynamically adjust the resource allocated for coexisting periodic and random services based on the traffic load learned from signal collision status. On the other hand, the resource allocation within periodic services is thoroughly designed to simultaneously align with the timing requests of differentiated services. Abundant simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed HPRMA scheme over baseline schemes including time-division multiple access (TDMA) and random access approach, in terms of channel utilization efficiency, packet drop ratio, etc., for the support of massive devices' services. PMID:27240842

  11. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

  12. Romania's human resources in the European Union accession context

    Alexandra Ionescu

    2006-01-01

    Human resources have always been mobile, and nowadays more than ever, this quality is essential. The migration of Romania’s human resources is, no more at its beginings. But if people want to work outside Romania’s borders, should know how to do it, legaly and professionally

  13. The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: accuracy x knowledge accessibility effects.

    Stapel, D A; Koomen, W; Zeelenberg, M

    1998-04-01

    Four studies provide evidence for the notion that there may be boundaries to the extent to which accuracy motivation may help perceivers to escape the influence of fortuitously activated information. Specifically, although accuracy motivations may eliminate assimilative accessibility effects, they are less likely to eliminate contrastive accessibility effects. It was found that the occurrence of different types of contrast effects (comparison and correction) was not significantly affected by participants' accuracy motivations. Furthermore, it was found that the mechanisms instigated by accuracy motivations differ from those ignited by correction instructions: Accuracy motivations attenuate assimilation effects because perceivers add target interpretations to the one suggested by primed information. Conversely, it was found that correction instructions yield contrast and prompt respondents to remove the priming event's influence from their reaction to the target. PMID:9569650

  14. Intellectual Property and Global Health: From Corporate Social Responsibility to the Access to Knowledge Movement

    Timmermann, C.A.; Belt, van den, H.

    2013-01-01

    Any system for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) has three main kinds of distributive effects. It will determine or influence: (a) the types of objects that will be developed and for which IPRs will be sought; (b) the differential access various people will have to these objects; and (c) the distribution of the IPRs themselves among various actors. What this means to the area of pharmaceutical research is that many urgently needed medicines will not be developed at all, th...

  15. Landscapes of Research: Perceptions of Open Access (OA Publishing in the Arts and Humanities

    Julia Gross

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known now that scholarly communication is in crisis, resting on an academic publishing model that is unsustainable. One response to this crisis has been the emergence of Open Access (OA publishing, bringing scholarly literature out from behind a paywall and making it freely available to anyone online. Many research and academic libraries are facilitating the change to OA by establishing institutional repositories, supporting OA policies, and hosting OA journals. In addition, research funding bodies, such as the Australian Research Council (ARC, are mandating that all published grant research outputs be made available in OA, unless legal and contractual obligations prevent this. Despite these broader changes, not all scholars are aware of the new publishing environment. In particular, the rate of adoption of OA models in the Humanities and Social Sciences (HSS has historically been lower than Science, Technology and Medicine (STM disciplines. Nevertheless, some local and international OA exemplars exist in HSS. At Edith Cowan University in Perth, Western Australia, the faculty-administered environmental humanities journal, Landscapes, was migrated to the institutional open access repository in 2013. Subsequently, researchers in the Faculty of Education and Arts were surveyed regarding their knowledge, understandings, and perceptions of OA publishing. The survey was also designed to elicit the barriers to OA publishing perceived or experienced by HSS researchers. This article will present the findings of our small faculty-based OA survey, with particular attention to HSS academics (and within this subject group, particular attention to the arts and humanities, their perceptions of OA, and the impediments they encounter. We argue that OA publishing will continue to transform scholarship within the arts and humanities, especially through the role of institutional repositories. The “library-as-publisher” role offers the potential to

  16. Each-One-Teach-One Mobile Networks: An Innovative Strategy for Knowledge Access in Asian Countries

    Misra, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    The changing landscape of learning is helping Asian countries to emerge as technology-driven knowledge-based societies. The success of these societies depends on promoting the acquisition of key competences and broadening opportunities for innovative and more flexible forms of learning for every citizen. Considering that in Asia almost everyone…

  17. The Knowledge Management Information Landscape — Awareness, Access, Use and Value of Sources

    Denise A. D. Bedford

    2015-01-01

    Information landscape is a critical component of professional and scholarly disciplines. Established disciplines have a managed information foundation covering primary, secondary and tertiary sources, targeted search capabilities, discipline-specific knowledge organisation tools and services, and quality controlled review processes. The information landscapes of emerging disciplines may be more chaotic and unsettled, and present challenges for professionals. This research considers the inform...

  18. Implications of Human Pattern Processing for the Design of Artificial Knowledge Systems.

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    This paper presents evidence that four design principles commonly embodied in artificial knowledge systems are inconsistent with human cognitive capabilities. Because these principles are widely accepted as characteristics of human knowledge processing, common theoretical properties related to cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence which…

  19. Knowledge-base for the new human reliability analysis method, A Technique for Human Error Analysis (ATHEANA)

    This paper describes the knowledge base for the application of the new human reliability analysis (HRA) method, a ''A Technique for Human Error Analysis'' (ATHEANA). Since application of ATHEANA requires the identification of previously unmodeled human failure events, especially errors of commission, and associated error-forcing contexts (i.e., combinations of plant conditions and performance shaping factors), this knowledge base is an essential aid for the HRA analyst

  20. Role of marine bioprospecting contracts in developing access and benefit sharing mechanism for marine traditional knowledge holders in the pharmaceutical industry

    Pooja Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable growth of bio-based industry has led to a rapid increase in the bioprospecting activities. The marine biomes are a rich reservoir of unique life systems making them an attractive target for bioprospecting for identification and development of potential drug molecules for human therapeutics. Many of the drug molecules such as ara-c, trabecetidin and eribulin have been discovered from marine organisms. It is noteworthy that indigenous communities have developed, preserved as well as evolved the marine traditional knowledge from one generation to next. Pharmaceutical companies utilize marine life based traditional knowledge developed by the communities at various stages of drug development, unfortunately, many a times without having a mechanism of access and benefit sharing in place. One such example is the marine bioprospecting Fiji contract that illustrates the role played by Fijian community and the lacuna in access and benefit sharing mechanisms. The present study is an attempt to explore the mechanism of fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from use of marine bioresources with the local communities as marine traditional knowledge holders in marine areas. It briefly describes the various international conventions and protocols that emphasize on the development of fair and equitable benefit sharing mechanisms. The study proposes marine bioprospecting contracts that are based on mutually agreed terms among the key stakeholders (the State with the genetic resources, traditional knowledge holders and marine bioprospectors. Marine bioprospecting contracts eventually will need to be customized as per the legislation of a country because of territorial nature of law. Also, the marine bioprospecting contracts will differ from other bioprospecting contracts due to various unique parameters associated with the activity such as economics of deep sea explorations (expensive processes of exploration and sample extraction

  1. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  2. Human transporter database: comprehensive knowledge and discovery tools in the human transporter genes.

    Adam Y Ye

    Full Text Available Transporters are essential in homeostatic exchange of endogenous and exogenous substances at the systematic, organic, cellular, and subcellular levels. Gene mutations of transporters are often related to pharmacogenetics traits. Recent developments in high throughput technologies on genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics allow in depth studies of transporter genes in normal cellular processes and diverse disease conditions. The flood of high throughput data have resulted in urgent need for an updated knowledgebase with curated, organized, and annotated human transporters in an easily accessible way. Using a pipeline with the combination of automated keywords query, sequence similarity search and manual curation on transporters, we collected 1,555 human non-redundant transporter genes to develop the Human Transporter Database (HTD (http://htd.cbi.pku.edu.cn. Based on the extensive annotations, global properties of the transporter genes were illustrated, such as expression patterns and polymorphisms in relationships with their ligands. We noted that the human transporters were enriched in many fundamental biological processes such as oxidative phosphorylation and cardiac muscle contraction, and significantly associated with Mendelian and complex diseases such as epilepsy and sudden infant death syndrome. Overall, HTD provides a well-organized interface to facilitate research communities to search detailed molecular and genetic information of transporters for development of personalized medicine.

  3. Developing technology intelligence strategy to access knowledge of innovation clusters. : The case of KODAK in Cambridge

    Dang, Rani Jeanne; Mortara, Letizia; Thomson, Ruth; Minshall, Tim

    2010-01-01

    International audience Current times are characterised by a knowledge-based economy and fast technological change. In this difficult environment, companies compete to maintain a relevant position through innovation. In response to these challenges, many companies are currently adopting an open approach to innovation, pursuing innovation by combining internal and external resources. Technology intelligence (TI) activities support the implementation of open innovation with the systematic cap...

  4. Accessing Local Knowledge to Identify Where Species of Conservation Concern Occur in a Tropical Forest Landscape

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-01-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia (Rafflesia ...

  5. Multiple choice exams of medical knowledge with open books and web access? A validity study

    O'Neill, Lotte; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind; Knudsen, Ulla Breth;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Open book tests have been suggested to lower test anxiety and promote deeper learning strategies. In the Aarhus University medical program, ¼ of the curriculum assess students’ medical knowledge with ‘open book, open web’ (OBOW) multiple choice examinations. We found little existing e...... pass/fail rates for the groups will be compared. Results: The results will be available for and discussed at the AMEE 2015 conference....

  6. Scientific knowledge unchained: verso una policy dell’università italiana sull’Open Access

    Caso, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Lo scopo di questo scritto è mettere in luce quel che il diritto formale può fare a favore dell’Open Access (OA). La tesi di fondo è che il diritto formale - la legge, i regolamenti, i contratti - può rappresentare un formidabile ausilio all’affermazione del principio dell’accesso aperto, ma che il definitivo successo dell’OA risiede in un radicale cambiamento delle norme informali che presidiano le prassi dell’editoria scientifica. Un tale mutamento dipende dalle dinamiche di potere nell...

  7. Study of knowledge, accessibility and utilization of the existing rehabilitation services by disabled in a rural Goan community

    Sagar Borker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the knowledge, accessibility and utilization of the existing Medical rehabilitation services by the PWD (Persons with Disability in a rural Goan community and their reasons for inaccessibility. Methods and Materials: Semi structured questionnaire with the interview technique was used. Systematic random sampling of families was done. This cross sectional study lasted from June 05 - Oct 06. Sample sizes of four thousand eight hundred six subjects were chosen from the 5 subcentres of RHTC (Rural Health and Training Centre Mandur (Rural area in Goa. Results : One ninety PWD were found.77.9% of the disabled or the parent, guardian, family member of the disabled have knowledge, only 44.2% have accessibility, 24.2% utilize the rehabilitative services. In which 49.1% of disabilities are temporary in nature. Cataract is the commonest cause of temporary disability. Mental retardation is the commonest cause of permanent disability. Conclusion : There is a need to make people aware of the rehabilitative measures and distribute the rehabilitative appliances in the community set up at a subsidized rate. A CBR (Community based rehabilitation worker is a must. People should also be made aware of various social welfare measures.

  8. Cyberscience and the Knowledge-Based Economy. Open Access and Trade Publishing: From Contradiction to Compatibility with Non-Exclusive Copyright Licensing

    Armbruster, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Open source, open content and open access are set to fundamentally alter the conditions of knowledge production and distribution. Open source, open content and open access are also the most tangible result of the shift towards e-science and digital networking. Yet, widespread misperceptions exist about the impact of this shift on knowledge…

  9. Human Right and Internet Access : A philosophical investigation

    Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-01-01

    As of December 2014, there are three billion Internet users worldwide, of which 649 million are Chinese. This number will grow in the years to come. This technology, of course, possesses immense significance in our everyday life. What is currently new in international human rights practice is the tr

  10. Human-centric intelligent systems for exploration and knowledge discovery.

    Parmee, I C

    2005-01-01

    This speculative article discusses research and development relating to computational intelligence (CI) technologies comprising powerful machine-based search and exploration techniques that can generate, extract, process and present high-quality information from complex, poorly understood biotechnology domains. The integration and capture of user experiential knowledge within such CI systems in order to support and stimulate knowledge discovery and increase scientific and technological understanding is of particular interest. The manner in which appropriate user interaction can overcome problems relating to poor problem representation within systems utilising evolutionary computation (EC), machine-learning and software agent technologies is investigated. The objective is the development of user-centric intelligent systems that support an improving knowledge-base founded upon gradual problem re-definition and reformulation. Such an approach can overcome initial lack of understanding and associated uncertainty. PMID:15614348

  11. Knowledge-based support for design and operational use of human-machine interfaces

    The possibilities for knowledge support of different human user classes, namely operators, operational engineers and designers of human-machine interfaces, are discussed. Several human-machine interface functionalities are briefly explained. The paper deals with such questions as which type of knowledge is needed for design and operation, how to represent it, where to get it from, how to process it, and how to consider and use it. The relationships between design and operational use are thereby emphasised. (author)

  12. Semi-Automatically Extracting FAQs to Improve Accessibility of Software Development Knowledge

    Henß, Stefan; Mezini, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Frequently asked questions (FAQs) are a popular way to document software development knowledge. As creating such documents is expensive, this paper presents an approach for automatically extracting FAQs from sources of software development discussion, such as mailing lists and Internet forums, by combining techniques of text mining and natural language processing. We apply the approach to popular mailing lists and carry out a survey among software developers to show that it is able to extract high-quality FAQs that may be further improved by experts.

  13. Knowledge, Capabilities and Human Capital Formation in Economic Growth

    David, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph, which has been prepared as a Research Report to the New Zealand (New Zealand) Treasury, undertakes three main tasks: (1) describing the various forms of tangible and intangible human capital, their relationship to "capabilities" affecting human well-being, and the channels through which they may contribute to economic growth; (2) reviewing the major theoretical and empirical findings on the microeconomic determinants, and macroeconomic growth effects of investment in human cap...

  14. TRANSFORMING HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    ANA-MARIA GRIGORE

    2011-01-01

    Paradoxically, in this era of microprocessors, of top technologies, of equipments “independent” of man’s skills and attention, the human resource regains the hegemony among the economic variables of the organization. Human resources traditionally added value to organizations because of what they did or because of their experience. In the new economy, however, many employees add value because of what they know. The management of the human resources has to be torn apart from its bureaucratic pa...

  15. Accessing Local Knowledge to Identify Where Species of Conservation Concern Occur in a Tropical Forest Landscape

    Padmanaba, Michael; Sheil, Douglas; Basuki, Imam; Liswanti, Nining

    2013-08-01

    Conventional biodiversity surveys play an important role in ensuring good conservation friendly management in tropical forest regions but are demanding in terms of expertise, time, and budget. Can local people help? Here, we illustrate how local knowledge can support low cost conservation surveys. We worked in the Malinau watershed, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, an area currently at risk of extensive forest loss. We selected eight species of regional conservation interest: rafflesia ( Rafflesia spp.), black orchid ( Coelogyne pandurata), sun bear ( Helarctos malayanus), tarsier ( Tarsius bancanus), slow loris ( Nycticebus coucang), proboscis monkey ( Nasalis larvatus), clouded leopard ( Neofelis diardi/N. nebulosa), and orang-utan ( Pongo pygmaeus). We asked 52 informants in seven villages if, where and when they had observed these species. We used maps, based on both geo-referenced and sketched features, to record these observations. Verification concerns and related issues are discussed. Evaluations suggest our local information is reliable. Our study took 6 weeks and cost about USD 5000. Extensive expert based field surveys across the same region would cost one or two orders of magnitude more. The records extend the known distribution for sun bear, tarsier, slow loris, and clouded leopard. Reports of rafflesia, proboscis monkey, and orang-utan are of immediate conservation significance. While quality concerns should never be abandoned, we conclude that local people can help expand our knowledge of large areas in an effective, reliable, and low cost manner and thus contribute to improved management.

  16. Consumers’ perception and knowledge of food safety: results of questionnaires accessible on IZSalimenTO website

    Amaranta Traversa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present survey was undertaken to investigate consumers’ knowledge of the main foodborne agents and dietary regimen during pregnancy. Data were collected using monthly questionnaires available on IZSalimenTO website between March 2013 and January 2014. Hepatitis A virus questionnaire: 20 respondents (77% recognized berries as foodstuff linked to the outbreak of hepatitis A. The majority correctly indicated as precautionary advice to boil berries before consumption. Botulism questionnaire: 29 respondents (62% indicated pesto as food involved in botulism alert in July 2013. The risk of infant botulism in infant less than 1 year old due to honey consumption is known by 24 respondents (51%. Main foodborne disease questionnaire: the risk of infection by Salmonella after the consumption of foods made with raw eggs is known by the majority (94%; N=17 as well as the treatments to be applied in order to make fresh fish safe from parasites (76%. Pregnancy questionnaire: 20 respondents (74% believed that washing vegetables and fruits with sodium bicarbonate or chlorate solution is able to inactivate Toxoplasma; only 4 (15% reported both raw meat and vegetables washed with sodium bicarbonate as food at risk. Results indicate that all consumers should be trained on behaviour and dietary regimen to be adopted in pregnancy and in infant <1 year old. The website may be considered as a useful tool to assess consumers’ knowledge: both the news section and the contents published may be a source of information and education for consumers on food safety.

  17. Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Extraction and the Study of Human Intelligence.

    d'Ydewalle, Gery; Delhaye, Patrick

    1988-01-01

    Describes artificial intelligence (AI) as the study of intelligence with the ideas and methods of computation. States that the goal is to make computers more intelligent and thereby uncover the principles that make intelligent behavior possible. Discusses knowledge representations, production (if-then) systems, and expert systems as forms of AI.…

  18. Knowledge Management Integration into Strategic Human Capital Management Systems

    Leadership model philosophies: • Knowledge is fundamental – share it; • We are in the refueling outage business; • Cost effective does not necessarily mean cheap; • Working efficiently and event free; • Make conscious, informed decisions; • Excellence in Operational Focus; • Operations Leads the Station; • End of Licenses and Beyond 60; • Our Leadership Model - Our future

  19. Employing human rights frameworks to realize access to an HIV cure

    Benjamin Mason Meier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The scale of the HIV pandemic – and the stigma, discrimination and violence that surrounded its sudden emergence – catalyzed a public health response that expanded human rights in principle and practice. In the absence of effective treatment, human rights activists initially sought to protect individuals at high risk of HIV infection. With advances in antiretroviral therapy, activists expanded their efforts under international law, advocating under the human right to health for individual access to treatment. Discussion: As a clinical cure comes within reach, human rights obligations will continue to play a key role in political and programmatic decision-making. Building upon the evolving development and implementation of the human right to health in the global response to HIV, we outline a human rights research agenda to prepare for HIV cure access, investigating the role of human rights law in framing 1 resource allocation, 2 international obligations, 3 intellectual property and 4 freedom from coercion. Conclusions: The right to health is widely recognized as central to governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental responses to the pandemic and critical both to addressing vulnerability to infection and to ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. While the advent of an HIV cure will raise new obligations for policymakers in implementing the right to health, the resolution of past debates surrounding HIV prevention and treatment may inform claims for universal access.

  20. Household electricity access, availability and human well-being: Evidence from India

    According to the 2011 Census of India, over 31% of India's 1.2 billion people lived in nearly 8000 towns and cities; the remaining 830 million people lived in over 638,000 villages. About 55% of rural households and 93% of urban households had access to electricity. The 2005 Indian Human Development Survey showed that on average, electricity availability (hours of supply per day) in rural and urban households were 14 and 19 h, respectively (Desai et al., 2007). Using nationally representative data from Indian Human Development Survey, this study estimated the impact of electricity access and availability on two attributes of human well-being, viz. education and health attainment. It found a significant positive relationship between electricity availability and well-being in rural and urban households. Electricity accessibility, revealed a significant positive relationship only for rural households. The paper concludes with implications for electricity policy and infrastructure choices. - Graphical abstract: Impact of electricity security on the attributes of human well-being. - Highlights: • Nexus between well-being, and electricity access and availability is quantified. • Electricity access is positively associated with well-being in rural but not urban. • Electricity availability negatively associates with morbidity and absenteeism. • Electricity security as human well-being enabler seeks nuanced policy attention. • Decentralized rapidly deployable modular technologies and microgrids are advocated

  1. Human Exploration of Near-Earth Objects Accessibility Study

    Abell, Paul; Drake, Bret; Friedensen, Victoria; Mazanek, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Key questions addressed: How short can the trip times be reduced in order to reduce crew exposure to the deep-space radiation and microgravity environment? Are there options to conduct easy, early missions?. What is the affect of infusion of advanced propulsion technologies on target availability When do the departure opportunities open up, how frequent and how long are they? How many launches are required to conduct a round trip human mission to a NEA? And, based on the above, how many Near-Earth Asteroids are available

  2. Using a human cognition model in the creation of collaborative knowledge visualizations

    Green, Tera Marie; Ribarsky, William

    2008-04-01

    This paper explores the basis and usefulness of a predictive model for the architecture of data and knowledge visualizations based on human higher-cognition, including human tendencies in reasoning heuristics and cognitive biases. The strengths and weakness of would-be human and computer collaborators are explored, and a model framework is outlined and discussed.

  3. Knowledges

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as...... a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and...... reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on...

  4. Generation of human and structural capital: lessons from knowledge management

    Agndal, Henrik; Nilsson, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    Interorganizational and social relationships can be seen as part of the intellectual capital of a firm. Existing frameworks of intellectual capital, however, fail to address how relationships should be managed to generate more intellectual capital. Drawing on the interaction approach and the fields of intellectual capital and knowledge management, this paper develops a framework for managing relationships. The framework is illustrated with a case study. It is also noted that firms can improve...

  5. Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Social Sciences and Humanities?

    Ramirez, Marisa; Dalton, Joan T.; McMillan, Gail; Read, Max; Seamans, Nancy H.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide are requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Faculty advisors and graduate students are concerned that such unfiltered access to their work could diminish future publishing opportunities. This study investigated social sciences, arts and humanities journal editors' and university press direc...

  6. Human embryonic stem cell research, justice, and the problem of unequal biological access

    Moller Mark S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2003, Ruth Faden and eighteen other colleagues argued that a "problem of unequal biological access" is likely to arise in access to therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. They showed that unless deliberate steps are taken in the United States to ensure that the human embryonic stem cell lines available to researchers mirrors the genetic diversity of the general population, white Americans will likely receive the benefits of these therapies to the relative exclusion of minority ethnic groups. Over the past five years the problem of unequal biological access has not received much attention from politicians, bioethicists and even many researchers in the United States, in spite of the widely held belief in the country that there is an obligation to prevent and correct ethnic disparities in access to medical care. The purpose of this paper is to increase awareness of the problem of unequal biological access and of the need to do more than is currently being done to ensure that ethnic disparities in access to human embryonic stem cell-based therapies do not arise. Specifically, this paper explains why the problem of unequal biological access will likely arise in the United States in such a way that white Americans will disproportionately receive most of the benefits of the therapies resulting from human embryonic stem cell research. It also argues for why there is an obligation to prevent these ethnic disparities in access from happening and outlines four steps that need to be taken towards meeting this obligation.

  7. Human Mobility Patterns: A Source of Geospatial Knowledge

    Wachowicz, M.; Vazquez, A.H.; Ballari, D.E.; Orellana, D.A.; Rodriguez, A

    2009-01-01

    The study and analysis of human mobility patterns and their relationship with the environment can provide us with a better understanding of certain aspects of human behaviour. New, ubiquitous and non-intrusive devices have made it easier to place sensors in mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) or even clothing, providing us with relatively low cost means of gathering highly detailed data on the movement of people and the environments in which they move. However, new spatio-tempor...

  8. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Central to understanding the contemporary state of the human resource management (HRM field is knowledge of its history, and the underlying rationales as to why it has changed over time. This research attempts to identify one such important ‘rationale’.Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time.Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work.Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  9. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  10. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Naim Hamdija Afgan; Maria G. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to empha...

  11. Addressing the concerns of rural communities about access to plants and knowledge in a sui generis legislation in Cameroon

    Marcelin Tonye Mahop

    2004-12-01

    This article assesses the traditional systems of accessing and using plant genetic resources as well as the benefit sharing and systems of sanctioning infringement in the context of biodiversity related activities in specific areas in the Northwest province of Cameroon. The article also addresses the type research and development activities using plant genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in the context of Cameroon, the current laws regulating such activities and the extent to which these activities and laws affect and/or protect the customary biodiversity rights of rural communities. The article uses these assessments to suggest the context under which a sui generis legislation for the protection of the biodiversity rights of rural communities can be established in Cameroon.

  12. GIS TECHNIQUES FOR ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN HUMAN ACCESSIBILITY AND TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE POPULATION IN HUNEDOARA COUNTY

    R. COSTACHE; Popescu, C; A. ȘTEFAN

    2014-01-01

    GIS Techniques for Assessing the Link between Human Accessibility and Territorial Distribution of the Population in Hunedoara County. The accessibility of an area has a very important role in the territorial distribution of the population in an area. In the present study, in order to determine the human accessibility index, some physical-geographical factors were taken into account. A link between accessibility and population density was established, based on data and maps obtained using GIS ...

  13. Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship and the Impact of Human Capital

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address selected aspects of human capital in association with the entrepreneurial process in technology-based new ventures. Until recently, research investigating the founding of new businesses has mainly focused on the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs, but...... success of a newly founded venture. Furthermore, the dimensions of human capital, experience and previous employment, seem to be essential in building the networks that help secure both the early as well as a continuous pool of finance for the ventures....

  14. Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccination: an international comparison.

    Marlow, L. A.; Zimet, G. D.; McCaffery, K. J.; Ostini, R; Waller, J

    2012-01-01

    Since vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) became available, awareness of HPV has dramatically increased. Implementation of a vaccine program varies internationally yet no studies have explored the influence this has on the public's knowledge of HPV. The present study aimed to explore differences in awareness of HPV and HPV knowledge across three countries: The US, UK and Australia. Participants (n=2409) completed a validated measure of HPV knowledge as part of an online survey. The...

  15. Reconstructing Sessions from Data Discovery and Access Logs to Build a Semantic Knowledge Base for Improving Data Discovery

    Yongyao Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Big geospatial data are archived and made available through online web discovery and access. However, finding the right data for scientific research and application development is still a challenge. This paper aims to improve the data discovery by mining the user knowledge from log files. Specifically, user web session reconstruction is focused upon in this paper as a critical step for extracting usage patterns. However, reconstructing user sessions from raw web logs has always been difficult, as a session identifier tends to be missing in most data portals. To address this problem, we propose two session identification methods, including time-clustering-based and time-referrer-based methods. We also present the workflow of session reconstruction and discuss the approach of selecting appropriate thresholds for relevant steps in the workflow. The proposed session identification methods and workflow are proven to be able to extract data access patterns for further pattern analyses of user behavior and improvement of data discovery for more relevancy data ranking, suggestion, and navigation.

  16. Knowledge of Acute Human Immnuodeficiency Virus Infection among Gay and Bisexual Male College Students

    Grin, Benjamin; Chan, Philip A.; Operario, Don

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in at-risk college men who have sex with men (MSM), focusing on knowledge about acute HIV infection (AHI). Participants and Methods: A one-time anonymous survey was administered to college students attending a lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  18. Further Democratizing Latin America: Broadening Access to Higher Education and Promoting Science Policies Focused on the Advanced Training of Human Resources

    2014-01-01

    We focus this paper on the conditions to build reliable science, technology and higher education systems in Latin America, based on international comparative studies, fieldwork and interviews conducted over the last three years. The analysis shows that science can have a major role in furthering the democratization of society through public policies that foster opportunities to access knowledge and the advanced training of human resources. Broadening the social basis for higher education prom...

  19. Perfect match? : Kombinationen av Knowledge Management & Human Resource Management i konsultbolag

    Graner, Nathalie; Madeleine, Gyllström

    2012-01-01

    Background: We have identified the combination of Knowledge Management and Human Resource Management as interesting because of this constellation has been mentioned scarcely in previous studies. There also seem to be some interesting correlations with personnel turnover. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe and understand the theoretically best combination of Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management, by creating a model. The model is also going to be tested empirically through ...

  20. LINKING HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO DRIVE MEASURABLE RESULTS

    Otilia‐Maria BORDEIANU; Simona BUTA

    2015-01-01

    Today the human resources are seen as a very valuable asset to achieve long-term performance. Today we understand that every employee is required to learn throughout life, so to acquire new knowledge, to process such knowledge and possibly disseminate expertise with other members of the organization. The theory on human resources in various organizations has changed over time; recommendations have become more numerous, but there is no consensus on the subject. In other words, the permanent ch...

  1. Human capital in the knowledge-based society: comparative analysis: Romania-Portugal

    Martins, Dora; Laura-Maria DINDIRE

    2013-01-01

    The current economic crisis has rushed even more the economists’ concerns to identify new directions for the sustainable development of the society. In this context, the human capital is crystallised as the key variable of the creative economy and of the knowledge-based society. As such, we have directed the research underlying this paper to identifying the most eloquent indicators of human capital to meet the demands of the knowledge-based society and sustainable development as well as towar...

  2. HUMAN CAPITAL'S IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES

    Burja Camelia

    2012-01-01

    To meet the desiderata expressed by the implementation of knowledge-based economy, companies must reconsider development strategies and must facilitate the shift from a management largely based on resource consumption to knowledge-based management. In this view, the importance of the human factor increases, becoming a precious resource that creates value and competitiveness. This paper shows the interaction between company performance and human capital, exemplifying this aspect through a case...

  3. HUMAN CAPITAL’S IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES

    Burja Camelia

    2012-01-01

    To meet the desiderata expressed by the implementation of knowledge-based economy, companies must reconsider development strategies and must facilitate the shift from a management largely based on resource consumption to knowledge-based management. In this view, the importance of the human factor increases, becoming a precious resource that creates value and competitiveness. This paper shows the interaction between company performance and human capital, exemplifying this aspect through a case...

  4. Stabilizing knowledge through standards - A perspective for the humanities

    Romary, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    It is usual to consider that standards generate mixed feelings among scientists. They are often seen as not really reflecting the state of the art in a given domain and a hindrance to scientific creativity. Still, scientists should theoretically be at the best place to bring their expertise into standard developments, being even more neutral on issues that may typically be related to competing industrial interests. Even if it could be thought of as even more complex to think about developping standards in the humanities, we will show how this can be made feasible through the experience gained both within the Text Encoding Initiative consortium and the International Organisation for Standardisation. By taking the specific case of lexical resources, we will try to show how this brings about new ideas for designing future research infrastructures in the human and social sciences.

  5. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  6. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Taylor, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estima...

  7. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Taylor MJ; Garrard TA; O'Donahoo FJ; Ross KE

    2014-01-01

    Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate o...

  8. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis.

    Perumal, A N I; Gunawardene, Y I N S; Dassanayake, R S

    2016-03-01

    Setaria digitata is a filarial parasite that causes fatal cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses, resulting in substantial economic losses in animal husbandry in the tropics. Due to its close resemblance to Wuchereria bancrofti, this nematode is also frequently used as a model organism to study human lymphatic filariasis. This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. PMID:25924635

  9. Human engineering considerations in designing a computerized controlled access security system

    This paper describes a human engineering effort in the design of a major security system upgrade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This upgrade was to be accomplished by replacing obsolete and difficult-to-man (i.e., multiple operator task actions required) security equipment and systems with a new, automated, computer-based access control system. The initial task was to assist the electronic and mechanical engineering staff in designing a computerized security access system too functionally and ergonomically accommodate 100% of the Laboratory user population. The new computerized access system was intended to control entry into sensitive exclusion areas by requiring personnel to use an entry booth-based system and/or a remote access control panel system. The primary user interface with the system was through a control panel containing a magnetic card reader, function buttons, LCD display, and push-button keypad

  10. Integrated approach to knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex plants with emphasis on human factors

    In this paper an integrated approach to the knowledge acquisition and safety management of complex industrial plants is proposed and outlined. The plant is considered within a man-technology-environment (MTE) system. The knowledge acquisition is aimed at the consequent reliability evaluation of human factor and probabilistic modeling of the plant. Properly structured initial knowledge is updated in life-time of the plant. The data and knowledge concerning the topology of safety related systems and their functions are created in a graphical CAD system and are object oriented. Safety oriented monitoring of the plant includes abnormal situations due to external and internal disturbances, failures of hard/software components and failures of human factor. The operation and safety related evidence is accumulated in special data bases. Data/knowledge bases are designed in such a way to support effectively the reliability and safety management of the plant. (author)

  11. Psychological Basis of the Relationship Between the Rorschach Texture Response and Adult Attachment: The Mediational Role of the Accessibility of Tactile Knowledge.

    Iwasa, Kazunori; Ogawa, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    This study clarifies the psychological basis for the linkage between adult attachment and the texture response on the Rorschach by examining the mediational role of the accessibility of tactile knowledge. Japanese undergraduate students (n = 35) completed the Rorschach Inkblot Method, the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale for General Objects (Nakao & Kato, 2004) and a lexical decision task designed to measure the accessibility of tactile knowledge. A mediation analysis revealed that the accessibility of tactile knowledge partially mediates the association between attachment anxiety and the texture response. These results suggest that our hypothetical model focusing on the response process provides a possible explanation of the relationship between the texture response and adult attachment. PMID:26569020

  12. Cervical Cancer and Human Papilloma Virus Knowledge and Acceptance of Vaccination among Medical Students in Southwest Nigeria.

    Adejuyigbe, Funmilayo F; Balogun, M R; Balogun, Balogun R; Sekoni, Adekemi O; Adegbola, Adebukola A

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the commonest viral sexually transmitted infection in the world and the leading cause of cervical cancer. Medical students as future healthcare providers will play a role in influencing patients' decision to receive HPV vaccination. This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV as well as the acceptance of HPV vaccination among medical students of the University of Lagos. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 280 medical students sampled using stratified sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect relevant data. Most respondents were aware of cervical cancer (95.4%), HPV (85.4%) and HPV vaccination (69.3%) and the most common source of information was school teaching. Good knowledge of cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccination was demonstrated by 51.8%, 67.1% and 21.1% respectively; only 39.6% fully accepted HPV vaccination. Inadequate information and high costs were the obstacles identified to receiving vaccine and recommending it to others. Older age and higher levels of study were significantly associated with good knowledge of HPV. Good knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination respectively were significantly associated with full acceptance of vaccination. There is need for more education on cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination for the medical students via school teaching and other media, and inclusion of the HPV vaccine in the National Program on Immunization to improve access. PMID:26103704

  13. Web Accessibility and Usability of the Homepages from Academy of Human Resource Development Members' Institutions

    Zeng, Xiaoming; Sligar, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Human resource development programs in various institutions communicate with their constituencies including persons with disabilities through websites. Web sites need to be accessible for legal, economic and ethical reasons. We used an automated web usability evaluation tool, aDesigner, to evaluate 205 home pages from the organizations of AHRD…

  14. Human security and access to water, sanitation, and hygiene: exploring the drivers and nexus

    P. Obani; J. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Water security challenges are mostly covered in the literature on the food and energy nexus. This chapter however adopts a broader conception of water security in relation to lack of access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), and argues that the human rights approach could be instrumental in a

  15. Guide to open access monograph publishing for arts, humanities and social science researchers

    Collins, Ellen; Milloy, Caren; Stone, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This guide has been produced to assist arts, humanities and social sciences (AHSS) researchers in understanding the state of play with regards to open access in the UK and what it means to them as current and future authors of scholarly monographs.

  16. Prior implicit knowledge shapes human threshold for orientation noise

    Christensen, Jeppe H; Bex, Peter J; Fiser, József

    2015-01-01

    Although orientation coding in the human visual system has been researched with simple stimuli, little is known about how orientation information is represented while viewing complex images. We show that, similar to findings with simple Gabor textures, the visual system involuntarily discounts...... orientation noise in a wide range of natural images, and that this discounting produces a dipper function in the sensitivity to orientation noise, with best sensitivity at intermediate levels of pedestal noise. However, the level of this discounting depends on the complexity and familiarity of the input image......, resulting in an image-class-specific threshold that changes the shape and position of the dipper function according to image class. These findings do not fit a filter-based feed-forward view of orientation coding, but can be explained by a process that utilizes an experience-based perceptual prior of the...

  17. HUMAN CAPITAL’S IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ROMANIAN KNOWLEDGE BASED COMPANIES

    Burja Camelia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To meet the desiderata expressed by the implementation of knowledge-based economy, companies must reconsider development strategies and must facilitate the shift from a management largely based on resource consumption to knowledge-based management. In this view, the importance of the human factor increases, becoming a precious resource that creates value and competitiveness. This paper shows the interaction between company performance and human capital, exemplifying this aspect through a case study based on a regression model in Romanian software companies. The obtained results show the strong connection between company performance, expressed by net income, and the quality of the human capital, synthesized by labour productivity.

  18. Retaking Responsibility for How We Communicate. A Review of Open Access and the Humanities: Contexts, Controversies and the Future

    James Baker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Budapest Open Access Initiative statement in 2002, Open Access has grown from an ideal to a reality. Open Access and the Humanities explores scholarly practices, communications, and cultures in light of this change and argues that humanists can and should retake responsibility for how they chose to publish.

  19. Managing nuclear knowledge: Strategies and human resource development. Summary of an international conference

    The nuclear industry is knowledge based, similar to other highly technical industries, and relies heavily on the accumulation of knowledge. Recent trends such as workforce ageing and declining student enrolment numbers, and the risk of losing accumulated knowledge and experience, have drawn attention to the need for better management of nuclear knowledge. In 2002 the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution on nuclear knowledge, which was reiterated in 2003; the resolution emphasized the importance of nuclear knowledge and information management and urged both the IAEA and Member States to strengthen their activities and efforts in this regard. Consequently, the International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management: Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development, which was held on 7-10 September 2004 in Saclay, was organized by the IAEA and the Government of France through the Commissariat a l'energie atomique in cooperation with the European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, European Atomic Forum, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, World Council of Nuclear Workers, World Nuclear University and European Association of Information Services. The conference was attended by 250 experts, scientists and officials from 54 Member States and nine international organizations, giving the conference a very broad representation of the nuclear sector. The objective of the conference was to reach a clear and common understanding of the issues related to nuclear knowledge management for sustaining knowledge and expertise in nuclear science and technology and to define a strategic framework for developing IAEA cross-cutting knowledge management activities. The conference provided a forum for professionals and decision makers in the nuclear sector, comprising industry, government and academia, as well as professionals in the knowledge management and information technology sectors. Based on the results of the conference, the key insights, lessons learned

  20. The lawful uses of knowledge from the Human Genome Project

    Grad, F.P.

    1994-04-15

    Part I of this study deals with the right to know or not to know personal genetic information, and examines available legal protections of the right of privacy and the adverse effect of the disclosure of genetic information both on employment and insurance interests and on self esteem and protection of personal integrity. The study examines the rationale for the legal protection of privacy as the protection of a public interest. It examines the very limited protections currently available for privacy interests, including genetic privacy interests, and concludes that there is a need for broader, more far-reaching legal protections. The second part of the study is based on the assumption that as major a project as the Human Genome Project, spending billions of dollars on science which is health related, will indeed be applied for preventive and therapeutic public health purposes, as it has been in the past. It also addresses the recurring fear that public health initiatives in the genetic area must evolve a new eugenic agenda, that we must not repeat the miserable discriminatory experiences of the past.

  1. Collaborative online knowledge base for human planetary mission simulation stations

    Hargitai, H. I.

    2008-09-01

    Mars Society operates two Mars simulation research stations since 2001/2002: one in Devon Island (FMARS) and one in Utah (MDRS). The goal of these stations is to simulate human mission - work and life - on the Surface of Mars. FMARS receives one crew each year while at MDRS crews change every second week except for the summer season. In the last 7 years 71 crews worked at MDRS. Their results are published in various forums: in peer-reviewed papers, conference abstracts, books, private websites or other publications [3]. The actual work of all crews is documented as specialized daily reports together with images and are avaiable at the MDRS website [4] (Fig. 1, Fig. 2.). An important part of these reports are the "lessons learned" sections where crews describe what they have learned during field trips (EVAs) or other activities. Updated operation manuals and cartographic resources [1] are also available on the website. Some of crew members are visiting MDRS for the first time, others are "veterans".

  2. The Social Uses of the Innovation Concept. A Qualitative Approach to the Discursive Logics for the Access to and Use of Information, Communication and Knowledge in Andalusia.

    Rodríguez Victoriano, José Manuel; Wulff Barreiro, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    In the semantic architecture of the society of the knowledge the innovation concept is the fundamental brick. It is an adobe that allows to construct very different discourses frequently opposed between them, in what the purpose of its social use concerns. In the present communication we introduce the motivations for the access and use of the information and the knowledge on the part of the different social sectors in the Andalusian society. The analysis of the efforts of the Andalusian admin...

  3. The Human Genome Project: Information access, management, and regulation. Final report

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1996-08-31

    The Human Genome Project is a large, internationally coordinated effort in biological research directed at creating a detailed map of human DNA. This report describes the access of information, management, and regulation of the project. The project led to the development of an instructional module titled The Human Genome Project: Biology, Computers, and Privacy, designed for use in high school biology classes. The module consists of print materials and both Macintosh and Windows versions of related computer software-Appendix A contains a copy of the print materials and discs containing the two versions of the software.

  4. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  5. Social Knowledge and the Web

    Binns, Reuben

    2011-01-01

    Epistemologists have traditionally been concerned with elucidating the conditions under which an agent knows some proposition, focusing on the state of a single individual, and her relation to the world. Whatever its merits, this approach to a theory of knowledge neglects the distinct phenomenon of social knowledge; knowledge that is held collectively by groups. However, we are fast approaching a world in which the sum of human knowledge is primarily stored on and accessed via the web, rather...

  6. The Construction and Globalization of the Knowledge Base in Inter-human Communication Systems

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the "knowledge base" and the "globalization" of communication systems is discussed from the perspective of communication theory. I argue that inter-human communication takes place at two levels. At the first level information is exchanged and provided with meaning and at the second level meaning can reflexively be communicated. Human language can be considered as the evolutionary achievement which enables us to use these two channels of communication simultaneously. Providing meaning from the perspective of hindsight is a recursive operation: a meaning that makes a difference can be considered as knowledge. If the production of knowledge is socially organized, the perspective of hindsight can further be codified. This adds globalization to the historically stabilized patterns of communications. Globalization can be expected to transform the communications in an evolutionary mode. However, the self-organization of a knowledge-based society remains an expectation with the status of a hy...

  7. Generalization of category knowledge and dimensional categorization in humans (Homo sapiens) and nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta).

    Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Roeder, Jessica L; Boomer, Joseph; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A

    2015-10-01

    A theoretical framework within neuroscience distinguishes humans' implicit and explicit systems for category learning. We used a perceptual-categorization paradigm to ask whether nonhumans share elements of these systems. Participants learned categories that foster implicit or explicit categorization in humans, because they had a multidimensional, information-integration (II) solution or a unidimensional, rule-based (RB) solution. Then humans and macaques generalized their category knowledge to new, untested regions of the stimulus space. II generalization was impaired, suggesting that II category learning is conditioned and constrained by stimulus generalization to its original, trained stimulus contexts. RB generalization was nearly seamless, suggesting that RB category knowledge in humans and monkeys has properties that grant it some independence from the original, trained stimulus contexts. These findings raise the questions of (a) how closely macaques' dimensional categorization verges on humans' explicit/declarative categorization, and (b) how far macaques' dimensional categorization has advanced beyond that in other vertebrate species. PMID:26167774

  8. Linking Human Resource Management and Knowledge Management via Commitment to Safety

    Kuimet Karin; Järvis Marina; Virovere Anu; Hartšenko Jelena

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM), organisational (safety) culture and knowledge management literature through developing the linkage and relationship among them. The article suggests that the HRM concepts and frameworks could play an important role in the safety knowledge exchange within the organisation. The research method includes exploratory case studies, interviews and evaluation questionnaires in order to clarify how HRM practices are adop...

  9. The effect of human capital and networks on knowledge and innovation in SMEs

    Salvatore Farace; Fernanda Mazzotta

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to analyze knowledge creation in traditional sectors and empirically test innovation probability and intensity in small and medium firms (SMEs). The underlying hypothesis is that human capital and networks favour ease of learning and promote absorptive capacity and knowledge, which in turn fosters innovation in SMEs in traditional sectors. The empirical evidence is based on an ad hoc survey of a representative sample of 462 manufacturing firms in a province in ...

  10. Cultivating Humanity or Educating the Human? Two Options for Education in the Knowledge Age

    Biesta, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the idea of the "knowledge society" came into circulation, there have been discussions about what the term empirically "might" mean and normatively "should" mean. In the literature we can find a rather wide spectrum, ranging from a "utilitarian" interpretation of the knowledge society as a…

  11. Human Lymphoid Translocation Fragile Zones Are Hypomethylated and Have Accessible Chromatin

    Lu, Zhengfei; Lieber, Michael R.; Tsai, Albert G.; Pardo, Carolina E.; Müschen, Markus; Kladde, Michael P.; Hsieh, Chih-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of hematopoietic malignancies. CG motifs within translocation fragile zones (typically 20 to 600 bp in size) are prone to chromosomal translocation in lymphomas. Here we demonstrate that the CG motifs in human translocation fragile zones are hypomethylated relative to the adjacent DNA. Using a methyltransferase footprinting assay on isolated nuclei (in vitro), we find that the chromatin at these fragile zones is accessible. We also examined in vivo ac...

  12. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence

    Yury Shtyrov; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain’s activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of fami...

  13. University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Cervical Cancer, Human Papillomavirus, and Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in Turkey

    Koç, Zeliha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The current descriptive study aimed to determine university students' knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccines in Turkey. Participants: A total of 800 students participated. Methods: This study was carried out between September 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012, in 8 female…

  14. International conference on nuclear knowledge management: Strategies, information management and human resource development. Unedited papers

    The nuclear industry is knowledge based, similar to other highly technical industries, and relies heavily on the accumulation of knowledge. Recent trends such as workforce ageing and declining student enrolment numbers, and the risk of losing accumulated knowledge and experience, have drawn attention to the need for better management of nuclear knowledge. In 2002 the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution on nuclear knowledge, which was reiterated in 2003; the resolution emphasized the importance of nuclear knowledge and information management and urged both the IAEA and Member States to strengthen their activities and efforts in this regard. Consequently, the International Conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management: Strategies, Information Management and Human Resource Development, which was held on 7-10 September 2004 in Saclay, was organized by the IAEA and the Government of France through the Commissariat a l'energie atomique in cooperation with the European Commission, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, European Atomic Forum, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, World Council of Nuclear Workers, World Nuclear University and European Association of Information Services. The conference was attended by 250 experts, scientists and officials from 54 Member States and nine international organizations, giving the conference a very broad representation of the nuclear sector. The objective of the conference was to reach a clear and common understanding of the issues related to nuclear knowledge management for sustaining knowledge and expertise in nuclear science and technology and to define a strategic framework for developing IAEA cross-cutting knowledge management activities. The conference provided a forum for professionals and decision makers in the nuclear sector, comprising industry, government and academia, as well as professionals in the knowledge management and information technology sectors. The unedited papers are presented in this report

  15. LINKING HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGY WITH KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO DRIVE MEASURABLE RESULTS

    Otilia‐Maria\tBORDEIANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the human resources are seen as a very valuable asset to achieve long-term performance. Today we understand that every employee is required to learn throughout life, so to acquire new knowledge, to process such knowledge and possibly disseminate expertise with other members of the organization. The theory on human resources in various organizations has changed over time; recommendations have become more numerous, but there is no consensus on the subject. In other words, the permanent change which defines the competitive environment of business remains a type of constant when analysing the efficiency of human resources within companies; inter-individual relations (formal and informal and the values to which each employee relates remains crucial for any theoretical construction in this area. Principles and strategies applied by organizations yesterday could prove their inefficiency today; human resource strategies in organizations today should include a separate subcomponent, we believe, i.e. knowledge management (KM strategy. This is because the competitive advantage obtained or maintained by the company depends today, in large proportion, on the type, quality and value of knowledge possessed by the organization. Therefore, organizational strategy and thus the strategy of acquisition, developing and rewarding of human resources (HR should take into account this reality from the global environment. Moreover, in the current knowledge-driven economy, organizations must know how to develop and implement knowledge-based strategies to drive measurable business results. The goal of this paper is to describe a potential relation between the overall company strategy, HR strategy and KM strategy.

  16. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    Tsai, L L; Li, C -H; Rosen, M S; Patz, S; Walsworth, R L

    2007-01-01

    The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a "walk-in" capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging su...

  17. Problems of formation of human potential on the way to the knowledge economy in Ukraine

    Tiutiunnykova Svitlana V.; Savitska Nataliia L.

    2013-01-01

    The article outlines main problems of formation of the domestic human potential on the way to the knowledge economy. It uses general scientific methods of formal and dialectic logic, modern technique of system analysis, scientific abstraction, synthesis, systematisation and generalisation. It marks out main obstacles of transformation of human potential into the factor of economic development: destruction of macro-economic reproduction proportions, institutional and value motivational grounds...

  18. Academic and Professional Communities of Discourse: Generating Knowledge on Transnational Human Resource Management

    Nancy J Adler; Susan Bartholomew

    1992-01-01

    Increasing global competition is changing the nature of knowledge needed for international human resource management. This article assesses the publishing trends in international organizational behaviour and human resource management (OB/HRM) and interprets their implications for conducting transnational business. A review of over 28,000 articles in seventy-three academic and professional journals identified three important trends in international OB/HRM: first, the focus has shifted from sin...

  19. A Knowledge-Driven Shared Autonomy Human-Robot Interface for Tablet Computers

    Birkenkampf, Peter; Leidner, Daniel; Borst, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous and teleoperated robots have been proven to be capable of solving complex manipulation tasks. However, autonomous robots can only be deployed in predefined domains and teleoperation requires full attention of a human operator. Therefore, combining autonomous capabilities of the robot with teleoperation is desirable, yet balancing the work load between robot and operator for intuitive human-robot interfaces is still an open issue. In this paper, we present a knowledge-driven tablet ...

  20. Knowledge management: Exploring the relationship between human capital and organisation structure capital

    Al-Halak, A; Al-Karaghouli, W; Ghoneim, A; Koufopoulos, D

    2010-01-01

    Human capital and its impact on the organisation structure capital are of paramount importance in the modern business organisations. This research in progress, which investigates and analyses the role that human capital plays in the determination of the organisation structure capital. The study is based on wide spectrum of current literature, which presents theoretical and practical research on the subject of study. Knowledge Management (KM) is systematic process based on models and technolog...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and opinions about human-wildlife conflicts held by community leaders in Virginia

    Elsner, Regina Marie

    2008-01-01

    Using a mail survey, I questioned 490 representatives of local government (i.e., elected officials, administrative officials, animal control officers, and county Cooperative Extension agents) about their understanding of human-wildlife conflicts in their communities, and their receptivity to participating in co-management partnerships with regulatory agencies. Response rates for the mail survey of these four populations ranged from 25.2% to 75.9%. Knowledge of and perceptions about human-wi...

  2. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  3. Open access

    Dorch, Bertil Fabricius; Demaio, Alessandro; Hersch, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This week, we celebrate open access week – an event aimed at bringing attention to this rapidly emerging form of scientific publication and its ethical imperatives. Traditionally, knowledge breakthroughs and scientific discoveries are shared through publication in academic journals. Peer...... ideas, break down barriers to science and make knowledge accessible to the masses – but this is not actually the case....

  4. Beliefs and Knowledge about the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine among Undergraduate Men

    Hunter, Theresa; Weinstein, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess male undergraduate students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge and intentions to receive the HPV vaccination. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Method: A sample of 116 male undergraduate students from a university in the Midwestern USA completed a survey questionnaire assessing various aspects…

  5. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors: Examining Human Papillomavirus-Related Gender Differences among African American College Students

    Bynum, Shalanda A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Tanner, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Given recent approval for administration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to men, it is important to assess the HPV-related perspectives of men and women. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in HPV knowledge, beliefs, and vaccine acceptance among college students attending 3 historically black…

  6. Information about Human Sexuality: Sources, Satisfaction, and Perceived Knowledge among College Students

    Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…

  7. Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body

    Sorgo, Andrej

    2006-01-01

    We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

  8. "Creative Destruction": Knowledge Economy Policy and the Future of the Arts and Humanities in the Academy

    Bullen, Elizabeth; Robb, Simon; Kenway, Jane

    2004-01-01

    Policy conceptualizations of the global knowledge economy have led to the channelling of much Higher Education and Research and Development funding into the priority areas of science and technology. Among other things, this diversion of funding calls into question the future of traditional humanities and creative arts faculties. How these…

  9. Optimizing human-system interface automation design based on a skill-rule-knowledge framework

    This study considers the technological change that has occurred in complex systems within the past 30 years. The role of human operators in controlling and interacting with complex systems following the technological change was also investigated. Modernization of instrumentation and control systems and components leads to a new issue of human-automation interaction, in which human operational performance must be considered in automated systems. The human-automation interaction can differ in its types and levels. A system design issue is usually realized: given these technical capabilities, which system functions should be automated and to what extent? A good automation design can be achieved by making an appropriate human-automation function allocation. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been published on how to achieve appropriate automation design with a systematic procedure. Further, there is a surprising lack of information on examining and validating the influences of levels of automation (LOAs) on instrumentation and control systems in the advanced control room (ACR). The study we present in this paper proposed a systematic framework to help in making an appropriate decision towards types of automation (TOA) and LOAs based on a 'Skill-Rule-Knowledge' (SRK) model. From the evaluating results, it was shown that the use of either automatic mode or semiautomatic mode is insufficient to prevent human errors. For preventing the occurrences of human errors and ensuring the safety in ACR, the proposed framework can be valuable for making decisions in human-automation allocation.

  10. Knowledge of human papillomavirus among high school students can be increased by an educational intervention.

    Gottvall, M; Tydén, T; Höglund, A T; Larsson, M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) directed at Swedish first year high school students. The intervention consisted of a class room lesson, a website and a folder. Outcome variables were knowledge of HPV and attitudes to preventive methods such as HPV vaccination, condom use and Pap smear testing. An intervention group (n = 92) was matched with two comparison groups (n = 184). At baseline, the median score for HPV knowledge was one out of 10 in both groups. At follow-up, the median knowledge score had increased to six in the intervention group, but was still one in the comparison group (P Pap smear testing remained the same (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a short school-based intervention can greatly increase the students' knowledge about HPV, but attitudes and behaviours are less easy to influence. PMID:20975088

  11. The Role of Human Resource Management Practice Mediated by Knowledge Management (Study on companies from ICT sector, Croatia

    Marina Klacmer Calopa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates theories and findings of the role of human resources management (HRM in the process of knowledge management (KM in the information and communication technologies (ICT sector in Croatia.In order to succeed, companies must prevent the loss of knowledge. Therefore, they must recognize the importance of human resources as the main factor of business. Only knowledge management enables knowledge sharing.Furthermore, applications of information technology (IT in the field of HRM can prevent the loss of knowledge and arise the transfer of knowledge among employees.For the purpose of this paper, a survey regarding human resource and knowledge management in IT companies is conducted in order to analyze the structure of HR and the importance of knowledge sharing in an organization.

  12. The Effect of Customization, Price, Geographical Accessibility, Professional Knowledge and Interaction on Intent of Customers for Using Internet Banking Services in Iran

    Kamal Ghalandari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Not all organizations and institutions are equally successful in employing electronic commerce. Thus it is necessary to conduct required studies so that we can create a favorable policy in relation to implementation and employment of electronic commerce and identify factors which facilitate its growth. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of customization, price, geographical accessibility, professional knowledge and interaction on intent of customers for using internet banking services in Iran. Totally, 400 questionnaires were distributed to university students, that 382 questionnaires were used for the final analysis, which the results from analysis of them based on simple linear regression show that customization, price, professional knowledge and interaction have a positive influence on Customers’ Purchase Intent in Iran, except for geographical accessibility which was not confirmed in the case of our intended population.

  13. Review of Cold war social science: Knowledge production, liberal democracy, and human nature, and Working knowledge: Making the human sciences from Parsons to Kuhn.

    Erickson, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Reviews the books, Cold War Social Science: Knowledge Production, Liberal Democracy, and Human Nature by Mark Solovey and Hamilton Cravens (2012) and Working Knowledge: Making the Human Sciences From Parsons to Kuhn by Joel Isaac (see record 2012-13212-000). Taken together, these two important books make intriguing statements about the way to write the histories of fields like psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics in the Anglo American world during the 20th century. To date, histories of these fields have drawn on a number of fairly well-established punctuation marks to assist in periodization: the shift from interwar institutionalism in economics to postwar neoclassicism, with its physics-like emphasis on mathematical theory-building; the transition from the regnant prewar behaviorism through a postwar "cognitive revolution" in American psychology; and the move in fields like sociology and anthropology away from positivism and the pursuit of what has sometimes been called "grand theory" in the early postwar era toward a period defined by intellectual and political fragmentation, the reemergence of interpretive approaches and a reaction to the scientistic pretensions of the earlier period. These books, by contrast, provide perspectives orthogonal to such existing narrative frameworks by adopting cross-cutting lenses like the "Cold War" and the working practices of researchers in the social and behavioral sciences. As a result, they do much to indicate the value of casting a historiographical net beyond individual disciplines, or even beyond the "social sciences" or the "human sciences" sensu stricto, in the search for deeper patterns of historical development in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24245858

  14. OAPEN-UK: an Open Access Business Model for Scholarly Monographs in the Humanities and Social Sciences

    Milloy, Caren; Stone, Graham; Collins, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the current findings of OAPEN-UK, a UK research project gathering evidence on the social and technological impacts of an open access business model for scholarly monographs in the humanities and social sciences.

  15. A Semantic-Oriented Architecture of a Functional Module for Personalized and Adaptive Access to the Knowledge in a Multimedia Digital Library

    Paneva-Marinova, Desislava

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the principal results of the doctoral thesis “Semantic-oriented Architecture and Models for Personalized and Adaptive Access to the Knowledge in Multimedia Digital Library” by Desislava Ivanova Paneva-Marinova (Institute of Mathematics and Informatics), successfully defended before the Specialised Academic Council for Informatics and Mathematical Modelling on 27 October, 2008. This paper presents dissertation work on semantic-oriented architectures and...

  16. neXtProt: organizing protein knowledge in the context of human proteome projects.

    Gaudet, Pascale; Argoud-Puy, Ghislaine; Cusin, Isabelle; Duek, Paula; Evalet, Olivier; Gateau, Alain; Gleizes, Anne; Pereira, Mario; Zahn-Zabal, Monique; Zwahlen, Catherine; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

    2013-01-01

    About 5000 (25%) of the ~20400 human protein-coding genes currently lack any experimental evidence at the protein level. For many others, there is only little information relative to their abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interactions, or cellular functions. The aim of the HUPO Human Proteome Project (HPP, www.thehpp.org ) is to collect this information for every human protein. HPP is based on three major pillars: mass spectrometry (MS), antibody/affinity capture reagents (Ab), and bioinformatics-driven knowledge base (KB). To meet this objective, the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP) proposes to build this catalog chromosome-by-chromosome ( www.c-hpp.org ) by focusing primarily on proteins that currently lack MS evidence or Ab detection. These are termed "missing proteins" by the HPP consortium. The lack of observation of a protein can be due to various factors including incorrect and incomplete gene annotation, low or restricted expression, or instability. neXtProt ( www.nextprot.org ) is a new web-based knowledge platform specific for human proteins that aims to complement UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ( www.uniprot.org ) with detailed information obtained from carefully selected high-throughput experiments on genomic variation, post-translational modifications, as well as protein expression in tissues and cells. This article describes how neXtProt contributes to prioritize C-HPP efforts and integrates C-HPP results with other research efforts to create a complete human proteome catalog. PMID:23205526

  17. LncRNAWiki: harnessing community knowledge in collaborative curation of human long non-coding RNAs

    Ma, L.

    2014-11-15

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open-content and publicly editable and aimed at community-based curation and collection of information on human lncRNAs. Current related databases are dependent primarily on curation by experts, making it laborious to annotate the exponentially accumulated information on lncRNAs, which inevitably requires collective efforts in community-based curation of lncRNAs. Unlike existing databases, lncRNAWiki features comprehensive integration of information on human lncRNAs obtained from multiple different resources and allows not only existing lncRNAs to be edited, updated and curated by different users but also the addition of newly identified lncRNAs by any user. It harnesses community collective knowledge in collecting, editing and annotating human lncRNAs and rewards community-curated efforts by providing explicit authorship based on quantified contributions. LncRNAWiki relies on the underling knowledge of scientific community for collective and collaborative curation of human lncRNAs and thus has the potential to serve as an up-to-date and comprehensive knowledgebase for human lncRNAs.

  18. Knowledge about knowledge

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  19. Design and analysis of a biometric access control system using an electronic olfactory device to identify human odour characteristics

    McMillan, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    The use of an electronic olfactory device, termed an electronic 'nose', was investigated for the detection of unique human odour characteristics. The detection of these unique odours was applied to the field of biometrics for access control, where a human's unique characteristics were used to authenticate a user of an access control system. An electronic odour sensing device was designed and constructed using an array of conducting polymer gas sensors in order to facilitate the regular screen...

  20. Effects of different accessibility of reinforcement schedules on choice in humans

    Stockhorst, Ursula

    1994-01-01

    Based on the delay-reduction hypothesis, a less profitable schedule should be rejected if its duration exceeds the mean delay to reinforcement. It should be accepted if its duration is shorter than the mean delay. This was tested for humans, using a successive-choice schedule. The accessibility of the less profitable (variable-interval 18 s) schedule was varied by changing the duration (in terms of a fixed interval) of the waiting-time component preceding its presentation. Forty-eight student...

  1. Determination of knowledge of Turkish midwifery students about human papilloma virus infection and its vaccines.

    Genc, Rabia Ekti; Sarican, Emine Serap; Turgay, Ayse San; Icke, Sibel; Sari, Dilek; Saydam, Birsen Karaca

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted agents and its infection is the most established cause of cervical cancer. Midwives play a key position in the implementation of cervical cancer. This descriptive study aimed to determine the level of knowledge concerning HPV and HPV vaccination among 268 midwifery students. Data were collected between November 15 and 30, 2011, through a self-reported questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 20.75 ± 1.60. Among all students, 44.4% had heard of HPV, while 40.4% had heard of HPV vaccinatiob. The relationship between the midwifery student knowledge on HPV and HPV vaccine and their current educational year was significant (p=0.001). In conclusion midwifery students have moderate level of knowledge about HPV and its vaccine and relevant information should be included in their teaching curriculum. PMID:24377604

  2. Accessing key steps of human tumor progression in vivo by using an avian embryo model

    Hagedorn, Martin; Javerzat, Sophie; Gilges, Delphine; Meyre, Aurélie; de Lafarge, Benjamin; Eichmann, Anne; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Experimental in vivo tumor models are essential for comprehending the dynamic process of human cancer progression, identifying therapeutic targets, and evaluating antitumor drugs. However, current rodent models are limited by high costs, long experimental duration, variability, restricted accessibility to the tumor, and major ethical concerns. To avoid these shortcomings, we investigated whether tumor growth on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane after human glioblastoma cell grafting would replicate characteristics of the human disease. Avascular tumors consistently formed within 2 days, then progressed through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-dependent angiogenesis, associated with hemorrhage, necrosis, and peritumoral edema. Blocking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways by using small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors abrogated tumor development. Gene regulation during the angiogenic switch was analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Defined sample selection for gene profiling permitted identification of regulated genes whose functions are associated mainly with tumor vascularization and growth. Furthermore, expression of known tumor progression genes identified in the screen (IL-6 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) as well as potential regulators (lumican and F-box-only 6) follow similar patterns in patient glioma. The model reliably simulates key features of human glioma growth in a few days and thus could considerably increase the speed and efficacy of research on human tumor progression and preclinical drug screening. angiogenesis | animal model alternatives | glioblastoma

  3. Innovations in Measuring Peer Conflict Resolution Knowledge in Children with LI: Exploring the Accessibility of a Visual Analogue Rating Scale

    Campbell, Wenonah N.; Skarakis-Doyle, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study explored peer conflict resolution knowledge in children with and without language impairment (LI). Specifically, it evaluated the utility of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for measuring nuances in such knowledge. Children aged 9-12 years, 26 with typically developing language (TLD) and 6 with LI, completed a training protocol…

  4. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    M. Cremer

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their mean

  5. A Novel Method for Intraoral Access to the Superior Head of the Human Lateral Pterygoid Muscle

    Aleli Tôrres Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The uncoordinated activity of the superior and inferior parts of the lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM has been suggested to be one of the causes of temporomandibular joint (TMJ disc displacement. A therapy for this muscle disorder is the injection of botulinum toxin (BTX, of the LPM. However, there is a potential risk of side effects with the injection guide methods currently available. In addition, they do not permit appropriate differentiation between the two bellies of the muscle. Herein, a novel method is presented to provide intraoral access to the superior head of the human LPM with maximal control and minimal hazards. Methods. Computational tomography along with digital imaging software programs and rapid prototyping techniques were used to create a rapid prototyped guide to orient BTX injections in the superior LPM. Results. The method proved to be feasible and reliable. Furthermore, when tested in one volunteer it allowed precise access to the upper head of LPM, without producing side effects. Conclusions. The prototyped guide presented in this paper is a novel tool that provides intraoral access to the superior head of the LPM. Further studies will be necessary to test the efficacy and validate this method in a larger cohort of subjects.

  6. HUMAN RESOURCES STRATEGIC PRACTICES, INNOVATION PERFORMANCE & KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: PROPOSAL FOR BRAZILIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Ursula Gomes Rosa Maruyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Technology andinnovation development presented new challenges for the twenty-first centurymanager. Besides, aspects of organizational culture and knowledge managementare equally important for corporate success. All the above areas have a growingnumber of studies that seek to deepen the reflections providing a greaterunderstanding of their environmental relationship. Brazilian human resourcemanagement has shown years of late progress, especially due to the prevailingmacroeconomic conditions, with no transformation evidences This current studywith a theoretical-descriptive qualitative approach through literatureanalysis, study the integration model proposed by Chen and Huang (2009. Themediating role of knowledge management to strategic human resource practicesand innovation performance presented by these authors are compared withnational and international literature. The integration conceptual modelproposed to apply in the Brazilian context, consider the three pillarspresented by the Eastern authors, enhanced by cross-checks prospects with axes,approaches or intellectual capital directories, representing the Westernauthors’ contributions. Henceforth, we aim to provide a suitable proposal forthis model in the Brazilian organizational context.

  7. Evaluating Effect of Knowledge Management Strategy on Human Resource Management Performance Using BSC Approach

    Hossein Mansoori

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research provided a model for evaluating the effect of knowledge management strategy on human resource management performance in higher education institutes and academic libraries. This research was a descriptive survey. According to the research literature and expert opinions, in human resource level, 38 indicators were produced for evaluating KM, then these indicators were classified in 10 total factors in terms of balanced scorecard approach. The results of evaluating knowledge management in Yazd academic libraries showed that, this strategy on customer perspectives, internal processes, learning and growth perspective had a good performance. But in terms of financial and Labor productivity indicators and training programs it did not have a good outcome for Yazd academic libraries.

  8. Preparing for Humans at Mars, MPPG Updates to Strategic Knowledge Gaps and Collaboration with Science Missions

    Baker, John; Wargo, Michael J.; Beaty, David

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) was an agency wide effort, chartered in March 2012 by the NASA Associate Administrator for Science, in collaboration with NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, the Chief Scientist, and the Chief Technologist. NASA tasked the MPPG to develop foundations for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars that is consistent with the President's challenge of sending humans to the Mars system in the decade of the 2030s and responsive to the primary scientific goals of the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) also sponsored a Precursor measurement Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) to revisit prior assessments of required precursor measurements for the human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the key results of the MPPG and P-SAG efforts to update and refine our understanding of the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) required to successfully conduct human Mars missions.

  9. The arhitecture of the human resources in management based on knowledge and the impact on reduncing unemployment

    Amalia Venera Todoruţ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this working paper I proposed to address/aproach issues of relationship and interdependence of human resources and management based on knowledges. I presented during the paper the new type of human resource management and new challenges which are noted in the current economic conjuncture and their influences on human resource management. We have also shown which is the new type of organizational culture and its impact on management based on knowledge. I focused also on the modalities how influence the management of human resources the management based on knowledge materialized in: the organization employee involvement, strong motivation and retention of employees in the firm based on knowledge, connection of management based on knowledges and the human resource management on the firm strategy, development of employees capacity and the intellectual capital, the creation and maintenance of learning practices widely used in business.

  10. Knowledge about Human Papilloma Virus (HPV and HPV Vaccine at Reproductive Age in Primary Care

    Ozde Onder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and awareness about human papilloma virus (HPV and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine of women in reproductive age. Material and Methods: The study covered 294 women aged between 15 and 49. A questionnaire was prepared by the researchers based on the literature review. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5+/-8.9 years. Only 24.5% had heard about HPV infection and 28.2% had heard HPV vaccine. Of the participants, 188 (63.9% got zero point from the knowledge questions. Conclusion: This study indicates that the women who apply primary care units have low knowledge levels; it is apperent that personal and social education is needed. Paying importance to patient education on HPV and cervical cancer in primary care health politics will increase knowledge and awareness for HPV infection and HPV vaccination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 517-524

  11. Changes in Human Immunodeficiency Virusrelated Knowledge and Stigmatizing Attitudes among Korean Adolescents from 2006 to 2011

    Sohn, Aeree; Park, SungBok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study assessed the prevalence and changes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and stigmatizing attitudes in 2006, 2008, and 2011. Methods Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2006, 2008, and 2011. A cross-sectional sample of high school students in Seoul, South Korea was targeted. A self-administered questionnaire measuring general and transmission and discriminatory attitudes was used. Results Misconceptions about casual contact were widespread, even th...

  12. Survey of knowledge and perception on the access to evidence-based practice and clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia

    Crowther Caroline A

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based practice (EBP can provide appropriate care for women and their babies; however implementation of EBP requires health professionals to have access to knowledge, the ability to interpret health care information and then strategies to apply care. The aim of this survey was to assess current knowledge of evidence-based practice, information seeking practices, perceptions and potential enablers and barriers to clinical practice change among maternal and infant health practitioners in South East Asia. Methods Questionnaires about IT access for health information and evidence-based practice were administered during August to December 2005 to health care professionals working at the nine hospitals participating in the South East Asia Optimising Reproductive and Child Health in Developing countries (SEA-ORCHID project in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and The Philippines. Results The survey was completed by 660 staff from six health professional groups. Overall, easy IT access for health care information was available to 46% of participants. However, over a fifth reported no IT access was available and over half of nurses and midwives never used IT health information. Evidence-based practice had been heard of by 58% but the majority did not understand the concept. The most frequent sites accessed were Google and PubMed. The Cochrane Library had been heard of by 47% of whom 51% had access although the majority did not use it or used it less than monthly. Only 27% had heard of the WHO Reproductive Health Library and 35% had been involved in a clinical practice change and were able to identify enablers and barriers to change. Only a third of participants had been actively involved in practice change with wide variation between the countries. Willingness to participate in professional development workshops on evidence-based practice was high. Conclusion This survey has identified the need to improve IT access to health care

  13. ”THE ACCESSION OF EU TO THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS” - TECHNICAL ASPECTS

    OANA-MARIUCA PETRESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available “The continues changing of the European Communities [presently European Union, as resulted from the amendments brought in the last 16 years, and especially via the Treaty of Lisbon] has determinate the changing of the judicial system. The accession of the EU to the Convention will complete the EU system of protecting fundamental rights. The Declaration of Berlin on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the signature of the Treaties of Rome, as it was signed on 25th of March 2007 by all 27 members of European Union, is providing among others the principles and values based on respect of fundamental rights, common traditions of the member states, as well as promoting the variety of languages, cultures and regions within the EU. European Union stresses out again its intention to protect the freedoms of citizens and their civil rights by all possible means, including in front of the courts. The reassessment, via the Treaty of Lisbon, of the role of European Charter of Fundamental Rights and the accession to European Convention of Human Rights highlight the importance that each of them have separately, but as a whole in a complex legal system of the protection of human rights”.

  14. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  15. Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants

    Amon Joseph J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment.

  16. An Approach to "Knowledge,Thinking,Humanities" Reading Teaching%“知识·思维·人文”教学法初探

    汪文新

    2012-01-01

    知识和思维能力体现的是工具特征,而人文素养体现的是对"人"的关怀。教学不仅要关注知识获得和思维训练,还应关注学生发展与人沟通和合作的能力,树立正确的人生观、世界观和价值观,增强社会责任感等人文素养。以提高人文素养为目标,以知识的输入和输出为基础,以思维能力的训练为核心的阅读教学就是"知识.思维.人文"教学法。%Knowledge and thinking skills are embodied as the teaching tool.Humanities are embodied in the form of "Human" care.Teaching should not only concern the access to knowledge and mental training,but also is concerned about the ability of students to develop communication and cooperation;establish a correct outlook on life,world outlook and values;enhance the sense of social responsibility and other humanities.Aim to enhancing the humanities,base on the input and output of knowledge and thinking skills training is used for the core teaching of reading.

  17. Multicenter Study of Human Papillomavirus and the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Knowledge and Attitudes among People of African Descent

    Elizabeth Blackman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare knowledge and attitudes of human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccine between different cultures of African descent. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 555 African-Americans and Afro-Caribbeans residing in the US and the Bahamas (BHM was conducted. Results. General knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine differed between the two countries significantly. Bahamian respondents were less likely to have higher numbers of correct knowledge answers when compared to Americans (Adjusted Odds Ratio [Adj. OR] 0.47, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.30–0.75. Older age, regardless of location, was also associated with answering fewer questions correctly (Adj. OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40–0.92. Attitudes related to HPV vaccination were similar between the US and BHM, but nearly 80% of BHM respondents felt that children should not be able to receive the vaccine without parental consent compared to 57% of American respondents. Conclusions. Grave lack of knowledge, safety and cost concerns, and influence of parental restrictions may negatively impact vaccine uptake among African-American and Afro-Caribbean persons. Interventions to increase the vaccine uptake in the Caribbean must include medical provider and parental involvement. Effective strategies for education and increasing vaccine uptake in BHM are crucial for decreasing cervical cancer burden in the Caribbean.

  18. The arhitecture of the human resources in management based on knowledge and the impact on reduncing unemployment

    Amalia Venera Todoruţ; George Niculescu; Irina Chirtoc

    2011-01-01

    In this working paper I proposed to address/aproach issues of relationship and interdependence of human resources and management based on knowledges. I presented during the paper the new type of human resource management and new challenges which are noted in the current economic conjuncture and their influences on human resource management. We have also shown which is the new type of organizational culture and its impact on management based on knowledge. I focused a...

  19. United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HUMAN-UNIVERSE AND THE COMBINATION OF PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION AND SCIENCE IN THE HUMANIZATION OF ABSOLUTE KNOWLEDGE

    Mustafa Said KURŞUNOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article claim that if our religious, philosophical and scientific knowledge can be read in the plane of human-universe relationship, therefore the varying historical and cultural differences it could be lead to the opportunity to understanding of the ‘other’. In this study, in the point of epistemological view the absolute knowledge is considered as a ‘humanization’ processes that since the beginning of continuous cosmic process of the asset. This study suggest that, the thinking and perception processes of self religious studying and self cultural signifies or philosophical and scientific studies which are stance towards each other, they need for an inclusive perspective that is depending to their common root of all. This study argues that the approaches to increasing line of the differences do not conform to what is natural and universal.

  1. The impact of body worlds on adult visitors' knowledge on human anatomy: A preliminary study.

    Fonseca, Guilherme R B C; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2016-05-01

    Body Worlds is an anatomical exhibition that shows human remains to the public. It has been considered controversial since it raises ethical tensions and issues. However, organizers and supporters of Body Worlds have claimed the exhibition is intended to promote visitors' understanding over the human body. Despite these claims, no studies were found that support or refute the hypothesis that a visit to Body Worlds increases the public's objective knowledge on human anatomy. Consequently, the objective of this study was to determine the impact of Body Worlds on anatomical knowledge. We constructed and delivered a questionnaire to both a previsit random sample and a postvisit random sample of visitors of Body Worlds' event Facets of Life, in Berlin. The questionnaire was available in both English and German languages and contained (a) basic sociodemographic questions and (b) a valid and reliable anatomy quiz. The quiz consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions that assessed the ability to identify the location of major anatomical structures on the human body. Average scores achieved on the quiz by the postvisit sample (X¯= 9.08, s = 2.48, n = 164) were significantly higher (unpaired t = 3.3957, P = 0.0008) than those achieved by the previsit sample (X¯= 8.11, s = 2.69, n = 167). Our results suggest that a visit to Body Worlds' event Facets of Life may have a beneficial effect in anatomical knowledge. However, further studies with better empirical designs and fewer limitations are needed to confirm our results. Clin. Anat. 29:439-445, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26789643

  2. Innovative Knowledge Management At Disney: Human Capital And Queuing Solutions For Services

    Rachelle F. Cope

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that most activities in which a service is provided require customers to wait in a queue during the experience. One thing that is inherent in waiting lines is the universal dislike for the process. In fact, the feelings and opinions developed in waiting lines influence the customer’s perception of the awaited experience. In this paper, Disney is used as a case study for queuing solutions. In particular, we examine their implementation of Knowledge Management (KM solutions to improve the waiting line process. The use of Disney cast members as human capital combined with the knowledge of customer preferences has made the FASTPASS an innovative solution to enhance queuing in the Disney theme parks. In the past, KM has been thought of as the collection of technological assets and managerial policies that compensate for information failures. In fact, the individual’s need for human interaction provides the richest opportunity for knowledge acquisition. Disney’s ability to capture customers in virtual queues while giving them a pleasurable waiting experience has made them a leader in KM initiatives in the service industry.

  3. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  4. Universal Access to HIV prevention, treatment and care: assessing the inclusion of human rights in international and national strategic plans

    Gruskin, Sofia; Tarantola, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Rhetorical acknowledgment of the value of human rights for the AIDS response continues, yet practical application of human rights principles to national efforts appears to be increasingly deficient. We assess the ways in which international and national strategic plans and other core documents take into account the commitments made by countries to uphold human rights in their efforts towards achieving Universal Access. Key documents from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNA...

  5. Achieving human and machine accessibility of cited data in scholarly publications

    Starr, Joan; Castro, Eleni; Crosas, Mercè; Dumontier, Michel; Downs, Robert R.; Duerr, Ruth; Haak, Laurel L.; Haendel, Melissa; Herman, Ivan; Hodson, Simon; Hourclé, Joe; Kratz, John Ernest; Lin, Jennifer; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nurnberger, Amy; Proell, Stefan; Rauber, Andreas; Sacchi, Simone; Smith, Arthur; Taylor, Mike; Clark, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Reproducibility and reusability of research results is an important concern in scientific communication and science policy. A foundational element of reproducibility and reusability is the open and persistently available presentation of research data. However, many common approaches for primary data publication in use today do not achieve sufficient long-term robustness, openness, accessibility or uniformity. Nor do they permit comprehensive exploitation by modern Web technologies. This has led to several authoritative studies recommending uniform direct citation of data archived in persistent repositories. Data are to be considered as first-class scholarly objects, and treated similarly in many ways to cited and archived scientific and scholarly literature. Here we briefly review the most current and widely agreed set of principle-based recommendations for scholarly data citation, the Joint Declaration of Data Citation Principles (JDDCP). We then present a framework for operationalizing the JDDCP; and a set of initial recommendations on identifier schemes, identifier resolution behavior, required metadata elements, and best practices for realizing programmatic machine actionability of cited data. The main target audience for the common implementation guidelines in this article consists of publishers, scholarly organizations, and persistent data repositories, including technical staff members in these organizations. But ordinary researchers can also benefit from these recommendations. The guidance provided here is intended to help achieve widespread, uniform human and machine accessibility of deposited data, in support of significantly improved verification, validation, reproducibility and re-use of scholarly/scientific data. PMID:26167542

  6. Near-instant automatic access to visually presented words in the human neocortex: neuromagnetic evidence.

    Shtyrov, Yury; MacGregor, Lucy J

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient processing of external information by the brain is vital to survival in a highly dynamic environment. The key channel humans use to exchange information is language, but the neural underpinnings of its processing are still not fully understood. We investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of neural access to word representations in the brain by scrutinising the brain's activity elicited in response to psycholinguistically, visually and phonologically matched groups of familiar words and meaningless pseudowords. Stimuli were briefly presented on the visual-field periphery to experimental participants whose attention was occupied with a non-linguistic visual feature-detection task. The neural activation elicited by these unattended orthographic stimuli was recorded using multi-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography, and the timecourse of lexically-specific neuromagnetic responses was assessed in sensor space as well as at the level of cortical sources, estimated using individual MR-based distributed source reconstruction. Our results demonstrate a neocortical signature of automatic near-instant access to word representations in the brain: activity in the perisylvian language network characterised by specific activation enhancement for familiar words, starting as early as ~70 ms after the onset of unattended word stimuli and underpinned by temporal and inferior-frontal cortices. PMID:27217080

  7. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Chidimma Odira Okeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial capital asset context is proposed. Affirming Fayolle, Gailly, and Lassa-Clerc conceptual affinity that entrepreneurship education share with learning theories and entrepreneurship pedagogical content knowledge were conceptualized to suggest some practical realism guidelines of what insightful philosophy of teaching entrepreneurship need to achieve. With direct synthesis of relevant literature, propositions relating to entrepreneurship pedagogic structure along with the institutional connectedness and associated dimensions of entrepreneurship pedagogic assessment outcome were postulated. Also, the paper proposes the need for further assessment of specific forms of pedagogic impact on entrepreneurial human capital asset.

  8. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  9. Factors Influencing Access to Integrated Soil Fertility Management Information and Knowledge and Its Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    Gwandu, T.; Mtambanengwe, F.; Mapfumo, P.; Mashavave, T. C.; Chikowo, R.; Nezomba, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study evaluated how farmer acquisition, sharing and use patterns of information and knowledge interact with different socioeconomic factors to influence integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technology uptake. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted as part of an evaluation of field-based farmer learning approaches…

  10. Mind the Gap: Privileging Epistemic Access to Knowledge in the Transition from Leaving Certificate Music to Higher Education

    Moore, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, music at Leaving Certificate level has come under increasing focus in media and higher education discourse as an easy option. In particular, scant attention has been paid to the musical knowledge and skills needed in the transition to higher music education within the Irish context. This paper addresses the perceived gap in…

  11. Towards a Digital Philology. Creation, Spread and Apprehension of Knowledge through Digital Scholarly Platforms in Humanities

    Mayeur, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This contribution aims to present and discuss my thesis project. I plan to study the concrete conditions of production, diffusion and reception of knowledges on digital scholarly platforms in Humanities. This work will especially focus on the four plateforms of the portal OpenEdition: OpenEdition Books, Calenda, Hypothèses and Revues.org. The main problematic is: what are the uses of those platforms, and in what concrete way are they influencing the modes of scientific communication? To s...

  12. Human Papilloma Virus and HPV vaccine knowledge among Mustafa Kemal University Medical Students

    Kurt, Raziye Keskin; Karateke, Atilla; Erdem, Mehmet; Silfeler, Dilek Benk; Akkoca, Ayse Nesrin; Hakverdi, Ali Ulvi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is regarded as the main cause in the etiology of cervical cancer. The purpose of our study is to assess the knowledge of medical students about HPV vaccine and to evaluate their opinion on this subject.   Material and Method: The study population consisted of 488 medical students. The survey was composed of questions intended   to obtain information about transmission route of HPV, types of HPV, role of HPV in cervical cancer, whether HPV is treatable o...

  13. International conference on nuclear knowledge management: Strategies, information management and human resource development. Book of extended synopses

    In recent years, a number of trends have drawn attention to the need for better management of nuclear knowledge. Depending on region and country, they include an ageing workforce, declining student enrolment figures, the risk of losing nuclear knowledge accumulated in the past, the need for capacity building and transfer of knowledge and recognition of achieving added value through knowledge sharing and networking. The objective of this conference is to reach a clear and common understanding of issues related to nuclear knowledge management for sustaining knowledge and expertise in nuclear science and technology. The conference will provide a forum for professionals and decision makers in the nuclear sector, comprising industry, governments and academia as well as professionals in the knowledge management and information technology sectors; to exchange information and share experience on nuclear knowledge management, comprising strategies, information management and human resource development; to identify lessons learned and to embark on the development of new initiatives and concepts for nuclear knowledge management in IAEA Member States; for the INIS session, to discuss the present status and future developments of INIS. The conference comprised the following topical sessions: Session 1: Nuclear knowledge management - policies and strategies; Managing nuclear information - policies and strategies; Managing nuclear information - case studies; Human resources for the nuclear sector; Networking nuclear education and training. Special sessions were held on: the International Nuclear Information System (INIS); Young Generation in the Nuclear Sector; and 'Innovation and Nuclear Knowledge'

  14. The Challenges & Opportunities for Arctic Microstates in Developing an Energy Sector:The Role of Human Capital and Knowledge Institutes

    Smits, Coco; Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2014-01-01

    Like many Arctic states, Iceland and the Faroe Islands used to be the resource-based economies which Greenland is today. Remotely located in relation to the World economy, Iceland and the Faroe Islands have succeeded in developing a knowledge- based economy, also related to their energy sector. To create a knowledge-based economy a sufficient mass of human capital is of crucial importance. In forming this critical mass, higher education and knowledge institutes play a central role. The cases ...

  15. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  16. Non-human biota dose assessment. Sensitivity analysis and knowledge quality assessment

    This report provides a summary of a programme of work, commissioned within the BIOPROTA collaborative forum, to assess the quantitative and qualitative elements of uncertainty associated with biota dose assessment of potential impacts of long-term releases from geological disposal facilities (GDF). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of uncertainty were determined through sensitivity and knowledge quality assessments, respectively. Both assessments focused on default assessment parameters within the ERICA assessment approach. The sensitivity analysis was conducted within the EIKOS sensitivity analysis software tool and was run in both generic and test case modes. The knowledge quality assessment involved development of a questionnaire around the ERICA assessment approach, which was distributed to a range of experts in the fields of non-human biota dose assessment and radioactive waste disposal assessments. Combined, these assessments enabled critical model features and parameters that are both sensitive (i.e. have a large influence on model output) and of low knowledge quality to be identified for each of the three test cases. The output of this project is intended to provide information on those parameters that may need to be considered in more detail for prospective site-specific biota dose assessments for GDFs. Such information should help users to enhance the quality of their assessments and build greater confidence in the results. (orig.)

  17. Knowledge about simulation and frequency of use in the teaching of the subject Human Morfophisiopatology I

    Pavel Vigo Cuza

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of simulation can accelerate the learning process and helps to raise standards. Its use must have a logical sequence in the calendar plan of the subject that corresponds to the needs and requirements of the curriculum and analytical programs of the different subjects. Objective: to characterize the knowledge about the simulation and the frequency with which it is used as a resource for teaching Human Morfophisiopatology I National Training Program in Integrative Medicine Community. Methods: Research in theoretical methods were used, allowing the bibliographic review, documentary, and the analysis and synthesis that supports the study. A questionnaire was administered to 85 teachers related to teaching practice of the subject and an interview with five key informants. We characterized the knowledge of teachers on the simulation. Results: Only 63.3% knew the method of simulation and they used 87, 04%. The frequency of use of simulation in teaching of the subject showed that 51.06% of teachers have always used this resource, while only 36.17% use it most of the time. Conclusion: Not all teachers know the simulation is used in teaching or recognize its value in the teaching - learning of the subject Human Morfophisiopatology I.

  18. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. PMID:25323417

  19. A decade of human genome project conclusion: Scientific diffusion about our genome knowledge.

    Moraes, Fernanda; Góes, Andréa

    2016-05-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003. It aimed to sequence the whole human genome. Although it represented an advance in understanding the human genome and its complexity, many questions remained unanswered. Other projects were launched in order to unravel the mysteries of our genome, including the ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This review aims to analyze the evolution of scientific knowledge related to both the HGP and ENCODE projects. Data were retrieved from scientific articles published in 1990-2014, a period comprising the development and the 10 years following the HGP completion. The fact that only 20,000 genes are protein and RNA-coding is one of the most striking HGP results. A new concept about the organization of genome arose. The ENCODE project was initiated in 2003 and targeted to map the functional elements of the human genome. This project revealed that the human genome is pervasively transcribed. Therefore, it was determined that a large part of the non-protein coding regions are functional. Finally, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure emerged. The mechanistic functioning of the genome has been redrafted, revealing a much more complex picture. Besides, a gene-centric conception of the organism has to be reviewed. A number of criticisms have emerged against the ENCODE project approaches, raising the question of whether non-conserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Thus, HGP and ENCODE projects accomplished a great map of the human genome, but the data generated still requires further in depth analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:215-223, 2016. PMID:26952518

  20. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowl...

  1. Renewing the knowledge societies vision: towards knowledge societies for peace and sustainable development

    Mansell, Robin; Tremblay, Gaëtan

    2013-01-01

    Any vision of knowledge societies must affirm the core aspirations for peaceful and sustainable knowledge societies in a way that acknowledges the interests of all stakeholders. It is essential to recall that knowledge societies are concerned with human development, not only with technological innovation and its impacts. In this report, we focus on the importance of freedom of expression and freedom of information, universal access to information and knowledge, quality education for all, and...

  2. Symbiotic intelligence: Self-organizing knowledge on distributed networks, driven by human interaction

    Johnson, N.; Joslyn, C.; Rocha, L.; Smith, S.; Kantor, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rasmussen, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This work addresses how human societies, and other diverse and distributed systems, solve collective challenges that are not approachable from the level of the individual, and how the Internet will change the way societies and organizations view problem solving. The authors apply the ideas developed in self-organizing systems to understand self-organization in informational systems. The simplest explanation as to why animals (for example, ants, wolves, and humans) are organized into societies is that these societies enhance the survival of the individuals which make up the populations. Individuals contribute to, as well as adapt to, these societies because they make life easier in one way or another, even though they may not always understand the process, either individually or collectively. Despite the lack of understanding of the how of the process, society during its existence as a species has changed significantly, from separate, small hunting tribes to a highly technological, globally integrated society. The authors combine this understanding of societal dynamics with self-organization on the Internet (the Net). The unique capability of the Net is that it combines, in a common medium, the entire human-technological system in both breadth and depth: breadth in the integration of heterogeneous systems of machines, information and people; and depth in the detailed capturing of the entire complexity of human use and creation of information. When the full diversity of societal dynamics is combined with the accuracy of communication on the Net, a phase transition is argued to occur in problem solving capability. Through conceptual examples, an experiment of collective decision making on the Net and a simulation showing the effect of noise and loss on collective decision making, the authors argue that the resulting symbiotic structure of humans and the Net will evolve as an alternative problem solving approach for groups, organizations and society. Self

  3. A survey to access knowledge and practice among dentists regarding local anesthetic dosage in three cities of Uttarakhand

    Laxman Singh Kaira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in routine dentistry. Although they are considered effective and safe in controlling pain during dental procedures, complications related to their use appear inevitable. Many dentists use these drugs routinely but are unaware of the dose calculations required and the maximum safe and effective dose of the drug. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed to determine the knowledge that general dental practitioners and dental specialists, in three different cities in India, have regarding dose calculations and the maximum-dose required of the most commonly used local anesthetics. A one page survey questionnaire was used in this study and data were analyzed using standard SPSS statistical program version 11, software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The respondents comprised 71.4% general dental practitioners and 28.5% dental specialists, with ages ranging from 26 to 50 years; Nearly 75% of the total respondent was males and 25% females. Nearly 69% of the respondents were unaware of the maximum recommended dose for use on adult, healthy patients and 81% were still confused about the maximum numbers of syringes containing 2% lignocaine with adrenaline that can be given to a patient. A total of 49% of general dental practitioners and specialists do not perform aspiration when injecting local anesthetics, whereas only 38% performed the aspiration in inferior nerve block technique, while only 12% performed aspiration in all types of injection techniques. A high percentage of the dentists (84% who responded are unaware of how to calculate the local anesthetic dose and 31% of them encountered complications during, or after, local anesthetic administration. Conclusion: General practitioners and dental specialists appear to have an inadequate knowledge about local anesthetics maximum-dose and dose calculations; further educational courses are recommended to update them regarding such

  4. Breast-feeding and human immunodeficiency virus infection: assessment of knowledge among clinicians in Kenya.

    Murila, Florence; Obimbo, Moses M; Musoke, Rachel; Tsikhutsu, Isaac; Migiro, Santau; Ogeng'o, Julius

    2015-02-01

    In Kenya, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence ranks among the highest in the world. Approximately 60 000 infections yearly are attributed to vertical transmission including the process of labour and breast-feeding. The vast of the population affected is in the developing world. Clinical officers and nurses play an important role in provision of primary health care to antenatal and postnatal mothers. There are a few studies that have explored the clinicians' knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV and in relation to vertical transmission this being a vital component in prevention of maternal-to-child transmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicians' knowledge on HIV in relation to breast-feeding in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess knowledge of 161 clinical officers and nurses serving in the maternity and children' wards in various hospitals in Kenya. The participants were derived from all district and provincial referral facilities in Kenya. A preformatted questionnaire containing a series of questions on HIV and breast-feeding was administered to clinicians who were then scored and analyzed. All the 161 participants responded. Majority of clinicians (92%) were knowledgeable regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Regarding HIV and breast-feeding, 49.7% thought expressed breast milk from HIV-positive mothers should be heated before being given. Majority (78.3%) thought breast milk should be given regardless of availability of alternatives. According to 74.5% of the participants, exclusive breast-feeding increased chances of HIV transmission. Two-thirds (66.5%) would recommend breast-feeding for mothers who do not know their HIV status (66.5%). This study observes that a majority of the clinicians have inadequate knowledge on breast-feeding in the face of HIV. There is need to promote training programmes on breast-feeding and transmission of HIV from mother to child. This can be done as in

  5. The Hybrid Design: Integrating the Human and Technical Components of Just-In-Time Knowledge Management Systems

    Nabie Y. Conteh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the right balance of human and technical resources in the design of Just-in-Time knowledge delivery. It also examines and analyzes the case study: “Teltech: The business of Knowledge Management” by Davenport. It further attempts to depict the characteristics of the hybrid. The paper describes how the hybrid can be applied to Just-In-Time knowledge delivery. It also seeks to analyze and explore its interplay with knowledge splits with a view to designing Just-In- Time Knowledge Management. These include: “tacit versus explicit knowledge”, “in-process” versus “after action” documentation, “process-centered versus product-centered approach”, “knowledge versus information” and the “culture of sharing versus hoarding.”

  6. Fusing human knowledge with neural networks in machine condition monitoring systems

    Melvin, David G.; Penman, J.

    1995-04-01

    There is currently much interest in the application of artificial neural network (ANN) technology to the field of on-line machine condition monitoring (CM) for complex electro- mechanical systems. In this paper the authors discuss, with the help of an industrial case study, a few of the difficulties inherent in the application of neural network based condition monitoring. A method of overcoming these difficulties by utilizing a combination of human knowledge, encoded using techniques borrowed from fuzzy logic, Kohonen neural networks, and statistical K-means clustering has been constructed. The methodology is discussed in the paper by means of a direct comparison between this new approach and a purely neural approach. An analysis of other situations where this approach would be applicable is also presented and the paper discusses other current research work in the area of hybrid AI technologies which should assist further with the alleviation of the problems under consideration.

  7. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3+ p...

  8. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY): impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Rhodes, Lindsay A; Huisingh, Carrie E; McGwin, Gerald; Mennemeyer, Stephen T; Bregantini, Mary; Patel, Nita; Saaddine, Jinan; Crews, John E; Girkin, Christopher A; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY) telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY. Patients and methods New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE) at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized. Results At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions). Those who were unemployed (odds ratio =0.63, 95% confidence interval =0.42–0.95, P=0.026) or had lower education (odds ratio =0.55, 95% confidence interval =0.29–1.02, P=0.058) were less likely to improve their knowledge after adjusting for age, sex, race, and prior glaucoma diagnosis. This association was attenuated after further adjustment for other patient-level characteristics. Ninety-eight percent (n=501) of patients reported being likely to have a CEE within the next 2 years, whereas 63% (n=326) had a CEE in the previous 2 years. Patient satisfaction with EQUALITY was high (99

  9. OBDA在极限与配合知识库中的应用%Application of ontology-based data access in knowledge base of limits and fits

    黄星; 钟艳如

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the large workload and resolve the inconsistency of data and ontology in traditional ontology construc-tion,ontology-based data access (OBDA)is introduced into the knowledge base of limits and fits.By means of constructing the OBDA mappings,the data in database is mapped to be the individuals in limits and fits ontology so that the workload of ontology construction is further reduced.Meanwhile,the reusability and shareability of data can be guaranteed as data access through ontology.The feasibility and effectiveness of OBDA in the limits and fits knowledge base is demonstrated by a prac-tical example.%针对传统极限与配合本体知识库构建中工作量过大和数据与本体不一致的问题,将基于本体的数据访问(OBDA)引入极限与配合知识库中,使用 Web本体语言 OWL 2 QL构建极限与配合本体TBox,构建本体与数据库的映射集将数据库中数据映射为极限与配合本体的个体集,使用本体的实时查询访问数据库中数据,在减少本体构建工作量的同时,确保了数据与本体一致且易于共享和重用。工程实例验证了在极限与配合知识库中应用 OBDA的可行性和有效性。

  10. Knowledge and opinions about dental human health resources planning in Mexico.

    Maupome, G; Borges, A; Diez-de-Bonilla, J

    1998-02-01

    Dental human health resource planning (DHHRP), or manpower planning in Mexico has been plagued by fundamental contradictions. In spite of having trained a great many dentists in the past two decades, the dental health status of the population has not significantly improved. Concurrently, the relative scarcity of patients in relation to the number of practising dentists seems to be more marked, a critical issue since most dental care is delivered under private schemes. In the present investigation, 196 practising dentists in Mexico City were interviewed to establish their knowledge and opinions about DHHRP, and their views about the introduction of innovative alternatives in transforming, evaluating and planning human health resources. Concerns were: a need to examine and re-define the aims, skill content and marketability of professional training in professional practice; a lack of consensus as to how this is to be achieved; and a degree of awareness that professional practice has a limited scope in meeting the challenge of providing adequate care because of maldistribution of dentists and of limited financial resources of patients. PMID:9779080

  11. "The Human Condition" as social ontology: Hannah Arendt on society, action and knowledge.

    Walsh, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Hannah Arendt is widely regarded as a political theorist who sought to rescue politics from "society," and political theory from the social sciences. This conventional view has had the effect of distracting attention from many of Arendt's most important insights concerning the constitution of "society" and the significance of the social sciences. In this article, I argue that Hannah Arendt's distinctions between labor, work, and action, as these are discussed in "The Human Condition" and elsewhere, are best understood as a set of claims about the fundamental structures of human societies. Understanding Arendt in this way introduces interesting parallels between Arendt's work and both classical and contemporary sociology. From this I draw a number of conclusions concerning Arendt's conception of "society," and extend these insights into two contemporary debates within contemporary theoretical sociology: the need for a differentiated ontology of the social world, and the changing role that novel forms of knowledge play in contemporary society as major sources of social change and order. PMID:21809509

  12. Human Mobility and International Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from High-tech Small and Medium Enterprises in an Emerging Market

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wright, Mike; Filatotchev, Igor; Dai, Ou; Lu, Jiangyong

    2010-01-01

    Using novel survey data, we examine the relationship between returnee entrepreneurs, multinational enterprise (MNE) working experience and firms' innovation performance in high-tech SMEs in China. We adopt an integrated framework which combines the knowledge based view and social capital theory to investigate whether human mobility across national borders and MNE working experience facilitate international knowledge spillovers. We find that firms founded by returnees are more innovative than ...

  13. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    Heukelbach Jorg; Ariza Liana; Ugbomoiko Uade

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria) for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owner...

  14. Human resource development programs for knowledge transfer and creation : the case of the Toyota Technical Development Corporation

    Matsuo, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study was to examine how human resource development (HRD) programs promote the linkage between knowledge transfer and knowledge creation in engineering departments. Design/methodology/approach - This study adopted a case study approach to the Toyota Technical Development Corporation (TTDC), an affiliated company of Toyota Motor Corporation. Data were collected from interviews with managers of the TTDC as well as its internal documents. Findings - Three major find...

  15. Abnormal access of axial vibrotactile input to deafferented somatosensory cortex in human upper limb amputees.

    Kew, J J; Halligan, P W; Marshall, J C; Passingham, R E; Rothwell, J C; Ridding, M C; Marsden, C D; Brooks, D J

    1997-05-01

    input delivered to the axial body surface may gain access to the S1 hand/arm area in some humans who have suffered extensive deafferentation of this area. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that deafferentation of an area of S1 may result in activation of previously dormant inputs from body surfaces represented in immediately adjacent parts of S1. The results also provide evidence that changes in functional connectivity between these adjacent areas of the cortex play a role in the somatotopic reorganization. PMID:9163390

  16. The Knowledge Society: A Sustainability Paradigm

    Naim Hamdija Afgan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the knowledge society as a human structured organisation based on contemporary developed knowledge and representing new quality of life support systems. It implies the need for a full understanding of distribution of knowledge, access to information and the capability to transfer information into a knowledge. The understanding of knowledge is the central challenge when defining a knowledge society. From our present perception of knowledge society, it is of interest to emphasize the role of the knowledge society in future development of human society. The life support systems are essential pillars of human society development. In this respect knowledge society represents a new paradigm for future development and it is strongly correlated to sustainable development. For this reason the sustainability paradigm of knowledge society is a potential frame for human society development leading to social cohesion, economic competitiveness and stability, use of resources and economic development, safeguarding biodiversity and the ecosystem.In order to verify the mutual relation between knowledge society and sustainability, we have to introduce the difference between these two terms. The knowledge society is based on the agglomeration of eco-knowledge, env-knowledge and soc-knowledge, it may be evaluated as the complex knowledge of quality of life support systems. We have to introduce metrics which will allow us to present knowledge as the paradigm of the number of indicators for verifying progress made.Sustainability metrics are designed to consolidate measures of economic, environmental and social performance of any system. It can be understood as a pattern for evaluation of the available knowledge about systems and their performance. In particular the decision-making process for the selection of the system under consideration must be based on the available knowledge. The link between knowledge and sustainability makes it possible for

  17. Beyond the Letter of the Law: Accessibility, Universal Design, and Human-Centered Design in Video Tutorials

    Amanda S. Clossen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates how Universal and Human-Centered Design approaches can be applied to the process of library video tutorial creation in order to enhance accessibility. A series of questions that creators should consider in order to focus their design process is discussed. These questions break down various physical and cognitive limitations that users encounter, providing a framework for future video creation that is not dependent on specific software. By approaching accommodations more holistically, videos are created with accessibility in mind from their conception. Working toward the ideal of a video tutorial that is accessible to every user leads to the creation of more clearly worded, effective learning objects that are much more inclusive, making instructional concepts available to users of all abilities.

  18. Health systems and access to antiretroviral drugs for HIV in Southern Africa: service delivery and human resources challenges.

    Schneider, Helen; Blaauw, Duane; Gilson, Lucy; Chabikuli, Nzapfurundi; Goudge, Jane

    2006-05-01

    Without strengthened health systems, significant access to antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in many developing countries is unlikely to be achieved. This paper reflects on systemic challenges to scaling up ARV access in countries with both massive epidemics and weak health systems. It draws on the authors' experience in southern Africa and the World Health Organization's framework on health system performance. Whilst acknowledging the still significant gap in financing, the paper focuses on the challenges of reorienting service delivery towards chronic disease care and the human resource crisis in health systems. Inadequate supply, poor distribution, low remuneration and accelerated migration of skilled health workers are increasingly regarded as key systems constraints to scaling up of HIV treatment. Problems, however, go beyond the issue of numbers to include productivity and cultures of service delivery. As more countries receive funds for antiretroviral access programmes, strong national stewardship of these programmes becomes increasingly necessary. The paper proposes a set of short- and long-term stewardship tasks, which include resisting the verticalisation of HIV treatment, the evaluation of community health workers and their potential role in HIV treatment access, international action on the brain drain, and greater investment in national human resource functions of planning, production, remuneration and management. PMID:16713875

  19. Designing for Web Usability and Accessibility : User-Interface Design Guidelines in Connection with Human-Computer Interaction

    Logacheva, Evanfiya

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on the user-interface design guidelines for usability and accessibility in their connection to human-computer interaction and their implementation in the web design. The goal is to study the theoretical background of the design rules and apply them in designing a real-world website. The analysis of Jakobson’s communication theory applied in the web design and its implications in the design guidelines of visibility, affordance, feedback, simplicity, structure, consisten...

  20. Beyond the Letter of the Law: Accessibility, Universal Design, and Human-Centered Design in Video Tutorials

    Amanda S. Clossen

    2014-01-01

    This article demonstrates how Universal and Human-Centered Design approaches can be applied to the process of library video tutorial creation in order to enhance accessibility. A series of questions that creators should consider in order to focus their design process is discussed. These questions break down various physical and cognitive limitations that users encounter, providing a framework for future video creation that is not dependent on specific software. By approaching accommodations m...

  1. SAGE Open five years on: lessons learned and future thoughts on open access in humanities and social sciences

    Ross, Dave

    2016-01-01

    SAGE Open is celebrating its 5th birthday. When SAGE Publishing launched SAGE Open in 2010, the humanities and social sciences were still grappling with how to approach open access (OA). Through its mega-journal, well over 1000 articles have now been published OA, and it is one of SAGE’s most-used journals. Dave Ross looks back at the journal’s growth and lessons learned.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion.

    Chu, Carissa E; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods.  We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results.  Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions.  Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  3. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Perceived Barriers to Vaccination in a Sample of US Female College Students

    Dillard, James Price; Spear, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and perceived barriers to being vaccinated against the virus. Participants: Three hundred ninety-six undergraduate women enrolled at Penn State University in Fall 2008. Methods: A random sample of students were invited to participate in a Web-based survey. Results: Awareness of HPV and…

  4. A Randomized Intervention Study to Evaluate Whether Electronic Messaging Can Increase Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Completion and Knowledge among College Students

    Richman, Alice R.; Maddy, LaDonna; Torres, Essie; Goldberg, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate an intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine completion of the 3-dose series and knowledge. Participants: Two hundred sixty-four male and female US college students 18-26 years old who were receiving HPV vaccine dose 1. Methods: Students were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group.…

  5. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    Eck, Brendan L.; Fahmi, Rachid; Miao, Jun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Brown, Kevin M.; Zabic, Stanislav; Raihani, Nilgoun [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Wilson, David L., E-mail: dlw@case.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, P{sub C}. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit

  6. Computational and human observer image quality evaluation of low dose, knowledge-based CT iterative reconstruction

    Purpose: Aims in this study are to (1) develop a computational model observer which reliably tracks the detectability of human observers in low dose computed tomography (CT) images reconstructed with knowledge-based iterative reconstruction (IMR™, Philips Healthcare) and filtered back projection (FBP) across a range of independent variables, (2) use the model to evaluate detectability trends across reconstructions and make predictions of human observer detectability, and (3) perform human observer studies based on model predictions to demonstrate applications of the model in CT imaging. Methods: Detectability (d′) was evaluated in phantom studies across a range of conditions. Images were generated using a numerical CT simulator. Trained observers performed 4-alternative forced choice (4-AFC) experiments across dose (1.3, 2.7, 4.0 mGy), pin size (4, 6, 8 mm), contrast (0.3%, 0.5%, 1.0%), and reconstruction (FBP, IMR), at fixed display window. A five-channel Laguerre–Gauss channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) was developed with internal noise added to the decision variable and/or to channel outputs, creating six different internal noise models. Semianalytic internal noise computation was tested against Monte Carlo and used to accelerate internal noise parameter optimization. Model parameters were estimated from all experiments at once using maximum likelihood on the probability correct, PC. Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare models of different orders. The best model was selected according to AIC and used to predict detectability in blended FBP-IMR images, analyze trends in IMR detectability improvements, and predict dose savings with IMR. Predicted dose savings were compared against 4-AFC study results using physical CT phantom images. Results: Detection in IMR was greater than FBP in all tested conditions. The CHO with internal noise proportional to channel output standard deviations, Model-k4, showed the best trade-off between fit and

  7. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Buquo, Lynn E.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2011-01-01

    An Information Architecture facilitates the understanding and, hence, harnessing of the human system risk-related data supply chain which enhances the ability to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as a data supply chain), the Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Science Directorate (SLSD) are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, and often shared, IT infrastructure.

  8. Research on the best practice of knowledge management in enterprises

    Achieve management is important for knowledge management in enterprises. Knowledge management is the inevitable choice and development trend for achieve management. Several measures are needed for the implementation of best practices, such as: the reasonable goal, the system for integrity of knowledge resources, access of the best tools and methods, optimization of allocating human resource. At the same time enterprises must analyse the major risks of the project and propose countermeasures. Main reasons are explained in knowledge management of SGIS. (authors)

  9. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  10. The state of human dimensions capacity for natural resource management: needs, knowledge, and resources

    Sexton, Natalie R.; Leong, Kirsten M.; Milley, Brad J.; Clarke, Melinda M.; Teel, Tara L.; Chase, Mark A.; Dietsch, Alia M.

    2013-01-01

    The social sciences have become increasingly important in understanding natural resource management contexts and audiences, and are essential in design and delivery of effective and durable management strategies. Yet many agencies and organizations do not have the necessary resource management. We draw on the textbook definition of HD: how and why people value natural resources, what benefits people seek and derive from those resources, and how people affect and are affected by those resources and their management (Decker, Brown, and Seimer 2001). Clearly articulating how HD information can be used and integrated into natural resource management planning and decision-making is an important challenge faced by the HD field. To address this challenge, we formed a collaborative team to explore the issue of HD capacity-building for natural resource organizations and to advance the HD field. We define HD capacity as activities, efforts, and resources that enhance the ability of HD researchers and practitioners and natural managers and decision-makers to understand and address the social aspects of conservation. Specifically, we sought to examine current barriers to integration of HD into natural resource management, knowledge needed to improve HD capacity, and existing HD tools, resources, and training opportunities. We conducted a needs assessment of HD experts and practitioners, developed a framework for considering HD activities that can contribute both directly and indirectly throughout any phase of an adaptive management cycle, and held a workshop to review preliminary findings and gather additional input through breakout group discussions. This paper provides highlights from our collaborative initiative to help frame and inform future HD capacity-building efforts and natural resource organizations and also provides a list of existing human dimensions tools and resources.

  11. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and human papillomavirus and its relation to screening in Argentina.

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate women's knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smears, and human papilloma virus in relation to their cervical cancer screening behavior. This hospital-based study was conducted with a sample of 200 women: 100 women screened in the last three years and 100 non-screened women who attended a hospital located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, between September 2008 and February 2009. Women at the hospital were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relation of women's knowledge about Pap smears to screening behavior, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the women who had been screened, 49% compared to 73% of those not screened had inadequate knowledge about Pap smears (P = 0.001), and 47% of screened and 30% of non-screened women reported that they had ever heard about human papilloma virus (P = 0.013). In multivariate analysis, having adequate knowledge about Pap smears (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.4-4.8) having health insurance (odds ratio: 2.6 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-6.4) and being married (odds ratio: 1.8 or 95%, confidence interval: 1.1-3.4) were the factors related to being screened in the previous three years. Knowledge was related to screening. Comprehensive educational approaches may enhance screening for cervical cancer prevention. PMID:21391162

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    Andrew Kampikaho Turiho

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination on adolescent girls' knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32-11.93; p = 0.000. Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable, but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37-3.63; p = 0.008. HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions.

  13. Do Open Access Electronic Theses and Dissertations Diminish Publishing Opportunities in the Social Sciences and Humanities? Findings from a 2011 Survey of Academic Publishers

    Ramírez, Marisa L.; Dalton, Joan T.; McMillan, Gail; Read, Max; Seamans, Nancy H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide are requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Faculty advisors and graduate students are concerned that such unfettered access to their work could diminish future publishing opportunities. This study investigated social sciences, arts, and humanities journal editors’ and university pres...

  14. Human Resources Capacity Building as a Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability in the Experimental Fuel Element Installation of BATAN-Indonesia

    Strategy in Strengthening Nuclear Knowledge Sustainability: • In order to maintain human resources capacity related to nuclear fuel production technology, a nuclear knowledge preservation program is implemented in the EFEI. • The program includes coaching/training, mentoring and documenting important knowledge. • The program activities are monitored and evaluated quarterly for its improvement in the following year

  15. Landscapes of Research: Perceptions of Open Access (OA) Publishing in the Arts and Humanities

    Julia Gross; John Charles Ryan

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known now that scholarly communication is in crisis, resting on an academic publishing model that is unsustainable. One response to this crisis has been the emergence of Open Access (OA) publishing, bringing scholarly literature out from behind a paywall and making it freely available to anyone online. Many research and academic libraries are facilitating the change to OA by establishing institutional repositories, supporting OA policies, and hosting OA journals. In addition, res...

  16. An Urgent Need to Restrict Access to Pesticides Based on Human Lethality

    Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Suicide is a preventable global public health problem. About 1 million people die each year from suicide and many more harm themselves but survive. Although many people who commit suicide have a mental illness, stressful events (economic hardship or relationship difficulties, for example) can sometimes make life seem too painful to bear. Suicide attempts are frequently impulsive and use methods that are conveniently accessible. Strategies to reduce suicide rates in...

  17. Geographies of Access: Mapping the Online Attention to Digital Humanities Articles in Academic Journals

    Priego, E.; Atenas, J.; Havemann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We suggest altmetrics services like the Altmetric Explorer can be an efficient method to obtain bibliographic datasets and track scholarly outputs being mentioned online in the sources curated by these services. Our dataset reflects that outputs with “digital humanities” in their metadata were not published in fully-fledged Open Access journals. The role of SSRN and arXiv as open repositories was found to be relatively significant, but the licensing of the outputs available through them was n...

  18. A human engineering and ergonomic evaluation of the security access panel interface

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine which of several security hardware interface designs produced the highest levels of end-user performance and acceptance. The FESSP Security Alarms and Monitoring Systems program area commissioned the authors study as decision support for upgrading the Argus security system's primary user interface so that Argus equipment will support the new DOE and DoD security access badges. Twenty-two test subjects were repeatedly tested using six remote access panel (RAP) designs. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses one of these interface designs in its security access booths. Along with the RAP B insert-style reader, the authors tested five prototype RAP variants, each with a different style of swipe badge reader, through which a badge is moved or swiped. The authors asked the untrained test subjects to use each RAP while they described how they thought they should respond so that the system would operate correctly in reading the magnetic strip on a security badge. With each RAP variant, subjects were required to make four successful card reads (swipes) in which the card reader correctly read and logged the transaction. After each trial, a subject completed a 10-item interface acceptance evaluation before approaching the next RAP. After interacting with the RAP interfaces (for a total of the six RAP trials), each subject completed a 7-item overview evaluation that compared and ranked the five experimental RAPs, using the original (RAP B) insert style as a standard

  19. Bases and spaces:resources on the web for accessing the draft human genome

    Semple, C.

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY: Much is expected of the draft human genome sequence, and yet there is no central resource to host the plethora of sequence and mapping information available. Consequently, finding the most useful and reliable human genome data and resources currently available on the web can be challenging, but is not impossible.

  20. Bases and spaces: resources on the web for accessing the draft human genome

    Semple, Colin

    2000-01-01

    Much is expected of the draft human genome sequence, and yet there is no central resource to host the plethora of sequence and mapping information available. Consequently, finding the most useful and reliable human genome data and resources currently available on the web can be challenging, but is not impossible.

  1. Knowledge and perception of human papilloma virus vaccine among the antenatal women in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    Teddy E Agida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is a major health problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria inclusive. One of the preventive measures is the vaccination of teenagers against oncogenic human papilloma virus. The aim of this study was to find out the level of knowledge mothers possess about these vaccines and their willingness to administer vaccination to their teenage girls. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 255 consecutive women attending antenatal clinic at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja. They were given either a self-administered questionnaire or interviewer-administered questionnaire containing both closed and open-ended questions. Information recorded includes socio-demographic variables, knowledge of cervical cancer, knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines and acceptance of these vaccines for their adolescent girls. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 26.9 years. Over 90% had at least secondary education. A total of 102 (40% had the knowledge of cancer of the cervix while 153 (60% had never heard about it. Overall, 236 (92.5% of them had no idea about the predisposing factors. The study showed that only 23 (9.0% out of the total respondents had heard about human papilloma virus (HPV infection. In the same vein, 20 (7.8% had knowledge about HPV vaccine. Among the respondents, who had the knowledge of HPV and vaccination, 18.2% and 23.4% of them had secondary and tertiary levels of education respectively. Overall, 160 (62.8% accepted that the vaccines could be administered to their teenage girls. Conclusions: Awareness of cervical cancer, HPV infections, and HPV vaccines is low among antenatal clinic attendees in Gwagwalada, Abuja. However, majority of them would want their girls vaccinated against HPV infections. There is a need for all stakeholders to step up awareness creation for improved HPV vaccination project in

  2. Current knowledge in the anatomy of the human anterior cruciate ligament

    Kaya Bicer, Elcil; Lustig, Sebastien; Servien, Elvire; AIT SI SELMI, Tarik; Neyret, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently studied structures of the musculoskeletal system and continues to stimulate debate and challenges among researchers and surgeons. The ultimate goal of anatomic reconstruction surgery is to restore the native anatomy as much as possible. However, this requires thorough knowledge of its anatomy. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge of the anatomy of ACL along with its macrostructural and ultrastructural pro...

  3. Modeling the Relationship between Human Intelligence, Knowledge Management Practices, and Innovation Performance

    M. F. Noordin; Z. A. Karim

    2015-01-01

    Pioneers in knowledge management (KM) have well articulated the relationship between KM and innovation. In addition, there are many theoretical papers as well as empirical studies that examined the positive relationship between KM and innovation. However, these empirical studies analysed the relationship between KM and innovation at management or organisational level. There is a need to study this relationship at the knowledge workers level to see how they actually influence their organisatio...

  4. Knowledge Engineering or Digital Humanities? Territorial Intelligence, a Case in Point

    Rousseaux, Francis; Saurel, Pierre; Petit, Jean

    2014-01-01

    International audience Knowledge Engineering (KE) usually deals with representation and visualization challenges, sometimes socio or bio inspired, collective aspects being quite often taken into account. Nevertheless with knowledge-based Territorial Intelligence, KE is faced with natively situated know-how, distributed hope and network-centered emerging organizations, as far as this domain aims at providing tools to support and develop our local and territorial communities. Furthermore kno...

  5. Exploring standardisation and knowledge networking processes in transnational human resource management.

    Dickmann, Michael; Muller-Camen, Michael; Kelliher, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued that a key step in becoming a “transnational” company is to implement transnational HRM (THRM). However, what is meant by THRM and how can it be assessed? The purpose of this paper is to develop the characteristics of THRM along two dimensions: standardisation and knowledge networking, in contrast to many existing studies which focus on IHRM strategies and structures. Standardisation and knowledge networking are to be examined at both the meta and operational levels. ...

  6. NEW ROLES AND CHALLENGES FOR HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN KNOWLEDGE BASED ORGANIZATIONS

    EMANOIL MUSCALU; ALEXANDRA STÃNIÞ

    2011-01-01

    People have always been central to organizations, but their strategic importance is growing in today‘s knowledge-based organizations. An organization‘s success increasingly depends on the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees, particularly as they help establish a set of core competencies that distinguish an organization from its competitors. When employees talents are valuable, rare, difficult to imitate and organized, an organization can achieve a sustained competitive advantage thr...

  7. Accessible Near-Earth Objects (NEOs)

    Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are asteroids and comets whose orbits are in close proximity to Earth's orbit; specifically, they have perihelia less than 1.3 astronomical units. NEOs particularly near Earth asteroids (NEAs) are identified as potential destinations for future human exploration missions. In this presentation I provide an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the astrodynamical accessibility of NEAs according to NASA's Near Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS). I also investigate the extremes of NEA accessibility using case studies and illuminate the fact that a space-based survey for NEOs is essential to expanding the set of known accessible NEAs for future human exploration missions.

  8. Kinome Render: a stand-alone and web-accessible tool to annotate the human protein kinome tree

    Matthieu Chartier

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human protein kinases play fundamental roles mediating the majority of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells as well as a multitude of other processes involved in metabolism, cell-cycle regulation, cellular shape, motility, differentiation and apoptosis. The human protein kinome contains 518 members. Most studies that focus on the human kinome require, at some point, the visualization of large amounts of data. The visualization of such data within the framework of a phylogenetic tree may help identify key relationships between different protein kinases in view of their evolutionary distance and the information used to annotate the kinome tree. For example, studies that focus on the promiscuity of kinase inhibitors can benefit from the annotations to depict binding affinities across kinase groups. Images involving the mapping of information into the kinome tree are common. However, producing such figures manually can be a long arduous process prone to errors. To circumvent this issue, we have developed a web-based tool called Kinome Render (KR that produces customized annotations on the human kinome tree. KR allows the creation and automatic overlay of customizable text or shape-based annotations of different sizes and colors on the human kinome tree. The web interface can be accessed at: http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca/kinomerender. A stand-alone version is also available and can be run locally.

  9. Preserving technical knowledge - when technology's lifetime exceeds the human life span

    Industry is being challenged by the departure of experienced managers and workers. The loss of skills and the difficulty of finding qualified replacements can negatively affect operations, environment, safety and economics. There is a need to capture, preserve and pass along both documented and undocumented knowledge before aging workers depart the workplace. How to do it? Our ancestors faced the same problem, and they often solved it in a personal way through a Master-Journeyman-Apprentice system. Our modern education system is an extension of that system, augmented by extensive use of textbooks. This system now is stretched to its limits by two factors, (a) the need to update the teacher's knowledge, and (b) the need to update high quality textbooks. Modem Masters are so busy doing their work that they have no time to pass knowledge on in an effective manner. When they retire, their knowledge often is lost. The CANTEACH project was initiated to fill this gap. The essence of this knowledge capture process is acquisition of archival documents that are relevant to current practice in the field-in our case, CANDU power plant engineering. This project is made possible by voluntary contributions from Masters in the field; it can proceed only by avoiding the pitfalls of excessive security and intellectual property rules. This paper describes the mechanisms used to make this archival knowledge openly available for operators, designers, educators, and students of this technology. (author)

  10. IP MANAGER: A MODEL FOR THE KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT AND PROTECTION THROUGHOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES WITHIN THE INNOVATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

    MARCELA IZABELA CIOPA; CRISTIAN SILVIU BANACU; STEFAN BERCU

    2011-01-01

    IP Manager is a model that analyses the importance of the intellectual property from a managerial point of view, especially within the innovative organizations, thus creating the context for the human resources awareness towards the new regulations that come alongside a knowledge-based society. The new vision of the organizations that are active in the education industry regarding the usage of new technologies will catch up very fast within the youngsters, but it won’t limit to them, because ...

  11. Human Papillomavirus and Head and Neck Cancer: Psychosocial Impact in Patients and Knowledge of the Link - A Systematic Review

    Dodd, R. H.; Waller, J; Marlow, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) currently affects approximately 11 200 people in the UK, with an increasing proportion known to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). We undertook a systematic review of studies measuring the psychosocial impact of HPV-related HNC and also studies measuring knowledge about the link between HPV and HNC among different populations. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Web of Science, with reference and forward citation searches ...

  12. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    Garland Suzanne; Ryall Richard; Croy Samantha; Pitts Marian; Lyons Anthony; Smith Anthony; Wong Mee; Tay Eng

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI). It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demogr...

  13. Knowledge transfer activities in social sciences and humanities: Explaining the interactions of research groups with non-academic agents

    Olmos Peñuela, Julia; Castro Martínez, Elena; D'Este Cukierman, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to achieve a better understanding of the processes underlying knowledge transfer (KT) in social sciences and humanities (SSH). The paper addresses: first, the extent of SSH research groups' engagement in KT and the formal KT activities used to interact with non-academic communities; and second, how the characteristics of research groups may influence engagement in various types of KT. The empirical analysis is at research group level using data derived from a quest...

  14. Knowledge transfer in the Human and Social Sciences: the importance of informal relationships and its organizational consequences

    Castro Martínez, Elena; Molas Gallart, Jordi; Fernández De Lucio, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the characteristics of knowledge transfer in the social and human sciences within a large government research establishment. We deploy an innovative analytical framework and make an explicit link between the range of transfer processes it identifies and the organizational and analytical challenges that such variety poses. The results show that the characteristics of the transfer process (in terms of the type of agents involved, the content of the transfer, transfer ...

  15. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Consolo Silvia; Picciolli Irene; Sabatini Caterina; Semino Margherita; Galeone Carlotta; Esposito Susanna; Pelucchi Claudio; Milani Gregorio; Principi Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional sur...

  16. Human capital development, knowledge spillovers and local growth: Is there a quality effect of university efficiency?

    ZOTTI, Roberto; Barra, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether economic growth depends on human capital development using data disaggregated at territorial level and propose the use of efficiency estimates, measured using a non-parametric technique, as an alternative quality measure of higher education institutions (HEIs). The nature of knowledge spillovers is also taken into account to examine the existence of geographically localized spillovers, from the presence of efficient universities, on local growth. Results show th...

  17. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge of a Human-Elephant Interaction in Transmara District, Kenya: Implications for Research and Management

    Noah W. Sitati; Hellen Ipara

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous ecological knowledge (IEK) of the Maasai community in the context of their interaction with elephants around Masai Mara National Reserve (MMNR), Kenya is explored. Although Maasai community land sustains a huge elephant population, it is experiencing increased human-elephant conflict (HEC). Focus group discussions combined with scientifically collected data were used in assessing the relevance of IEK to elephant related ecological research. The Maasai narrated their experiences wit...

  18. Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study (NHATS)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This list of potential mission targets should not be interpreted as a complete list of viable NEAs for an actual human exploration mission. As the NEA orbits are...

  19. Governing Knowledge

    Nicolai J Foss; Dana B Minbaeva

    2009-01-01

    SHRM increasingly emphasizes HRM practices as means to build strategic knowledge resources such as superior capabilities. While the knowledge-based view increasingly pays attention to micro-foundations, the SHRM field neglects these and emphasizes collective constructs such as “human capital pools,” “HRM architectures”, etc. As a result, causal links between HRM practices, knowledge and organizational performance are black-boxed. We propose a program for research and identify s...

  20. HTRIdb: an open-access database for experimentally verified human transcriptional regulation interactions

    Bovolenta Luiz A; Acencio Marcio L; Lemke Ney

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The modeling of interactions among transcription factors (TFs) and their respective target genes (TGs) into transcriptional regulatory networks is important for the complete understanding of regulation of biological processes. In the case of experimentally verified human TF-TG interactions, there is no database at present that explicitly provides such information even though many databases containing human TF-TG interaction data have been available. In an effort to provide...

  1. Access to justice: evaluating law, health and human rights programmes in Kenya

    Sofia Gruskin; Kelly Safreed-Harmon; Tamar Ezer; Anne Gathumbi; Jonathan Cohen; Patricia Kameri-Mbote

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In Kenya, human rights violations have a marked impact on the health of people living with HIV. Integrating legal literacy and legal services into healthcare appears to be an effective strategy to empower vulnerable groups and address underlying determinants of health. Methods: We carried out an evaluation to collect evidence about the impact of legal empowerment programmes on health and human rights. The evaluation focused on Open Society Foundation-supported legal integration ...

  2. Knowledge Management

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation

  3. Research of Access Control Model for Mine Security Knowledge Management System%矿山安全知识管理系统中的访问控制模型研究

    熊海涛; 蒋承睿; 任宇峰; 贾攀

    2013-01-01

    For safety authorization to proper security knowledge in mine security knowledge management system and reliable changing of authorization according to users′ history access,the reputation-based access control (ReBAC) is proposed,which extends role-based access control (RBAC) with reputation.ReBAC builds 6-tuple permissions firstly.Then,the trust network is constructed by the operational relation between users for calculating direct-reputation and indirect-reputation.After that,ReBAC uses reputation to check if the user can access this security knowledge and give permissions to reliable users.The result shows that ReBAC can provide safety and reliable access control in mine security knowledge management system.%为保证矿山安全知识管理系统中安全知识的安全授权,同时保证授权能够根据用户历史行为进行变更,在基于角色的访问控制模型基础上引入了信誉,提出了基于信誉的访问控制模型.该模型构造了权限六元组,通过用户间的操作关系建立信任网络,然后计算直接信誉和间接信誉,从而来判断用户是否可对知识进行操作进行授权.结果表明,基于信誉的访问控制模型能够对矿山安全知识管理系统中的安全知识实现安全和可靠的访问控制.

  4. Knowledge Development in Internship

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering differe...... kinds of access to tacit and explicit knowledge by apprenticeship and reflection, have consequences for both students’ learning and the professions’ knowledge development?...

  5. Knowledge Development in Internship

    Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the chapter is to shed light on how these challenges and tendencies affect students’´ access to tacit and explicit knowledge and the professions’ knowledge development. To address these challenges, the chapter examines the question: How might periods of internship, offering different...... kinds of access to tacit and explicit knowledge by apprenticeship and reflection, have consequences for both students’ learning and the professions’ knowledge development?...

  6. Local Knowledge on Ecosystem Management Practices and Human Plague Problems in West Usambaras, Tanzania

    Shemdoe, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    The human impact on natural landscapes has been steadily increasing during the last few decades and the current decline of biodiversity is largely the result of human activity. Many of these activities have resulted in a wide range of environmental changes that accelerate and interact with other environmental changes at local, regional and global scales. Ecosystem degradation in many areas of the world has been associated with the increase in the distribution of human plague cases, both land...

  7. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KNOWLEDGE-TECHNOLOGY-INNOVATION (KTI, COMMITMENT, COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENT POLICY, HUMAN CAPITAL, DAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, to maintain core competencies and competitive advantage, the companies should develop continuous innovation, technology learning, and knowledge management. Knowledge-Technology-Innovation (KTI can be a driver for countrys development and growth. Japan, South Korea, and Singapore are the countries that have limited natural and human resources, but able to achieve sustainable economic development. KTI is not only to be practiced at individual and organizational level, but also can be implemented at the community, national, or state level. KTI, therefore, can encourage expected competitive advantage creation and become a decisive factor for a country to achieve stable and sustainable economic growth. This research intends to analyze relationships of KTI, competitive advantage, commitment, leadership, human capital, government policy, and competence. This research used correlational method and literature study approach. The result of this research is a relationship model of each of these aspects that can be used as a framework for further research. The relationships model is as follows: Leadership, competence, and human capital (as independent variables have direct relationship (influence on competitive advantage (dependent variable or indirectly (through KTI as an intervening variable; KTI has direct relationship (effect on competitive advantage; Government policy and commitment are moderator variables for relationship of KTI and competitive advantage.

  8. The human capital in the knowledge society. Theoretical and empirical approach

    Elena Pelinescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We live today in a changing society based on the globalization and better valorisation of the human capital. The human capital is the central driver force for competitiveness and development of the new technology and patent and a necessary factor for their efficient use in the new society. In order to reach the competitiveness objective, the European Union member countries seek to develop their human capital value by increasing investment in education, science and technology development. Based on the panel econometrics techniques, this paper explores the statistical correlations between human capital components and national competitiveness within the EU economic context.

  9. Latest scientific and technological knowledge of human-reliability quantification - December 1991

    Again an again real incidents and accidents show that human factors may seriously affect the safety of plants. This is also true for, e.g. nuclear facilities. The major methods which are used to quantify the reliability of humans are described. These methods are applied in the framework of German and international risk analyses. Since in probabilistic safety analyses data bases are of great importance of the, however, naturally very difficult quantitative evaluation of human errors, the study also discusses the present limits to the treatment of human misbehavior in safety analyses. (orig.)

  10. Usability and accessibility curricula

    Luján Mora, Sergio; Cachero Castro, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of existing curricula connected with usability and accessibility at the University of Alicante for the Leonardo da Vinci project "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, France, 27 November 2012). Presentación del currículo actual relacionado con la usabilidad y la accesibilidad en la Universidad de Alicante para el proyecto Leonardo da Vinci "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, Francia, 27...

  11. Assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogy on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneurial human capital asset: A conceptual model

    Chidimma Odira Okeke; David Gun Fie Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study is an effort to propose a conceptual model to measure the impact assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic. It delineates entrepreneurship education pedagogic into four dimensions and opined specific level for each dimension. Reviewing the entrepreneurship education programme, assessment of entrepreneurship pedagogic evaluates the structure that influence growth mindset development through embedded heuristic strategies, thus, the impact on entrepreneurship knowledge and entrepreneur...

  12. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    A.R.E. Vandenbroucke; J.J. Fahrenfort; J.D.I. Meuwese; H.S. Scholte; V.A.F. Lamme

    2014-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  13. Human Papillomavirus and Head and Neck Cancer: Psychosocial Impact in Patients and Knowledge of the Link - A Systematic Review.

    Dodd, R H; Waller, J; Marlow, L A V

    2016-07-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) currently affects approximately 11 200 people in the UK, with an increasing proportion known to be caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). We undertook a systematic review of studies measuring the psychosocial impact of HPV-related HNC and also studies measuring knowledge about the link between HPV and HNC among different populations. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Web of Science, with reference and forward citation searches also carried out on included studies. Studies were selected if they (i) were original peer-reviewed research (qualitative or quantitative), (ii) mentioned HPV and HNC, (iii) measured an aspect of the psychosocial impact of the diagnosis of HPV-related HNC as the dependent variable and/or (iv) measured knowledge of the association between HPV and HNC. In total, 51 papers met the inclusion criteria; 10 measuring psychosocial aspects and 41 measuring knowledge of the link between HPV and HNC. Quality of life in those with HPV-positive HNC was found to be higher, lower or equivalent to those with HPV-negative HNC. Longitudinal studies found quality of life in patients was at its lowest 2-3 months after diagnosis and some studies found quality of life almost returned to baseline levels after 12 months. Knowledge of the link between HPV and HNC was measured among different populations, with the lowest knowledge in the general population and highest in medical and dental professionals. Due to the limited studies carried out with patients measuring the psychosocial impact of a diagnosis of HPV-positive HNC, future work is needed with the partners of HPV-positive HNC patients and health professionals caring for these patients. The limited knowledge of the association between HPV and HNC among the general population also indicates the need for research to explore the information that these populations are receiving. PMID:26996812

  14. Knowledge Creation and Human Capital for Development: The Role of Graduate Entrepreneurship

    Mitra, Jay; Abubakar, Y. A.; Sagagi, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tackling structural and emergent problems in the labour market, valorising skilled human capital (HC) for opportunity creation, economic development and growth, are some of the key drivers for graduate entrepreneurship. This paper aims to examine developments in Africa, focusing on the significance of improving human capital through…

  15. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Meiry Fernanda Pinto Okuno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0, sexual function (45.9, and financial worries (55.6. Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

  16. The Impact of Human Gene Patents on Innovation and Access: A Survey of Human Gene Patent Litigation

    Holman, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, an article in the highly influential journal Science reported that roughly 20% of human genes are patented. This figure has been widely cited and at times over-interpreted. For example, a popular science fiction author warns the public that their bodies are “owned” by someone else. A bill was introduced in Congress in 2007 that would essentially seek to ban the patenting of DNA. The bill appears motivated in part by a perception that one-fifth of our genes are owned by somebody e...

  17. A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO POVERTY REDUCTION: THE ROLE OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO MEDICINE AS AN ELEMENT OF THE RIGHT OF ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE

    Zannelize Strauss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of infectious diseases remain among the greatest challenges faced by today's developing countries. The World Health Organisation estimates that about one-third of the world's population lacks access to essential medicine, a fact which, according to the United Nations, directly contradicts the fundamental principle of health as a human right. According to the World Summit for Social Development, poor health and illness are factors that contribute to poverty, while the adverse effects of illness ensure that the poor become poorer. A lack of access to health care, amongst other rights, (including access to medicines as an element thereof aggravates poverty. The most important provision in international law relating to the right to health is article 12 of the United Nations International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Article 12(1 of this Covenant provides a broad formulation of the right to health in international law, while article 12(2 prescribes a non-exhaustive list of steps to be taken in pursuit of the highest attainable standard of health. Article 12(2, in particular, illustrates the role that adequate access to medication plays in the right of access to health care. The United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has explicitly included the provision of essential drugs as a component of the right to health care, thereby emphasising the causal link between the lack of access to essential medicines and the non-fulfilment of the right of access to health care. As with all socio-economic rights, the resource implications of the realisation of the right to health has the result that states cannot be expected to immediately comply with its obligations in respect thereof. Instead, article 2(1 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the General Comments of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights place obligations on states to take

  18. Assessing knowledge of human papillomavirus and collecting data on sexual behavior: computer assisted telephone versus face to face interviews

    Garland Suzanne

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education campaigns seeking to raise awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV and promoting HPV vaccination depend on accurate surveys of public awareness and knowledge of HPV and related sexual behavior. However, the most recent population-based studies have relied largely on computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI as opposed to face to face interviews (FTFI. It is currently unknown how these survey modes differ, and in particular whether they attract similar demographics and therefore lead to similar overall findings. Methods A comprehensive survey of HPV awareness and knowledge, including sexual behavior, was conducted among 3,045 Singaporean men and women, half of whom participated via CATI, the other half via FTFI. Results Overall levels of awareness and knowledge of HPV differed between CATI and FTFI, attributable in part to demographic variations between these survey modes. Although disclosure of sexual behavior was greater when using CATI, few differences between survey modes were found in the actual information disclosed. Conclusion Although CATI is a cheaper, faster alternative to FTFI and people appear more willing to provide information about sexual behavior when surveyed using CATI, thorough assessments of HPV awareness and knowledge depend on multiple survey modes.

  19. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Benjamin M. Sekematte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human–termite interactions and farmers’ indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human–termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers’ indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  20. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated exercise-induced global gene expression responses in human skeletal muscle and these have typically focused at one specific mode of exercise and not implemented non-exercise control models. However, interpretation on effects of differentiated exercise necessitate...... and interpret by individuals that are inexperienced with bioinformatics procedures. In a comparative study, we therefore; (1) investigated the human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise and non-exercise control intervention, and; (2) set out to develop a straightforward...... direct comparison between essentially different modes of exercise and the ability to identify true exercise effect, necessitate implementation of independent non-exercise control subjects. Furthermore, muscle transcriptome data made available through previous exercise studies can be difficult to extract...

  1. Log analysis of human computer interactions regarding Break The Glass accesses to genetic reports

    Ferreira, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Patients’ privacy is critical in healthcare but users of Electronic Health Records (EHR) frequently circumvent existing security rules to perform their daily work. Users are so-called the weakest link in security but they are, many times, part of the solution when they are involved in systems’ design. In the healthcare domain, the focus is to treat patients (many times with scarce technological, time and human resources) and not to secure their information. Therefore, security must not interf...

  2. Simplified data access on human skeletal muscle transcriptome responses to differentiated exercise

    Vissing, Kristian; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated exercise-induced global gene expression responses in human skeletal muscle and these have typically focused at one specific mode of exercise and not implemented non-exercise control models. However, interpretation on effects of differentiated exercise necessitate direct comparison between essentially different modes of exercise and the ability to identify true exercise effect, necessitate implementation of independent non-exercise control subjects. Furthermore, m...

  3. Access to assisted human reproductive technologies in the light of Islamic ethics

    Iqbal, M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the hypothesis that infertile Muslim couples living in secular societies or otherwise are unduly restricted in their approach in making use of the facilities now available through modern human reproductive technologies. This is mainly because of the unbending and categorical fixation of the early interpretations of Islamic allegorical verses of the Qur’an by Islamic jurists who remain steadfast in refusing to contemplate the present advanced nature of...

  4. Carotenoids: Actual knowledge on food sources, intakes, stability and bioavailability and their protective role in humans

    Maiani, Giuseppe; Castón, María Jesús Periago; Catasta, Giovina;

    2009-01-01

    Carotenoids are one of the major food micronutrients in human diets and the overall objective of this review is to re-examine the role of carotenoids in human nutrition. We have emphasized the attention on the following carotenoids present in food and human tissues: -carotene, -cryptoxanthin......, -carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin; we have reported the major food sources and dietary intake of these compounds. We have tried to summarize positive and negative effects of food processing, storage, cooking on carotenoid content and carotenoid bioavailability. In particular, we have evidenced...... the possibility to improve carotenoids bioavailability in accordance with changes and variations of technology procedures....

  5. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    Full text: As All specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants; In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  6. The need for nuclear knowledge management and human resources development in the nuclear technology in a least developed country: The Haiti case

    Full text: As all specialist recognizes it knowledge management refers to issues related to organizational adaptation, survival and competence in the context of a discontinuous environmental change. It concerns also organizational process seeking synergistic combination of data and information processing capacity of the technologies of information with the capacity of human beings. Knowledge management in this sense implies not only organizational and technology processes but involves also human resources development. Our intervention in the context of this forum will focus around a planned INIS project that has been submitted to the Agency for the cycle 2005-2006 and the synergistic ties it can develop with a nuclear knowledge management policy for Haiti. Haiti is the sole least developed country of Latin America and the main challenge it faces is that of reducing poverty. The population of Haiti is around 7.900.000 inhabitants;In terms of annual per capita income the estimated indigency line for 1996 was $160 per year and the poverty line was around $ 220; 2/3 of the rural households fell under the indigency line and 20% only of the population exceeded the poverty line. Main causes of this situation are: land erosion, water scarcity, degradation of the environment, lack of the competitiveness of the economy, lack of electricity etc In all these areas the nuclear techniques can contribute to solve the problem of poverty in Haiti by fulfilling the need to sustain the valuable human resources under the dire circumstances of the local economic conditions. By taking account of the recent efforts of the Government to enhance the manpower capabilities there is a real need now to manage the scarce resources so that they can be retained, expanded and eventually multiplied. Under this perspective the Haitian Government is applying a strategy seeking to involve all the sectors concerned by the peaceful applications of nuclear techniques. After 3 years of diffusion of

  7. [Current modalities and concepts on access and use of biospecimen samples and associated data for research from human biobanks].

    Siddiqui, Roman; Semler, Sebastian Claudius

    2016-03-01

    It is accepted worldwide that biospecimen and data sharing (BDS) play an essential role for the future of medical research to improve diagnostics and prognostics, e.g. by validated biomarkers. BDS is also pivotal to the development of new therapeutic treatments and for the improvement of population health. Human biobanks can generate an added value to this need by providing biospecimens and/or associated data to researchers. An inspection of several examples of epidemiological as well as clinical/disease-oriented biobanks in Germany shows that best practice procedures (BPP) that are internationally agreed on are being installed for biospecimen and/or data access. In general, fair access is aimed at requiring a written application by the requesting scientist, which is then peer-reviewed for scientific and ethical validity by the Biobank. Applied BPP take into account (i) patient education/agreement according to the informed consent model, (ii) privacy protection, (iii) intellectual property rights, the (iv) notification obligation of health-related findings (including incidental findings), the (v) use of material (MTA) and data transfer agreements (DTA) for mutual legal security, the avoidance of conflicts of interests, as well as for cost recovery/fee for service as a basis for sustainability of the biobank. BPP are rooted in the self-regulation efforts of life sciences and are supported by parent ethics committees in Germany. Central biobank registries displaying aggregated information on biospecimens stored and the research foci constitute an important tool to make biobanks that are scattered across the country visible to each other, and, can thus promote access to hitherto unknown biospecimen and data resources. PMID:26809822

  8. Knowledge of the Most-at-Risk Populations about Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    A. Ebadian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study we tried to assess the knowledge of general population (15-45 years, injecting drug users, female sex workers, MSM and male prisoners about HIV prevention in Iran. Approach: Respondents are asked the following set of prompted questions: (a Can we reduce the risk of HIV transmission by having sex with only one uninfected partner who has no other partners? (b Can we reduce the risk of getting HIV by using a condom every time we have sex? (c Can have HIV a healthy-looking person? (d Can a person get HIV by sharing food with someone who is infected? (e Can a person get HIV from mosquito bits? Results: In this study at compared with the resent studies we saw that, the general knowledge on the effect of consistent and correct use of condom as means of HIV prevention has been increased. There is a decrease in the number of the youth that assume sting of a mosquito can transmit HIV. There were no remarkable change in the perception of the thought that HIV is not transmitted through eating and the possibility of people living with HIV are safe. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis indicated that the awareness on the positive effect of condomization on HIV prevention has increased in recent years, but it is still far from being satisfactory and other basic knowledge about HIV has not improved and there is still a substantial gap with the desired figures.

  9. INDUSTRIAL AGRO-BIOTECHNOLOGY: KNOWLEDGE UPGRADING AS A PREREQUISITE FOR HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

    Hadi FARID

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology development relates to the quality and skills of human resources. During the Ninth Malaysian Plan 2006-2010, higher education institutions have produced more than 4000 graduates and in service training programs for human resource development and are providing more scholarships to serving officers to pursue post graduate degree in biotechnology. However, gaps still continue to exist between demand for and supply of biotechnology skills and there is an alarming shortage of biotech...

  10. The Analysis of Fiber Sensor of Temperature Field Disturbance by Human Body Part Access

    Filip Dvorak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of this sensor function is based on polarization maintaining fiber (PMF sensitivity during excitation of both two polarization modes. This excitation is caused by temperature change, when absorbing thermal radiation. This mechanism is used for detection of temperature field disturbance as an indicator. In the case described below, attention was devoted to temperature field disturbance on a part of the human body. Thus this sensor system could be used for protection of some entity. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of PMF to radiating heat, the space configuration and time response.

  11. Orientation-Dependent 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access, Very-Low-Field Human MRI System

    Mair, R W; Patz, S; Rosen, M S; Ruset, I C; Topulos, G P; Tsai, L L; Butler, J P; Hersman, F W; Walsworth, R L

    2004-01-01

    Orientation-dependent imaging of human lungs is demonstrated using inhaled laser-polarized 3He gas and an open-access very-low-magnetic field (< 5 mT) MRI instrument. This prototype device employs a simple, low-cost electromagnet, with an open geometry that allows variation of the orientation of the imaging subject in a two-dimensional plane. Two-dimensional 3He images were acquired with 2 mm in-plane resolution from a subject in two orientations: lying supine, and sitting in a vertical position with one arm raised. The images show clear differences in lung shape and inhaled 3He gas distribution, consistent with the expected orientation dependence of pulmonary physiology.

  12. Identifying and Characterizing Regulatory Sequences in the Human Genome with Chromatin Accessibility Assays

    Terrence S. Furey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After finishing a human genome reference sequence in 2002, the genomics community has turned to the task of interpreting it. A primary focus is to identify and characterize not only protein-coding genes, but all functional elements in the genome. The effort includes both individual investigators and large-scale projects like the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE project. As part of the ENCODE project, several groups have identified millions of regulatory elements in hundreds of human cell-types using DNase-seq and FAIRE-seq experiments that detect regions of nucleosome-free open chromatin. ChIP-seq experiments have also been used to discover transcription factor binding sites and map histone modifications. Nearly all identified elements are found in non-coding DNA, hypothesizing a function for previously unannotated sequence. In this review, we provide an overview of the ENCODE effort to define regulatory elements, summarize the main results, and discuss implications of the millions of regulatory elements distributed throughout the genome.

  13. Access to bacteriophage therapy: discouraging experiences from the human cell and tissue legal framework.

    Verbeken, G; Huys, I; De Vos, D; De Coninck, A; Roseeuw, D; Kets, E; Vanderkelen, A; Draye, J P; Rose, T; Jennes, S; Ceulemans, C; Pirnay, J P

    2016-02-01

    Cultures of human epithelial cells (keratinocytes) are used as an additional surgical tool to treat critically burnt patients. Initially, the production environment of keratinocyte grafts was regulated exclusively by national regulations. In 2004, the European Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC (transposed into Belgian Law) imposed requirements that resulted in increased production costs and no significant increase in quality and/or safety. In 2007, Europe published Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. Overnight, cultured keratinocytes became (arguably) 'Advanced' Therapy Medicinal Products to be produced as human medicinal products. The practical impact of these amendments was (and still is) considerable. A similar development appears imminent in bacteriophage therapy. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that can be used for tackling the problem of bacterial resistance development to antibiotics. Therapeutic natural bacteriophages have been in clinical use for almost 100 years. Regulators today are framing the (re-)introduction of (natural) bacteriophage therapy into 'modern western' medicine as biological medicinal products, also subject to stringent regulatory medicinal products requirements. In this paper, we look back on a century of bacteriophage therapy to make the case that therapeutic natural bacteriophages should not be classified under the medicinal product regulatory frames as they exist today. It is our call to authorities to not repeat the mistake of the past. PMID:26678555

  14. do open access electronic theses and dissertations diminish publishing opportunities in the social sciences and humanities? findings from a 2011 survey of academic publishers

    Ramirez, M L; Dalton, J. T.; McMillan, Gail; Read, M.; Seamans, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of higher education institutions worldwide are requiring submission of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) by graduate students and are subsequently providing open access to these works in online repositories. Faculty advisors and graduate students are concerned that such unfettered access to their work could diminish future publishing opportunities. This study investigated social sciences, arts, and humanities journal editors' and university press directors' attit...

  15. The role of the University in the context of Inclusive Education Policy: reflections about human resources formation and knowledge production

    Rosana Glat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to discuss and present, briefly action lines about the role of University in the promotion of psicossocial and educational development of people with handicap and other special needs. Taking the framework of specialized literature, it brings different questions dealing with human resources formation, specially, teacher formation, and the production of knowledge in the area of Special Education, obtained through research and extension projects, done, preferentially, in partnership with the educational agents that work in the field. It also analyses how these actions may influence the implementation of policies regarding school, labor, and social inclusion of people with handicap and other developmental disorders.

  16. THE KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

    Lupsa Dana; Constantin Sanda

    2007-01-01

    For the past years, information and knowledge are replacing capital and energy as the primary wealth-creating assets, generating a new type of economy, and called knowledge based economy (KBE), within knowledge management is the main instrument for the companies to obtain competitive advantage. Given the goal of EU established at Lisbon and the perspective of Romania’s accession to EU, Romanian companies must align their management practices with knowledge management in order to survive on a ...

  17. Can molecular properties of human red blood cells be accessed by electrorotation?

    Jutiporn Sudsiri

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrorotation (ER is a single cell dielectric method which can be used to characterize the structural and electrical properties of biological cells at a high parameter resolution. The method has been applied to measure ER spectra of human red blood cells (HRBC in rotating electric fields ranging from 100 kHz to 250 MHz and at external conductivities ranging from about 1 mS/m to 3 S/m. With increasing medium conductivity the anti- and the co-field peak of the spectra shifted towards higher frequencies. At external conductivities higher than 1 S/m only anti-field rotation has been observed. At these conductivities the peaks show distortions which could not be explained by the common single shell model normally applied to extract dielectric cell parameters. In this paper, we interpret the spectra by frequency dependent parameters for the cytoplasm. Nevertheless, the results suggest that also the membrane parameters are frequency dependent.

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J.; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was...

  19. School Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions of Role as Opinion Leader, and Professional Practice Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccine for Youth

    Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional…

  20. The International Conference on Human Resources Development Strategies in the Knowledge-Based Society [Proceedings] (Seoul, South Korea, August 29, 2001).

    Korea Research Inst. for Vocational Education and Training, Seoul.

    This document contains the following seven papers, all in both English and Korean, from a conference on human resources development and school-to-work transitions in the knowledge-based society: "The U.S. Experience as a Knowledge-based Economy in Transition and Its Impact on Industrial and Employment Structures" (Eric Im); "Changes in the…

  1. Knowledge of young Polish women of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention

    Martyna Biała

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. HPV infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease and a major epidemiological problem in the world. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for over 70.0% cases of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of young women concerning HPV infection as well as possibilities of cervical cancer prevention. Moreover, the study had to determine which groups of young women especially required educational campaigns. Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was carried out among 126 young Polish women aged 18–35. The results were statistically analyzed. Results. The survey found that 41.3% women had heard about HPV before interview. Nearly 38.5% of women correctly indicated the occurrence of cancer which is associated with HPV infection. About 23.0% of women received a vaccination against HPV, only 19.2% of women correctly identified who should be subjected to vaccination. The best knowledge about cervical cancer and disease prevention was manifested among female university graduates and groups living in urban areas. Those women also more often underwent cytological screening. Conclusions. Educational campaigns should particularly include group of women living in the rural areas and women with primary and secondary education.

  2. The effects of type of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what the operator of a dynamic system needs to know was investigated in an experiment using PLANT, a simulation of a generic dynamic production process. Knowledge of PLANT was manipulated via different types of instruction, so that four different groups were created: (1) minimal instructions only; (2) minimal instructions and guidelines for operation (procedures); (3) minimal instructions and dynamic relationships (principles); and (4) minimal instructions, and procedures, and principles. Subjects controlled PLANT in a variety of situations which required maintaining production while also diagnosing familiar and unfamiliar failures. Despite the fact that these manipulations resulted in differences in subjects' Knowledge, as assessed via a written test at the end of the experiment, instructions had no effect upon achievement of the primary goal of production, or upon subjects' ability to diagnose unfamiliar failures. However, those groups receiving procedures controlled the system in a more stable manner. Possible reasons for the failure to find an effect of principles are presented, and the implications of these results for operator training and aiding are discussed.

  3. Harnessing the Risk-Related Data Supply Chain: An Information Architecture Approach to Enriching Human System Research and Operations Knowledge

    Buquo, Lynn; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD), not unlike many NASA organizations today, struggle with the inherent inefficiencies caused by dependencies on heterogeneous data systems and silos of data and information spread across decentralized discipline domains. The capture of operational and research-based data/information (both in-flight and ground-based) in disparate IT systems impedes the extent to which that data/information can be efficiently and securely shared, analyzed, and enriched into knowledge that directly and more rapidly supports HRP's research-focused human system risk mitigation efforts and SLSD s operationally oriented risk management efforts. As a result, an integrated effort is underway to more fully understand and document how specific sets of risk-related data/information are generated and used and in what IT systems that data/information currently resides. By mapping the risk-related data flow from raw data to useable information and knowledge (think of it as the data supply chain), HRP and SLSD are building an information architecture plan to leverage their existing, shared IT infrastructure. In addition, it is important to create a centralized structured tool to represent risks including attributes such as likelihood, consequence, contributing factors, and the evidence supporting the information in all these fields. Representing the risks in this way enables reasoning about the risks, e.g. revisiting a risk assessment when a mitigation strategy is unavailable, updating a risk assessment when new information becomes available, etc. Such a system also provides a concise way to communicate the risks both within the organization as well as with collaborators. Understanding and, hence, harnessing the human system risk-related data supply chain enhances both organizations' abilities to securely collect, integrate, and share data assets that improve human system research and operations.

  4. Human vs. Computer Diagnosis of Students' Natural Selection Knowledge: Testing the Efficacy of Text Analytic Software

    Nehm, Ross H.; Haertig, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Our study examines the efficacy of Computer Assisted Scoring (CAS) of open-response text relative to expert human scoring within the complex domain of evolutionary biology. Specifically, we explored whether CAS can diagnose the explanatory elements (or Key Concepts) that comprise undergraduate students' explanatory models of natural selection with…

  5. Clearing the Highest Hurdle: Human-Based Case Studies Broaden Students' Knowledge of Core Evolutionary Concepts

    Werth, Alexander J.

    2009-01-01

    An anonymous survey instrument was used for a ten year study to gauge college student attitudes toward evolution. Results indicate that students are most likely to accept evolution as a historical process for change in physical features of non-human organisms. They are less likely to accept evolution as an ongoing process that shapes all traits…

  6. An Analysis of Knowledge Production and Organizational Change within Four Approaches to Human Resource Development.

    Vincere, Thomas J.

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes four models for work place learning, focusing on their respective learning design models. Shows how work place education affects issues of deskilling, the objectification of the worker as human capital, and the reproduction of capitalist ideology and inequalities of gender, race, ethnicity, and class. Calls for new directions for adult…

  7. UniDA: Uniform Device Access Framework for Human Interaction Environments

    Santiago Vazquez-Rodriguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Human interaction environments (HIE must be understood as any place where people carry out their daily life, including their work, family life, leisure and social life, interacting with technology to enhance or facilitate the experience. The integration of technology in these environments has been achieved in a disorderly and incompatible way, with devices operating in isolated islands with artificial edges delimited by the manufacturers. In this paper we are presenting the UniDA framework, an integral solution for the development of systems that require the integration and interoperation of devices and technologies in HIEs. It provides developers and installers with a uniform conceptual framework capable of modelling an HIE, together with a set of libraries, tools and devices to build distributed instrumentation networks with support for transparent integration of other technologies. A series of use case examples and a comparison to many of the existing technologies in the field has been included in order to show the benefits of using UniDA.

  8. How concepts are encoded in the human brain: A modality independent, category-based cortical organization of semantic knowledge.

    Handjaras, Giacomo; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Leo, Andrea; Lenci, Alessandro; Cecchetti, Luca; Cosottini, Mirco; Marotta, Giovanna; Pietrini, Pietro

    2016-07-15

    How conceptual knowledge is represented in the human brain remains to be determined. To address the differential role of low-level sensory-based and high-level abstract features in semantic processing, we combined behavioral studies of linguistic production and brain activity measures by functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals while they performed a property-generation task with concrete nouns from eight categories, presented through visual and/or auditory modalities. Patterns of neural activity within a large semantic cortical network that comprised parahippocampal, lateral occipital, temporo-parieto-occipital and inferior parietal cortices correlated with linguistic production and were independent both from the modality of stimulus presentation (either visual or auditory) and the (lack of) visual experience. In contrast, selected modality-dependent differences were observed only when the analysis was limited to the individual regions within the semantic cortical network. We conclude that conceptual knowledge in the human brain relies on a distributed, modality-independent cortical representation that integrates the partial category and modality specific information retained at a regional level. PMID:27132545

  9. Teachers' knowledge sharing: a study on the influence of work engagement, occupational self-efficacy and Human Resources Management on knowledge sharing

    Vermeulen, M.; Runhaar, P.; Konermann, J.; Sanders, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge sharing is one of the professionalizetion processes and is an important factor in the competition between organizations and for innovation processes to sustain. In this study the central theme is the way knowledge sharing is affected by occupational self-efficacy (OSE), work engagement and

  10. The effects of level of knowledge upon human problem solving in a process control task

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of knowledge of a system on the performance of the operator has been investigated using PLANT, a generic simulation of a process. Four sets of written instructions representing the what, how, and why of system control were utilized by groups of subjects who controlled PLANT in a variety of familiar and unfamiliar situations. Written test results at the end of the experiments showed that the instructions had no effect on the primary goal of production, but those groups receiving guidelines for operation (the how) controlled the system in a more stable manner. Principles (the why) had no apparent effect on the subjects' performance. There was no difference between groups in diagnosing unfamiliar events.

  11. Bromo volcano area as human-environment system: interaction of volcanic eruption, local knowledge, risk perception and adaptation strategy

    Bachri, Syamsul; Stötter, Johann; Sartohadi, Junun

    2013-04-01

    People in the Bromo area (located within Tengger Caldera) have learn to live with the threat of volcanic hazard since this volcano is categorized as an active volcano in Indonesia. During 2010, the eruption intensity increased yielding heavy ash fall and glowing rock fragments. A significant risk is also presented by mass movement which reaches areas up to 25 km from the crater. As a result of the 2010 eruption, 12 houses were destroyed, 25 houses collapsed and there were severe also effects on agriculture and the livestock sector. This paper focuses on understanding the interaction of Bromo volcanic eruption processes and their social responses. The specific aims are to 1) identify the 2010 eruption of Bromo 2) examine the human-volcano relationship within Bromo area in general, and 3) investigate the local knowledge related to hazard, risk perception and their adaptation strategies in specific. In-depth interviews with 33 informants from four districts nearest to the crater included local people and authorities were carried out. The survey focused on farmers, key persons (dukun), students and teachers in order to understand how people respond to Bromo eruption. The results show that the eruption in 2010 was unusual as it took continued for nine months, the longest period in Bromo history. The type of eruption was phreatomagmatic producing material dominated by ash to fine sand. This kind of sediment typically belongs to Tengger mountain eruptions which had produced vast explosions in the past. Furthermore, two years after the eruption, the interviewed people explained that local knowledge and their experiences with volcanic activity do not influence their risk perception. Dealing with this eruption, people in the Bromo area applied 'lumbung desa' (traditional saving systems) and mutual aid activity for surviving the volcanic eruption. Keywords: Human-environment system, local knowledge, risk perception, adaptation strategies, Bromo Volcano Indonesia

  12. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners

    Heukelbach Jorg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited. Methods In a community-based study, we examined 396 dogs in urban and rural areas of Ilorin (Kwara State, Central Nigeria for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths. In addition, a questionnaire regarding knowledge and practices was applied to pet owners. Results Nine ectoparasite species belonging to four taxa and six intestinal helminth species were identified: fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Pulex irritans, Tunga penetrans, mites (Demodex canis, Otodectes sp., Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes sp., and lice (Trichodectes canis; and Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum, Taenidae and Strongyloides sp. Overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 60.4% and of intestinal helminths 68.4%. The occurrence of C. canis, R. sanguineus, T. canis, Ancylostoma sp. and T. vulpis was most common (prevalence 14.4% to 41.7%. Prevalence patterns in helminths were age-dependent, with T. canis showing a decreasing prevalence with age of host, and a reverse trend in other parasite species. Knowledge regarding zoonoses was very limited and the diseases not considered a major health problem. Treatment with antiparasitic drugs was more frequent in urban areas. Conclusion Parasites of importance for human health were highly prevalent in Nigerian dogs. Interventions should include health education provided to dog owners and the establishment of a program focusing on zoonotic diseases.

  13. When does quality improvement count as research? Human subject protection and theories of knowledge

    LYNN, J

    2004-01-01

    

 The publication of insights from a quality improvement project recently precipitated a ruling by the lead federal regulatory agency that regulations providing protection for human subjects of research should apply. The required research review process did not match the rapid changes, small samples, limited documentation, clinician management, and type of information commonly used in quality improvement. Yet quality improvement can risk harm to patients, so some review might be in order. Th...

  14. Knowledge about human papillomavirus and the HPV vaccine – a survey of the general population

    2009-01-01

    Background The United States (US) Food & Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with the purpose of reducing the risk of cervical cancers caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18. It is important that the general population be educated about HPV and the HPV vaccine in order to make the appropriate decision whether or not to vaccinate against this virus. Participants from the adult US general population of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and Hampton, Virginia, USA (1...

  15. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models

    Martone, Maryann E.; Mungall, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have expl...

  16. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health

    Volker Mai; Peter V Draganov

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health,possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s).

  17. Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health.

    Mai, Volker; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    The complex gut microbial flora harbored by individuals (microbiota) has long been proposed to contribute to intestinal health as well as disease. Pre- and probiotic products aimed at improving health by modifying microbiota composition have already become widely available and acceptance of these products appears to be on the rise. However, although required for the development of effective microbiota based interventions, our basic understanding of microbiota variation on a population level and its dynamics within individuals is still rudimentary. Powerful new parallel sequence technologies combined with other efficient molecular microbiota analysis methods now allow for comprehensive analysis of microbiota composition in large human populations. Recent findings in the field strongly suggest that microbiota contributes to the development of obesity, atopic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancers. Through the ongoing National Institutes of Health Roadmap 'Human Microbiome Project' and similar projects in other parts of the world, a large coordinated effort is currently underway to study how microbiota can impact human health. Translating findings from these studies into effective interventions that can improve health, possibly personalized based on an individuals existing microbiota, will be the task for the next decade(s). PMID:19115471

  18. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  19. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa – Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a 'Literature Criteria Checklist' has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  20. Usability and Acceptance of the Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment: An Open Access Online Knowledge Capture, Management, and Configuration Tool for OpenInfobutton

    Jing, Xia; James J Cimino; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Background The Librarian Infobutton Tailoring Environment (LITE) is a Web-based knowledge capture, management, and configuration tool with which users can build profiles used by OpenInfobutton, an open source infobutton manager, to provide electronic health record users with context-relevant links to online knowledge resources. Objective We conducted a multipart evaluation study to explore users’ attitudes and acceptance of LITE and to guide future development. Methods The evaluation consiste...

  1. Imprisoned and imperiled: access to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and denial of human rights, in Zambian prisons

    Todrys Katherine W

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although HIV and tuberculosis (TB prevalence are high in prisons throughout sub-Saharan Africa, little research has been conducted on factors related to prevention, testing and treatment services. Methods To better understand the relationship between prison conditions, the criminal justice system, and HIV and TB in Zambian prisons, we conducted a mixed-method study, including: facility assessments and in-depth interviews with 246 prisoners and 30 prison officers at six Zambian prisons; a review of Zambian legislation and policy governing prisons and the criminal justice system; and 46 key informant interviews with government and non-governmental organization officials and representatives of international agencies and donors. Results The facility assessments, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews found serious barriers to HIV and TB prevention and treatment, and extended pre-trial detention that contributed to overcrowded conditions. Disparities both between prisons and among different categories of prisoners within prisons were noted, with juveniles, women, pre-trial detainees and immigration detainees significantly less likely to access health services. Conclusions Current conditions and the lack of available medical care in Zambia's prisons violate human rights protections and threaten prisoners' health. In order to protect the health of prisoners, prison-based health services, linkages to community-based health care, general prison conditions and failures of the criminal justice system that exacerbate overcrowding must be immediately improved. International donors should work with the Zambian government to support prison and justice system reform and ensure that their provision of funding in such areas as health services respect human rights standards, including non-discrimination. Human rights protections against torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and criminal justice system rights, are

  2. Human Papilloma Virus Awareness, Knowledge and Vaccine Acceptance among Norwegian Adolescents

    Stafne, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a virus that causes genital warts and a range of different cancer types. Vaccination against HPV was introduced in Norway in 2009, for girls in the 7th grade, as a part of the Norwegian Childhood Vaccination Program. There has been much discussion about the HPV-vaccine before and after the vaccine introduction. The uptake of HPV-vaccination is lower (67-75%) than for other vaccines. The lower vaccine uptake may be explained by lack of information abo...

  3. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  4. SPECTRA: An Integrated Knowledge Base for Comparing Tissue and Tumor-Specific PPI Networks in Human.

    Micale, Giovanni; Ferro, Alfredo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks available in public repositories usually represent relationships between proteins within the cell. They ignore the specific set of tissues or tumors where the interactions take place. Indeed, proteins can form tissue-selective complexes, while they remain inactive in other tissues. For these reasons, a great attention has been recently paid to tissue-specific PPI networks, in which nodes are proteins of the global PPI network whose corresponding genes are preferentially expressed in specific tissues. In this paper, we present SPECTRA, a knowledge base to build and compare tissue or tumor-specific PPI networks. SPECTRA integrates gene expression and protein interaction data from the most authoritative online repositories. We also provide tools for visualizing and comparing such networks, in order to identify the expression and interaction changes of proteins across tissues, or between the normal and pathological states of the same tissue. SPECTRA is available as a web server at http://alpha.dmi.unict.it/spectra. PMID:26005672

  5. On the trails of markers and proxies: the socio-cognitive technologies of human movement, knowledge assemblage, and their relevance to the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    David Turnbull

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria, pigs, rats, pots, plants, words, bones, stones, earrings, diseases, and genetic indicators of all varieties are markers and proxies for the complexity of interweaving trails and stories integral to understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage in Southeast Asia and around the world.Understanding human movement and knowledge assemblage is central to comprehending the genetic basis of disease, especially of a cancer like nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The problem is that the markers and trails, taken in isolation, do not all tell the same story. Human movement and knowledge assemblage are in constant interaction in an adaptive process of co-production with genes, terrain, climate, sea level changes, kinship relations, diet, materials, food and transport technologies, social and cognitive technologies, and knowledge strategies and transmission. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is the outcome of an adaptive process involving physical, social, and genetic components.

  6. Measuring human locomotor control using EMG and EEG: Current knowledge, limitations and future considerations.

    Enders, Hendrik; Nigg, Benno M

    2016-06-01

    Electrical signals encoding different forms of information can be observed at multiple levels of the human nervous system. Typically, these signals have been recorded in a rather isolated fashion with little overlap between the static recordings of electroencephalography (EEG) commonly used in neuroscience and the typical surface electromyography (EMG) recordings used in biomechanics. However, within the last decade, there has been an emerging need to link the electrical activation patterns of brain areas during movement to the behavior of the musculoskeletal system. This review discusses some of the most recent studies using the EEG and/or EMG to study the neural control of movement and human locomotion as well as studies quantifying the connectivity between brain and muscles. The focus is on rhythmic locomotor-type activities; however, results are discussed within the framework of initial work that has been done in upper and lower limbs during static and dynamic contractions. Limitations and current challenges as well as the possibility and functional interpretation of studying the connectivity between the cortex and skeletal muscles using a measure of coherence are discussed. The manuscript is geared toward scientists interested in the application of EEG in the field of locomotion, sports and exercise. PMID:26238032

  7. Lithium: updated human knowledge using an evidence-based approach: part III: clinical safety.

    Grandjean, Etienne Marc; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Lithium use in mental diseases has changed over the years but remains a cornerstone of treatment in bipolar disorders. In two companion papers, we have reviewed existing (and especially recent) data on lithium efficacy and updated basic knowledge regarding the practical fundamentals of lithium therapy. The present paper reviews safety data on lithium available to date. Gastrointestinal pain or discomfort, diarrhoea, tremor, polyuria, nocturnal urination, weight gain, oedema, flattening of affect and exacerbation of psoriasis are typical complaints of patients receiving long-term lithium therapy. Renal involvement results in a reduced urinary concentrating capacity, expressed as obligate polyuria, with secondary thirst. With long-term therapy, this may result in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In addition, glomerular filtration rate falls slightly in about 20% of patients. The view that only a few patients receiving long-term lithium are at increased risk of glomerular impairment and progressive renal insufficiency should be regarded with caution. The risk is increased in case of concomitant diseases or medications. Lithium treatment may inhibit thyroid hormone release and induce goitre. Consequently, the prevalence of both overt and subclinical hypothyroidism is increased, with circulating thyroid auto-antibodies frequently being found. Much less commonly, thyrotoxicosis may also develop in association with lithium therapy. Long-term lithium treatment may also be associated with persistent hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcaemia, as well as with hypermagnesaemia. Overweight of up to 4-10 kg is found in approximately 30% of lithium-treated patients. Most neurological manifestations are benign, for example, the fine postural and/or action tremor present in 4-20% of patients. This is increased by high caffeine consumption and concomitant use of other psychotropic agents. A number of rare, potentially serious neurological adverse effects have been reported, including

  8. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment.

    2013-01-01

    Insects and their arthropod relatives including mites, spiders, and crustaceans play major roles in the world's terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Arthropods compete with humans for food and transmit devastating diseases. They also comprise the most diverse and successful branch of metazoan evolution, with millions of extant species. Here, we describe an international effort to guide arthropod genomic efforts, from species prioritization to methodology and informatics. The 5000 arthropod genomes initiative (i5K) community met formally in 2012 to discuss a roadmap for sequencing and analyzing 5000 high-priority arthropods and is continuing this effort via pilot projects, the development of standard operating procedures, and training of students and career scientists. With university, governmental, and industry support, the i5K Consortium aspires to deliver sequences and analytical tools for each of the arthropod branches and each of the species having beneficial and negative effects on humankind. PMID:23940263

  9. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    Brown, J.; Gjelsvik, R. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)); Holm, E. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Saxen, R.; Outola, I. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland))

    2009-03-15

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  10. Filling knowledge gaps in radiation protection methodologies for non-human biota. Final summary report

    The activities of the GAPRAD project are summarised in this report. The background and rationale to GAPRAD are presented and explained. Most notably this relates to a lack of information on naturally occuring radionuclides in terrestrial and aquatic systems that have direct applicability for use in environmental impact assessments. Results from field activities are presented from the Dovrefjell area in Norway (terrestrial study) and selected lake and brackish water systems in Finland. The data mainly concern activity concentrations of Po-210 in environmental media and selected biota allowing concentration ratios to be derived where appropriate. Furthermore, details in relation to Po-210 uptake and biokinetics in humans based on experimental work conducted within the project are presented. (au)

  11. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling as a possible solution to increase access to drinking water in Africa through integration of systematized GIS data and local knowledge

    Fussi, Fabio; Alvino, Roberta; Caruba, Massimo; Galimberti, Luca; Marzan, Ignacio; Tarrason y Cerda', David; Sabatini, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    In several African countries water supply is still largely a huge problem. In order to achieve MDG for water supply, UNICEF is promoting manual drilling in Africa. Manual drilling refers to those techniques of drilling boreholes for groundwater exploitation using human or animal power (not mechanized equipment). These techniques are well known in countries with large alluvial deposits (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc). They are cheaper than mechanized boreholes, easy to implement as the equipment is locally done, able to provide clean water if correctly applied. But manual drilling is feasible only where suitable hydrogeological conditions are met: - the shallow geological layers are not too hard (soft sediments or rocks having limited resistance) and have good permeability; - the depth where it is possible to find exploitable water is limited (in this study we assumed no deeper than 25 m). For this reason mapping of suitable zone for manual drilling has been the first step in UNICEF program already completed in 15 countries. this paper explains the general methodology for the identification of suitable zones at country level The methodology is based in the integration of different information (maps, reports, database) already existing in each country, together with interview of local technicians with direct experience in various regions and limited direct field data collection. General suitability for manual drilling (although adapted to specific condition in each country) is based on the combination of three main parameters: the geological suitability, the suitability according to water depth and the morphological suitability: - Geological suitability is related to the hardness and permeability of the shallow layers of rock formations. It has been obtained through a GIS procedure of simplification and reclassification of geological maps, estimating hardness and permeability of main rock and overlaying weathered layer on the basis of stratigraphic borehole logs

  12. Preservation of knowledge: general principals, methodology and application in nuclear industry. Working material. Report prepared within the framework of the Programmes: C.3. Nuclear Knowledge Management and A.2. Improving Quality Assurance, Technical Infrastructure and Human Performance

    There is an immediate need to preserve existing knowledge in nuclear science and technology for peaceful applications for future generations, as it represents a valuable human capital asset. The development of an exciting vision for nuclear technology is prerequisite for attracting young scientists and professionals to seek careers in nuclear science and technology. Irrespective of current national energy policies, the need to maintain or even enhance the nuclear knowledge base and national capability will persist. In this way, the knowledge base will be available to meet requirements for evolving policy development. A number of IAEA advisory committees and technical meetings stressed the importance of preserving and further enhancing nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development. For nuclear science and technology to contribute to sustainable development requires knowledge and capacity on three levels: (a) basic nuclear science, (b) technology, (c) engineering and operation. There was unanimous consensus that IAEA has an obligation to lead activities towards preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge by complementing, and as appropriate supplementing, activities by governments, industry, academia and international organizations. International co-operation is of vital importance. Unless action is taken now, invaluable assets in critical nuclear knowledge and capacity will soon be lost. The IAEA is developing guidance documents on nuclear knowledge management including knowledge preservation and knowledge transfer in nuclear sector. This activity would assist nuclear organizations in MS to effectively apply this guidance, and to assist them in benchmarking their practices against those of other industry organizations. The present Working Material provides general principals for knowledge preservation in nuclear sector, which could be applied in different nuclear organization and in particular in Nuclear Power Plants

  13. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada

    Mediå, Anne Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electr...

  14. Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy

    Consolo Silvia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes. Methods Between 2 May and 15 June 2008, we made a cross-sectional survey of 863 high school students and 2,331 parents of middle and high school students using two anonymously completed questionnaires covering the knowledge of HPV infection and related diseases, and attitudes to vaccinations. The approached schools were a convenience sample of the schools of the greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Results More mothers than fathers were aware that HPV infection could concern their children (58% vs 53%; p = 0.004 and were favourable towards vaccinating their children against HPV (68% vs 65%; p = 0.03; among the students, more females than males were aware that HPV infection could concern themselves (45% vs 26%; p vs 40%; p Conclusions Both students and parents seem to underestimate the likelihood of HPV infection, and this is associated with a lower propensity for vaccination. This is an important indication for future training programmes concerning HPV prevention designed to increase the acceptance of HPV vaccine in families.

  15. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    Shin Sook-Il

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reconstructions (MRs are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Results Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Conclusion Taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.

  16. Tuberculosis in the era of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus: assessment and comparison of community knowledge of both infections in rural Uganda

    Wynne Ashley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, despite a significant public health burden of tuberculosis (TB in the context of high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence, little is known about community knowledge of TB. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare knowledge about TB and HIV in the general population of western Uganda and to examine common knowledge gaps and misconceptions. Methods We implemented a multi-stage survey design to randomly survey 360 participants from one district in western Uganda. Weighted summary knowledge scores for TB and HIV were calculated and multiple linear regression (with knowledge score as the dependant variable was used to determine significant predictors. Six focus group discussions were conducted to supplement survey findings. Results Mean (SD HIV knowledge score was 58 (12 and TB knowledge score was 33 (15, both scores out of 100. The TB knowledge score was statistically significantly (p  Conclusion TB knowledge is low and many misconceptions about TB exist: these should be targeted through health education programs. Both TB and HIV-infection knowledge gaps could be better addressed through an integrated health education program on both infections, whereby TB program managers include HIV information and vice versa.

  17. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves. PMID:26320444

  18. Solid knowledge

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  19. An Approach to Publish Scientific Data of Open-Access Journals Using Linked Data Technologies

    Hallo, María; Luján Mora, Sergio; Chávez, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Semantic Web encourages digital libraries, including open access journals, to collect, link and share their data across the Web in order to ease its processing by machines and humans to get better queries and results. Linked Data technologies enable connecting related data across the Web using the principles and recommendations set out by Tim Berners-Lee in 2006. Several universities develop knowledge through scholarship and research with open access policies for the generated knowledge, usin...

  20. Evaluating a Human Rights-Based Advocacy Approach to Expanding Access to Pain Medicines and Palliative Care: Global Advocacy and Case Studies from India, Kenya, and Ukraine.

    Lohman, Diederik; Amon, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Palliative care has been defined as care that is person-centered and attentive to physical symptoms and psychological, social, and existential distress in patients with severe or life-threatening illness. The identification of access to palliative care and pain treatment as a human rights issue first emerged among palliative care advocates, physicians, and lawyers in the 1990s, with a basis in the right to health and the right to be free from cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. Using a case study approach, we evaluate the results of a human rights-based advocacy approach on access to pain medicine and palliative care in India, Kenya, and Ukraine. In each country, human rights advocacy helped raise awareness of the issue, identify structural barriers to care, define government obligations, and contribute to the reform of laws, policies, and practices impeding the availability of palliative care services. In addition, advocacy efforts stimulated civil society engagement and high-level political leadership that fostered the implementation of human rights-based palliative care programs. Globally, access to palliative care was increasingly recognized by human rights bodies and within global health and drug policy organizations as a government obligation central to the right to health. PMID:26766856

  1. On the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union and the EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Aurora CIUCĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available After a short presentation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights and its features, the paper is focused on the European Union‟s accession to the European Convention of Human Rights. As part of the Treaty of Lisbon implementation, this process is not an easy one. The author intends to identify and raise questions on this process, and to emphasise some technical and procedural difficulties, by comparing the two main European human rights systems. Europe has to face many changes and challenges: the recent entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, the “new status” of the Charter of fundamental rights (as a legally binding instrument and the beginning of the process of EU‟s accession to the European Convention of Human Rights. This paper is intended to point out some aspects of this new era of the European construction.

  2. Open Access and SSHRC

    Sylvain, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The presenter, Christian Sylvain, is the Director, Policy, Planning, and International Affairs of Canada's Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), the primary funding agency for social sciences and humanities research in Canada. This session presents an overview of open access at SSHRC, beginning with the endorsement of the concept of open access by SSHRC Council in 2004. The objective is to remove barriers to access to publicly funded research, so as to increase circulatio...

  3. Knowledge of and attitude toward human papillomavirus infection and vaccines among female nurses at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    Makwe CC

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Chigozie Makwe, Rose Ihuoma AnorluDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, NigeriaBackground: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer. Highly immunogenic HPV vaccines have been developed and licensed for the primary prevention of cervical cancer in some developed and developing countries. This calls for assessment of the knowledge of the HPV infection and the acceptability of the HPV vaccines among health care providers.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of HPV infection and vaccines and to assess attitude toward these vaccines among female nurses at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.Study design: The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive study using a pretested, structured, anonymous, self-administered, 19-item questionnaire.Results: A total of 178 female nurses were interviewed during a 4-week period. The mean age of respondents was 37.1 ± 3.1 years. Almost all (99.4% of the respondents had heard of cervical cancer, while about 85% of them had heard of HPV infection. Only a quarter (25.3% of respondents had heard of the HPV vaccines, and of those only 26.7% knew the vaccines were for the prevention of cervical cancer. Most (70.2% of the nurses expressed a desire to be vaccinated and 120 (67.4% supported the vaccination of preadolescent girls. Those who expressed a willingness to be vaccinated were more likely to recommend HPV vaccination for preadolescent girls.Conclusion: Overall, there was a poor knowledge of the HPV vaccines among female nurses at Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Despite this poor knowledge, most of the nurses expressed a strong desire to be vaccinated and their intention to recommend it for preadolescent girls. The main reason given overall for not recommending the vaccines was lack of information. There is an urgent

  4. Knowledge and perception of Prevention of Mother to Child services amongst pregnant women accessing antenatal clinic in a Primary Health Care centre in Nigeria

    Owoaje, Eme T.; Adedoyin D. Omidokun; Ige, Olusimbo K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed pregnant women’s perceptions regarding prevention of mother to child of HIV and the available services at the primary health care level in Nigeria.Objective: Assessment of knowledge and perception of antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees regarding Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV at primary health care facilities in south-west Nigeria.Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 400 antenatal attendees in a Primary Health Car...

  5. A simple knowledge-based mining method for exploring hidden key molecules in a human biomolecular network

    Tsuji Shingo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the functional genomics analysis domain, various methodologies are available for interpreting the results produced by high-throughput biological experiments. These methods commonly use a list of genes as an analysis input, and most of them produce a more complicated list of genes or pathways as the results of the analysis. Although there are several network-based methods, which detect key nodes in the network, the results tend to include well-studied, major hub genes. Results To mine the molecules that have biological meaning but to fewer degrees than major hubs, we propose, in this study, a new network-based method for selecting these hidden key molecules based on virtual information flows circulating among the input list of genes. The human biomolecular network was constructed from the Pathway Commons database, and a calculation method based on betweenness centrality was newly developed. We validated the method with the ErbB pathway and applied it to practical cancer research data. We were able to confirm that the output genes, despite having fewer edges than major hubs, have biological meanings that were able to be invoked by the input list of genes. Conclusions The developed method, named NetHiKe (Network-based Hidden Key molecule miner, was able to detect potential key molecules by utilizing the human biomolecular network as a knowledge base. Thus, it is hoped that this method will enhance the progress of biological data analysis in the whole-genome research era.

  6. Erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser–assisted access osteotomy for maxillary sinus elevation: a human and animal cadaver study

    Stübinger, S; Nuss, Katja M; Sebesteny, T; Saldamli, B; Sader, R; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usability of a variable square pulse (VSP) erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser for a lateral access osteotomy to the maxillary sinus in the course of a sinus elevation procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In six formalin-fixed human heads and six fresh sheep heads, a VSP Er:YAG laser was used to perform a bilateral maxillary access osteotomy. For the osteotomies, the Er:YAG laser was applied with a pulse energy of 1000 mJ, a pulse duration of 300 mu...

  7. Progress in the Development of National Knowledge Infrastructure

    曹存根; 曾庆田; 张春霞; 郑宇飞; 周肖彬; 丰强泽; 高颖; 顾芳; 司晋新; 眭跃飞; 田雯; 王海涛; 王丽丽

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the recent process in a long-term research project, calledNational Knowledge Infrastructure (or NKI). Initiated in the early 2000, the project aims todevelop a multi-domain shareable knowledge base for knowledge-intensive applications. Todevelop NKI, we have used domain-specific ontologies as a solid basis, and have built morethan 600 ontologies. Using these ontologies and our knowledge acquisition methods, we haveextracted about 1.1 millions of domain assertions. For users to access our NKI knowledge,we have developed a uniform multi-modal human-knowledge interface. We have also imple-mented a knowledge application programming interface for various applications to share theNKI knowledge.

  8. Equity in human papilloma virus vaccination uptake? : sexual behaviour, knowledge and demographics in a cross-sectional study in (un)vaccinated girls in the Netherlands

    Mollers, Madelief; Lubbers, Karin; Spoelstra, Symen K; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrordus; Daemen, Toos; Westra, Tjalke A; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; de Melker, Hester E; Tami, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is part of a national program equally accessible for all girls invited for vaccination. To assess possible inequalities in vaccine uptake, we investigated differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated girls with regard to vario

  9. Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment in Education and Industry

    Knowledge management is based on the idea that the most valuable resource of some organisation is the knowledge of its people. Organisational performances will depend, among many other things, on how effectively its people can create new knowledge, share knowledge in organisation, and use that knowledge to achieve higher efficiency and the best results. The aim of knowledge management is not necessarily to manage all knowledge, just the knowledge that is most important to the organisation. It is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where and when they need it. Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. In organisational terms, knowledge is generally considered as 'knowing how', or 'applied action'. Organisational knowledge is often classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be captured and written down in documents or databases. Tacit knowledge is the knowledge that people carry in their heads and can be difficult to access. Tacit knowledge is considered more valuable because it provides context for people, ideas and experiences. Knowledge management is discipline consisting of three components: people, processes and technology. These three components are often compared to the legs of stool- if one is missing, the stool will collapse. However, one component is more important than the others- people. What happens when someone leaves an organisation? Does the organisation feel knowledge loss? According intellectual capital theory organisation will lose not only human capital but also social, structural and relational capital. Determining what happens when these valuable experts leave may help organisation to better understand the impact of knowledge loss and formulate appropriate action in future. Management of knowledge loss is process consisting of three steps: risk assessment, determination of approach for critical knowledge capturing, and monitoring

  10. Knowledge grows when shared

    Elbæk, Mikael Karstensen

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the few commodities that don’t devalue when used. Actually knowledge grows when shared and the free online access to peer-reviewed scientific publications is a potent ingredient the process of sharing. The sharing of knowledge is facilitated by the Open Access Movement. However...... Open Access is much more than downloading the PDF. Vice President of the European Commission and European Digital Agenda Commissioner Neelie Kroes boldly presented this message in the Opening Session of the OpenAIRE launch. On the 2nd December 2010 the official launch of OpenAIRE the European...... infrastructure for Open Access was launched in Ghent, Belgium. This project and initiative is facilitating the success of the Open Access Pilot in FP7 as presented earlier in this journal. In this brief article I will present some of the most interesting issues that were discussed during the first session of the...

  11. Why the Current Insistence on Open Access to Scientific Data? Big Data, Knowledge Production, and the Political Economy of Contemporary Biology

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The collection and dissemination of data on human and nonhuman organisms has become a central feature of 21st-century biology and has been endorsed by funding agencies in the United States and Europe as crucial to translating biological research into therapeutic and agricultural innovation. Large molecular data sets, often referred to as "big…

  12. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation – study protocol

    Satolli Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two and a classical design (group one and two versus group three. The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314

  13. Knowledge society features

    Ion Popa; Cosmin Dobrin

    2007-01-01

    T21th century will be a century of informational society and knowledge, were information and knowledges will play a decisive role in economic growth on modelling, build and assertion of individual personality for world countries. Knowledge society represent climax of development for human society, where knowledge is last and highest fundamental source fo social power, succeeding other source who emphasize growth for human society- violence (force) and wealth (money). She confirm famous dictum...

  14. Improving Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) district Connectivity and Access with the Segway Human Transporter and other Low Speed Mobility Devices

    Rodier, Caroline J.; Shaheen, Susan; Novick, Linda

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for low-speed modes to improve transit access, a field test has been designed that will offer shared-use Segway Human Transporters (HT), electric bicycles, and bicycles linked to a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District station and surrounding employment centers. Because of safety concerns, research was conducted to better understand the risks associated with these modes and potential risk factors. First, a review of the safety literature indicates that user error is...

  15. Investigating the Knowledge Management Culture

    Stylianou, Vasso; Savva, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) efforts aim at leveraging an organization into a knowledge organization thereby presenting knowledge employees with a very powerful tool; organized valuable knowledge accessible when and where needed in flexible, technologically-enhanced modes. The attainment of this aim, i.e., the transformation into a knowledge…

  16. Human Library开创图书馆个体隐性知识管理新模式%Human Library Creates a New Mode to Libraries on Personal Tacit Knowledge Management

    吴云珊

    2011-01-01

    针对图书馆个体隐性知识管理问题,引入国外“真人图书馆”理念,从深度会谈、真人书筛选、非正式学习、借阅制度等方面阐述真人图书馆在个体隐性知识转移上的优势,同时结合其在隐性知识价值凸显和创新上的优势,探讨真人图书馆在图书馆个体隐性知识管理中的价值,得出真人图书馆开创图书馆个体隐性知识管理新模式的结论,以期达到推广真人图书馆、创新图书馆知识服务模式、提高图书馆知识服务水平的目的。%According to the problem of personal tacit knowledge management in libraries, the idea of human library is introduced. Through deep conversation, human book selection, informal learning, rules of loan, certain advantages of human library on personal tacit knowledge transition are expounded. By combining with the advantages on transition, value highlighting anti innovation of personal tacit knowledge, the value of human library in personal tacit knowledge management is discussed. In the hope of spreading human library, making innovations in the library knowledge service mode and improving the knowledge service level of library, it is concluded that human library creates a new mode to libraries on personal tacit knowledge management.

  17. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  18. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    Zeng, Yi; Zhong, Ning

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS)...

  19. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a "knowledge governance approach" as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment ...

  20. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  1. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  2. The Research on"Human Library"and Library's Knowledge Service Strategies%"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的策略研究

    舒文刚

    2015-01-01

    "Human Library"作为一种全新的知识服务理念与服务模式,在图书馆知识服务方面具有鲜活、独特的优势.阐述了"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的概念,提出了"Human Library"与图书馆知识服务的策略,包括加强宣传以提高社会认可、增进共识以促进合作共赢、完善制度以推进规范管理.%"Human Library", being as a new idea and pattern of knowledge service, has fresh and unique advantages in library's knowledge service. This paper expounds the concepts of"human library"and library's knowledge service, and puts forward the strategies for "human library"and library's knowledge service, which include strengthening the propaganda to improve the social acceptance, broadening the mutual understanding to promote the win-win cooperation, and perfecting the system to to promote standard management.

  3. Knowledge management

    Jarošová, Milena

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  4. New Human Resources Management and Direct Investment Inflows Build up the Knowledge-Based Society in the CEE Emerging Countries

    George PLESOIANU; Mihail Vincentiu IVAN

    2010-01-01

    Financial innovation is essential for the economic development and growth. Even more, practice proved that any sustainable economic development requires more than a “receptive” economy to financial inflows inputs. The bitter global competition changed the knowledge into the vital force of the economy. Therefore, in order to survive, companies of different sizes, have to allocate important financial resources in view of obtaining useful knowledge. The importance of knowledge in the new world e...

  5. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kien

    2015-10-01

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N = 220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n = 32) and pregnant (n = 11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  6. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  7. The Ultimate Stumbling Block? The Common Foreign and Security Policy, and Accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    , before then dissecting the intricate details of the Court of Justice’s Opinion on the CFSP elements of the Agreement. The article then points to the dilemma facing the actors in light of the ‘specific rules and procedures’ that CFSP is subjected to, followed by a discussion the possible solutions for the......Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights (‘Convention’ or ‘ECHR’) has been an obtainable goal of the European Union (EU) for decades. There is little doubt that Opinion 2/13 from the Court of Justice of the European Union (‘Court of Justice’) delivered in 2014 came as a setback for all...... the current Treaties, and could potentially put the Court of Justice in a difficult position vis-à-vis the European Court of Human Rights. In analysing the Accession through a CFSP lens, the article firstly addresses the Draft Accession Agreement concluded between the EU and the Council of Europe...

  8. Metacognitive Model of Tacit Knowledge Transfer in Human Library%真人图书馆隐性知识转移的元认知模式

    王培林

    2016-01-01

    文章针对真人图书馆中隐性知识如何转移,引入Flavell的元认知理论及董奇的元认知观点,在分析隐性知识元认知维度的基础上,探索真人图书馆隐性知识转移的元认知模式,据此提出推动真人图书馆隐性知识转移的运行机制。研究结果显示,要成功实现真人图书馆隐性知识转移,需要建立“3+1”真人图书馆隐性知识转移元认知机制。%To find a solution for“how to transfer tacit knowledge in human library”,this article combines Flavell’ s metacognitive theory with Dr. Dong’s metacognitive ideas to explore the metacognitive model of tacit knowledge transfer in human library and its operating mechanism based on the analysis of metacognitive dimensions of tacit knowledge. The results show that it need to establish a “3+1” metacognition mechanism for tacit knowledge transfer in human library in order to achieve the transfer successfully.

  9. HUBUNGAN ANTARA KNOWLEDGE-TECHNOLOGY-INNOVATION (KTI), COMMITMENT, COMPETENCE, LEADERSHIP, GOVERNMENT POLICY, HUMAN CAPITAL, DAN COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2014-01-01

    In current tight competitive situation, companies always try to create differentiation anytime to achieve better and sustainable performance. Rapid and unpredictable changes insist the companies should always be innovative, so that aspects of globalization, e-business, technology innovation, creativity, global competition, knowledge creation, diffusion of new technologies and knowledge revolution should be sources of performance and competitiveness improvement. Therefore, to maintain core com...

  10. 厦门市居民健康信息关注程度与获取途径分析%Analysis of public health knowledge access mode and the attention degree in Xiamen

    戴龙; 田丁; 骆瑾瑜; 刘晓婷; 陈友兰; 杨晓剑

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解厦门市居民最关注的健康知识和获取健康信息的途径,为制订有效可行的健康素养传播方式提供科学依据.方法 采用分层多阶段整群随机抽样的方法,以人户问卷调查的方式,对厦门市4614名15~ 80岁常住居民进行调查.结果 厦门居民最关注的健康知识依次为:饮食卫生(66.3%)、慢性病(53.8%)、传染病(53.6%)、心理疾病(50.8%).居民获取健康知识的主要途径为:电视(75.3%)、报纸(43.2%)、义诊等户外宣传活动(31.2%)、路边宣传栏(29.5%)、电台广播(28.2%).不同年龄组、不同文化程度居民关注的健康知识及对健康信息获取途径的利用不同.结论 不同年龄、文化与职业背景的居民关注不同健康信息,获取信息的途径也不同,应有针对性地制定有效可行的健康信息传播策略.%Objective To understand health related knowledge which the residents wanted to know in Xiamen City and their access to get health information,and provide scientific basis for effective and feasible health literacy measures.Methods By using the method of stratified cluster random sampling,a questionnaire survey was carried out among 4614 residents aged 15-80 years old in Xiamen City.Results Health knowledge which the residents were most concerned about were:food safety (66.3%),chronic disease (53.8%),infectious diseases (53.6%),mental health (50.8%).The main ways of residents to obtain health knowledge information:TV (75.3%),newspapers (43.2%),free consulting and other outdoor activities (31.2%),roadside billboards (29.5%),radio (28.2%).The content and access ways of health knowledge information were different among different education level and different age groups.Conclusion Different age,educational level and occupational background of residents concerned about the different health information and had different access way.Targeted effective health communication strategy should be

  11. "They think we're OK and we know we're not". A qualitative study of asylum seekers' access, knowledge and views to health care in the UK

    Mullen Kenneth

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of healthcare for asylum seekers is a global issue. Providing appropriate and culturally sensitive services requires us to understand the barriers facing asylum seekers and the facilitators that help them access health care. Here, we report on two linked studies exploring these issues, along with the health care needs and beliefs of asylum seekers living in the UK. Methods Two qualitative methods were employed: focus groups facilitated by members of the asylum seeking community and interviews, either one-to-one or in a group, conducted through an interpreter. Analysis was facilitated using the Framework method. Results Most asylum seekers were registered with a GP, facilitated for some by an Asylum Support nurse. Many experienced difficulty getting timely appointments with their doctor, especially for self-limiting symptoms that they felt could become more serious, especially in children. Most were positive about the health care they received, although some commented on the lack of continuity. However, there was surprise and disappointment at the length of waiting times both for hospital appointments and when attending accident and emergency departments. Most had attended a dentist, but usually only when there was a clinical need. The provision of interpreters in primary care was generally good, although there was a tension between interpreters translating verbatim and acting as patient advocates. Access to interpreters in other settings, e.g. in-patient hospital stays, was problematic. Barriers included the cost of over-the-counter medication, e.g. children's paracetamol; knowledge of out-of-hours medical care; and access to specialists in secondary care. Most respondents came from countries with no system of primary medical care, which impacted on their expectations of the UK system. Conclusion Most asylum seekers were positive about their experiences of health care. However, we have identified issues

  12. Organizational and collaborative knowledge

    Musadaq Hanandi; Michele Grimaldi

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge development and utilization can befacilitated by human resource practices. At the organizationallevel, the competitive advantage depends upon the firm utilizationof existing knowledge and its ability to generate new knowledgemore efficiently. At the individual level, increased delegation ofresponsibility and freedom of creativity may better allow thediscovery and utilization of local and dispersed knowledge in theorganization.This paper aims at introducing an innovative organization...

  13. Restricted accessed nanoparticles for direct magnetic solid phase extraction of trace metal ions from human fluids followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    Yan, Ping; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-06-21

    Herein, restricted accessed magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by self-assembly of a non-ionic surfactant (Tween-20) onto the 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). A series of analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR, and it was found that the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR nanoparticles have a porous structure with a BET surface area of around 99.4 m(2) g(-1), an average pore size of about 6.14 nm and a pore volume of 0.47 cm(3) g(-1). Besides, the prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR showed good size exclusion properties toward proteins, providing application potential for the direct analysis of biological samples. Based on this, a novel method of restricted accessed magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the direct determination of trace metal ions in human fluids. The parameters affecting the extraction of the target metals by MSPE were studied and the optimized conditions were established. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption capacity of Cr(III), Cd(II), La(III), Nd(III) and Pb(II) on the as-prepared restricted accessed Fe3O4@SiO2@PAR was 62.9, 56.6, 33.7, 36.9 and 43.3 mg g(-1), respectively. With an enrichment factor of 30, the limits of detection for Cr(III), Cd(II), La(III), Nd(III) and Pb(II) were as low as 11.9, 0.8, 0.7, 1.6 and 4.1 ng L(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 7.6, 8.7, 8.4, 8.1 and 5.0 (C(Cr, Pb) = 0.05 μg L(-1), C(Cd, La) = 0.005 μg L(-1), C(Nd) = 0.01 μg L(-1), n = 7), respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the direct analysis of free metal ions in human urine and serum samples, and has the advantages of good anti-interference ability, high sensitivity and exhibits great application potential in the direct analysis of trace metals in biological fluids. PMID:25943504

  14. Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI clinic

    Colón-López Vivian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%, penile (50.0% and oral (72.6% cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1, self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9 and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1. MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9 and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

  15. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  16. „Creixent saber, l.ignorança.s desperta“ – Ausiàs Marchs Cant CXIII und die Grenzen des menschlichen Wissens ["Creixent saber, l.ignorança.s desperta" - Ausiàs March's poem CXIII and the limits of human knowledge

    Müller, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The social and cultural transformations that occur in occidental Europe in the later Middle Ages have an impact on the diversification and diffusion of knowledge. Through the increasing number of scientific texts in vernacular language, knowledge formerly reserved for the clergy becomes accessible for literate laymen. The importance of this phenomenon becomes evident with authors such as Ausiàs March, who incorporate into their literary language philosophical, theological, medical or technical notions and concepts. The present paper proposes an interpretation of March’s Cant CXIII which focuses on his use of what we call the ‘discourses of knowledge’ (Wissensdiskurse. With regard to the main argument of the text – the capacity of man to understand the truth is limited, human knowledge is vain – the poet follows the ideas propa¬gated by the church. However, at the same time, he uses these scientific discourses (above all notions and concepts of Aristotelian psychology and ethics for his description and analysis of human behaviour. What at first glance seems to be a paradox, is, in fact, characteristic of the contemporary attempts to reconcile the new knowledge about man and cosmos with the Christian world vision. Yet, the tension between ‘human science’ and ‘divine science’ (which intensified in the following centuries is perceptible in March’s poem.

  17. Sustainable economics for a digital planet: ensuring long-term access to digital information. Final report of the Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access.

    Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and A, The

    2010-01-01

    Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy. But digital information is inherently fragile and often at risk of loss. Access to valuable digital materials tomorrow depends upon preservation actions taken today; and, over time, access depends on ongoing and efficient allocation of resources to preservation. Ensuring that valuable digital a...

  18. Knowledge Management: Usefulness of Knowledge to Organizational Managers

    Klein, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…

  19. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Benjamin M. Sekematte; Phillip O. Y. Nkunika; Philip Nyeko; Gudeta W. Sileshi; Akinnifesi, Festus K.; Ajayi, Oluyede C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human–termite interactions and farmers’ indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many commun...

  20. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacit knowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individuals in an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization, and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating...

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Hong Kong population towards human A/H7N9 influenza pandemic preparedness, China, 2014

    Chan, Emily YY; Cheng, Calvin KY; Tam, Greta; Huang, Zhe; Lee, Poyi

    2015-01-01

    Background Since SARS epidemic in 2003, Hong Kong has experienced several major epidemic risks, but how general community might react to the repeated infectious diseases health risks have not been studied. In 2013, imported human H7N9 influenza infected cases from China were reported. Our study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) concerning A/H7N9 among Hong Kong general population regarding pandemic preparedness in early 2014. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based...

  2. Powerful Knowledge and Geographical Education

    Roberts, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Michael Young has argued that pupils should be given access to "powerful knowledge." This article examines the extent to which his concept of powerful knowledge is applicable to geographical education, in particular to the study of urban geography. It explores the distinction Young makes between everyday and school knowledge, how this…

  3. The human genome project: Information management, access, and regulation. Technical progress report, 1 April--31 August 1993

    McInerney, J.D.; Micikas, L.B.

    1993-09-10

    Efforts are described to prepare educational materials including computer based as well as conventional type teaching materials for training interested high school and elementary students in aspects of Human Genome Project.

  4. Nuclear knowledge management

    The management of nuclear knowledge has emerged as a growing challenge in recent years. The need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge is compounded by recent trends such as ageing of the nuclear workforce, declining student numbers in nuclear-related fields, and the threat of losing accumulated nuclear knowledge. Addressing these challenges, the IAEA promotes a 'knowledge management culture' through: - Providing guidance for policy formulation and implementation of nuclear knowledge management; - Strengthening the contribution of nuclear knowledge in solving development problems, based on needs and priorities of Member States; - Pooling, analysing and sharing nuclear information to facilitate knowledge creation and its utilization; - Implementing effective knowledge management systems; - Preserving and maintaining nuclear knowledge; - Securing sustainable human resources for the nuclear sector; and - Enhancing nuclear education and training

  5. Funding scientific open access

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  6. Landscape-scale accessibility of livestock to tigers: implications of spatial grain for modeling predation risk to mitigate human-carnivore conflict.

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jena, Jyotirmay; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2015-03-01

    Innovative conservation tools are greatly needed to reduce livelihood losses and wildlife declines resulting from human-carnivore conflict. Spatial risk modeling is an emerging method for assessing the spatial patterns of predator-prey interactions, with applications for mitigating carnivore attacks on livestock. Large carnivores that ambush prey attack and kill over small areas, requiring models at fine spatial grains to predict livestock depredation hot spots. To detect the best resolution for predicting where carnivores access livestock, we examined the spatial attributes associated with livestock killed by tigers in Kanha Tiger Reserve, India, using risk models generated at 20, 100, and 200-m spatial grains. We analyzed land-use, human presence, and vegetation structure variables at 138 kill sites and 439 random sites to identify key landscape attributes where livestock were vulnerable to tigers. Land-use and human presence variables contributed strongly to predation risk models, with most variables showing high relative importance (≥0.85) at all spatial grains. The risk of a tiger killing livestock increased near dense forests and near the boundary of the park core zone where human presence is restricted. Risk was nonlinearly related to human infrastructure and open vegetation, with the greatest risk occurring 1.2 km from roads, 1.1 km from villages, and 8.0 km from scrubland. Kill sites were characterized by denser, patchier, and more complex vegetation with lower visibility than random sites. Risk maps revealed high-risk hot spots inside of the core zone boundary and in several patches in the human-dominated buffer zone. Validation against known kills revealed predictive accuracy for only the 20 m model, the resolution best representing the kill stage of hunting for large carnivores that ambush prey, like the tiger. Results demonstrate that risk models developed at fine spatial grains can offer accurate guidance on landscape attributes livestock should

  7. Knowledge Management Strategy Adopted by PNRA: A Case Study

    PNRA’s objectives of the KM strategy: • Identification of critical knowledge domains; • Identification of explicit and tacit knowledge resources; • Conversion of tacit knowledge into explicit; • Preservation of the knowledge capital; • Efficient and simple access

  8. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This article, by including the problem of “Knowledge Crash” in the more general framework of “Knowledge Management”, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  9. Knowledge, attitude towards human papillomavirus and HPV vaccine among medical students of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India

    Saswati Tripathy

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Lack of knowledge among medical students can be detrimental to the health of the society. So there is a need to create awareness among the future health educators against various aspects of HPV, cervical cancers and its prevention. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1771-1774

  10. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  11. Malaysia's Human Resource Strategies for a Knowledge-Based Economy - Comparing the Influence of Different Labur Market Relations

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15-20 years the Malaysian government has sought to meet the increasing international competition in the labour intensive manufacturing industry by transforming the economy to a more knowledge-based economy. Impotant levers are industrial upgrading policies and partnerships with leadin...

  12. Physical and human dimensions for integrated coastal management: Assessment of coastal changes and resident knowledge base in coastal areas of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Euan-Avila, Jorge Ivan

    Coastal zones are under severe pressure as a result of multiple human activities. Environmental degradation, coastal ecosystems' importance and resource depletion require alternative policy for long-term sustainable development. This study focuses on physical and human dimensions involved in ecosystem perturbation and management. This research analyzed data collected with remote sensors to determine land cover changes in tropical mangrove wetlands and their spatial relationships with roads and town developments. It also analyzed data of 139 interviews with residents in the area to assess their knowledge base regarding: (i) the use and non-use values of mangrove wetlands, (ii) attitudes in resource use, (iii) awareness of environmental impacts of urban expansion, solid waste disposal in wetlands, and coastal road networks, and (iv) acceptance of regulation. Findings indicated: (i) a significant loss of vegetation and soils, (ii) increasing urban growth and (iii) differences between urban and rural residents regarding the use, knowledge and attitudes towards coastal ecosystems and resources. To receive the future benefits from these ecosystems, specially for those whose daily survival depend upon them requires an integrated management program that accounts for: (i) the size and location of land cover changes in the area, and (ii) the heterogeneity between the urban (Progreso and Prochub) and rural (Chuburna and Chelem) coastal resident knowledge base.

  13. Microeconomics of Knowledge: African Case

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Since the process of globalization era, we can always lived in economics of knowledge. The cicle of economics founded on knowledge are compost by three components: the investment in knowledge; the production and the diffusion of information technology and communication (ITC) and the institutional mechanisms that favor the access to knowledge (Foray, 2004). By fact the economics are divided in Micro and Macroeconomics, this work has as objective to approach theme “Microeconomics of Knowle...

  14. Machine integration into human life:Mankind and Cyborgization

    Khan, Muhammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Muhammad Ali Khan Abstract August 31, 2012 Machine integration into human life: Mankind & Cyborgization Embracing technology and its utilization has always been a certain goal for human beings so it would provide benefits in long run through different ways. However access to such knowledge not only helps mankind to prosper but also reveals its dark side in form of a dilemma. My paper explores the same subject of scientific knowledge as a dilemma to human life while providing its advantage...

  15. On action- and affectpsychology of human reliability. An access by training simulators for complex man-machine systems

    Theoretical part and its topics: errors at the interface between man and machine; reliability analysis for man; the psychological explanation of action reliability of man (intention and control); a paradigma for human reliability (frustration and regression). Empirical part: Control room in a nuclear power plant: Influences on repeated blockages on component care in case of start-up operation; ship bridge: Frustration and regression while steering in a bight. Appendix: analysis of a social interaction.(GL)

  16. Hydroxylation of yohimbine in superacidic media: one-step access to human metabolites 10 and 11-hydroxyyohimbine.

    Duflos, A; Redoules, F; Fahy, J; Jacquesy, J C; Jouannetaud, M P

    2001-02-01

    Two major human metabolites of yohimbine (1), 10- and 11-hydroxyyohimbine (2 and 3), were prepared by direct hydroxylation of 1 under superacidic conditions. In this medium, the four positions of the benzene part of yohimbine were hydroxylated and the corresponding monohydroxylated compounds (2-5) were isolated. The structures of 2-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:11429998

  17. Knowledge and attitude of women regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, its relationship to cervical cancer and prevention methods.

    Farzaneh, Farah; Shirvani, Hamidreza Esmaeilnia; Barouti, Esmat; Salehpour, Saghar; Khodakarami, Nahid; Alizadeh, Kamyab

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to determine knowledge and attitude of women to HPV and its association with cervical cancer and prevention methods. In a cross-sectional study, 500 women, aged between 20 and 50 presenting to local health centers in Tehran, were asked about demographic factors and questioned about cervical cancer, HPV, and prevention methods. Responses were tabulated and summarized. Although knowledge of HPV, its relation to cervical cancer and prevention methods among Iranian women is not enough, their attitude towards education in this regards is extremely high. The results reflect the need of advertising and educational programs for public about HPV prevention methods, to reduce the prevalence of this infection and its severe consequences. PMID:22390103

  18. Does Ignorance Matter? The Relative Importance of Civic Knowledge and the Human Tendency to Engage in Motivated Reasoning

    Aaron Dusso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been understood that political knowledge in the U.S. is very low. For those who care about the quality of American democracy, this is a big problem. In attempting to find a solution, many people often blame education. While increasing civic knowledge is a laudatory goal, increased political sophistication does not necessarily turn individuals into good democratic citizens. Research in cognitive and social psychology paints a picture of people as motivated reasoners. Instead of having an open-minded engagement with issues, individuals typically only seek, see, and understand information in a manner that reinforces what they already believe. Here, we examine motivated reasoning and argue that the strongest partisans and the most committed ideologues will be the most susceptible to holding contradictory policy positions with regard to same-sex marriage and religious freedom.

  19. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were dist...

  20. Russian nursing students’ knowledge level and attitudes in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – a descriptive study

    Suominen, Tarja; Laakkonen, Laura; Lioznov, Dmitry; Polukova, Maya; Nikolaenko, Svetlana; Lipiäinen, Liudmila; Välimäki, Maritta; Kylmä, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge of Russian nursing students regarding HIV and Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and their attitudes towards caring for people/patients living with HIV or AIDS (PLWHA - People Living With HIV/AIDS) and their possible homophobic attitudes. The HIV epidemic in Russia is substantial and increasing rapidly. Hence this study provides important new information regarding this phenomenon. Methods The data was collected by que...

  1. Access to Preventive Health Care for Undocumented Migrants: A Comparative Study of Germany, The Netherlands and Spain from a Human Rights Perspective

    Veronika Flegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzes the preventive health care provisions for nationals and undocumented migrants in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain in light of four indicators derived from the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights’ General Comment 14 (GC 14. These indicators are (i immunization; (ii education and information; (iii regular screening programs; and (iv the promotion of the underlying determinants of health. It aims to answer the question of what preventive health care services for undocumented migrants are provided for in Germany, the Netherlands and Spain and how this should be evaluated from a human rights perspective. The study reveals that the access to preventive health care for undocumented migrants is largely insufficient in all three countries but most extensive in the Netherlands and least extensive in Germany. The paper concludes that a human rights-based approach to health law and policy can help to refine and concretize the individual rights and state obligations for the preventive health care of undocumented migrants. While the human rights framework is still insufficiently clear in some respects, the research concedes the added value of a rights-based approach as an evaluation tool, advocacy framework and moral principle to keep in mind when adopting or evaluating state policies in the health sector.

  2. Knowledge management

    Lubojacký, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is a way to effectively manage corporate knowledge. Goal of the thesis is to analyze tasks and ways of knowledge management and technological means to support it and test chosen software tools for creation of knowledge base of business terms. First part of the work is dealing with analysis of knowledge management, technics and tools, which are used and technologies for its support. Second part is focused on testing tools for creation of business terms knowledge base for n...

  3. Open Access Article Processing Charges (OA APC) Longitudinal Study 2015 Preliminary Dataset

    Morrison, Heather; Mondésir, Guinsly; Salhab, Jihane; Villamizar, César; Calvé-Genest, Alexis; Desautels, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article documents Open access article processing charges (OA APC) longitudinal study 2015 preliminary dataset available for download from the OA APC dataverse [1]. This dataset was gathered as part of Sustaining the Knowledge Commons (SKC), a research program funded by Canada’s Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. The overall goal of SKC is to advance our collective knowledge about how to transition scholarly publishing from a system dependent on subscriptions and purchase to...

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and sexually transmitted infections among health care providers in Lahore, Pakistan

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients

  5. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J. [Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); McDonald, Neil Q., E-mail: neil.mcdonald@cancer.org.uk [Cancer Research UK, 44 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London WC2A 3LY (United Kingdom); Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  6. Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.

    Lewis, Clayton

    Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…

  7. Why Emotional Capital Matters in Education and in Labour? Toward an Optimal Exploitation of Human Capital and Knowledge Management

    Gendron, Benedicte

    2004-01-01

    Nombre de recherches scientifiques ont mis en évidence l'importance des émotions dans les prises de décisions. Pour autant, cette dimension reste encore peu prise en compte dans les approches économiques. Pour cela, et en référence aux travaux sur l'intelligence émotionnelle, dans cet article nous nous proposons d'étudier l'impact et l'importance du capital émotionnel dans la constitution et l'exploitation optimale du capital humain chez les personnes et sur le Knowledge management dans les e...

  8. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  9. Factors associated with pastoral community knowledge and occurrence of mycobacterial infections in Human-Animal Interface areas of Nakasongola and Mubende districts, Uganda

    Biffa Demelash

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emerging opportunistic pathogens whose role in human and animal disease is increasingly being recognized. Major concerns are their role as opportunistic pathogens in HIV/AIDS infections. The role of open natural water sources as source and livestock/wildlife as reservoirs of infections to man are well documented. This presents a health challenge to the pastoral systems in Africa that rely mostly on open natural water sources to meet livestock and human needs. Recent study in the pastoral areas of Uganda showed infections with same genotypes of NTM in pastoralists and their livestock. The aim of this study was to determine the environmental, animal husbandry and socio-demographic factors associated with occurrence and the pastoral community knowledge of mycobacterial infections at the human-environment-livestock/wildlife interface (HELI areas in pastoral ecosystems of Uganda. Methods Two hundred and fifty three (253 individuals were subjected to a questionnaire survey across the study districts of Nakasongola and Mubende. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results Humans sharing of the water sources with wild animals from the forest compared to savannah ecosystem (OR = 3.3, the tribe of herding pastoral community (OR = 7.9, number of rooms present in household (3-5 vs. 1-2 rooms (OR = 3.3 were the socio-demographic factors that influenced the level of knowledge on mycobacterial infections among the pastoral communities. Tribe (OR = 6.4, use of spring vs. stream water for domestic use (OR = 4.5, presence of sediments in household water receptacle (OR = 2.32, non separation of water containers for drinking and domestic use (OR = 2.46, sharing of drinking water sources with wild animals (OR = 2.1, duration of involvement of >5 yrs in cattle keeping (OR = 3.7 and distance of household to animal night shelters (>20 meters (OR = 3

  10. Open Access

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  11. Knowledge sharing: using searchable email databases

    Wedgeworth, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In today’s knowledge driven economy, a company’s intellectual capital is increasingly becoming its most important asset. The knowledge of how to create value defines a company’s success. Through knowledge management the value of knowledge within a company can be increased. One way of increasing the value of knowledge is by making it more accessible. The accessibility of knowledge can be facilitated by integrating the search for knowledge into the user’s workflow. Another way to increase the v...

  12. Reconfiguring the Law of Non-Refoulement: Procedural and Substantive Barriers for Those Seeking to Access Surrogate International Human Rights Protection

    Mark R. von Sternberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both geographic and normative constraints restrict access to surrogate international human rights protection for those seeking a haven from serious human rights abuses. Primary among territorial restrictions has been the fall-out from the US Supreme Court’s decision in Sale v. Haitian Council Centers in which the court explicitly ruled that nothing in US statutory law, or in the 1951 Convention on Refugees or its 1967 Protocol, precluded the interdiction of Haitian refugees in international waters and their return to the country of origin without an effective interview on their protection clams. This ruling is in transparent contradiction to the general international law norm of non-refoulement according to modern scholarship and emerging case law. This paper concludes that Sale should be overturned by statute as should related pre-screening practices. A new standard of “jurisdiction” should be adopted which does not depend on territorial access to a signatory state but on whether the state is exercising power in fact. Similar concerns exist with respect to safe third country agreements which often offend the international customary right of the asylum seeker to choose where his or her claim will be filed. This paper argues that the right of choice should be recognized and onward travel and admission to the country of destination allowed. This result is especially called for where return of the alien by the country of first contact raises serious concerns under the law of non-refoulement. Imbalances noted in this paper include those generated by the new terrorism related grounds of inadmissibility in theUnited States and the summary denial of children’s asylum claims flowing from gang violence.Other questions are raised in this paper concerning work authorization and detention of asylum seekers. Access to an employment authorization document for those filing colorable claims should be recognized by statute to render US practice

  13. Mobilizing Ideas in Knowledge Networks: A Social Network Analysis of the Human Resource Management Community 1990-2005

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Swart, Juani; Naude, Peter; Jiang, Zhizhong; Mouzas, Stefanos

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show the role of social networks in mobilizing how actors both impact and are impacted on by their colleagues. It seeks to compare the human resource management (HRM) academic community with two other comparable communities, and to identify those groups that are seen to work closely together.…

  14. Knowledge Management.

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  15. Knowledge Management

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  16. Level of behavior and knowledge concerning human papillomavirus among university students of a nursing college Nível do comportamento e conhecimento sobre o papilomavírus humano entre universitários do curso de enfermagem

    Camila Aparecida Cirilo; Adriana Sierra Assêncio Almeida Barbosa; Érika Zambrano

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human pappilomavirus is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, and persistent HPV infection is considered the most important cause of cervical cancer. It is detected in more than 98% of this type of cancer. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge concerning human papillomavirus among nursing college students of a private educational institution located in the City of Bauru, SP, and correlate their knowledge according to the course year. METHODS: A des...

  17. Türk Kütüphaneciliğinin Kişisel, Kurumsal ve Entelektüel Bilgi Birikimini Derleme Çalışmaları ve Elektronik Erişim Olanakları / The Studies in Turkish Librarianship for the Collection of Individual, Institutional and Intellectual Accumulation of Knowledge and the Possibilities of Electronic Access

    Mehmet Toplu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of individual, institutional and intellectual knowledge is the most basic and important instrument in the determination of the progress and conditions of any branch of science and/or profession.The librarians who have qualifications and responsibilities in everystage of the process extending from publication to the accession ofknowledge, are at the same time responsible for providing necessaryinstruments and environments. In Turkey librarians started to createeffective instruments and conditions necessary for the accession to the individual, institutional and intellectual accumulation of knowledge. A new project has been set up in 2006 under the leadership of University and Research Librarians’ Association. The objective of this project is to provide accession to the individual, institutional and intellectual accumulation of knowledge in electronic form in the field of librarianship, and therefore,in the same year a new project called “Who is Who in Librarianship in Turkey” has come into being in electronic form. From 2007, onwards “The Directory of Information Centers in Turkey is being prepared in electronic form. In the third stage of the project, the reports, papers, etc. related to librarianship will be also available for accession in electronic form.

  18. Investigating Acceptance toward Mobile Learning to Assist Individual Knowledge Management: Based on Activity Theory Approach

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Hatala, Marek; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Mobile devices could facilitate human interaction and access to knowledge resources anytime and anywhere. With respect to wide application possibilities of mobile learning, investigating learners' acceptance towards it is an essential issue. Based on activity theory approach, this research explores positive factors for the acceptance of m-learning…

  19. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    Satolli Roberto; Manfrini Roberto; Clivio Luca; Deligant Christian; Duca Piergiorgio; Compagnoni Anna; Sala Valeria; Cinquini Michela; Moschetti Ivan; Moja Lorenzo; Addis Antonio; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Dri Pietro; Liberati Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases phys...

  20. Attitudes, knowledge and risky practices facing with the human inmunodeficiency virus between the university population of Chontales (Nicaragua

    Fernando López-Noguero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article a study between the university population of Centro Regional Chontales in Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Nicaragua is presented. The attitudes facing with the HIV are analyzed and the knowledge that the lecturers and students have about this topic, also the risky practices that they usually realize.Method:Only one ad hoc questionnaire was used with questions about sexual orientation, sexual habits and birth control, knowledge about HIV, other sexually transmitted diseases, attitudes, perceptions and risky practices. A proportional stratified sampling was used to select the samples. Descriptive analysis (percentage, correlation analysis (correlation coefficient and contrast of the non-parametric hypothesis bymeans of the correlation coefficient test. Results: Fromthe analysis realized we can deduce that there is still a lack of awareness about the transmission routes of the disease (just the 14,57 % of the students and the 8,43 % of the lecturers knows that the spread is possible by blood transfusion in certain conditions. There are problems by means of attitudes and risky practices (almost the 59 % of the students states that they do not use any type of birth control in their sexual relations also the persistency of social discrimination elements (almost the 42%of the students states that theywould not livewith a person with AIDS or they say that they do not know if they would do it or not due to fear of transmission.Conclusions: It has been considered necessary to develop social and educational initiatives of healthy promotion in this environment, a multisectorial questions approach facing with the HIV, where the social and educational has a prevailing place

  1. Evaluation of fotonovela to increase human papillomavirus vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and intentions in a low-income Hispanic community

    Chan, Alvin; Brown, Brandon; Sepulveda, Enedina; Teran-Clayton, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Background It has nearly been a decade since the introduction of the vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV), yet vaccination rates in the United States have remained suboptimal, particularly among Hispanics. Culturally and linguistically relevant health education tools targeting Hispanics are needed to increase the current rate of HPV vaccination. This article evaluates a theory-informed, evidence-guided fotonovela (photographic short story) intervention to improve HPV vaccination knowled...

  2. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Mahin Behzadpour; Narges Khanjani

    2012-01-01

    Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalenc...

  3. Integrating human factors knowledge into certification: The point of view of the Internatioanal Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)

    Maurino, Daniel; Galotti, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    It is appropriate here to repeat the analogy described in the introduction to this paper which is that: The consideration of human factors requirements during the design stage of advanced, new technology systems may be seen as resting over a three-legged stool. The first leg, the equipment that a system will utilize to achieve its goals, has traditionally attracted ergonomic considerations associated with equipment design, usually centered around 'knobs and dials.' Lately, this view has expanded to include the so-called other important aspect of Human Factor's study which deals with the cognitive, behaviorial and social processes of the human operators. Study in this area must be furthered. The second leg of the stool, the procedures to operate the equipment, however, has been largely unaddressed. Procedures are not inherent to equipment, but must be developed. The importance of proper human factors consideration in the design of procedures can not be overstated. Lastly, the third leg of the stool, the certification of personnel who will operate the equipment, is very much underway, but far from being complete. The real quest now, however, is to integrate these three legs into an indivisible one. Finally, and most importantly, this workshop and its topic are extremely timely in that we are at the dawn of the most ambitious development ever undertaken in international civil aviation. This would allow us the rather unique opportunity to put theory into practice in the near future by ensuring that the concepts developed and furthered by this workshop and the follow-up are implemented in the design and certification of the ICAO future CNS/ATM systems described earlier in this paper. Now is the time to incorporate human factors requirements during the certification processes of these systems. This might act as a test to the feasibility of these ideas. Such endeavors represent a challenge for the research, engineering, training, operational and regulatory communities

  4. Knowledge Sharing

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple as...... that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing is...... considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  5. Knowledge Technologies

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  6. Knowledge-guided robust MRI brain extraction for diverse large-scale neuroimaging studies on humans and non-human primates.

    Yaping Wang

    Full Text Available Accurate and robust brain extraction is a critical step in most neuroimaging analysis pipelines. In particular, for the large-scale multi-site neuroimaging studies involving a significant number of subjects with diverse age and diagnostic groups, accurate and robust extraction of the brain automatically and consistently is highly desirable. In this paper, we introduce population-specific probability maps to guide the brain extraction of diverse subject groups, including both healthy and diseased adult human populations, both developing and aging human populations, as well as non-human primates. Specifically, the proposed method combines an atlas-based approach, for coarse skull-stripping, with a deformable-surface-based approach that is guided by local intensity information and population-specific prior information learned from a set of real brain images for more localized refinement. Comprehensive quantitative evaluations were performed on the diverse large-scale populations of ADNI dataset with over 800 subjects (55 ∼ 90 years of age, multi-site, various diagnosis groups, OASIS dataset with over 400 subjects (18 ∼ 96 years of age, wide age range, various diagnosis groups, and NIH pediatrics dataset with 150 subjects (5 ∼ 18 years of age, multi-site, wide age range as a complementary age group to the adult dataset. The results demonstrate that our method consistently yields the best overall results across almost the entire human life span, with only a single set of parameters. To demonstrate its capability to work on non-human primates, the proposed method is further evaluated using a rhesus macaque dataset with 20 subjects. Quantitative comparisons with popularly used state-of-the-art methods, including BET, Two-pass BET, BET-B, BSE, HWA, ROBEX and AFNI, demonstrate that the proposed method performs favorably with superior performance on all testing datasets, indicating its robustness and effectiveness.

  7. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creator...... organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....

  8. Knowledge management

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in...... the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.......e., creating and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  9. Knowledge Management

    In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised

  10. Human Mobility and Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department: A contribution to the knowledge of invisible flows

    Bertazzoni, Beatrice; Bertazzoni, Giuliano; Montanari, Armando

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a full report of the results of a feasibility study for a project based on the combination of clinical figures with socio-economic data on human mobility within the metropolitan area of Rome. Acknowledging that Accident and Emergency (A&E) Departments represent privileged observatories of health issues of a given territory, the point of departure of this study is the patient register dataset of the A&E Department of the Policlinico Umberto I for the period 2000-2013. The...

  11. Contribution of carpology and palynology to the knowledge of past vegetal environments, diet, diseases and pharmacopoeia of prehistoric human populations

    Renault-Miskovsky, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Carpology can be defined as the study of fruit and grains and palynology that of shape and meaning of spores and pollen grains. The results of these studies are used for reconstructing not only past vegetal environments but also the diets of prehistoric human populations.The pollen spectra observed in some archeological sediments of Southern France, dated from the Lower and Middle Paleololithic ages, allow to draw up the inventory of food plants which were the assumed diet of our ancestors.Co...

  12. Active Knowledge: Dynamically Enriching RDF Knowledge Bases by Web Services

    Nicoleta Preda; Gjergji Kasneci; Fabian Suchanek; Thomas Neumann; Wenjun Yuan; Gerhard Weikum. Active Knowledge

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of knowledge-sharing communities and the advances in information extraction have enabled the construction of large knowledge bases using the RDF data model to represent entities and relationships. However, as the Web and its latently embedded facts evolve, a knowledge base can never be complete and up-to-date. On the other hand, a rapidly increasing suite of Web services provide access to timely and high-quality information, but this is encapsulated by the service interface....

  13. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge. PMID:26900164

  14. Knowledge Harvesting for Business Intelligence

    Ben Mustapha, Nesrine; Aufaure, Marie-Aude

    2012-01-01

    With the growth rate of information volume, information access and knowledge management in enterprises has become challenging. This paper aims at describing the importance of semantic technologies (ontologies) and knowledge extraction techniques for knowledge management, search and capture in e-business processes. We will present the state of the art of ontology learning approaches from textual data and web environment and their integration in enterprise systems to perform personalized and in...

  15. Knowledge Technologies

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? Wha...

  16. Knowledge management

    Nádvorník, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to describe implementation of the information system that will support knowledge management using KM-Beat-it methodology in Helpdesk department of the Wincor Nixdorf, Ltd. company. Due to lack of knowledge management principles usage this system will support procedures and processes of knowledge management. Setup and implementation of this system was performed using and combining of two methodologies, methodology for knowledge management implementation KM-Beat-...

  17. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  18. Knowledge-Based Object Detection in Laser Scanning Point Clouds

    Boochs, F.; Karmacharya, A.; Marbs, A.

    2012-07-01

    Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This "understanding" enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists' knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.

  19. Comparison of maintenance worker's human error events occurred at United States and domestic nuclear power plants. The proposal of the classification method with insufficient knowledge and experience and the classification result of its application

    Human errors by maintenance workers in U.S. nuclear power plants were compared with those in Japanese nuclear power plants for the same period in order to identify the characteristics of such errors. As for U.S. events, cases which occurred during 2006 were selected from the Nuclear Information Database of the Institute to Nuclear Safety System while Japanese cases that occurred during the same period, were extracted from the Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA) owned by JANTI. The most common cause of human errors was insufficient knowledge or experience' accounting for about 40% for U.S. cases and 50% or more of cases in Japan. To break down 'insufficient knowledge', we classified the contents of knowledge into five categories; method', 'nature', 'reason', 'scope' and 'goal', and classified the level of knowledge into four categories: 'known', 'comprehended', 'applied' and analytic'. By using this classification, the patterns of combination of each item of the content and the level of knowledge were compared. In the U.S. cases, errors due to 'insufficient knowledge of nature and insufficient knowledge of method' were prevalent while three other items', 'reason', scope' and 'goal' which involve work conditions among the contents of knowledge rarely occurred. In Japan, errors arising from 'nature not being comprehended' were rather prevalent while other cases were distributed evenly for all categories including the work conditions. For addressing insufficient knowledge or experience', we consider that the following approaches are valid: according to the knowledge level which is required for the work, the reflection of knowledge on the procedure or education materials, training and confirmation of understanding level, virtual practice and instruction of experience should be implemented. As for the knowledge on the work conditions, it is necessary to enter the work conditions in the procedure and education materials while conducting training or education. (author)

  20. Open access

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...