WorldWideScience

Sample records for access tariffs non-tariff

  1. Non-tariff barriers, market access, and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Mathä, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of non-tariff barriers, in terms of both variable and fixed export costs, on trade structure. The relationship between fixed and variable trade costs determines whether international trade emerges. If trade emerges, only variable, but not fixed export costs, influence the trade structure. The empirical results suggest that non-tariff barriers act, in particular, as fixed export costs, as the trade and intra-industry trade emerge in a larger number of industries...

  2. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...

  3. Non-Tariff barriers - the Achilles' heel of trade policy analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Fæhn, Taran

    1997-01-01

    This study demonstrates the quantitative, as well as the qualitative, role of non-tariff barriers (NTBs). The Norwegian nominal tariff and non-tariff barriers are identified and thoroughly quantified. Computations of effective rates of protection (ERP) show that NTBs entirely dominate tariffs as direct contributors to primary factor income, which again is an important determinant in allocation of resources among industries. The indirect input-output effects play a decisive role. This points t...

  4. 75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

  5. 78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

  6. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  7. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, G. C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap and estimate trade and economic impacts of non-tariff barriers and compare them to the impacts of tariffs. Ad-valorem equivalent estimates for a set of well-defined non-tariff trade restrictions are ...

  8. Effect of the non-tariff barriers in the trade of Colombian mining goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to identify and to provide information on the non tariff barriers NTB to a group of mining products on the excellent international markets for the Colombian case, and to analyze its magnitude and incidence on the external sales of this products, to advance toward this objective is defined which measures they can be considered as non tariff restrictions, its different mensuration methodologies are analyzed and finally a qualitative and quantitative approach of the NTB is made that face the exports of Colombian mining products in their main markets, by means of a survey carried out the managers of the sector in the country. Among the main discoveries, they were evidences of the application of NTB, although they turned out to be not very significant for the sector exporter of mining products; the most frequent are the technical obstacles to the trade, but of relatively moderate incidence

  9. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

  10. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  11. The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqin Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have arisen that may threaten the future of the Chinese textile and clothing industry.World trade liberalization doesn’t necessarily mean free markets. The industry is still facing great challenges and difficulties from non-tariff barriers which are playing an ever-greater role in the ability of governments to regulate imports from other countries.  Known as “green trade barriers”, new non-tariff barriers to trade, such as technical trade barriers and environmental trade barriers, have taken the place of traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas. By analyzing the background and current situation of China's textile and clothing industry, as well as the great impact on both sides of these new barriers, this paper puts forward an effective way to clarify what efforts should be made not only by trade companies, but also by the government to alleviate the effects of NTBs.  Only through a well-coordinated joint-effort can manufacturers break through such non-tariff trade barriers and enhance the overall quantity and quality of clothing exports, so that China can maintain its current growth in the textile and clothing trade and also regain its reputation as the “kingdom of textiles”.

  12. Legal aspects of Brazilian ethanol and non-tariff barriers to import; Aspectos juridicos relativos ao etanol brasileiro e as barreiras nao-tarifarias a sua importacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho

    2010-01-15

    This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.

  13. On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

  14. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

  15. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

  16. The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tingqin Zhang; Lihong Han

    2007-01-01

    The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have ar...

  17. 47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...tariff. (e) A telephone company or group of telephone companies may...category. (9) A telephone company or group of affiliated telephone companies...association tariff. A telephone company or group of affiliated telephone...

  18. SPS measures and possible market access implications for agricultural trade in the Doha Round: An analysis of systemic issues

    OpenAIRE

    Kallummal, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Even as the Doha Round seeks to address tariff liberalization issues in a comprehensive manner, the imbalance in the outcome of market access for developing country exporters will be particularly glaring in the case of fresh agricultural and processed food products. There is growing evidence that protectionism from the usage of non-tariff barriers such as SPS measures has increased tremendously in the recent past. This paper discusses an analysis of the SPS notifications made by WTO Member co...

  19. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules : The Case of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality.

  20. Import tariff led export under-invoicing: a paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Amit K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged worldwide economic depression forces some economists and policy makers to demand for a tougher regulation to protect their domestic economy. If implemented, this may lead to a high tariff and non-tariff regime that ruled the pre-globalised world economy. This paper examines the consequences of a tariff protected trade regime. It takes up the case of trade misreporting phenomena under the framework of protected regime. It builds up a basic trade mis-invoicing model and then develops ...

  1. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels of protection.

  2. Hidden Protectionism? Evidence from Non-tariff Barriers to Trade in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Grundke, Robert; Moser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Are product standards protectionism in disguise? This paper estimates the costs of non-compliance with U.S. product standards, using a new database on U.S. import refusals from 2002 to 2012. We find that import refusals significantly decrease exports to the United States. This trade reducing effect is driven by developing countries and by refusals without any product sample analysis, in particular during the Subprime Crisis and its aftermath. This empirical result is consistent with (but does...

  3. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  4. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...include in its tariff ethical standards for its Market Monitoring Unit and the employees of its Market Monitoring...Monitoring Unit and its employees may not accept anything...Monitoring Unit and its employees must advise a supervisor...barriers to comparable treatment of demand response...

  5. Tariff-Specific Preferences and Their Influence on Price Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Wolk; Bernd Skiera

    2010-01-01

    For many services, consumers can choose among a range of optional tariffs that differ in their access and usage prices. Recent studies indicate that tariff-specific preferences may lead consumers to choose a tariff that does not minimize their expected billing rate. This study analyzes how tariff-specific preferences influence the responsiveness of consumers’ usage and tariff choice to changes in price. We show that consumer heterogeneity in tariff-specific preferences leads to heterogeneit...

  6. Tariff rate quotas: Does administration matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mo?nnich, Christina

    2003-01-01

    At the Uruguay Round, tariff rate quotas (TRQs) were intended to serve two purposes: first, to prevent that tariffication would lead ? at least on the short term ? to a deterioration of market access and second, to create new, minimum market access. The since then observed fill rates do not match with these intentions, being often rather low. A wide-held suspicion explains this with tariff quota administration imposing an extra barrier to trade. It is the aim of this paper to test ...

  7. Tariff-Specific Preferences and Their Influence on Price Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wolk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For many services, consumers can choose among a range of optional tariffs that differ in their access and usage prices. Recent studies indicate that tariff-specific preferences may lead consumers to choose a tariff that does not minimize their expected billing rate. This study analyzes how tariff-specific preferences influence the responsiveness of consumers’ usage and tariff choice to changes in price. We show that consumer heterogeneity in tariff-specific preferences leads to heterogeneity in their sensitivity to price changes. Specifically, consumers with tariff-specific preferences are less sensitive to price increases of their preferred tariff than other consumers. Our results provide an additional reason why firms should offer multiple tariffs rather than a uniform nonlinear pricing plan to extract maximum consumer surplus.

  8. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  9. Application of additive tariffs in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and discusses a methodology for the calculation and application of tariffs in the electricity sector based on the principle of tariff additivity. It shows how such tariffs can reflect costs and assure the absence of cross subsidies between clients. The methodology presented was adopted in the Portuguese Tariff Code for electricity by the Portuguese Energy Regulator (ERSE). The work presented in this article reflects the experience acquired by ERSE during the preparation, discussion and implementation of that Code. Allowed revenues are determined separately for every regulated activity, assuring that there are no cross subsidies between activities. Additionally, the application of the tariff additivity principle assures the nonexistence of cross subsidies between consumers. Regulated tariffs applicable to end users of electricity are determined by summation, variable by variable, of the different activity tariffs in accordance with the services the costumer uses and in the proportion of that use. The corollary is that if the different activity tariffs are cost reflective and promote efficiency in resource allocation, the tariffs applicable to consumers (access tariffs or integral tariffs) will also reflect costs in the same manner. Therefore, besides economic efficiency, equity between non binding system consumers and binding system consumers is promoted. The examples presented in the article intend to show how additive tariffs reflect costs giving how additive tariffs reflect costs giving adequate economic price signals for the rational use of the networks and electric energy consumption

  10. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  11. Trade reforms, market access and poverty in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Porto, Guido

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of national and foreign trade reforms on poverty in Argentina. National reforms include the removal of Argentine import tariffs. Foreign reforms include the elimination of agricultural subsidies, and tariffs and non-tariff barriers in developed countries (i.e. the United States and the European Union). From a head count ratio of 25.7 percent in 1999, a combination of domestic and global trade liberalization would cause a decline of between 1.6 and 4.6 percentage...

  12. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing various transport/transit tariff methodologies (i.e. cost-plus, incentive tariff regulation, negotiated tariffs as well as distance-related, stamp, exit/entry model) that are used in the countries examined. Chapter 6 compares available information on transit tariffs by country and by methodology used. It also compares these tariffs with domestic transport tariffs, where appropriate and possible. Finally, chapter 7 attempts to evaluate the consistency of transit tariffs with the obligations of the Energy Charter framework and highlights the areas requiring further analysis

  13. Harmonized Tariff Schedule

    US International Trade Commission — The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) was enacted by Congress and made effective on January 1, 1989, replacing the former Tariff Schedules of...

  14. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-onsistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

  15. Chile Frente a la Regulación sobre Medidas no Arancelarias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio / Chile and OMC's Law on Non Tariff Provisions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.

  16. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs. In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct an index to measure the relative welfare effectiveness of any given tariff reform, determine conditions under whichproportional and concertina reforms are locally optimal and provide illustrative examples.

  17. The impact of tariff diversity on broadband diffusion: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Lange, Mirjam R. J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis how tariff diversity affects broadband uptake, utilizing a new data set with 1497 fixed-line and 2158 mobile broadband tariffs from 91 countries across the globe. An instrumental variable approach is applied to estimate the demand for fixed broadband internet access, controlling for various industry and socio-economic factors. The empirical results indicate that, first, in addition to lower prices and higher income, more tariff diversity additionally ...

  18. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  19. Tariffs and corruption: evidence from a tariff liberalization program

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corrupt public officials and firms adjust to policy reforms that change opportunities for bribery deals to take place. I take advantage of an exogenously determined tariff liberalization program that altered opportunities to extract bribes through a particular method -“selling” tariff evasion-, to study how changes in tariff levels affected the incidence, the distribution, and the level of bribes paid during different stages of the process of importing goods...

  20. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  1. Ilusão de acesso: o modelo ALCA / Delusion of access: the FTAA model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán A., de la Reza.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas e [...] m curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental. Abstract in english The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric [...] negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.

  2. Ilusão de acesso: o modelo ALCA Delusion of access: the FTAA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas em curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental.The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.

  3. Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Chinese networks and tariff evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Rotunno, Lorenzo; Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we combine the tariff evasion analysis of Fisman and Wei (2004) with Rauch and Trindade's (2002) study of Chinese trade networks. Chinese networks are known to act as trade catalysts by enforcing contracts and providing market information. As tariff evasion occurs outside the law, market information is scant and formal institutions inexistent, rendering networks the more important. We find robust evidence that Chinese networks, proxied by ethnic Chinese migrant populations, incr...

  5. Ontario feed-in-tariff programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: ? Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. ? Most projects are either solar or wind. ? Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

  6. 49 CFR 377.103 - Tariff requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff requirements. 377.103 Section 377.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating...TRANSPORTATION CHARGES Handling of C.O.D. Shipments § 377.103 Tariff requirements. No common...

  7. 46 CFR 520.7 - Tariff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...d) Minimum quantity rates. When two...their own separate open rate tariffs. Admission to... (3) No tariff may require that overcharge claims...conference offers the return shipment of refused...of lading showing the rate assessed must be...

  8. Time- and place dependent tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the variation of the marginal losses in the Norwegian regional and distribution networks, a stylized radial network and an existing network example were analyzed as described in this report. The main conclusion is that the marginal-cost (the marginal losses) varies with time and place in a way that is little reflected in the energy components of the transfer- and distribution tariffs. The difference between the actual marginal-cost at a given time at a given place and the transport price that confronts an actor through the tariffs is so large that one must ask if there is any point in basing a price on marginal-cost as long as today's calculation methods are used. The problem varies somewhat between the network levels. In the distribution network the range of variation is large within the same voltage level/tariff level. If the situation improves, a time differentiation is still required. A further improvement can be obtained by a place differentiation, for example by differentiation between densely and sparsely populated areas. However, this is difficult to realize. In the central network the problem is the same, but it is easier technically and administratively to arrive at a more correct arrangement. In practice there are no great problems in differentiating the price down to individual bus bars. This would relate input and output tariffs more correctly and logically. If time differentiation is intended to capture load variations, it seems that certain impload variations, it seems that certain improvements are possible in the present classification. It appears that spring and autumn should stand apart as one period. Furthermore, the marginal loss tariff should be based on the water supply situation at the beginning of the tariff period. 10 refs., 13 figs., 17 tabs

  9. The Economic Analysis of Tariff Reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J

    2000-01-01

    The study examines key trade policy and customs reform issues that need to be addressed as part of the Government of Egypt's comprehensive Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program. The initial findings of this study point to the need for additional reforms in areas related to the tariff structure, customs regulations and procedures, export promotion, competitiveness, adjustments to the new WTO agreement, and working capital access. The internal consistency of these trade policy and c...

  10. Published and Realized Tariffs: the Weak Link

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Ira N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between published tariff rates and realized tariff rates using Indian inter-industry manufacturing sector data over three Plan periods. Understanding this link is important as economies liberalize trade and must deal with the potential revenue shortfalls: if the published and realized rates exhibit independent idiosyncratic behavior, it is difficult to calculate the actual implications of changes in the published tariff rate.

  11. Race-to-the-bottom tariff cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Ve?zina, Pierre-louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  12. Tariff based competition : latest developments in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provided an explanation of the concept of regulated rates in the natural gas industry, including cost based rates, tariff defined services, tariff defined terms and conditions, discounting and capacity release. Definition of competitive alternatives, such as negotiated rates and negotiated terms and conditions, was included. Additional alternatives, comprising revisions to capacity release programs and further unbundling of the natural gas industry, were also examined. A section on market competition dealt with the development of market centers and hubs, the impact of new pipeline projects as well as recontracting and decontracting. Under the heading of 'Maximizing Value' were discussed issues such as seasonally adjusted contract quantities and seasonally adjusted rates. Other competitive issues, such as access to alternative supplies and alternative markets, quality of customer relations, and timing of contract expirations, also received attention

  13. 49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13 Section 1312.13...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...13 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Definitions....

  14. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...the Federal Communications Commission...file tariffs electronically over the Internet...3) of the Communications Act of 1934...file tariffs electronically. The Commission...filing tariffs electronically pursuant to the...3) of the Communications Act shall...

  15. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  16. On the electrical two-part tariff—The Brazilian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses, in terms of Brazil's situation, the use of a nonlinear pricing approach in the application of a two-part tariff to electricity distribution networks. The principles that uphold charging access and usage are to optimize energy systems that are based on a generation technology mix. Such a pricing approach is used in Brazil, where the generation mix is mainly hydro-generation. This study shows that, in a case like Brazil's, a two-part tariff may be used as a tool for network optimization. The paper presents a design for a two-part tariff for a distribution system with varying consumer behavior. To validate the discussion, we offer a numerical example. Finally, remarks are given concerning pricing access and usage for low voltage level consumers.

  17. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two-country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties increases for small tariffs. Firm profits are falling in both tariff and fixed export cost barriers. Tariff revenue falls when fixed export costs increase whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Welfare falls when fixed export costs increase and increases for small tariffs and falls for large tariffs, i.e. there exists a welfare maximizing tariff.

  18. A theory of dynamic tariff and quota retaliation

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Nadeem

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes relationships between static Nash equilibria and dynamic Markov perfect equilibria of tariff and quota retaliation games. In supermodular games where tariffs are strategic complements, the steady state of every, symmetric Markov perfect equilibrium must have lower tariffs than in the static equilibrium. If tariffs are strategic substitutes, tariffs in the dynamic game are higher than in the static equilibrium. The supermodular case is extended to quota competition. Inst...

  19. Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Uros Andrejevic; Giuliana Campanelli Andreopoulos; Alexandros Panayides

    2011-01-01

    The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumer...

  20. The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

  1. 47 CFR 64.709 - Informational tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Furnishing of Enhanced Services and Customer-Premises Equipment by Bell Operating Companies; Telephone...public records duplication, and the Chief, Tariff and Price Analysis Branch, Competitive Pricing Division. (e) Any...

  2. Regulation and Internet Access in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Reutter, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We explain the recent events in the German market for online access using a model of a regulated monopoly renting phone lines to retailers. Retailers offer either a linear or a flat tariff to consumers. Consumer heterogeneity leads to adverse selectiion. We show why market entry for flatrate firms is difficult under a linear wholesale tariff. With both a linear and a flat wholesale tariff the consumer market shows a mixture of tariffs as well. When marginal costs are zero it is optimal to hav...

  3. Carbon tariffs for financing clean development

    OpenAIRE

    Springmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to address carbon leakage and preserve the competitiveness of domestic industries, some industrialized Annex I countries have proposed to implement carbon tariffs. These tariffs would be levied on energy-intensive imports from developing non-Annex I countries that have not agreed to binding emissions reductions. This action could have detrimental welfare impacts, especially on those developing countries, and may not lead to significant reductions in leakage. A recent proposal is to u...

  4. Market Access and Welfare : Is There a Conflict?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objectives at the same time.

  5. Industrial labor productivities and tariffs in South Africa :identification based on multilateral liberalization reform

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Torfinn; Rattsø, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. We seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage of multilateral tariff liberalization using reductions in industrial sector tariffs in other world regions as instruments for sectoral tariff reductions in South Afri...

  6. Feed-in tariff in Ukraine: The only driver of renewables' industry growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to review the recently adopted legislation on feed-in tariffs in Ukraine, focusing on its advantages and drawbacks, as well as on the related challenges. The recommendations listed in the paper will help to change the existing legislation regarding green electricity by means of eliminating its main drawbacks. The best prospects for renewable electricity production are related to the energy from the wind and the sun, nonetheless energy from the sun and biomass is used mostly for heating purposes, whereas the number of plans for the construction of wind farms and solar plants is growing tremendously. Despite policies and legislation being in place for the inclusion of electricity from renewables in the grid, technical and financial obstacles exist. There are plenty of plans to build new generating facilities, but at the same time there is absolutely no information about the construction of power backup. The existing regulatory policy regarding green electricity production and consumption still has significant potential for improvement. Compared to other measures, feed-in tariff implementation has spurred green electricity production in Ukraine, because feed-in tariff rates are high, and grid access is guaranteed by law, a major advantage of the current legislation on renewables in Ukraine. - Highlights: ? The number of wind farms and solar plants construction plans in Ukraine is growing. ? Guarantees to obtain feed-in tariff investors get after compled-in tariff investors get after completion of construction. ? The definition of the term “biomass” in Ukrainian legislation needs to be reviewed. ? The investments in renewables are mostly commenced by Ukrainian investors. ? Feed-in tariff is the most efficient measure for green electricity production.

  7. The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

    2006-05-12

    Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

  8. Cost-oriented power tariffs. Does pricing for marginal cost lead to time-zone tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.

    1988-12-01

    The optimum rate structure for electricity has been discussed for some time already; an amendment to the federal tariff order for electricity is expected to be submitted to the Bundestag still in the current session. In the framework of a number of field experiments, the demands and success of different alternatives are being explored. With reference to the principle of pricing for marginal cost, this paper demonstrates that pricing to meet cost incurred must always differentiate for demand and work, whereas purely time-variable tariffs, i.e. also time-zone tariffs, are not cost-oriented.

  9. 77 FR 37614 - Tariffs (Other Than Tariff Review Plan); Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ...FCC 11-161] Tariffs (Other Than Tariff Review Plan); Connect America Fund; A National Broadband Plan for Our Future; Establishing...an information collection associated with the Commission's Connect America Fund, Report and Order (Order). The...

  10. Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Regional Integration - The Politics of Regional Economic Communities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyirabikali, Gaudence

    2005-01-01

    Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Usin...

  11. Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Andrejevic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumers and to suggest policies to end a possible discriminatory conduct.

  12. Gas transport networks: Entry–exit tariffs via least squares methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following some of the directives and regulations in the 3rd EU Energy Package, many of the EU members are reconsidering their methodologies to derive the tariffs charged for access and usage of their gas transport systems. Among these methodologies, the use of entry–exit tariffs computed via least squares has received the most attention over the last few years and there is a wide consensus towards the application of this approach. The main contribution of this paper is to raise awareness on the fact that, even after a given methodology has been chosen, there are still important details to be fixed before the final tariffs are computed. Within the context of the least squares methodology we argue that, although many of these details may seem minor, they can have a big impact on the final outcome. The paper also presents proposals on how these details can be handled while still pursuing the goals set by the EU; goals such as being transparent, cost-reflective, and non-discriminatory. Finally, the paper concludes with an illustration of the discussed proposals, applying them to the Spanish gas transport network. - Highlights: • We present a methodological discussion of entry–exit tariffs via least squares. • We discuss some implementation aspects that have to be handled carefully. • We present a series of proposals to handle these aspects. • Illustration with the Spanish Gas Transmission Network

  13. The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-05-31

    Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.

  14. The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions : a global and Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely re-emerge in some form in the near future. We used the GTAP computable general-equilibrium model and database to simulate trade shock scenarios that mimic WTO's "August 2004 NAMA Framework", which proposed a series of tariff reductions based on using the Swiss formula and flexibility rules for specific groups of countries. We illuminate the economic impacts of the proposed NAMA tariff reductions, with and without the developing country flexibility rule. Our results suggest modest NAMA-induced effects: relatively small average tariff reductions that in turn increase global trade by about 1 percent and global welfare by just over 9 billion US$. Trade would expand for most observed sectors, but vary across the sectors, with particularly high gains realised for the textile and clothing sectors. A number of Asian countries would particularly benefit from the NAMA tariff reductions. The NAMA tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase global welfare by 26 percent, with the largest gains occurring in the Asian countries. The removal of the flexibility rule has virtually no impact on Danish welfare.

  15. Welfare-Ranking Ad Valorem and Specific Tariffs under Monopolistic Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

    2005-01-01

    Actual trade and tariff policy prefers ad valorem tariffs to specific tariffs. Yet in this paper we show that, in a setting of monopolistic competition, realizing a given restriction on imports via a specific tariff would generate more consumer utility than obtaining the same restriction via an ad valorem tariff. Udgivelsesdato: FEB

  16. Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Individual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the user-centric service provisioning and tariffing philosophy and applies it to current mobile communication services setting, which differs significantly in scale and scope from the historical practices. A design meth...

  17. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Firestone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically, CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describes a method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to a light industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1 the added benefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2 the price elasticity of the system, and 3 the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, all under three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristic controls are adequate under the current tariff structure and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of the value of the distributed generation system. Even more value could be captured by simply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high natural gas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity, heuristic controls would capture only 70% of the value of distributed generation.

  18. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  19. The role of green tariffs in environmental harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Naghavi, Alireza

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on the location of firms, innovation and environmental policy. Besides the standard effect of reducing trade and production of dirty goods, green tariffs discourage firms from relocating to pollution havens and induce them to engage in pollution abatement R&D instead. With no concern about pollution among Southern residents, green tariffs can block delocation to serve as the only means of ...

  20. Displacing corruption: evidence from a tariff liberalization program

    OpenAIRE

    Sequeira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how corrupt public officials and private agents adjust to policy reforms that change opportunities for bribery deals to take place. I exploit an exogenously determined tariff liberalization program that altered opportunities to extract bribes through a particular method -"selling" tariff evasion, to study how changes in tariff levels affect the incidence, the distribution, and the level of bribes paid during different stages of the process of importing goods. The reduc...

  1. 76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ...regarding the tariff classification of imported wickless...identified in entry documents as ``wax cylinders...Broussard, Tariff Classification and Marking Branch...Background This document concerns the tariff classification of imported...

  2. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related...REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS...SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1 Electronic filing of tariffs and...

  3. 14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs ...not exceed a reasonable estimate of the added cost of providing the service. (d)...

  4. 14 CFR 221.108 - Transmission of tariff filings to subscribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications...not exceed a reasonable estimate of the added cost of providing the...

  5. Market Access and Welfare : Is there a Conflict?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary and sufficient condition and a simple sufficient condition

  6. Agricultural market access proposals in the Doha round : Dutch agro-food interests

    OpenAIRE

    Kuiper, M. H.; Banse, M. A. H.

    2007-01-01

    This report analyses the impact of market access proposals tabled in the current WTO Doha round. The first part of the study assesses the 'bite' of tariff reductions by comparing border prices of Dutch products with those of imports before and after implementing tariff reductions. The second part of the study analyses the impact of proposals for sensitive products in terms of tariff rate quota (TRQ) expansion and highlights complexities surrounding the implementation of the proposals.

  7. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff valuelopment of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of electricity received from the transmission network, between 1.64 and 2.37 USD/MWh (31%); The locational signal provided by the tariff is mitigated in certain respects by the average cost component related to the fixed costs, which represent 70% of the total costs of the transmission system operator

  8. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  9. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...on the lower left side, and the effective...the lower right side; (vii) The...indicated in tariff or supplement. (i) All...If such omissions effect changes in charges...revised pages and supplements as named below contain...tariff that are in effect on the date...

  10. Tariff based value of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  11. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  12. Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs. Udgivelsesdato: OCT

  13. Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs.

  14. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  15. Feed in tariff regulation consultation paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Consultation Paper is to inform stakeholders and the general public of Government's intentions to develop a Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Regulation, to provide relevant background information and solicit comments for consideration when drafting the regulation to support fulfillment of British Columbia's Energy Objectives. A FIT would be intended to support the development and commercialization of emerging technologies using clean or renewable energy sources (biomass, biogas, geothermal heat, hydro, solar, ocean, wind, etc.). The Regulation will provide BC Hydro with the authority to set rates for a FIT. Differences from existing FITs are presented, and the process by which feedback can be given is detailed. This Consultation Paper also includes discussion questions which are designed to gather input on key points which will guide the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources drafting of the Regulation. Comments received are treated confidentially by Ministry staff.

  16. Electric power industry privatization and question of tariffs in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The privatization of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) requires some pre-conditions particularly concerning the matter of tariffs. Its reform must eliminate the huge 'cross-subsidy' now existing and guarantee a fair return on equity capital

  17. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  18. Tariffs and imports mis-invoicing under oligopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Amit K.; Sengupta, Sarbajit

    2010-01-01

    Mis-match of trade statistics between developed and developing countries indicate a substantial mis-invoicing of trade figures, primarily by developing country traders. This is due to the inflexible exchange rate regimes, severe import restrictions and export subsidies prevailing in LDCs. In this paper we focus on the import under-invoicing due to high tariff barriers in a market where domestic producers compete with importers. Specifically, we examine how tariff levels, market structure and ...

  19. A theory of dynamic tariff and quota retaliation

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Donald C.; Naqvi, Nadeem; Pech, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This paper characterizes, under the most general conditions to date, the steady-state equilibria of a symmetric, two-country trade model in which countries move in alternating-move, dynamic either tariffsetting or quota-setting games in Markov Perfect strategies, and compares the respective equilibrium level of tariffs and quotas with the corresponding pairs in the equilibria of static games. Our results imply that the alleged non-equivalence of the outcomes of tariff-retaliation (neither fre...

  20. Advice for adjustment of the MEP subsidy tariffs for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the interim evaluation and possible subsequent changes to the incentive structures of the MEP subsidies for renewable electricity, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has asked ECN and KEMA to assess the need for the annual reassessment of the MEP subsidies for 2006. In this report it is concluded that any changes to the tariffs are likely to be modest and that it is better to await the outcome of the interim evaluation before calculating new tariffs

  1. Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger...

  2. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public... Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public...user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff Public...

  3. Policy Fiasco: The Sabotage of Cabotage Policy Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Firdausi Suffian; Mohammed Rahezzal Shah Abdul Karim; Abdul Kadir Rosline; Kamal Solhaimi Fadzil

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that Cabotage policy as a non-tariff barrier has harmed the domestic economy and is inconsistent with the premise of trade liberalisation agenda. The effect of Cabotage policy limits market access and has formed monopoly in the shipping industry. The policy might increase efficiency in term of technology and consolidating resources in one participant of the industry but does not improve the overall welfare the industry. This paper proposes a mid-way-out approach by taking in...

  4. Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumpt increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design

  5. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

  6. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the BFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the applicable subheading...

  7. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods are eligible for a TPL claim filed under § 10.420 of this subpart: (a) Woven fabrics. Certain woven fabrics of Chapters 52, 54...

  8. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the applicable subheading...

  9. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the applicable subheading...

  10. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the US-CFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the applicable...

  11. 19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods are eligible for a TPL claim filed under § 10.778 of this subpart: (a) Fabric goods . Fabric goods provided for in Chapters 51,...

  12. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS General...electronically, including tariffs, rate schedules, service agreements...formats are available on the Internet at http://www.ferc.gov...Commission, Public Reference Room, 888 First Street,...

  13. 78 FR 69660 - Association of Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ...Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial...Businesses Advocating Tariff Equity, Coalition of Miso Transmission Customers, Illinois Industrial...Base ROEs (return on equity) are no longer...

  14. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs, Rate Schedules...Commission must be filed electronically according to a format provided...The data elements and communication protocol are described in...Tariff Filings Must be Made Electronically Pursuant to the Order...

  15. Optimal choice and consumption of cost cap tariffs: Theory and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Philip; Krämer, Jan; Krüger, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Cost cap tariffs are pay-per-use tariffs for which costs cannot exceed a predefined cost limit. They were recently introduced to telecommunications markets, but were previously also applied in the insurance industry as deductibles or in the rental industry as day rates. This paper develops and empirically validates a consumer surplus model that explains the optimal consumption pattern under cost cap tariffs and the conditions under which cost cap tariffs are chosen over pure pay-per-use and f...

  16. United States Imposes Penalty Tariffs on the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missner, Emily D.

    Starting this week, American gourmets may find the prices of imported goods such as Roquefort cheese, truffles, and goose pate skyrocketing, as the United States's stiff penalty tariff on European exports goes into effect. This week's In The News looks at looks at the history of, reasoning behind, and effects of these tariffs. In 1988, the European Union banned the import of US beef, citing that hormones injected into the animals could cause cancer. Earlier this year, however, the World Trade Organization ruled that the EU's reasoning for the ban was unfounded and allowed the US up to $116.8 million a year of penalty tariffs on European Union exports. The following seven resources provide documents, news, background information, and commentary on this issue.

  17. Electricity price and tariff problems and approaches to their solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following problems are discussed: (i) integrity of the tariff system, price setting and price control in relation to the secondary market; (ii) long-term contracting relations between the subjects - primary and secondary market entities; (iii) the setting of electricity purchase prices from independent producers; (iv) international integration of national systems, including electricity import prices; (v) cross-subsidies within the system; (vi) identification of adverse environmental impacts and their remediation by incorporating the associated costs into electricity prices; (vii) the cost basis of prices; (viii) objectivization of the cost basis; (ix) unification/diversification of the price and tariff levels and the associated distribution rent problem; (x) rational structure of the tariff system with respect to its complexity and ties to the measuring and control instrumentation and their efficiency; and (xi) breakdown of the costs of heat and electricity cogeneration and a fair price setting. (J.B.)

  18. Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general Minimal tariffs in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García Echeverri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1.Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon’s fee to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investment by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon’s fee was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

  19. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  20. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar for entry through November 30, 2011...tariff-rate quota for imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

  1. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm.

  2. Electricity trade and tariffs. Imports as a bargaining game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity transboundary trade could be characterized as a bilateral monopoly between two national electricity boards. The bargaining over prices that takes place between importer and exporter is considered in the framework of bargaining game theory. Strategies are strongly affected by the type of regulation of the national electric utility within the importing country. The most suitable tariff policy seems to be that based on marginal cost pricing because it reduces both tariff level and the consumers' welfare loss in respect to other pricing rules. 14 refs., 3 figs

  3. Uncertain Demand, Consumer Loss Aversion, and Flat-Rate Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian Herweg; Konrad Mierendorff

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model of firm pricing and consumer choice, where consumers are loss averse and uncertain about their future demand. Possibly, consumers in our model prefer a flat rate to a measured tariff, even though this choice does not minimize their expected billing amount - a behavior in line with ample empirical evidence. We solve for the profit-maximizing two-part tariff, which is a flat rate if (a) marginal costs are not too high, (b) loss aversion is intense, and (c) there are strong v...

  4. Trade in tasks, tariff policy and effective protection rates

    OpenAIRE

    Diakantoni, Antonia; Escaith, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of global value chains, effective protection rates (EPRs) provide important insights on the impact of nominal tariffs on the competitiveness of industries. Building on the results of the OECD-WTO Trade in Value-Added TiVA database, the paper analyses the evolution of EPRs in about 50 developed and developing countries from 1995 to 2008. The paper reviews also the role of preferential agreements on effective protection as well as the impact of tariffs on the production costs of s...

  5. A review of gas tariff systems in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

  6. 77 FR 49055 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ...or purchase of U.S. goods or services in the foreign country's markets; (8) Trade restrictions affecting electronic commerce (e.g., tariff and non-tariff measures, burdensome and discriminatory regulations and standards, and...

  7. 75 FR 47675 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ...purchase of U.S. goods or services in the foreign country's markets; (10) Trade restrictions affecting electronic commerce (e.g., tariff and non-tariff measures, burdensome and discriminatory regulations and standards, and...

  8. 76 FR 50287 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...purchase of U.S. goods or services in the foreign country's markets; (10) Trade restrictions affecting electronic commerce (e.g., tariff and non-tariff measures, burdensome and discriminatory regulations and standards, and...

  9. 77 FR 47880 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Canada and Mexico: Advice on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...and under U.S. free trade agreements that the United...effect during 2011 and trade data for 2011. The USTR...U.S. non- tariff barrier will not be applicable...U.S. non-tariff barrier would result in different...2104(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 2002, of...

  10. 75 FR 3489 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement: Advice on Probable Economic Effect of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...and under U.S. free trade agreements that the United...effect during 2010 and trade data for 2008. The USTR...U.S. non-tariff barrier will not be applicable...U.S. non-tariff barrier would result in different...2104(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 2002 (19...

  11. 75 FR 65031 - U.S.-Trans-Pacific Partnership Free Trade Agreement Including Malaysia: Advice on the Probable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ...and under U.S. free trade agreements in force between...effect during 2010 and trade data for 2008. The USTR...U.S. non- tariff barrier will not be applicable...U.S. non-tariff barrier would result in different...2104(b)(2) of the Trade Act of 2002, of...

  12. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  13. Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

  14. On Trade Barriers to China’s Textiles Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Ma; Weiquan Yang

    2010-01-01

    Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of China’s textile industry from international tradeperspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barrierswhich consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriersto China’s textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of theindustry.

  15. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

  16. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyas Tamas, Meszaros [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Zhou Huizhong, E-mail: zhou@wmich.ed [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

  17. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamas, Meszaros Matyas; Zhou, Huizhong [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

  18. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

  19. Gas transportation tariffs in the european union market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liberalised market, it is an indubitable competitive advantage for a firm to accede at the gas grid with a low cost. The comparison among gas transportation tariffs of 18 European gas transportation companies for a big industrial consumer, shows that Italy is in the medium-high position of the ranking

  20. Communications Satellite Tariffs for Television. IBI Monograph Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passell, Peter; Ross, Leonard

    Dealing with the experiences of and the conditions for international and intercontinental satellite transmissions as they have been carried out during the past decade, this paper focuses on the rules and practices applied within the Intelsat system. The purpose of the paper is to explore the issues involved in establishing tariffs in accord with…

  1. Evaluation and optimization of feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariff program is an incentive plan that provides investors with a set payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources that is fed into the power grid. As of today, FIT is being used by over 75 jurisdictions around the world and offers a number of design options to achieve policy goals. The objective of this paper is to propose a quantitative model, by which a specific FIT program can be evaluated and hence optimized. We focus on payoff structure, which has a direct impact on the net present value of the investment, and other parameters relevant to investor reaction and electricity prices. We combine cost modeling, option valuation, and consumer choice so as to simulate the performance of a FIT program of interest in various scenarios. The model is used to define an optimization problem from a policy maker's perspective, who wants to increase the contribution of renewable energy to the overall energy supply, while keeping the total burden on ratepayers under control. Numerical studies shed light on the interactions among design options, program parameters, and the performance of a FIT program. - Highlights: ? A quantitative model to evaluate and optimize feed-in tariff policies. ? Net present value of investment on renewable energy under a given feed-in tariff policy. ? Analysis of the interactions of policy options and relevant parameters. ? Recommendations for how to set policy options for feed-in tariff program.iff program.

  2. 76 FR 61956 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...accept your comments via e-mail at PRA@fcc.gov. To request...Braille, large print, electronic files, audio format), send an e-mail to fcc504@fcc.gov or call...September 30, 2013. Title: Electronic Tariff Filing System,...

  3. Determinants of green electricity tariff uptake in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a ‘green tariff’, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that – to the authors’ knowledge – have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: •Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. •Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. •Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome

  4. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well

  5. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

    2007-11-15

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  6. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  7. Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? tively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

  8. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  9. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  10. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

  11. Lao PDR Market Access Guide: Trading with ASEAN Dialogue Partners – India

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    2013-01-01

    Laos benefits from the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement in Goods (AIFTA) by gaining preferential access to the large Indian market. Under the Agreement, India commits to eliminating customs duties on imports for 90% of its tariff lines under two separate lists: one being completed by the end of 2013; the other, by end-of-2016. For products on the sensitive list, India’s tariffs are being reduced to no more than 5% by the end of 2016. For its part, Laos has until 2021 to eliminate tariffs on...

  12. Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-06-01

    Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.

  13. Electricity tariffs - Part 2: the NOME law stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article follows a previous note about the Understanding of the 'historical' electricity tariffs implemented in France since the 1960's. This tariffing construction has been under severe strain during the market opening era, but paradoxally, it has also influenced this opening and in particular the competition itself. In reality, the basic principles of the power system have been strongly affected. The French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law aims at finding a solution to this triple problem now, with a useful but probably insufficient text. Regulated prices and opening to competition have encountered strong difficulties since 10 years and can hardly coexist in France. Several decisions taken to try to solve this difficulty have led in fact to terribly complexify the construction of electricity tariffs, finally creating an hybrid situation between the monopoly and the deregulation which satisfies none of the intervening parties and in particular the end-users

  14. Agricultural Market Access Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founded in early 1999, the Agricultural Market Access Database (AMAD) is a joint effort by Agriculture and AgriFood Canada, EU Commission - Agriculture Directorate-General, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, The World Bank, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and United States Department of Agriculture - Economic Research Service. AMAD was created in order to "provide a common data set on tariffs, TRQs and imports, as well as the tools for researchers, policymakers, and others to use in analyzing levels of tariff protection in agriculture among WTO Members." Users begin by selecting a region on a map; from there they can narrow their search by country, and the database will generate a data set on that country. AMAD also provides a 30-page User's Guide which helps explain the purpose and uses of the database, as well as helping to decipher some of the information contained in AMAD. At present, not all countries worldwide can be accessed through this database. AMAD, however, promises to continue to expand.

  15. Specifying An Efficient Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Niall; Devine, Mel; Lee, William; Gleeson, James; Lyons, Sea?n

    2013-01-01

    This paper derives efficient pricing formulae for renewable energy Feed-in Tariff (FiT) designs that incorporate exposure to uncertain market prices by using option pricing theory. Such FiT designs are presented as a means to delineate market price risk amongst investors and policymakers when designing renewable energy support schemes. Sequential game theory provides the theoretical framework through which we model the strategic interaction of policymakers and investors during policy formul...

  16. Tariffs and export subsidies in a spatial economic model

    OpenAIRE

    Giang, Do Truong

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years there are many researchs discussing the effects of trade policy (tariffs, subsidies etc.) in international trade. The results are manifold. Some authors show that trade policy has negative effects on welfare, some spatial economists demonstrate that trade policy can have positive effects on welfare. This paper considers the effects of the trade policy made by both countries participating in international trade in a spatial economic model. It can be showed that trade policy...

  17. The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed

  18. Tariff-induced transfer pricing and the CCCTB

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    The common consolidated corporate tax base has been suggested as a way to curb tax avoidance by allocating profits across borders via a formula. This paper demonstrates that when transfer pricing occurs both for tariff and tax minimization, that moving from separate accounting to formula apportionment can actually increase transfer pricing. This, combined with arm's length pricing regulations, can result in lower revenues for high-tax countries and lower overall revenues. This casts additiona...

  19. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system...

  20. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  1. Blend it like Beckham: Trying to read the ball in the WTO negotiations on industrial tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez Co?rdoba, Santiago; Laird, Sam; Vanzetti, David

    2004-01-01

    The current WTO negotiations on industrial tariffs have focused largely on a formula approach to cutting tariffs, but the process of trying to find a compromise that would satisfy all sides has led to a number of propositions that entail blending various elements of formulae, sectoral elimination, exceptions for sensitive products, capping to reduce tariff peaks, provisions for developing and least-developed countries, provisions for recently acceded countries, and extending binding coverage ...

  2. Can R&D-Inducing Green Tariffs Replace International Environmental Regulations?

    OpenAIRE

    Naghavi, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on the location of firms, innovation and the environment. It shows that tariffs levied on polluting goods could result in less global pollution than harmonization of environmental standards by inducing more pollution abatement R&D, generating lower unit emissions from production, and reducing competition. Green tariffs reduce pollution by (1) shifting production to the region where environ...

  3. Effects of cost reflective electricity tariffs in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-15

    The power balance in Southern Africa is changing. Namibia faces the choice between increased reliance on imports of electricity or expanding domestic generation. One option is to build a gas fired power plant at Kudu. This plant will have an average generation cost well above the projected import cost. The changing power balance in the region may warrant that Namibia incurs substantial costs to ensure energy security. If Kudu is not built, we project that real end user tariffs will peak in 2010/11 at a level 22 percent higher than in 2006, but then gradually revert towards the 2006 level. The effects of this tariff scenario on the economy should not be dramatic, and we would not recommend to subsidise electricity in this case. This forecast is based on an assumed 67 percent increase the real price of imports. In this and all other scenarios we assume that the unit costs of distribution in Namibia and local surcharges will decline. Namibia has experienced temporary halts in imports of electricity. As the balance in the Southern African power market is changing, the risks of capacity shortages appear to have increased. Frequent power outages could be very costly to the economy, and one may thus argue that Namibia should accept the higher costs of electricity to ensure stable supply. Building Kudu could be one, and possibly the only, viable option to reduce the risks of capacity shortages. The cost of generation at Kudu, if it is built, is uncertain. We have assumed a cost at 44 c/kWh. This can be viewed as an upper bound of the cost range. If Kudu is built at this cost, the end user tariff would have to increase by 85 per cent in real terms over the 2006-2011 period to finance Kudu in full, having factored in projected exports earnings. The real tariff will decline slowly after 2011. This appears a risky scenario, not least for the effects on investments in exports sectors and businesses facing international competition in the Namibian market. If Kudu is built at this cost, and one alternatively subsidises exports from Kudu from the Government budget, the annual subsidy would amount to almost 3 per cent of GDP in 2010/11 and well above 2 percent of GDP also in 2015/16. In this scenario, the real end user tariff will peak in 2011/12 at a level 46 percent above the 2005/06 level. We would suggest that if Kudu is built, one should look for a compromise between these two policy scenarios (author)

  4. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically...including support functions, environmental security, and accounting data, for the purpose of...information contained in this system is for informational...

  5. Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ? We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ? Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ? Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billionissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ? Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.

  6. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: ? Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. ? Current tariff policies of coal-powe? Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. ? Further market-oriented reforms are needed. ? Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  7. Evaluación de los efectos de la remoción de medidas para-arancelarias sobre las exportaciones argentinas de productos textiles

    OpenAIRE

    León, Sonia M.; Roitman, Mauricio E.; Romero, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a quantification of price differentials not explained by tariff policy and the assessment of efficiency costs burned on different economic agents involved in textile products trade between Argentina (exporter) and Brazil (domestic producer). Simulations are carried out to show the effects of the distortion of price differentials, considered like non tariff barriers or a set of them and others obstacle to trade. From the removal of non tariff barriers results that consumers a...

  8. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL claim consist of cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods provided for in Chapters 61 and 62 of the HTSUS that are both cut...

  9. 19 CFR 10.607 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.607 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL claim consist of cotton or man-made fiber apparel goods provided for in U.S. Note 15(b), Subchapter XV, Chapter 99,...

  10. 19 CFR 10.819 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Tariff Preference Level § 10.819 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods are eligible for a TPL claim filed under § 10.818 of this subpart (subject to the quantitative limitations set forth in U.S. Note 13,...

  11. 7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Quota Licensing 1, Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to Subpart Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...Regulation 1, Revision 7. Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate...

  12. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078...INFORMATION: A quantity of 22,000 MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses...

  13. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Conclusion statement of the 'gas tariffs' Commission works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations

  15. Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

  16. Are imports in Africa responsive to tariff reductions?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones , Chris; Morrissey, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    In the 1980's and 1990's many African countries liberalised their trade policy, although since the mid 1990s there are countries that did not alter tariffs. This allows us to analyse the effects of trade liberalisation on the change in imports using Difference-in-Differences techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact on imports of trade liberalisation at the general and sector-specific level. During the period of study (1996-2004), Algeria (in 1997), Ethiopia (2001), Egypt (1998), Tanzan...

  17. Nr 150 - Private bill introducing a progressive energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a private bill which, by introducing a progressive energy tariff, aims at speeding up energy transition (by inciting households to reduce their consumption, notably by insulating their housing), and at addressing the ineluctable issue of energy price increase. This private bill notably applies a bonus-malus concept by defining an energy consumption threshold which is to be determined by means of several parameters related to climate, housing occupancy, heating mode. This raises several issues concerning for example housing insulation of rented housing. All these aspects lead to a rather complex process to define and implement such a progressive pricing approach

  18. Short term use of the system tariffs : the substitution method revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some countries, electricity network losses are evaluated using a substitution method in order to apply Use of the System Tariffs against generators and loads. Although the substitution method is widely used for loss pricing in real distribution systems with distributed generation, this method can produce inconsistent results, particularly when all users are included in the analysis. This paper demonstrated how all agents are responsible for some of the network loss reduction and no single user is responsible for the actual loss. For these reasons, a new and more complex procedure based on a cost-causality approach was introduced. In this study, the substitution method was revisited and reformulated with a new performance index in order to produce an equitable sharing of the benefits or added costs introduced by distributed generators. Under certain operating scenarios, the newly proposed method can emulate the solution provided by a marginal or incremental approach fulfilling some requirements for an effective loss allocation policy to ensure recovery of losses and send economic signals to agents. It was concluded that the reformulated method is a practical alternative for access pricing in distribution networks. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs., 1 appendix

  19. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  20. Electricity tariff reform and rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has implemented increasing-block power tariffs. It might be a breakthrough in the country's stagnant residential power tariff reform. Improving energy efficiency is the primary method adopted by the Chinese government for energy conservation in residential sector. However, negative effects brought by energy rebound would weaken the real effect of efficiency improvement. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact of residential electricity tariff adjustment on rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China. We set up an LA-AIDS Model (linear approximation of the almost ideal demand system model) to estimate the rebound effect of urban residential electricity consumption. The results show that the rebound effect is approximately 165.22%. This figure manifests the existence of ‘backfire effect’, indicating that efficiency improvement does not have energy-saving effect in practice. After the implementation of increasing-block electricity tariff policy in China, the rebound is reduced to 132.3%. In addition, we also obtain the electricity tariffs at which the rebound effect is less than 1 or even close to zero. In this regard, for Chinese electricity market, electricity tariff reform might be an effective method for mitigating rebound effect. - Highlights: • LA–AIDS Model was used to estimate price elasticity for residential electricity. • The rebound size of urban residential electricity in China is estimated. • The size of electricity rebound is approximately 165.22%. • The impact of increasing-block power tariffs on rebound is studied. • Electricity pricing reform is an effective method to mitigate the rebound effect

  1. The Optimum Discriminatory Tariffs under the Cournot-Nash Strategy in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wen Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimum ad valorem tariffs under the Cournot competition. There are three situations that exceptions to most-favored-nation (MFN principle are made within the GATT framework: free trade agreement, ‘safeguard’ actions and escape clause. Hence, the issue of discriminatory tariffs has important policy implications. Most of the literature concerning the discriminatory tariffs assumes that the objective of the government is to maximize their country’s welfare by choosing the appropriate trade policy. We expand welfare-maximizing to loss-minimization model in order to comparing two types of optimum discriminatory tariff ratios. In the loss-minimization model, we assume that the objective of the government is to minimize loss in consumers’ surplus while subject to a minimum target level of tariff revenue. The aim of this paper is to show that the optimum ad valorem tariff ratio between two exporting countries can be unambiguously derived with a linear demand curve and constant marginal costs. We conclude that the welfare-maximizing tariff ratio differs from that of the loss-minimization model or a quasi-Ramsey rule. The Ramsey-like tariff ratio does not depend on the size of the intercept of market demand since its objective function is to minimize the loss in consumers’ surplus. On the contrary, the welfare-maximizing tariff ratio is dependent on the intercept since it is used to measure the total consumers’ surplus. Only when the two foreign producers have the identical marginal cost will they coincide.

  2. Going with the wind: The time for time-of-use tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Henrique de Brito Aranha Machado

    2012-01-01

    This work project consists on the proposal of a product/service – Variable Time of Use Tariff – to enhance the innovativeness of the portfolio of EDP Comercial. This product/service is dependent on the simultaneous use of a smart meter, a home energy manager and a set of smart domestic appliances. To sustain my proposal I resorted to data about the wind energy, the use of smart meters together with time of use tariffs and the general characteristics of tariff structures in Europe. A SWO...

  3. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud JØrgen

    2006-01-01

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.

  4. The Nova Scotia community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Michael [Nova Scotia Department of Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    For the number of renewable energy projects to increase, government bodies need to offer incentives that will attract more groups to participate. This presentation introduces the Nova Scotia Department of Energy's community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) program which was designed to encourage community based renewable energy projects. The COMFIT program is open to a number of community groups, such as First Nations, municipalities, universities, not-for-profits groups, CEDIFs, and co-operatives. The program encourages these groups to invest in renewable energy projects by offering an established price per kilowatt hour. For a project to be eligible, it must be community owned, connected to the distribution grid, and be based on one of a list of approved technologies which includes: biomass, in-stream tidal, hydroelectricity, and wind. The presentation states that CEDIFs currently account for the majority of groups participating in the COMFIT program, with large wind being the primary technology.

  5. Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)

  6. Pareto-optimal electricity tariff rates in the Republic of Armenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M.J. [Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The economic impact of electricity tariff rates on the residential sector of Yerevan, Armenia, is examined. The effect of tariff design on revenue generation and equity measures is considered, and the combination of energy pricing and compensatory social policies which provides the best mix of efficiency and protection for poor households is examined. An equity measure is defined in terms of a cumulative distribution function which describes the percent of the population that spends x percent or less of their income on electricity consumption. An optimal (Pareto-efficient) tariff is designed based on the analysis of survey data and an econometric model, and the Armenian tariff rate effective 1 January 1997 to 15 September 1997 is shown to be non-optimal relative to this rate. 22 refs.

  7. Pareto-optimal electricity tariff rates in the Republic of Armenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of electricity tariff rates on the residential sector of Yerevan, Armenia, is examined. The effect of tariff design on revenue generation and equity measures is considered, and the combination of energy pricing and compensatory social policies which provides the best mix of efficiency and protection for poor households is examined. An equity measure is defined in terms of a cumulative distribution function which describes the percent of the population that spends x percent or less of their income on electricity consumption. An optimal (Pareto-efficient) tariff is designed based on the analysis of survey data and an econometric model, and the Armenian tariff rate effective 1 January 1997 to 15 September 1997 is shown to be non-optimal relative to this rate. 22 refs

  8. Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ernest Aryeetey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.

  9. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting : Evidence from German Mobile Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.

  10. Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs. The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms and a lower concentration.

  11. The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Stamminger; Verena Anstett

    2013-01-01

    Demand side management (DSM) has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and withou...

  12. Preparatory study for the revaluation of the EQ-5D tariff: methodology report

    OpenAIRE

    Mulhern, Brendan; Bansback, Nick; Brazier, John; Buckingham, Ken; Cairns, John; Devlin, Nancy; Dolan, Paul; Hole, Arne Risa; Kavetsos, Georgios; Longworth, Louise; Rowen, Donna; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-01-01

    Background EQ-5D is a widely used generic measure of health with a 'tariff', or preference weights, obtained from the general population, using time trade-off (TTO). PRET (Preparatory study for the Re-valuation of the EQ-5D Tariff project) contributes towards the methodology for its revaluation. Methods Stage 1 examined key assumptions typically involved in health-state valuations through a series of binary choice exercises, namely that health-state preferences are independent of (1...

  13. TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Rizwana; Iqbal, Zafar

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses impact of one of the major trade liberalisation policies of Structural Adjustment reforms, tariff rate reduction, on functional income distribution to households in Pakistan through CGE modelling, that is well known for this type of analysis. Using SAM-based CGE model, simulation exercises are undertaken to describe the impact of key adjustment policy i.e., reduction in tariff rate by 80% on industrial imports. Simulation results of CGE model simply show the direction of ...

  14. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  15. Fair and efficient tariffs for wind energy : principles, method, proposal, data and potential consequences in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  16. The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'; Le tarif reglemente transitoire d'ajustement du marche de l'electricite dit 'tarif de retour'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

  17. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN TARIFF BILL-BASED THEORIES OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 USING EVENT STUDY DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudreau, Bernard C.

    2014-01-01

    Jude Wanniski (1978) argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005), on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated highe...

  18. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  19. Smart Tariff for Smart Meters In Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.D.P.Kothari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrow’s challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is “a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between”. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of “Smart Grid” technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.

  20. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ? We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ? We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? Weer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ? Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ? Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  1. International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

  2. The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stamminger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand side management (DSM has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and without the support of intelligent smart appliances. Sixty-seven households in Germany within an experimental design with fictive tariff model (August 11 to July 12 driven by RWE Effizienz GmbH, as the energy utility, and Miele & Cie.KG, as the appliance manufacturer, were equipped with intelligent smart meters and 41 of them also with smart appliances (washing-machine and tumble-dryer. As a first part of the experiment, the energy tariff changed per hour and day by day, depending on the forecast of the availability of renewable energy in Germany between 10 €-Cent and 40 €-Cent per kWh. Consumers could respond to this change by adjusting the operation of their energyconsuming appliances either by themselves or—with the smart appliances—by a programmed start at low tariffs. The behaviour of the 41 consumers with smart appliances and their motivation are intensively investigated and analysed during this running two year project including several questionnaires. The consumers had to fill out daily a diary about the usage of their washing-machine, tumble-dryer, dishwasher and ironing devices. These data were matched with the actual tariff. This did allow identifying if and to which extend the consumers adjust their household activities depending on availability of solar and wind energy. These data were also used to calculate the cost savings by using the flexible tariff. In comparison to the costs of the fixed tariff of 25 €-Cent per kWh savings of 25% were realised on average. The results of a first phase already show that flexible tariffs are able to influence the operation of household appliances towards a flexible demand.

  3. Market access and welfare under free trade agreements: textiles under NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Céline; De Melo, Jaime; Cadot, Olivier; Portugal-Pérez, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The effective market access granted to textiles and apparel under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is estimated, taking into account the presence of rules of origin. First, estimates are provided of the effect of tariff preferences combined with rules of origin on the border prices of Mexican final goods exported to the United States and of U.S. intermediate goods exported to Mexico, based on eight-digit Harmonized System tariff-line data. A third of the estimated rise in the b...

  4. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  5. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

  6. Tar?m D??? Ürünlerde Pazara Giri? (NAMA Müzakereleri ve Türkiye (Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ahin YAMAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse Turkey’s position and constraints in the WTO Nonagricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA especially vis-à-vis developing countries.It basically, underlines Turkey’s unique negotiating position; de jure developing, de facto an advanced economy status in the WTO Doha NAMA negotiations.At Doha Ministerial Meeting in 2001, WTO members agreed to initiate negotiations to further liberalize trade, among other areas, on non-agricultural goods. For this purpose, the Negotiating Group on Market Access (NGMA was created at the first meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee of the WTO, in early 2002. Turkey has been quite active since then in NAMA negotiations in calibrating its position between offensive and defensive negotiation interests although its offensive market access interests largely outweigh defensive one.Turkey has also been propagating an offensive non-linear tariff cutting Swiss Formula approach at the WTO to curb the international high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations. Having a strong offensive market access interests, Turkey mainly aims at large developing country markets diversifying its trade portfolio away from traditional markets towards large developing economies.From the perspective of governance, Turkey has serious constraints on its trade and industry policy space stemming from the Turkey-EU Customs Union (CU. Although Turkey is a de jure developing country in the WTO and will have all legal rights and mobligations stemming from the outcome of the DOHA, in practice, Turkey will have to implement the same applied common external tariffs of the EU. Despite the constraints and dilemmas stemming from the EU-Turkey customs union, it can be strongly argued that, it is in Turkey’s industrial interests to be actively involved in the WTO to tackle the high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations which hinders Turkey’s exports to the world markets.

  7. Queensland solar feed-in tariffs and the merit-order effect: economic benefit, or regressive taxation and wealth transfers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Simshauser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Premium residential solar feed-in tariffs have come under considerable scrutiny in Australia over the past 12 months following a sharp rise in the uptake of subsidised PV units and subsidy cost blow-outs. Using New South Wales data, Nelson, Simshauser and Kelley (2011 demonstrated that the inherent design of premium ‘gross’ feed-in tariffs are regressive in nature and required reform. Since the publication of that article in Economic Analysis & Policy (September 2011 edition, feed-in tariff policies have been substantially wound back in all Australian jurisdictions except Queensland. In this article, we examine the ‘net’ feed-in tariff in Queensland and similarly find it to be a regressive form of taxation. We also examine the so-called ‘merit order effect’ – a purported ‘economic benefit’ arising from premium feed-in tariffs. However, the evidence is clear that merit order effects must, by definition, be transient and above all, are not welfare enhancing.

  8. Walking the tightrope: balancing effectiveness against cost in the Netherlands' feed-in tariffs. Commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feed-in electricity tariff is a policy mechanism used in many countries to support renewable energy technologies until they can compete with other methods of generating electricity. But, as experience in the Netherlands shows, it is a challenging policy task to support renewables without wasting government money or creating perverse incentives. The Dutch government has implemented two feed-in tariff schemes since 2003, the first being the Environmental Quality of Electricity program ('Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie' or MEP). This was followed in 2008 by the Promoting Renewable Energy scheme ('Stimulering Duurzame Energie' or SDE)

  9. Tariffs Versus VAT in the presence of heterogeneous firms and an informal sector

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ronald B.; Paz, Lourenço

    2010-01-01

    The debate over the use of tariffs or value added taxes in developing countries has focused on the difficulty of collecting VAT from the informal sector of the economy. This paper contributes by considering this issue with heterogeneous firms and endogenous entry. This yields two new results. First, a cut in the tariff in and of itself can reduce the size of the informal sector. Second, the imposition of a VAT need not increase the number of informal firms. In fact, for many parameterizations...

  10. Renewable energies Driven by Feed-on Tariffs. Photovoltaic vs Wind Energy Development in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Pe?rez, Marta; Anton Hernandez, Ignacio; Sala Pano, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Although others regulations regarding feed-in tariffs for photovoltaics (PV) existed in Spain previously, the one that meant a paradigm change was the introduction in 2007 of law R.D.661/2007 which established a feed-in tariff of 41,75 cents/kWh if the installed capacity was greater than 100KWp and 44,04 cents/kWh if it was smaller. The high level of the subsidies together with the lack of a limit for the total installed capacity originates the well-known Spanish photovoltaic boom. In Septemb...

  11. Sustainable Development Problems of Rural Areas: Tariff Policy in Energy Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michurina Frida Zakharovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted both to stability theory forming as an important economic conception and tariff policy in energy supply for rural areas as a part of the program to achieve sustainability. Policy evaluation is made on the statistics materials on Permskii Krai. The authors show that government, business and society collaborating can achieve economic efficiency, also through tariff regulation for electric energy payment and due to energy saving. This will have a positive impact on the socio-economic condition of enterprises in rural areas. This policy may also be applied to the whole country as a contribution to sustainable development of rural areas.

  12. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

  13. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  14. 75 FR 420 - Receipt of Domestic Interested Party Petition Concerning the Tariff Classification of Wickless...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...products are using this classification as a means of circumventing...from China. This document invites comments with...correctness of the current classification. DATES: Comments...concerning the tariff classification of wickless wax objects...to read background documents, exhibits, or...

  15. Cost and optimal feed-in tariff for small scale photovoltaic systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has recently become a dominant player in the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry, producing more than one-third of the global supply of solar cells in 2008. However, as of 2008, less than 1% of global installations were based in China. Recently, the government has stated its grand ambitions of expanding the share of electricity derived from solar power. As part of this initiative, policy makers are currently in the process of drafting a feed-in tariff policy to support the development of the solar energy market. In this paper, we aim to calculate what the level of such a tariff should be. We develop a closed form equation for the cost of PV, and use forecasts on prices of solar systems to derive an optimal feed-in tariff, including a digression rate. The focus is on the potential of residential and small scale commercial solar PV installations. We show that the cost of small scale PV in China has decreased rapidly during the period 2005-2009. Our analysis also shows that optimal feed-in tariffs vary widely between regions within China, and that grid parity could be reached in large parts of the country depending on the expected escalation in electricity prices.

  16. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  17. Tariffs, market conduct and government commitment: policy implications for developing countries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baghdasaryan, D.; Žigi?, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 18, ?. 1 (2010), s. 91-122. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : optimal tariff protection * innovative (imitative) effort * government non-commitment regime * unit cost heterogeneity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2010

  18. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL claim, the importer must include on the entry summary...or man-made fiber apparel good is classified. For TPL goods, the letters “SG” must be inserted as...

  19. General Agreement on Tariff and Trade Negotiations: A Computer-Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Gabriel G.

    This paper recommends the use of a computer simulation about trade and tariff negotiations to reinforce and apply principles learned in undergraduate international trade courses and to provide students with an opportunity to use the advanced features of Symphony, a computer spreadsheet. This simulation is a game in which both the class and…

  20. Feed-in tariffs for renewable energies in Europe - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariffs paid for renewable electricity have become the decisive criteria for renewable energy development in Europe. This interdependency has been reflected by the introduction of various legislative schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) in an increasing number of Eu Member States which is being analysed in this paper. The rapidly expanding market for wind power in Europe has been the best example for the success of favourable tariff schemes for renewable energies. Such as supportive framework - especially as in Denmark and Germany - has allowed the emerging industry to develop and expand, with thousands of new jobs created. Taking a closer look at installation rates, it is obvious that many existing regulations and tariff schemes in other Member States do not seem sufficient to allow for an accelerated market introduction of RES. Therefore, favourable framework conditions - especially with regard to financing - are required at European level. This is why this paper proposes the introduction of a common European legislation granting minimum tariffs to renewable energies which are fed into the electricity grids. The proposed directive is in line with several resolutions of the European Parliament and with many documents adopted by the European Commission, the latest the Green Paper on RES. (orig.)

  1. Maximum and minimum tariffs for transport concessions: a statistic study [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Crispiniano Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that leased public services prices can be calculated endogenously from the rate of return regulation model. In particular, this research extends the work by Rocha, Cavalcante and Oliveira (2009 where a method to price minimum and maximum leased fares to be charged from the users was presented. Moreover, these fares must be published on the public document bidding. Therefore, the value of the leased tariff must be between the minimum and the maximum ones, including the extreme values. The model is grounded upon the rate of return regulation method and, to establish the minimum tariff, it is resorted to the so-called certainty equivalent concept. The Brazilian transport regulatory agencies apply such method of regulation. This paper advances the described method assuming that the needed variables (demand and costs used to determine the minimum and the maximum tariffs of the leased public services have stochastic properties. To show its feasibility, the proposed model is implemented to the leasing of an inter-state bus service, where the values of the minimum and maximum tariffs are obtained, besides making a sensitivity analysis study.

  2. Three fuzzy reasoning models as a decision suport aid, to find an electrical energy tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a laboratory-work developed as an example of approximate (fuzzy reasoning for students, possible to be used as a decision – support to estimate an electrical energy (EE price for consumers. The three fuzzy tariff estimation models that are developed, integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A.-single-supplier rate position, but and some (social constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. Although is possible, the paper not refer to a partial-price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy, etc. This “laboratory-work-paper” shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A. and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model, until can obtain an acceptable and true price. In this aim, the three fuzzy models use different rules for pricing: conservative, aggressive, and different order of words concerning the rules respectively, finally doing a comparation among prices and models. The paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, with certitude, can create a discussion base, about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a modality to find and to refine an EE price.

  3. The solar photovoltaic feed-in tariff scheme in New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems are part of Australia's energy supply matrix. In the case of New South Wales (NSW), the state government has had to deal with a complex policy problem. In order to play its role in the federal Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, the NSW government initiated the 7 year Solar Bonus Scheme in 2010. However, in attempting to maximise community investment in small-scale solar PV systems, it relied on faulty financial modelling that applied a generous Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and underestimated the level of investor participation and installed capacity. Consequently, the scheme has resulted in very high public costs that will require policy changes that bring investors and energy retailers into conflict, and unpopular electricity retail price adjustments. This paper uses a structured case and stakeholder analysis to critically analyse the FiT policy, while also highlighting important lessons for policymakers engaging in FiT design. - highlights: • Describes the design of a feed-in tariff policy for solar PV electricity exports. • Exposes a A$1 billion payment overrun and weaknesses in policy controls. • Identifies policy design flaws and opportunities to improve future tariff designs. • Discusses the importance of developing nationally integrated feed-in tariff policies

  4. How much do electricity tariff increases in Ukraine hurt the poor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the electricity tariffs for private consumers to cost-covering levels has been a very sensitive issue for all transition countries. The likely negative social consequences are the central argument why the necessary tariff corrections have not yet been implemented in Ukraine by the political decision makers. Since official data is not available, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the electricity consumption behaviour of private households. This makes it difficult to counter the official arguments with hard evidence. A survey was carried out by the authors giving a more detailed picture. Basic data of the survey was used in evaluating the impact of possible tariff increases on the household expenditures of different income groups, using both the compensating (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV) methods. The findings confirm that an electricity tariff increase up to the level which would cover ''officially'' measured costs, as defined by the Ukrainian electricity regulatory authority, would not cause severe social problems. However, further increases up to a level, which would cover the ''true'' costs, i.e. up to a level comparable to the average OECD level, should only be realised in steps. (author)

  5. Royal Decree 441/1986 of 28 February 1986 on the establishment of new electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree raises electricity tariffs and prescribes the use to be made of the funds obtained from the sale of electricity: electrical/technical R and D, constitution of uranium stocks and work on the terminal part of the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA)

  6. Estimating the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff commonly used by a local distribution company (LDC) in its electricity demand response program. This option value captures the benefit that a LDC enjoys from not serving an end-use load during high-price hours in a wholesale electricity market. It is conservative in that it does not include the cost savings in meeting the LDC's resource adequacy requirement or deferring transmission and distribution (T and D) investments necessary for delivering reliable service. Illustrated by a Northern California example, our two-pronged approach entails (a) a set of summer monthly market price regressions to forecast daily spot price distributions that incorporate uncertainty in natural gas price and weather; and (b) a simulation exercise to quantify the tariff's value under a specific design. The results indicate that a non-firm service tariff can have varying option value estimates that are highly sensitive to the tariff's design, and that an incentive payment based on the option value alone is likely insufficient to attract customer participation in a non-firm service program. (author)

  7. Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

  8. Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in sevee system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it is approved

  9. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard employment, the company's regional reorganisation involved the loss of hundreds of jobs. Conclusions Regional integration organisations and their member states should be aware of the capacity of TTCs to act in a coordinated transnational manner to influence policy in their own interests, and coordinate their own public health and tax policies in a similarly effective way.

  10. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

  11. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...sugar established by the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered...States entered into the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  12. 75 FR 39613 - Request for Proposals To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ...Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the United States-Chile...goods that meet the Agreement's origin rules. In the United States, those...USCFTA's product-specific origin rules, subject to the...

  13. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

  14. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

  15. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

  16. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  17. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  18. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

  19. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  20. Preferential Market Access Design: Evidence and Lessons from African Apparel Exports to the US and to the EU

    OpenAIRE

    De Melo, Jaime; Portugal Perez, Luis Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Least developing countries (LDC) rely on preferential market access which is mechanically eroded by the tariff reductions by grantor countries to other countries. Effective market access depends on the severity of the Rules of Origin that have to be met to qualify for these preferences. These Rules of Origin have turned out to be complicated and burdensome for LDC exporters. Since 2001, under the US Africa Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA), 22 African countries exporting apparel to the US can use...

  1. Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import ta...

  2. How do solar photovoltaic feed-in tariffs interact with solar panel and silicon prices? An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    La Tour, Arnaud; Glachant, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Preferential feed-in tariffs (FITs) for solar generated electricity increases the demand for solar photovoltaic systems. They can thus induce price to increase, creating the potential for PV systems producers to collect rents. This paper analyses the interactions between feed-in tariffs, silicon prices and module prices, using weekly price data and FIT values in Germany, Italy, Spain, and France from January 2005 to May 2012. Relying methodologically on the Granger causality tests applied to ...

  3. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  4. Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: ? Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. ? Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. ? Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. ? Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. ? Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

  5. Pressure in the natural gas pipe. Coherence between tariffs for natural gas transport, and congestion in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using GASTALE (Gas mArket System for Trade Analysis in a Liberalizing Europe), a comprehensive computational game theoretic model of the European gas market, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) conducted at the request of Gas Transportation Services (GTS) a study on the relationship between gas transport tariffs, the demand for gas transport and possible re-routing of gas flows in Northwestern Europe. We find that lowering the average Dutch transport tariff compared to the average German transport tariff induces a re-routing of gas flows from the German network to the Dutch network. In periods of high gas demand, such as the peak winter season, the lower transport tariffs lead to a high potential demand for gas transport which cannot be fulfilled by the limited capacity of the Dutch gas transport network. This will probably even lead to congestion in the Dutch network as a 'first-come first-served' regime is currently applied in the Netherlands. So Dutch gas transport tariffs being out of line with the gas transport tariffs neighbouring countries, implies that there is a real chance that transit flows are crowding-out gas flows destined for Dutch final consumers of gas. Hence, the security of gas supply for the Netherlands is seriously threatened. These findings are robust for variations in the model assumptions as shown by a number of sensitivity analyses

  6. Electricity tariffs based on long-run marginal costs for central grid system of Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electricity tariffs in Oman are subsidized and are based on a cost accounting approach and do not reflect the true cost incurred in generating, transmitting and distributing a kilowatt-hour of electricity at the consumer end. This paper presents the electricity tariff based on the estimation of long-run marginal cost at generation, 33kV, and 415 voltage level for Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water (MHEW) interconnected power system of Oman. The result shows that at the generation level a marginal kW costs US$ 75per year and a marginal kWh costs 2.07|/kWh. These costs increase as we move downstream from generation to consumer end. The average cost of electricity at the consumer end connected at 415V is 6.52|/kWh or 25.17Bz/kWh. (author)

  7. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because of the high quantities of wind generation. The main goal is to evaluate the changes in the EVs charging diagram with the energy price preventing wind curtailment.

  8. Informal Wage, Informal Price and Extortion under Migration and Tariff Reform*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Mandal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a theoretical model where formal and informal sectors co-exist in tandem. Trade union segregates some labor from being formal. Capital is not allowed to freely move between formal and informal sectors. Using this sort of framework it has been shown that immigration of unskilled workers re-duces the return to informal labor and makes the informal good relatively cheap. A tariff slash also impinges on similar kind of results. In both the cases informal capitalists gain. Moreover, what is more striking is that both migration and tariff reform are equally bad for the economy as a whole since these policies enhance the ‘unproductive’ element or labor in the society which is really costly as these laborers could have been used to produce some more consumable commodities.

  9. More trade for better health? International trade and tariffs on health products

    OpenAIRE

    Helble, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse trade flows and tariff policies of health products. Compared to previous studies, we not only focus on medicines, but on a large set of products that enter the public health space and can be identified in the common trade classification. The first contribution is thus to construct three groups of health products based on the 2007 Harmonized System classification of international trade. Using these commodity groups, we analyse trade flows between ...

  10. The Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) and Tariffs: Price Behaviour with Imperfectly Competitive Market Intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Maclaren, Donald

    2014-01-01

    The SSM is a proposal from the G-33 Group in the Doha Round negotiations in which developing countries would be allowed to use contingent tariffs to control import surges of food commodities and/or downward spikes in their border prices. The principal objective is to safeguard the livelihood security of farm households in these countries. A stochastic partial equilibrium model of a typical importing country situation is specified in which there are either imperfectly competitive, domestic int...

  11. Ninth international conference on metering and tariffs for energy supply. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contributions to the ninth international conference on Metering and Tariffs for Energy Supply are presented. Topics reviewed include legal metrology, regulation and the commercial framework (3 papers); metering in a competitive supply (7 papers); interactive papers (13 papers); standardisation (5 papers); equipment design (5 papers); equipment manufacture and testing (5 papers); data collection and processing (6 papers); securing and enhancing revenue (5 papers); prepayment systems (5 papers); and metering as a business (4 papers). (UK)

  12. Unilateral tariff reduction as leadership in the political economy of trade negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Daniel E.; Ludema, Rodney D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops a model of the trade liberalization process, featuring both international negotiation and special-interest-driven domestic politics. We show that a country may wish to adopt a policy of unilaterally reducing its tariff whenever political opposition in other countries stalls negotiations toward free trade, because such a policy weakens the political opposition in those countries and expedites the liberalization process. Thus a pattern emerges in which unilateral liberalizat...

  13. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Analysis of Operator Business and Risk Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Pau, L-f

    2007-01-01

    A design approach is offered for individual tariffs for mass customized mobile service products, whereby operators can determine their contract acceptance rules to guarantee with a set probability their minimum profit and risk levels. It uses realistic improvements to earlier reported negotiation algorithms [1], and a full operator operational model including infrastructure and content acquisition. Value at risk and profit are analyzed when a random user has consistent characteristics to a su...

  14. A Classroom Experiment on Import Tariffs and Quotas Under Perfect and Imperfect Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript develops a classroom experiment on international trade that is suitable for undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics, international trade, and international finance courses. Students representing buyers, in a small home country and foreign country, and sellers, both home and foreign, participate in a double-oral-auction to determine the price and level of international trade. By imposing tariffs and quotas and altering the structure of the home market from one of perfect comp...

  15. Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.)

  16. Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest Ernest Aryeetey; Charles Ackah; Oliver Morrissey

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneit...

  17. Report on the behalf of the Commission of inquiry on electricity tariffs. Nr 2618

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This huge report first proposes a critical overview of the current French electricity tariff system and a new arrangement. In this overview, the authors indicate the various objectives of this tariff: to cover the costs of electricity providers, to cover the costs of grid managers, to ensure the geographical equalization of electricity price, to preserve the household purchasing power, to favour enterprise competitiveness, to implement energy transition, to influence user energy consumption, to make available financial resources for local communities and State, and to finance pensions of staff of electricity and gas industries. They describe the current situation which can be defined as an end of a monopoly without any actual competition: salami slicing of the electricity sector, a marginal and costly competition (limited opening to competition, price increase instead of decrease). They also describe the situation of EDF, its evolution from a golden age to a critical situation, a financial situation on a razor's edge, an incoherent and disturbing State. They present the European legal framework as unanimously contested, and the main challenges of energy transition. Then, the authors describe how to introduce coherence in the tariff system again: by giving means to EDF to face future challenges (by clarifying the State's position, by decreasing EDF's costs, by enabling EDF to play leading role in the world in the field of low-carbon energies), by supporting an integrated vision of a Europe of electricity (by developing a more ambitious European framework), and by revising the electricity tariff structure. The many hearings of various actors of the electricity and energy sectors are reported (these actors belong to public bodies, energy companies, professional associations, consumer associations, and so on)

  18. Carbon Tariffs: Effects in Settings with Technology Choice and Foreign Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, David Francis

    2012-01-01

    Carbon regulation is intended to reduce global emissions, but there is growing concern that such regulation may simply shift production to unregulated regions and increase global emissions in the process. Carbon tariffs have emerged as a possible mechanism to address these concerns by imposing carbon costs on imports at the regulated region's border. I show that, when firms choose from discrete production technologies and offshore producers hold a comparative cost advantage, carbon leakage ca...

  19. Informal Wage, Informal Price and Extortion under Migration and Tariff Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Biswajit Mandal; Saswati Chaudhuri

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a theoretical model where formal and informal sectors co-exist in tandem. Trade union segregates some labor from being formal. Capital is not allowed to freely move between formal and informal sectors. Using this sort of framework it has been shown that immigration of unskilled workers reduces the return to informal labor and makes the informal good relatively cheaper. A tariff slash also impinges on similar kind of results. In both the cases informal capitalists gain...

  20. On the Effectiveness of Feed-in Tariffs in the Development of Photovoltaic Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert; Dorp, Tom; Maasland, Emiel

    2014-01-01

    Growing concern for climate change and rising scarcity of fossil fuels prompted governments to stimulate the development of renewables. This paper empirically tests whether feed-in tariff (FIT) policies have been effective in the development of photovoltaic solar (PV), explicitly taking into account structure and consistency of FITs. Panel data estimations are employed for 30 OECD member countries over the period 1990-2011. We find a positive effect of the presence of a FIT and the developmen...

  1. Reductions in Real versus Tariff Barriers: The Effects on Industry Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    2001-01-01

    Economic integration in Europe has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature has proposed various explanations of the empirical findings. The present paper provides an additional theoretical argument. We show that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration in it self (modelled as a reduction of trade barriers) generates opposing effects on industry concentration, depending on wether the barrier is a real (frictional) or a tariff cost. In particular, the Herfinda...

  2. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  3. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; SØrensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard heterogeneous-firms-trade model with Pareto distributed productivities. We derive analytical welfare rankings of all four liberalization channels for an equal effect on two openness measures, for any trade cost level and while all four barriers are simultaneously present, i.e. for any initial equilibrium. We show that when openness is measured at retail prices, not border prices, the welfare rankings are sensitive to the degree of efficiency in revenue redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. As a result, multilateral tariff reductions can switch from the least to the most preferred mode of liberalization. Among the other three barriers we etablished a universal welfare rankingfor any strictly positive level of revenue redistribution and for either measure of openness.

  4. Revised feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic in the United Kingdom: A cloudy future ahead?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom (UK) started implementing a national Feed-In Tariff (FiT) mechanism on the 1 April 2010, which included specific payment tariffs for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, a revised FiT rate has been put in place starting from 1 April 2012, applicable to any installations with an eligibility date of on or after 3 March 2012. This paper presents, first, an overview of solar PV installation in the UK. This followed by a general concept of the FiT in the UK before analyzing the financial impact of the new FiT rate on the consumers. Similar financial analysis is conducted with selected countries in Europe. The financial analysis investigates the total profit, the average rate of return and the payback period. It is found that the new FiT rate generates very low profit, minimum rate of return and a longer payback period, suggesting a downward trend of solar PV uptake in the future. - Highlight: ? Overview of solar PV installation in the UK until present time is discussed. ? Financial analysis is presented using previous, new and degression FiT tariff. ? Comparative analysis with other European countries is evaluated. ? The new FiT rate in the UK generates very low return than other countries. ? This could suggest a downward trend of UK's solar PV uptake in the future

  5. Willingness to Pay and Inclusive Tariff Designs for Improved Water Supply Services in Urban Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herath Gunatilake

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates willingness to pay for improved water supply services in urban Bangladesh, using a contingent valuation survey of 3000 households in Khulna city. Since the large connection cost is regarded as one of the major obstacles to expand the piped network among the poor, the study explicitly incorporates the connection cost in addition to monthly charge. The construct validity tests show that the respondents have understood the elicitation questions and answered truthfully. Policy simulations show that poor households are less likely to be connected under fixed charge tariff, and introduction of volumetric tariff will increase the acceptance of the improved water service by poor households. Increasing block tariff shows the highest uptake rate of the improved service by the poor. The large connection cost is found to be a critical bottleneck to expanding the coverage for the poor. Easy payments systems for connection charge such as installment payments, or including the connection costs under the capital investment of the project, will significantly improve the inclusion of the poor in the proposed water supply scheme.

  6. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic ned heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. The dynamic efficiency of feed-in tariffs: The impact of different design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic efficiency has received much less attention than the effectiveness and static efficiency criteria to assess policies to support electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E). On the other hand, the literature on RES-E support shows that the choice of design elements within RES-E support instruments is at least as important to successfully promote RES-E as the choice of specific instruments. The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis and assess the dynamic efficiency properties of the different design elements of feed-in tariffs. It is shown that, in fact, several design elements can have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency. Particularly relevant design elements in this context are technology-specific fixed-tariffs, floor prices, degression, reductions of support over time for existing plants, long duration of support and support falling on consumers. In addition, it is shown than some design elements would be more appropriate than others to activate specific dimensions. - Highlights: ? A theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis is built. ? The dynamic efficiency properties of feed-in tariffs design elements are assessed. ? Several design elements have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency.

  8. Formula Approaches for Market Access Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Franc?ois, J. F.; Martin, W.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the large tariff reductions achieved in multilateral trade negotiations have involved tariff-cutting formulas such as the "Swiss" formula. However, wide variations in initial tariff rates between active participants call for new approaches under the Doha Development Agenda. This paper surveys a range of formula options and examines both targeted and flexible applications of the Swiss formula that target tariff escalation and peaks, and would allow policy makers to directly target how ...

  9. Gaining entry, gaining confidence: a study of the Glasgow access to Primary Education project

    OpenAIRE

    Mcphee, A. D.; Skelton, F.

    2002-01-01

    In spite of strenuous efforts to improve the take-up rate of higher education places by students from non-traditional backgrounds, some communities remain relatively isolated from the national trend to increased participation. Located in discourses of access and community, this paper describes a two year project run in partnership between Glasgow City Council Department of Education and the University of Glasgow, which concentrated not on changing entry tariffs, but on increasing the motivati...

  10. Vascular Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna YELKEN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis patients are connected to life by means of vascular access. The complications of vascular access represent one of the most important causes of morbidity, mortality and high healthcare costs in the hemodialysis patients. Although it is known that the best vascular access is AVF, the fistula use rate is still low in most countries. This review will examine; association of various vascular access with morbidity, mortality and dialysis costs; different practice patterns in the world and reasons of this; finally, solutions for vascular access problems.

  11. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  12. How Much Market Access in FTAs? Textiles Under NAFTA

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Céline; De Melo, Jaime; Cadot, Olivier; Portugal-Pérez, Luis Alberto

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates the effective market-access granted under NAFTA in textiles and apparel by combining two approaches. First, we estimate the effect of tariff preferences and rules of origin on the border prices of Mexican final goods exported to the US and of US intermediates exported to Mexico. We find that one third of the estimated rise in the border price of Mexican apparel products compensates for the cost of complying with NAFTA’s rules of origin. We also find that the price of US i...

  13. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  14. Governmental intervention approaches to promote renewable energies—Special emphasis on Japanese feed-in tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost all countries have issued laws and regulations to promote renewable energy (RE). However, the applications and motivations of such laws as well as achievements have been different. Currently, the Japanese government has announced its targets to expand the electricity feed-in tariff scheme for solar power, along with other energy sources, within two years to meet the goal set by the Japanese Prime Minister who, in the 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) held in September 2009, proclaimed to cut 25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the 1990 levels by 2020. In this paper, the current Japanese energy policies and measures for promoting RE in comparison to popular methods followed worldwide are explored. Furthermore, a Least Cost Feed-in Tariff (LCFIT) Simulation Model for Japanese case was developed to calculate the optimal mix of technologies to reach certain targets. The LCFIT also calculates the tariff that should be proposed for each technology and the total cost for the program with and without a carbon tax and estimates the premium added to the bill of the customer every month. - Highlights: ? RE governmental interventions vary with country's economical, social and topological condition. ? LCFIT Model showed that Japan can apply the FiT system with reasonable burdens on the customers. ? Applying 20% of carbon tax can lead to declining the burdens on the customer by about 32%–45%. ? The R and D expenditures on RE is almost oneexpenditures on RE is almost one-fourth that of nuclear power in some countries. ? Japanese scenarios seem very satisfying compared to that of Germany and other European countries.

  15. Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992–2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. - Highlights: ? This is the first econometric study of feed-in tariff (FIT) efficacy in Europe. ? We test the impact of FIT's on p. ? We test the impact of FIT's on photovoltaic (PV) and wind power from 1992 to 2008. ? We calculate country- and year-specific return on investment provided by each FIT. ? FIT policies increased PV installations by ?0.5% per ROI percentage point. ? Policy design, market traits, and ROI are more important factors than policy alone.

  16. On the role of government regulation in creating conditions for the development of Russian regions: the case of tariff policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of disparities in the economic conditions of regional development is an important task of government regulation. The tariff policy influences the economic development of Russia and different regions. The market incentives for innovation are not sufficiently strong. The rise in prices and tariffs has a negative impact on cost structure and production efficiency. The research conducted shows the degree of variation in the level and dynamics of prices and rates in each region and provides a basis for analyzing the conditions of economic development and their comparison at a regional level. The paper shows the impact of tariff policy on the development of regional markets and the creation of conditions for economic development.

  17. Proposal of tariffs of the Commission of the Energy Regulation (CRE) at the 10 November 2006 for the use of the natural gas transport networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRE proposes new tariffs of the natural gas transport networks. With the preservation of the main today tariffs, the new proposal takes into account the environmental economic and financial regulation evolution and introduces new dispositions to favor the competition development. The proposals are presented. (A.L.B.)

  18. Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ? This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ? Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ? Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ? The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ? Financing and dynamics bet? Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

  19. Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

  20. Walking the tightrope: balancing effectiveness against cost in the Netherlands' feed-in tariffs. Commentary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, S.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    A feed-in electricity tariff is a policy mechanism used in many countries to support renewable energy technologies until they can compete with other methods of generating electricity. But, as experience in the Netherlands shows, it is a challenging policy task to support renewables without wasting government money or creating perverse incentives. The Dutch government has implemented two feed-in tariff schemes since 2003, the first being the Environmental Quality of Electricity program ('Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie' or MEP). This was followed in 2008 by the Promoting Renewable Energy scheme ('Stimulering Duurzame Energie' or SDE)

  1. African agricultural trade : recent and the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional cooperation that does not need the long and drawn-out processes associated with FTA negotiations.

  2. Potentials and challenges in implementing feed-in tariff policy in Indonesia and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in Southeast Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines are characterized by a tropical climate and high amounts of rainfall that render their high potential for hydro-power and wind energy deployment. The volcanic geography of both countries also indicates their high geothermal potential compared with that of other countries, and their high solar radiation level makes them suitable areas to establish power plants. The present study is an archival-statistical overview of the potential generation of renewable energy in Indonesia and the Philippines and the implementation of the Feed-in-tariff (FiT) policy. This research focuses on the challenges encountered by politicians and policymakers and confirms the insufficient production of energy from wind, solar, and bio-gas sources despite the potential and the attempts to deploy FiT. Results show that the role of the government in providing support to investors is not clear in both countries. In addition, inflation rates have not been calculated. However, FiT has benefitted both countries by preventing degression during the primary years. - Highlights: • Both countries are unsuccessful in finalizing a fixed Feed-in-tariff payment. • Both have the same aims from FiT but they have different mechanisms. • The Philippines has shown good ability in managing geothermal energy. • Indonesia's energy generation from biomass is better managed than the Philippines. • Both do not have significant energy production from the wind, solar and biogas

  3. Tariffs and subsidies in Zimbabwe's reforming electricity industry: steering a utility through turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the Government of Zimbabwe adopted a public enterprise reform strategy as part of a World Bank driven Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP). For the electricity sector, the Government adopted a two-pronged programme of reform - a performance improvement programme (PIP) for the national utility, the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), and a legal and regulatory reform programme for the electricity sector in general. Ten years later, significant success has been achieved in improving the utility's performance in technical operations and customer service. However, there has been very little progress on the legal and regulatory front. This has adversely affected the utility's financial performance, as well as frustrating the Government's efforts in attracting private sector investment. The centrality of the tariff question reflects the importance of the customer or end-user to the power sector reform process. This article outlines the power sector reform experiences in Zimbabwe with special focus on the tariff question. The paper suggests, from the perspective of a utility executive, reasons for the mixed results at ZESA, and lessons for other countries in the region undertaking similar reforms. (Author)

  4. Site Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

  5. US–tyres : upholding a WTO accession contract — imposing pain for little gain

    OpenAIRE

    Charnovitz, Steve; Hoekman, Bernard M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the United States imposed additional tariffs for a three-year period on imports of automotive tires from China under a special-safeguard provision included in China's Protocol of Accession to the WTO. China challenged the measure in the WTO. The case marked the first WTO dispute in which a challenged safeguard was upheld by the Appellate Body; the first in which an accession protocol was used successfully as a defense; and the first that China lost as a complaining party. It also was...

  6. The Doha Round and Market Access for LDCs: Scenarios for the EU and US Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Ce?line; Melo, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Least developed countries (LDCs) hoped that the DOHA round would bring them greater market access in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries than for non-LDCs. Using HS-6 tariff level data for the United States and the EU for 2004, this paper estimates that, once the erosion from preferential access into the EU to non-LDCs is taken into account, LDCs have about a 3% preferential margin in the EU market. In the US market, in spite of preferences under the African Gr...

  7. 47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Carrier common line rates shall be determined...Maximum allowable rate of return. Local exchange...The Commission may require any carrier to submit...earnings. However, rates must be calculated...prescribed rate of return applicable to...

  8. Development of food safety capability in Ghana to enhance access to the Global Food Manufacturing Value Chain (GFMVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating compliance with food safety requirements of the global economy is a prerequisite for access. As tariff barriers diminish, developing countries are exposed to greater opportunities for repositioning their food manufacturing sectors in global value chains (GVCs). At the same time, the measures for the protection of public health and safety are becoming more stringent because of the series of food safety crises that characterised the global food value chain in the 19...

  9. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and Extension of...The FY 2012 raw cane sugar TRQ is established...sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred...for imports of raw cane sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be...

  10. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of...for imports of raw cane sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be entered...195 MTRV of raw cane sugar described in...sugars, syrups, and molasses described in...

  11. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal...The FY 2013 raw cane sugar TRQ is established...sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred...for imports of raw cane sugar and certain sugars, syrups, and molasses that may be...

  12. 78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ...Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican...Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 2013 TPL for Nicaragua...SUMMARY: This notice reduces the 2013 TPL for Nicaragua to 98,447,866 square...

  13. 77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican...Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 2012 TPL for Nicaragua...SUMMARY: This notice reduces the 2012 TPL for Nicaragua to 96,529,059 square...

  14. 75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican...Agreements (CITA). ACTION: Amending the 2010 TPL for Nicaragua...SUMMARY: This notice reduces the 2010 TPL for Nicaragua to 99,238,862 square...

  15. Proposal of October 26, 2005 from the Commission of energy regulation about the tariff of use of methane terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the tariff of use of the methane gas terminals of Fos Tonkin and Montoir, managed by Gaz de France company: re-gasification services, tariffing principle, penalties, LNG trade point, secondary market of re-gasification capacities. (J.S.)

  16. 77 FR 58525 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) heading 9902.51.11); and (2) for...fiber diameters of 18.5 microns or less (HTS heading 9902.51.12). On August 6...the Department to allocate a TRQ for new HTS category, HTS 9902.51.16. This...

  17. 75 FR 54599 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) heading 9902.51.11); and (2) for...fiber diameters of 18.5 microns or less (HTS heading 9902.51.12). On August 6...the Department to allocate a TRQ for new HTS category, HTS 9902.51.16. This...

  18. 77 FR 21762 - ReEnergy Livermore Falls LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1432-000] ReEnergy Livermore Falls LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based...supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Livermore Falls LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  19. Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados Water tariffs in irrigation districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigação é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica.In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, since the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

  20. The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ? We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ? Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ? High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ? Optimal tariff is a rnal costs. ? Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

  1. Features of Formation of Tariff Policy in the Sphere of Housing and Communal Services at the Present Stage on an Example of the Kharkiv Region ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Vladimir M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of formation of tariff policy in the sphere of housing and communal services of Ukraine. The main directions of state regulation of functioning of housing sector were highlighted. It was theoretically grounded and developed recommendations of the market environment in the reform of the tariff policy in the housing and communal services. The current state of security settlements of Ukraine centralized water supply and the basic problems of development in this field was analysed. The methodical approach to the formation of tariffs for public utilities example of Kharkiv region was offered.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ???. ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????-???????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.

  2. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy

  3. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  4. An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned. (author)

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate the congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distribute energy resources (DERs). Sensitivity analysis of the DT method is crucial because of its decentralized control manner. The sensitivity analysis can obtain the changes of the optimal energy planning and thereby the line loading profiles over the infinitely small changes of parameters by differentiating the KKT conditions of the convex quadratic programming, over which the DT method is formed. Three case studies were conducted to demonstrate the impact of small and big changes of parameters on the line loading profiles and the effectiveness of the DT method.

  6. Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments-Some observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint.

  7. Optimal Reconfiguration Based Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management and Line Loss Reduction in Distribution Networks.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programming (MIP) when calculating the DT, leading to minimized energy cost and reduced DT compared to the DT concept without FR. The paper further demonstrates that the line losses can be taken into account during the calculation of DT. As a result, the line loss reduction can be realized in a decentralized manner through the DT framework. Three case studies were conducted to validate the optimal reconfiguration based DT method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks.

  8. The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost. LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply analyzed and discussed. A modified test system (RBTS) illustrates the proposed method.

  9. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity

  10. Tariffs on power supply and prices of electricity per 1st January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives a survey of the most usual types of tariffs connected with the Danish electric-power distribution companies and the prices, valid per January 1st, 1994, set by individual companies and also the cost to consumers of connection to the supply network. A survey of prices set by power plant administrators with regard to the distribution companies is also included in addition to a summary of the modes of calculation in connection with wind turbines not owned by the electricity companies and descriptions of models for calculations related to decentral and industrial plants. Local conditions such as structure, economy etc. must be taken into consideration when comparing prices set by companies in several different areas. (AB)

  11. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called 'PURPA machines'-poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently implerket designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability

  12. Combining tariffs, investment subsidies and soft loans in a renewable electricity deployment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy combinations and interactions have received a considerable attention in the climate and energy policy realm. However, virtually no attention has been paid to the analysis of the combination of different deployment instruments for the same renewable energy technology. This neglect is all the more striking given the existence in current policy practice of combinations of deployment instruments either across technologies or for the same technology, both in the EU and elsewhere. What renewable electricity support policies to use and, therefore, how to combine them in order to promote the deployment of renewable energy technologies cost-effectively is a main concern of governments. The aim of this paper is to provide insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. A financial model is developed for this purpose, whereby feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. The results show that the policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. Therefore, combining deployment instruments is not a cost-containment strategy. However, combinations may lead to different inter-temporal distributions of the same amount of policy costs and, thus, differently affect the social acceptability and political feasibility of renewable energy support. - Highlights: • Insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. • A financial model is developed. • Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. • The policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. • Therefore, combining deployment measures is not a cost-containment strategy

  13. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called ''PURPA machines'' - poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently iy market designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability. (author)

  14. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  15. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  16. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  17. United States Access Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Access Board Advancing Full Access and Inclusion for All The Board Guidelines & Standards Training Enforcement Research ... from the Access Board: Board Newsletter: Access Currents United States Access Board 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000 ...

  18. Managing tariff risks in cogeneration: the example of La Doua; La maitrise des risques tarifaires en cogeneration: exemple de la Doua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, D. [SLEC / Prodith (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1996-12-31

    Combined to a district heating system based on a coal burning plant, a cogeneration unit has been installed in Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France, with a gas engine using natural gas for power production and complementary heat production. Electric power surplus is sold back to the national grid, EDF. Costs and tariffs for power, heat and natural gas have been evaluated and the tariff evolutions are considered for price indexing and adapted financial coverings. Results after one year of operation are discussed

  19. Returns on investment in electricity producing photovoltaic systems under de-escalating feed-in tariffs. The case of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danchev, Svetoslav; Maniatis, George [Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research (IOBE), 11 Tsami Karatassou Str., Athens 117 42 (Greece); National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Tsakanikas, Aggelos [Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research (IOBE), 11 Tsami Karatassou Str., Athens 117 42 (Greece)

    2010-01-15

    Under the threat of ballooning energy bills, the Greek legal framework supporting the electricity producing photovoltaic systems (PVS) changed in January 2009 from a fixed to a de-escalating feed-in tariff schedule. In this paper we investigate the internal rate of return (IRR) on investing in PVS under the new regulatory environment. We find that the new scheme favours strongly the early entry in the market. Unless there is a significant decrease in the equipment cost over the next decade, entering the market from 2015 onwards will be prohibitive. The bias of the current policy design towards early entry in a rapidly developing set of technologies entails the risk of a lock-up with sub-optimal technological option. This outlines the importance for policy design of linking the rate of feed-in-tariff de-escalation to more realistic expectations regarding the technology learning curve. (author)

  20. Impacts of the transition of the purchase tax for passenger cars into a tariff per driven kilometre [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2007, the Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing scheme in the Netherlands, called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit' (Paying differently for mobility). Major goal is to start with a full operational system in 2016 in which every car user will pay a tariff per driven kilometre. Starting point is that for the average car user, the car mobility will not be more or less expensive. In order to accomplish this, the fixed car and road taxes will be abolished. Point of departure is to convert the road tax (MRB) into a tariff per kilometre. In this report it is examined what the impacts are in case the purchase tax for private cars (BPM) will be incorporated into a price per kilometre as well.

  1. Returns on investment in electricity producing photovoltaic systems under de-escalating feed-in tariffs. The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the threat of ballooning energy bills, the Greek legal framework supporting the electricity producing photovoltaic systems (PVS) changed in January 2009 from a fixed to a de-escalating feed-in tariff schedule. In this paper we investigate the internal rate of return (IRR) on investing in PVS under the new regulatory environment. We find that the new scheme favours strongly the early entry in the market. Unless there is a significant decrease in the equipment cost over the next decade, entering the market from 2015 onwards will be prohibitive. The bias of the current policy design towards early entry in a rapidly developing set of technologies entails the risk of a lock-up with sub-optimal technological option. This outlines the importance for policy design of linking the rate of feed-in-tariff de-escalation to more realistic expectations regarding the technology learning curve. (author)

  2. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating. PMID:23417345

  3. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.

  4. Policy Fiasco: The Sabotage of Cabotage Policy Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdausi Suffian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Cabotage policy as a non-tariff barrier has harmed the domestic economy and is inconsistent with the premise of trade liberalisation agenda. The effect of Cabotage policy limits market access and has formed monopoly in the shipping industry. The policy might increase efficiency in term of technology and consolidating resources in one participant of the industry but does not improve the overall welfare the industry. This paper proposes a mid-way-out approach by taking incremental steps towards change and requires a committee system to review and streamline the Cabotage policy. We named the committee as logistic committee that envisioned working on towards liberalizing the transportation and logistics industry. It is proposed that the committee decision as binding and as primary source of policy making input.

  5. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ? 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ? Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ? Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  6. Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (?2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not predict any outcome of interest on its own. Keywords: hip fractures, best practice tariff, mortality

  7. Tariffs and investments at the Brazilian electric sector; Tarifas e investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)

  8. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  9. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention of distribution grid congestion from EV charging. The case study results show that the concept is successful ina number of situations, most notably a system over-load of 155% can be successfully alleviated on the test distribution network.

  10. The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: ? We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. ? We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. ? The scheme is really a series of put options. ? Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. ? The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations repreient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

  11. IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Szuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

  12. Evaluation of feed-in tariff-schemes in African countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Meyer-Renschhausen.

    Full Text Available Almost all African countries are planning to increase their power supply capacities and to diversify the resource base of the electricity sector. In sharp contrast to the ambitious objectives, grid connected power plants, based on renewable energies, are very rare except large scale hydropower in Af [...] rican countries. The small number of renewable energy (RE)-plants in Africa shows that a quick diffusion of these technologies cannot be expected from the dynamic of market forces alone. Political support is necessary. By now, feed-in tariffs (FIT) is the most prominent economic instrument promoting renewable energy technologies in the power sector. They are applied in more than 50 countries, among them several African countries like Algeria, Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania. The objective of the paper is to investigate the outcome and effectiveness of African FIT-schemes. It is assumed that most of the FIT-schemes in Africa are poorly working because of unfavourable institutional design, insufficient level of FIT rates or obstacles in the process of implementation. Deficiencies in the design of FIT-schemes and the implementation process can be explained by conflicting policy targets like affordable power prices and grid stability but also with an unclear allocation of property rights that can lead to time-consuming negotiations of Power Purchase Agreements.

  13. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison: The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price

  14. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

  15. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Wai Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâ??s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

  16. Are Feed-in Tariffs suitable for promoting solar PV in New Zealand cities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) implemented by city councils in the USA have proven an effective means of stimulating installation of renewable-electricity generation capacity at a local level, and may also be effective for New Zealand cities. Though New Zealand has a high proportion of electricity generated renewably, this is mostly from centralized hydroelectricity plants. The suitability of city-level FITs for promoting solar photovoltaic panels in New Zealand is examined. Findings suggest that FITs, with rates obtained using the cost-of-generation method, could be implemented in New Zealand cities at rates comparable to those in successful FIT schemes internationally. The unique structure of New Zealand's liberalized electricity market, however, is likely to make financing FIT schemes at city-level more complex than the equivalent situation in the USA. Benefits of introducing such schemes will include the possibility for purchasers of solar PV systems to calculate returns on investment over the long term, and the streamlining of the grid connection process by reducing the number of authorities involved. - Highlights: • Results pertain to New Zealand city councils implementing FITs. • FIT rates similar to those in other countries provide sufficient investor incentive. • FITs could greatly increase investor security and ease grid connection. • Electricity market structure precludes financing through burden-sharing

  17. A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States.

  18. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ? Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ? Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ? Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ? Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ? Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  19. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  20. Rules of origin in preferential agreements: favorable factor or constraint to trade? Case of the agreement between the United-States and Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Hasnaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rules of origin are justified by the need to regulate trade between two or a group of countries (trade policy mechanism. This paper proposes to study the impact of rules of origin on the implementation of the preferential trade agreement between Morocco and the United States of America. Following this study, the results showed that the rules of origin diminish substantially the efficiency of this Agreement and deprive Moroccan companies of the tax benefits in terms of access to the U.S. market. Therefore, they reflect protectionist practices in term of non tariff barriers. They take the form of manufacturing conditions hard to be met by the operators. The analysis of the relationship between preferential Moroccan exports to the United States of America, on one hand, and the presence of tariff preferences and the Rules of Origin, on the other hand, suggest that if the tariff preferences have indeed the effect of encouraging exports, the Rules of Origin have the reverse effect.

  1. Setting the price for PV for the Advanced Renewable Tariffs program in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key considerations for the pricing of photovoltaic (PV) energy in an advanced renewable tariff (ART) program in Ontario were presented. This paper addressed solar industry fears concerning a financing mechanism for on-site solar generation in Ontario and its potential to fail if markets are not sufficiently prepared in advance. The mechanism could result in the creation of an unsustainable demand for solar products. It was suggested that in addition to building capacities in the industry, training and public education are important issues that the first phase of an ART's program must address. A 5 year pilot program was recommended in order to build industry infrastructure and capacity, before moving to rates based on the model developed by the Ontario Sustainable Energy Association. An initial price of 0.42 kWh was recommended to stimulate early adopters and to build capacity. It was noted that PV supplied power coincides with peak demand, and that its ART rate should reflect this premium cost value. Ontario ratepayers are already paying millions of dollars for electricity at rates higher than $0.42 per kWh. It was estimated that the average cost of the ART program for PV in the introductory stage would cost ratepayers under $10 million per year. While there have been no Canadian studies done on the value of PV's benefits to the power grid, Californian studies have indicated that benefits for Ontario should range between $0.20-$0.38 CAN per kWh. It was concluded that -$0.38 CAN per kWh. It was concluded that the price for PV in Ontario's ARTs program needs to be set at a high enough rate to stimulate the sustainable growth of the industry in the province. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.re than one hundred million Euros.

  3. Do distribution companies loose money with an electricity flexible tariff?: A review of the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can get an (energy efficiency) EE improvement if we produce a flatter daily load curve, leading to a higher efficiency of the power system, making better use of the generation and transport electricity chain, thus avoiding over-investment in equipment used just few hours a year. Tariff flexibility of the (Time of Use) TOU type is one of these measures. Generally, TOU systems are designed to minimize total system cost, which may cause losses in distribution companies (DISCOs), generating opposition. On the contrary, the present paper proposes a TOU system for electricity consumption in Chile where optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of DISCOs. In this manner, the proposed TOU system is, by definition, beneficial for DISCOs and it may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. In particular, we show that such a system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of 811.7 millions of dollars for the 3-year study period (2005–2007), considering initiatives that promote a 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours, obtained by the spread or difference between the proposed and the current systems. - Highlights: • We propose a TOU (Time of Use) system for electricity consumption in Chile. • In this system the optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of (distribution companies) DISCOs. • The proposed TOU system may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. • This system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of M$811.7. • Benefit obtained for 3-year study period with initiatives that promote 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours

  4. Determining appropriate feed-in tariff rates to promote biomass-to-electricity generation in Eastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site data collection, interviews, and financial models were used to determine the feed-in tariff (FIT) rate required to encourage investment in the generation of electricity from currently unused biomass from the Eastern Ontario forest industry. A financial model was adapted and run to determine the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period associated with a 15 MW biomass-to-electricity facility. The analysis suggests that Ontario should consider a stronger incentive than the recently-offered CDN$ 0.13 kW?1 h?1 for biomass-to-electricity. If no customer for heat generated from the plant can be found, FIT rates between CDN$ 0.17–0.22 kW?1 h?1 are necessary to achieve a 15% internal rate of return and a simple payback of approximately 5 yr; achieving a price of CDN$ 0.013 kW?1 of thermal output still requires elevated FIT rates between CDN$ 0.15–0.21 kW?1 h?1 to meet economic performance criteria. Other barriers, particularly regulations regarding the use of operating engineers in steam plants, should also be addressed to facilitate development of biomass-to-electricity. Without these changes, it is likely that biomass will be significantly under-used and will not contribute to the renewable energy goals of Ontario. - Highlights: • Economic performance of biomass-to-electricity generation in Ontario is assessed. • Feed-in tariffs needed to meet industrial payback and IRR targets are determined. • Existing feed-in tariff rates for biomass must be raised to meet industrial targets. • Incentives that adjust feedstock price might be explored to increase biomass use

  5. Green Barrier Promotes SustainableDevelopment of Our Foreign Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Yongning Wang

    2009-01-01

    Green barrier is a kind of new non-tariff barrier in the current international trade. This paper based on the meaning of green barrier, analyzed green barrier can promote Sustainable Development of our foreign trade, and proposed counter strategies to green barrier.

  6. Green Barrier Promotes SustainableDevelopment of Our Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Wang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Green barrier is a kind of new non-tariff barrier in the current international trade. This paper based on the meaning of green barrier, analyzed green barrier can promote Sustainable Development of our foreign trade, and proposed counter strategies to green barrier.

  7. Sustainable water use in cities: water tariff as tool for consumption control; El uso sostenible del agua en nucleos urbanos: las tarifas como herramienta de control del consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.

    2012-07-01

    The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)

  8. Open auctioning of nuclear drawing rights: a fair way out from regulated tariffs on the mass market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a tariff approach which will consider the nuclear assets of the French operator as a property belonging to the French citizens who accepted the development of these equipment and who, as consumers, have already largely paid these assets. He describes this market mechanism which would assign drawing rights to all competitors. This mechanism is inspired by the VVP Spanish instrument, bidding or auctioning instruments implemented in different countries, and the EDF's drawing right assignment mechanism. He highlights and discusses the benefits and drawbacks of such an instrument

  9. Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: ? Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. ? Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. ? Application of performance data from Warwiction of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. ? Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. ? Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

  10. Does Anti-dumping Enforcement Generate Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Sagnik; Bhattacharyya, Surajit; Krishnan NARAYANAN

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed that countries across the world are guided by the rules and regulations of multilateral trading institutions (for example, World Trade organization [WTO], International Monetary Fund [IMF]) in order to promote free and fair trade through gradual reduction in trade barriers. The World economy has noticed significant reduction in tariffs, yet we find a rise in non-tariff barriers (NTBs). However, we still find dumping and few other trade strategies of the exp...

  11. The WTO and the millennium round : between standstill and leapfrog

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.

    1999-01-01

    The Third WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle in November 1999 is expected to pave the way to the ninth multilateral round of trade negotiations, labelled Millennium Round (MR). Like the preceding Uruguay Round (UR), it will have the twin targets of preventing domestic measures from discriminating against foreign supply and of dismantling border measures such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers. The core challenge of the MR will be to defend the WTO framework against efforts to sacrifice its...

  12. The sequencing of regional trade initiatives in Europe and East Asia, with

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.; Venables, Anthony J.; L. Alan Winters

    2004-01-01

    The latest wave of international market integration has seen a proliferation of bilateral and regional trading arrangements at the same time as the multilateral trading system has struggled to expand in scope. By and large, these developments have resulted in falling tariff and non-tariff barriers, fewer restrictions on inward foreign direct investments and, in some cases, the narrowing of regulatory differences. As the leading case of regional integration, the European Union (EU) and its pre...

  13. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  14. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  15. Strategic trade policy: how important is the informational constraint? The case of optimal tariff when technological innovations spill over to the foreign competitor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigi?, Krešimir

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2007 - (Barnes, P.), s. 21-49 ISBN 1-60021-239-5 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : optimal tariff * Bertrand and Cournot competition * strategic trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  16. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  17. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of underinvestment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  18. A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugénia, Mata; Joseph L., Love.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países [...] , este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese estabelecida. A Primeira Guerra Mundial, contudo, foi um momento decisivo para o Brasil. Ao fazer-se este estudo, usaram-se os melhores dados disponíveis, partindo-se ocasionalmente dos usados por Clemens e Williamson. As nossas conclusões prevalecem com dados alternativos. Abstract in english This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countr [...] ies, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.

  19. Tariff design for communication-capable metering systems in conjunction with time-variant electricity consumption rates; Gestaltung von Tarifen fuer kommunikationsfaehige Messsysteme im Verbund mit zeitvariablen Stromtarifen. Eine empirische Analyse von Praeferenzen privater Stromkunden in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft

    2013-06-15

    In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)

  20. A comprehensive method to find RPO trajectory and incentive scheme for promotion of renewable energy in India with study of impact of RPO on tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) regime in India started in 2011 with the announcement of benchmark RPO (BRPO) of states for the Financial Year (FY) 2011 by respective State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC), to promote Renewable Energy (RE). The report submitted to Forum of Regulators (FoR) in this regard has recommended uniform rate of increase of BRPO of states and studied the impact of RPO on tariff for FY 2011–2015. However, more rigorous analysis is needed for fixing BRPO in a scientific manner and for fair allocation of incentives to promote RE. This paper attempts to evaluate all states on a common platform to find BRPO, giving due weightage to the state-wise energy demand and RE generation, ensuring minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years and hence less impact of RPO on tariff. To encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO, a financial incentive scheme is proposed giving due weightage to RE consumption, RE capacity addition and RPO compliance of the states. The methods are illustrated for the Indian states using real system data. A study of RPO's impact on electricity tariff of Indian states is also conducted and reported for FY 2011–2015, considering Renewable Energy Certificate (REC). - Author-Highlights: • Proposes a comprehensive method to find the BRPO of Indian states for promoting RE. • Minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years hence less impact of RPO on tariff. • Incentive scheme to encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO. • Study of impact of RPO on tariff of Indian states is conducted

  1. Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orlando Monteiro da, Silva; Fernanda Maria de, Almeida.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs) nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tari [...] fárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam, em média, 33 vezes mais entre si do que com o resto do mundo. A introdução explícita da tarifa no modelo indicou um efeito redutor nas exportações, mais que proporcional ao aumento tarifário. Isolando a influência das tarifas do efeito-fronteira, os estados brasileiros ainda comercializariam 26 vezes mais entre si. O cálculo do equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias mostrou que as BNTs correspondiam à uma tarifa ad valorem de aproximadamente 29%. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest mod [...] el, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.

  2. Feed-in tariff vs. renewable portfolio standard: An empirical test of their relative effectiveness in promoting wind capacity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative effectiveness of feed-in tariff (FIT) and Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in promoting wind capacity development using panel data. Conservative estimates suggest that, on average across countries, FIT increases total wind capacity more than RPS by a magnitude of about 1800 MW. When using time variant policy indicators, the difference between the two policies increases to nearly 2000 MW, roughly 8% of 2009 cumulative capacity in Germany. As for annual wind capacity since 2005, this paper has found no significant difference between FIT and RPS. It is also found that wind energy development responds to high electricity demand and high oil dependence. - Highlights: ? Examined the relative effectiveness of FIT and RPS in promoting wind capacity. ? FIT increases total wind capacity more than 1800 MW than RPS across counties. ? RPS is catching up with FIT for annual wind capacity in recent years. ? Wind development also responds to high electricity demand and oil dependence.

  3. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  4. Feed-in tariff design for domestic scale grid-connected PV systems using high resolution household electricity demand data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of large samples of smart metering data allows policymakers to design Feed-in Tariffs which are more targeted and efficient. This paper presents a methodology which uses these data to design FITs for domestic scale grid-connected PV systems in Ireland. A sample of 2551 household electricity demand data collected at 1/2-hourly intervals, electricity output from a 2.82 kWp PV system over the same time interval as well as PV system costs and electricity tariffs were used to determine the required FIT to make it worthwhile for the households to invest in the PV system. The methodology shows that it is possible to design single, multiple and continuous FITs. Continuous FITs are the most efficient and result in no overcompensation to the housholder while single and multiple FITs are less efficient since they result in different levels of overcompensation. In the PV case study considered, it was shown that the use of three FITs (0.3170, 0.3315 and 0.3475 €/kW h) resulted in a 59.6% reduction in overcompensation compared to a single FIT of 0.3475 €/kW h; assuming immediate and complete uptake of the technology, this would result in NPV savings of over €597 m to the Irish government over a 25 year lifetime. - Highlights: • Targeted and efficient FITs can be designed for domestic grid-connected PV systems. • The design is based on household electricity demand data at 1/2-hourly intervals. • Designs consist of single, multiple and continuous FITs. • Continuous FITs are most efficient with no overcompensation. • Multiple FITs result in lower overcompensation compared to a single FIT

  5. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  6. Wind power merit-order and feed-in-tariffs effect: A variability analysis of the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • M5P algorithm-based model determines influence of wind power on Spanish spot market. • Assessment of the wind power influence for different levels of wind resource. • Cost-benefit analysis is developed, accounting feed-in-tariffs and merit order effect. • The worst and best levels of wind power production for the system are determined. - Abstract: The incipient large-scale energy-storage technologies are not sufficiently developed yet, which means that the wind power production depends on the wind speed at every moment. This, along with the fact that the wind resource is not constant over time, makes wind power production quite variable. Therefore, an artificial intelligence-based technique (M5P algorithm) is applied to empirical hourly data to determine the influence of wind power technology on the spot market for different levels of wind resource in 2012. It concludes that wind power depressed the spot prices between 7.42 and 10.94 €/MW h for a wind power production of 90% and 110% of the real one, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the important presence of wind power in the Spanish generation mix, the above range has been extended up to 0% in order to determine the worst and best level of wind power production for the Spanish electrical system (from an economical point of view). To do so, both feed-in-tariffs and wind power impact on spot market (merit order effect) have been accounted in accordance with the different levels of wind power production. Since empirical data from 2012 have been used to conduct the research, the results presented in this paper may provide policy makers with a worst and best-case scenario to discuss about the convenience of the last cutting expenses over wind power technology in Spain

  7. Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

  8. Access 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

  9. Access 2010 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Groh, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    The expert guidance you need to get the most out of Access 2010 Get the Access 2010 information you need to succeed with this comprehensive reference. If this is your first encounter with Access, you'll appreciate the thorough attention to database fundamentals and terminology. If you're familiar with earlier versions, you can jump right into Access 2010 enhancements such as the new Access user interface and wider use of XML and Web services.Takes you under the hood of Microsoft Access 2010, the database application included with Microsoft Office 2010Explores the latest en

  10. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  11. Access to Investigational Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide access to investigational drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? Are there specific criteria used to determine whether ... provide access to investigational drugs being developed by pharmaceutical companies? In the case of investigational drugs sponsored by ...

  12. WTO accession issues

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.; Lu?cke, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    For many applicant countries, accession to the WTO has been, and still is, a frustratingly slow process. In this paper, we discuss the substantial, contentious issues that are slowing down progress in accession negotiations. We contrast these with the benefits of WTO accession not only to the applicant countries, but also to the multilateral trading system as a whole and, hence, to current members. Against this background, we suggest a strategy to accelerate accession without diluting the gro...

  13. Accessibility (Section 508)

    Science.gov (United States)

    All NCI websites must be accessible to users, as described in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. Section 508 requires federal agencies to make their electronic and information technologies, including websites, conform to certain accessibility standards. The following are the standards that NCI Web developers must follow to comply with Section 508 requirements. These standards are based on the Access Board's Web Accessibility Standards, which should also be read by NCI Web developers.

  14. Are PDF Documents Accessible?

    OpenAIRE

    Turro?, Mireia Ribera

    2013-01-01

    Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.

  15. Cancer Data Access System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) is a web portal that facilitates access to PLCO data. Investigators can register with CDAS and request access to data collected through December 31, 2009 for the first 13 years of participation for each subject in the PLCO trial. Newly diagnosed cancers and deaths continue to be collected and will be available in the future.

  16. Analysis of the methodology coherence of the new tariffs reviewing at ANEEL; Analise da coerencia da metodologia de revisao tarifaria da ANEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, Claudia De Rosa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cpeano@superig.com.br; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao. Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: fanuatti@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work analyses the methodology adopted by ANEEL in electricity distribution companies' tariff revision. The theoretical approach assumes that the institutional endowment and existing regulatory framework restricts the regulators choice of tariff revision mechanism design. Regulators choice of methodology can contribute to the creation of a good reputation, reducing uncertainties and promoting efficiency. We evaluate how the chosen methods satisfy the aspect of internal coherence among them and with the commitments found in the basic legal framework of the industry. We conclude that the adoption of a Reference Firm as a benchmark presents some coherency and transparency, but the methodology has consistency problems and is not suitable to the maturity level and administrative capacity of the regulatory system. (author)

  17. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes.

  18. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

  19. Unlocking the Euro 53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU: How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be Euro 51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between Euro 26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of Euro 10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as Euro 67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only Euro 14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs.

  20. Access 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

  1. Vantagens comparativas e restrições comerciais: uma avaliação do comércio Brasil/Alemanha em 2001 / Comparatives advantages and trade restrictions: an evaluation of the Brazil/Germany trade in 2001

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alaor Silvio, Cardoso; Fernando Antônio R., Soares; Tito Belchior Silva, Moreira; Paulo Roberto A., Loureiro.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as exportações do Brasil para a Alemanha em 2001, por grupos de produtos exportados, com base na intensidade da utilização do fator de produção correspondente à qualificação da mão-de-obra. Define as vantagens comparativas das exportações brasileiras para o mercado alemão com bas [...] e no modelo de Heckscher-Ohlin. Após a identificação dos produtos brasileiros que apresentam vantagens comparativas, analisamos os principais obstáculos impostos pelo mercado alemão a esses produtos, tendo em vista as barreiras comerciais (tarifárias e não tarifárias) e aplicadas pela Alemanha às exportações brasileiras, no âmbito da regulamentação comunitária da União Européia. Abstract in english This article analyzes Brazilian exports to Germany in 2001 focusing on groups of exported products and the use of the factor of production corresponding to the qualification of workers. The aim is to define the comparative advantages of Brazilian exports to the German Market, based upon Heckscher-Oh [...] lin's theory of international trade. After such identification, the main obstacles to the access of Brazilian products to the German Market have been analyzed, considering the trade barriers (tariff and non-tariff based) imposed by Germany to Brazilian exports in the realm of the UE's communitarian regulation.

  2. Irradiation from a phytosanitary treatment perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing that with the advent of globalisation and initiatives towards liberalization of trade through the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers, the challenge towards gaining international market access will hinge primarily on quality of agricultural commodities. Besides aiming for efficiency in production it is crucial to emphasise on quality so that it not only provide a competitive edge but also enables them to penetrate markets that have stringent phytosanitary requirements. The need for an alternative quarantine treatment against agricultural pests has been pressing as according to the Montreal Protocol, fumigation with methyl bromide, the most widely used fumigant, will be globally phased out due to environment reasons. Irradiation is a relatively new technology and lately it has been accepted as one of the phytosanitary measures by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). It provides one of the alternative technologies available to the food industries to control organisms that cause food borne diseases, to reduce food losses due to spoilage and deterioration, and to overcome barriers in food trade. Taking cognizance that irradiation has potential as a treatment technology for the disinfestation of pests of agricultural commodities, efforts have been stepped up to ensure the pre-requisites are in place for its implementation. (Author)

  3. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EkstrØm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc.

  4. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean–variance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean–variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean–variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feed-in tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes. - Highlights: • Mean–variance portfolio approach to analyse risk implications of policy instruments. • We show that feed-in tariffs require lower support levels than feed-in premiums. • This systematic effect stems from the lower exposure of investors to market risk. • We created a stochastic model for an exemplary offshore wind park in West Denmark. • We quantify risk-return, Sharpe Ratios and differences in required support levels

  5. Economic feasibility of large community feed-in tariff-eligible wind energy production in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova Scotia, Canada's community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) scheme is the world's first feed-in tariff program specifically targeting locally-based renewable energy projects. This study investigated selected turbine capacities to optimize electricity production, based on actual wind profiles for three sites in Nova Scotia, Canada (i.e., Sydney, Caribou Point, and Greenwood). The turbine capacities evaluated are also eligible under the current COMFIT-large scheme in Nova Scotia, including 100 kW, 900 kW and 2.0 MW turbines. A capital budgeting model was developed and then used to evaluate investment decisions on wind power production. Wind duration curves suggest that Caribou Point had the highest average wind speeds but for shorter durations. By comparison, Sydney and Greenwood had lower average wind speeds but with longer durations. Electricity production cost was lowest for the 2.0 MW turbine in Caribou Point ($0.07 per kWh), and highest for the 100 kW turbine located in Greenwood ($0.49 per kWh). The most financially viable wind power project was the 2.0 MW turbine assumed to operate at 80 m hub height in Caribou Point, with NPV=$251,586, and BCR=1.51. Wind power production for the remaining two sites was generally not financially feasible for the turbine capacities considered. The impact of promoting local economic development from wind power projects was higher in a scenario under which wind turbines were clustered at a single site with the highest wind resources than generating a similar level of electricity by distributing the wind turbines across multiple locations. -- Highlights: •Wind energy production was highest at Caribou Point than at Sydney and Greenwood. •Estimated energy production increased with hub-height, for two of the three sites. •Cost of energy production was lowest at Caribou Point and highest at Greenwood. •In general, benefit–cost ratios increased with wind turbine capacity. •Pay-back period tended to decrease with increase in size of the wind turbine

  6. The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Ronan, E-mail: ronandoherty@yahoo.com [Electricity Research Centre (ERC), University College Dublin (Ireland); O' Malley, Mark [Electricity Research Centre (ERC), University College Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-09-15

    Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: > We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. > We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. > The scheme is really a series of put options. > Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. > The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

  7. Fostering the use of renewable energies in the European Union: the race between feed-in tariffs and green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fostering the use of renewable energies for power generation is at the heart of the EU's long term energy policy. Accordingly, the European Commission and literally all member states have set up ambitious installation targets for alternative energy sources. These aims can only be reached by recurring to support systems that help covering the cost disadvantages faced on liberalised electricity markets. Currently, a dichotomy of support models exists: Feed-in tariffs on the one side and green certificates on the other side seem promising tools to foster renewable energies. In this contribution we look closely at the concepts of both models as well as their advantages and disadvantages in terms of ecological effectiveness and economic efficiency. It becomes obvious that in the context of the liberalised power markets and the rush for the harmonisation of the instruments it will depend very much on in-detail regulations whether the installation targets will be met-regardless of the basic choice of model. (author)

  8. Access 2003 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Prague, Cary N; Reardon, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The most comprehensive reference on this popular database management tool, fully updated with the new features of Access ""X"" including increased use of XML and Web servicesExplores the new, tighter integration with SharePoint and BizTalk in Office ""X"" that enables greater flexibility for gathering and manipulating dataWritten by an international bestselling author team with several books to their credit, including previous editions of Access BibleGets Access beginners started with hundreds of examples, tips, and techniques for getting the most from AccessOffers adva

  9. Access 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to the updated and new features of Access 2013 As the world's most popular database management tool, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data as well as build powerful database solutions. However, databases can be complex. That's why you need the expert guidance in this comprehensive reference. Access 2013 Bible helps you gain a solid understanding of database purpose, construction, and application so that whether you're new to Access or looking to upgrade to the 2013 version, this well-rounded resource provides you with a th

  10. A probabilistic concept of accessibility for access structures

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Ramon, Rafael; Gime?nez Pradales, Jose? Miguel; Magan?a Nieto, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of weighted accessibility for access structures. In some sense, it represents a measure of how difficult or how easy is to recover the secret. We give also a numerical measure of accessibility for each participant depending on his position in the access structure. Both concepts, the accessibility of the access structure and the accessibility of the participants are closely related. We also provide an axiomatic characterization of the weighted accessibili...

  11. AccessAbility @ Cleveland Public Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mates, Barbara T.

    2003-01-01

    Describes several programs that were developed by staff at the Cleveland (Ohio) Public Library to be accessible to users with disabilities. Highlights include a Braille reading program; sensory garden; poetry club; book club based on talking books; wheelchair athletics; touching museum artifacts; and a mobile library for users who could not visit…

  12. Access & Persistence. Summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This issue of "Access & Persistence" describes the roundtable discussion, "Ensuring Access to College Amid Economic Uncertainty," held on June 13, 2008 in Nashville, Tennessee. The purpose of the discussion was to gather information from a variety of perspectives within the higher education community on effects of the credit crisis and general…

  13. Accessing the Microform Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Stan

    1985-01-01

    Characterizes types of indexing programs used by Research Publications, Inc. and describes provision of access to four major projects: "The Official Washington Post Index" (provides access to newspaper and microfilm edition); "The Eighteenth Century"; "The Declassified Documents Reference System" (ongoing fiche project abstracted and indexed…

  14. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

  15. ATBC Study - Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are committed to making atbcstudy.cancer.gov accessible to all users, regardless of special need. The site is designed to be compatible with screen readers and other assistive devices. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users may encounter problems accessing some pages.

  16. ICSN Web Site Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site has been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the Section 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users may encounter problems accessing some pages.

  17. Access to mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on methods for accessing broadcast based M-services from multiple wireless channels. This book presents a novel infrastructure that provides a multi-channel broadcast framework for mobile users to effectively discover and access composite M-services. It is suitable for those who work in the general area of mobile services.

  18. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  19. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  20. Hybrid modeling to support energy-climate policy: Effects of feed-in tariffs to promote renewable energy in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariffs have been the main policy instrument applied in Portugal for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources under the EU Directives on energy and climate regulation. In this paper, we provide an empirical impact assessment of the economic and environmental effects of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. Impact assessment of policy instruments plays a crucial role on decision-making process. For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium modeling approach, which represents a reliable tool to analyze the complex interactions between economic, energy, and environmental issues related to energy policies. Numerical simulations confirm the empirical evidence that the FITs policy implemented by Portugal was both an effective and a cost-efficient way to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and thus to achieve the national RES-E target of 45% in 2010. Results show relatively modest macroeconomic impacts indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. From an environmental perspective, the deployment of renewable energy source results in significant carbon emissions reductions. - Highlights: ? We provide an impact assessment of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. ? For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium model. ? Portugal's FITs policy proved to be a cost-efficient way to increase generation of renewable electricity. ? Results show relatively modest macroeconomic effects indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. ? The deployment of renewable energy sources results in significant carbon emission reductions

  1. Exploring the use of the Swiss medical tariffication codes (TARMED) in the establishment of the frequency of radiodiagnostic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coultre, R; Aroua, A; Samara, Et; Rochat, M; Coendoz, S; Verdun, Fr

    2012-01-01

    In population surveys of the exposure to medical X-rays both the frequency of examinations and the effective dose per examination are required. The use of the Swiss medical tariffication system (TARMED) for establishing the frequency of X-ray medical examinations was explored. The method was tested for radiography examinations performed in 2008 at the Lausanne University Hospital. The annual numbers of radiographies determined from the "TARMED" database are in good agreement with the figures extracted from the local RIS (Radiology Information System). The "TARMED" is a reliable and fast method for establishing the frequency of radiography examination, if we respect the context in which the "TARMED" code is used. In addition, this billing context provides most valuable information on the average number of radiographs per examination as well as the age and sex distributions. Radiographies represent the major part of X-ray examinations and are performed by about 4,000 practices and hospitals in Switzerland. Therefore this method has the potential to drastically simplify the organisation of nationwide surveys. There are still some difficulties to overcome if the method is to be used to assess the frequency of computed tomography or fluoroscopy examinations; procedures that deliver most of the radiation dose to the population. This is due to the poor specificity of "TARMED" codes concerning these modalities. However, the use of CT and fluoroscopy installations is easier to monitor using conventional survey methods since there are fewer centres. Ways to overcome the "TARMED" limitations for these two modalities are still being explored. PMID:23015536

  2. A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

  3. The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Mimately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

  4. The suitability of a feed-in tariff for wind energy in New Zealand—A study based on stakeholders' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Zealand (NZ) aims to expand the deployment of wind energy as one means to achieve 90% of electricity generation from renewables by 2025 and in addition to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Due to electricity market regulations that inhibit market entry for independent developers, New Zealand's wind energy development has been limited to primarily large wind farms developed by a handful of electricity utilities. In contrast to many other countries, NZ lacks policy support for entry of smaller investors into the wind generation sector. In order to gage the acceptability of a feed in tariff (FIT) for wind energy in New Zealand, a survey questionnaire (366 respondents) with land owning farmers and semi structured interviews with wind energy stakeholders was conducted. Although international literature suggests that a FIT would be the most suitable policy support scheme to accelerate wind energy deployment, this conclusion was not reached by many influential stakeholders in NZ. However, a majority of the surveyed farmers supported the introduction of a FIT for wind energy. The study also revealed that farmers' acceptance of wind energy in their local area increases with their awareness about climate change issues. - Highlights: ? Of countries in the world with a good wind regime, NZ has a low level of policy support for wind energy. ? A survey of landowning farmers in NZ (366 respondents) indicated support for a feed in tariff for wind energy. ? The major eariff for wind energy. ? The major electricity generators, however, did not indicate support for a feed in tariff. ? A low level of recognition of climate change being anthropogenic was found among landowning farmers.

  5. Evolutionarily Stable Spectrum Access

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we design distributed spectrum access mechanisms with both complete and incomplete network information. We propose an evolutionary spectrum access mechanism with complete network information, and show that the mechanism achieves an equilibrium that is globally evolutionarily stable. With incomplete network information, we propose a distributed learning mechanism, where each user utilizes local observations to estimate the expected throughput and learns to adjust its spectrum access strategy adaptively over time. We show that the learning mechanism converges to the same evolutionary equilibrium on the time average. Numerical results show that the proposed mechanisms are robust to the perturbations of users' channel selections.

  6. Access 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

  7. Live Access Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Hankin

    2002-09-09

    The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

  8. Exchange rate versus tariff policies in Brazil: results from MIBRA-USP, an interrregional applied general equilibrium model of the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Marcelo Theoto; Guilhoto, Joaquim Jose? Martins; Lima, Patri?cia Vero?nica Pinheiro Sales; Casimiro Filho, Francisco; Miranda, Silvia Helena G.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s Brazil has been experienced an opening process in the economy, which in turn has caused structural changes in the productive structure. In this work it is made an evaluation of the different impacts caused by changes in the exchange rate and in the tariffs over the Brazilian economy and its 5 macro regions. The study is done through the use of an interregional applied general equilibrium model, the MIBRA-USP. The results show that either a devaluation of...

  9. The influence of tariff management on operation, maintenance and management of stand-alone off-grid PV and wind/PV hybrid station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhiming; Ge Hui [Qinghai New Energy (Group) Co., Ltd, QH (China); Zhang Yabin [Electricity Engineering Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, the PV industry in China is developing rapidly. By the end of 2006, the total installed capacity of PV system in China has reached 80MWp. By the end of 2006, the number of built stand-alone off-grid PV and wind/PV hybrid station in Qinghai province is over 160. To ensure the over twenty-year safety and reliable operation of such a number of stations, the operation management is very important. And the management situation of tariff will directly influence the using situations of these stations in the future. (orig.)

  10. Agent-based model for electricity consumption and storage to evaluate economic viability of tariff arbitrage for residential sector demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Storage-based demand response (loadshifting) is underutilized in residential sector. • Economics (arbitrage savings versus equipment cost) are not well understood. • Stochastic demand models and real-life tariffs can illuminate economic viability. • A range of available storage options provide economically viable DR. • Daily/seasonal stochastic demand variations crucial to understanding optimum capacity. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) is one of many approaches to address temporal mismatches in demand and supply of grid electricity. More common in the commercial sector, DR usually refers to reducing consumption at certain hours or seasons, thus reducing peak demand from the grid. In the residential sector, where sophisticated appliance-level controls such as automatic dimming of lights or on-demand lowering of air conditioning are less common, building-based electricity storage to shift grid consumption from peak to off-peak times could provide DR without requiring consumers to operate their appliances on shifted or reduced schedules: Storage would be dispatched to appliances as needed while still shaving peaks on the grid. Technologically, storage and two-way-inverters are readily available to enable such residential DR. Economically, however, the situation is less clear. Specifically, are time-varying electricity tariffs available such that electricity cost reduction via arbitrage could offset manufacturing, financing, and installation costs of the required storage? To address this question we (i) devise an agent-based appliance-level stochastic model to simulate the electricity demand of an average U.S. household; (ii) loadshift the demand via simple dispatch strategies; and (iii) determine potential profits to the building owner, i.e. reduced electricity cost of the modified demand with realistic tariffs (Con Edison, NY) minus storage cost. We determine the economic viability for a range of traditional and advanced storage technologies as well as their optimum storage capacities to maximize profits. We find that (i) profits can range from <1% to 48% of annual electricity costs of a typical household; and (ii) optimum capacities, while approximately equal to households’ kWh consumption during peak hours, is affected by stochastic variations in daily and seasonal consumption. Future improvements to storage technology, arbitrage strategies, and tariffs are discussed. Details of the storage technologies, agent-based model, testing, and benchmarking are supplied as Supplementary Data

  11. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  12. Access cavity preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success. PMID:24651339

  13. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an infection, or a scarred vein, causing the vein to narrow. However, if a patient needs to start hemodialysis ... an infection, or a scarred vein, causing the vein to narrow. All three types of vascular access can cause ...

  14. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Shuiming; Luo Ying; Zhao Jian; Cheung Sen-ChingS

    2009-01-01

    Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC) system to protect user anonymity. The AB...

  15. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  16. The Open Access Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existi...

  17. Making justice more accessible

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Davide; Novais, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    From the point of view of the Citizen, Justice is not always readily accessible. Either because it is a lengthy process, potentially expensive, sometimes unclear or simply scary, people will often avoid or withdraw from a judicial process, especially in those cases that involve relatively small amounts. This results in the giving up of a basic right, with the potential loss of rightful benefits. In this paper we briefly analyze the main aspects that impair access to Justi...

  18. The universal access handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress in consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as in exploring new application domains. Increasingly, professionals in this rapidly maturing area require a comprehensive and multidisciplinary resource that addresses current principles, methods, and tools. Written by leading international authorities from academic, research, and industrial organizations and nonmarket institutions, The Universal Access Handbook covers the unfolding scientific, methodological, technological, and pol

  19. Access to physiotherapy services

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of community physiotherapy services operating within the National Health Service throughout England and Wales in 1980 showed a considerable increase in the availability of physiotherapy outside hospital, with 159 health districts (75 per cent) having some form of community physiotherapy. Additional information obtained about access by general practitioners to hospital physiotherapy departments showed that in 140 districts (66 per cent), some direct access was available.

  20. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  1. Web Accessibility for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web developers may find this website from the Center on Education and Work (CEW) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison helpful. In collaboration with the university's McBurney Disability Resource Center, the Center has created this website to provide "an array of resources, links, and tutorials designed to help individuals and organizations create and maintain accessible web content." Among the resources are a free accessibility checker, a slide show tutorial on the HiSoftware Web accessibility suite (available for purchase separately), and a video presentation and related information on Web Standards techniques used to make Web pages more accessible, faster, smaller, easier to maintain, ranked higher in search engines, and compatible with other devices such as PDAs. The Center has also developed the Aquatic Arts Learn by Example website, which addresses "the most prevalent problems that commonly inhibit access" and provides examples of both inaccessible and accessible pages, along with explanations of the problems exemplified. Note that some services and support offered on the website are available only for employees of the University of Wisconsin system.

  2. Model Penilaian Risiko Berbasis Kinerja untuk Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2012-01-01

    As the country's largest palm oil producer in the world, Indonesian palm oil production is still encounter political barriers or non-tariff economy of several countries. Sustainable development policies have a role to overcome these obstacles. The research problem is how to build policies through the performance based risk assessment for sustainable palm oil supply chain in Indonesia. The research objective is to recommend policies that supported by performance-based risk assessment models fo...

  3. International trade, minimum quality standards and the prisoners' dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Unilateral minimum quality standards are endogenously determined as the outcome of a non-cooperative standard-setting game between the governments of two countries. Cross-country externalities from the implementation of minimum quality standards are shown to give rise to a Prisoners' Dilemma structure in the incentives of policy-makers leading to inefficient policy outcomes. The role of minimum quality standards as non-tariff barriers is examined and the scope for mutual gains from reciprocal...

  4. Criza comer?ului mondial

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, George

    2005-01-01

    One of the roots of the current global imbalances resides in the asymmetry of the international trade flows under the constraints of maintaining non-tariff barriers and of protectionism revival. Trade liberalization is critical for restoring the financial global equilibrium. The study is emphasizing the importance of finding compromise solutions for finalizing the negotiations under the Doha Round multilateral agreement, otherwise increasing the risk of global imbalances deepening to unsustai...

  5. Trade liberalisation and import price behaviour :the case of textiles and wearing apparels

    OpenAIRE

    Benedictow, Andreas; Boug, Pål

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between exchange rates and traded goods prices typically find evidence of incomplete pass-through, usually explained by pricing-to-market behaviour. Although economic theory predicts that incomplete pass-through may also be linked to presence of non-tariff barriers to trade, variables reflecting such a link is rarely included in existing empirical models. In this paper, we estimate a pricing-to-market model for Norwegian import prices on textiles and weari...

  6. Measuring and interpreting intervention in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mcfarquhar, A. M. M.; ???????????, ????????? ?.

    1988-01-01

    Intervention includes all form of protection or taxation in agriculture irrespective of the source, and includes for example price support, income support, export tax, regulations whether marketing or technical, non-tariff barriers and exchange rate distortions. In fact, all factors which cause the domestic price to differ from the world price when measured at the same point in the marketing chain. This paper surveys recent studies which illustrate measures of measuring inte...

  7. Efecto de los aranceles en la competitividad de la porcicultura mexicana / Effect of the tariffs in the competitiveness of the mexican pork industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Gómez-Tenorio; S., Rebollar-Rebollar; J., Hernández-Martínez; E, Guzmán-Soria.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los porcicultores nacionales demandan la aplicación de aranceles a las importaciones de carne cerdo provenientes de los EUA argumentando un daño grave a la industria en tanto que las autoridades gubernamentales desechan esta opción, por lo que se justifica la evaluación del impacto de su implantació [...] n como una alternativa que propicie mejorar la competitividad de la porcicultura nacional. Para analizar este efecto se utilizó un modelo de equilibrio parcial tipo Armington, utilizando datos de 2006 del comercio internacional de carne de cerdo. Los resultados indican que si se hubiera aplicado un arancel del 20.0 % a la carne proveniente de Estados Unidos de América y Canadá en 2008 la demanda por México de su carne habría bajado 9.6 y 27.5 %, mientras que la demanda de carne nacional habría aumentado 6.4 %. Además, la producción se habría elevado en 4.5 % y el precio interno subido 12.5 %. Por otra parte, si el arancel solamente se hubiera aplicado a los Estados Unidos, la demanda en México de carne proveniente de este país habría bajado 23.4 %, la de Canadá y la nacional habrían aumentado 5.4 y 3.4 %, mientras que la producción se habría incrementado 2.4 % y el precio 6.6 %. Se espera que el arancel de 5.0 % impuesto por México en 2010 a las compras de carne de cerdo de Estados Unidos de América genere cambios poco significativos al mercado nacional. Por lo que, si se aplican aranceles a la carne de cerdo de EUA y Canadá cuando su precio es menor a los costos de producción nacionales, el incremento en el precio interno ayudaría a la porcicultura nacional a ser competitiva. Abstract in english The national pork producers demand the application of tariffs to the imports of originating meat pig of the EUA arguing a serious damage to the industry whereas, on the other hand, the governmental authorities reject this option, reason why the evaluation of the impact of its implantation like an al [...] ternative is justified that it causes to improve the competitiveness of the national pork industry. In order to analyze this effect a model of partial balance was used Armington type, using the data of 2006 of the international trade of pig meat. The results indicate that if a tariff of 20 % to the originating meat of the United States of America and Canada in the 2008 had been applied the demand by Mexico of its meat would have lowered 9.6 and 27.5 %, whereas the demand of national meat would have increased 6.4%. In addition, the production would have risen in 4.5 % and the internal price raised 12.5 %. By another part, if the tariff had been only applied to the United States, the demand in Mexico of originating meat of this country would have lowered 23.4 %, the one of Canada and the national would have increased 5.4 and 3.4 % respectively, whereas the 2.4 % production would have been increased and price 6.6 %. It is expected that the 5.0% tariff imposed by Mexico in 2010 to purchases of pork from the United States of America generate changes few significant to the domestic market. Reason why, if tariffs are applied to the meat of EUA pig and Canada when its price is smaller to the national production costs the increase in the internal price would help the national pork industry to be competitive.

  8. Access control system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

  9. A Panorama of Web Accessibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Babu J.; Chandra Sekharaiah K.?

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the myth and reality of web accessibility. The survey considers the feature analysis of a few websites which support accessibility. The paper explores the existing ICT facilities for various impairments (VI, HI, CI --- etc.) of differently abled persons particular to web accessibility. The work gives the results of analytical study of the existing web accessibility approaches.

  10. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  11. Personnel Access Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the method and system used to control personnel accesses into hazardous areas at the Superconducting Super Collider. Hazards encountered are electrical (high voltage and high current), radiation (ionizing), cryogenic fluids (liquid helium and nitrogen), flammable gases, and ultra high magnetic fields. Although these are a diverse group of hazards, virtually all can be mitigated by controlling accesses into the hazardous enclosures. The Personnel Access Safety System (PASS) is used for this purpose. The system is comprised of dual redundant Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) using loo2 voting (either system can bring the system down to a safe state). Numerous safety related hardware and software features have been built into this system to assure high reliability and availability

  12. Radiosonde Database Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-12

    The radiosonde real-time archive is comprised of all North American Global Telecommunications Service (GTS) observations primarily from Northern and Central American civilian and some military radiosonde sites not yet available on CD-ROM (currently 1997 thru 1999). Since late 1998, the archive has been upgraded to include all international observations transmitted via GTS. These data undergo extensive gross error and hydrostatic consistency checks before being incorporated into a randomly accessible compressed data archive developed at the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL). Data is stored in the same randomly accessible compressed data format, and is customizable in terms of input dates and source stations.

  13. Central Venous Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article

  14. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  15. Access to space studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  16. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  17. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare.

  18. Migrants' access to healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-10-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare. PMID:21975158

  19. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

  20. Media Access Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Media Access Group (MAG), part of the prestigious WGBH Broadcasting, focuses on making a variety of media accessible to people with disabilities and providing information about that process. Users will find information about the services and products offered - which include captioning services (both real-time and offline), descriptive video service (descriptions of visual portions of film and media for those who are blind or have vision impairments) and MoPix (a project which is working to bring both captioning and descriptive video to the big screen). In addition to explanations of their services the MAG site also offers a section on research and development which links users to NCAM (the National Center for Accessible Media) which is the research and development component of MAG. The resources section includes the MAG Guides which highlight various issues related to captioning and descriptive video, including the FCC's rules related to both topics. Also available under the resources tab are descriptive video guides, information on accessible DVDs and links to other related resources.

  1. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  2. Accessibility - Team Science Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is committed to providing access to all individuals—disabled or not—who are seeking information on the Team Science Toolkit. To provide this information, the Team Science Toolkit has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended).

  3. Strategies for Improving Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Terry; Barwood, Bryan

    1989-01-01

    The development of the varied strategies that have been introduced in order to improve access for disadvantaged groups at Monash University is discussed. The Junior University Programme, the Monash Orientation Scheme for Aborigines, the Mature Age Special Admission Scheme, Special Entry Scheme, and the Schools Link Programme are described. (MLW)

  4. College Access Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  5. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations.

  6. Effect of Technical Barriers to Trade on Chinese Textile Product Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Ningchuan Jiang

    2009-01-01

    It has been more than five years for China’s entry into WTO. With the decrease of regulations of tariff barrier and non-tariff barrier, the export market of Chinese textile products has been expanded and the market shares have been increased, which arouses great attention of many countries in the world. Some countries increase the limit of import. What should be noticed is the more covert and more agile trade barrier, which becomes the biggest barrier of export of our country’s te...

  7. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectivel

  8. Governing community energy—Feed-in tariffs and the development of community wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the development of community energy in the UK by comparing it to Germany in relation to decentralisation, scales and ownership structures particularly of wind energy. Varying approaches to energy generation at the community scale provide interesting insights into the impact of policy innovation as well as the capacity of national energy frameworks to foster socially innovative engagement practices beyond the purely technological diffusion of innovations. By examining interactions between technological and social innovations with the help of a qualitative analysis, opportunities for potential generators not traditionally engaged in energy generation to tap into these innovation systems are analysed. This paper suggests that greater commitment to diversification beyond the implementation of policy measures such as the feed-in tariff is required to provide communities with the capacity to develop new generation practices in terms of scale and ownership. The UK in particular is struggling to protect these new generation practices which allow communities to derive benefits facilitated by specific energy policy measures according to their potential. It concludes by indicating areas where niche protection might need to be expanded if community energy is to play a greater role in the UK?s ambitious transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • Scalar path-dependency and lock-in are inhibiting the development of community energy in the UK. • Feed-in tariffs alone do not provide greater opportunities for multi-scalar energy transitions. • Multi-scalar approaches to technological diffusion allow new engagement potentials to develop in the community energy niche

  9. Advanced access control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype voice verification system has been installed which provides the required positive identification at the main site access control point. This system compares an individual's file voice print with a sample voice print obtained from the individual when an attempt is made to enter the site. The voice system transmits the individual's identity to a central processor. The central processor associates that individual's authorization file with a card-key obtained at the access point. The system generates a record of personnel movement, provides a personnel inventory on a real-time basis, and it can retrieve a record of all prior events. The system installed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described

  10. Ask me about Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Elsabe

    2011-01-01

    The University of Pretoria's Department of Library Services celebrated Open Access Day 27th October 2011. Various students, researchers and library staff members took part in the Open Access competition sponsored by Bookmark and the Department of Library Services.

  11. High Speed Packet Access

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Santosh G. Bari1 , Mr. Kishor P. Jadhav2 Mr. Vishal P. Jagtap

    2013-01-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.Thi...

  12. Vascular access today

    OpenAIRE

    Pantelias, Konstantinos; Grapsa, Eirini

    2012-01-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy has increased worldwide. The most common replacement therapy is hemodialysis (HD). Vascular access (VA) has a key role for successful treatment. Despite the advances that have taken place in the field of the HD procedure, few things have changed with regards to VA in recent years. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), polytetrafluoroethylene graft and the cuffed double lumen silicone catheter are the most common use...

  13. Accessibility in Layout Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Bénabès, Julien; Bennis, Fouad; Poirson, Emilie; Ravaut, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    Component and facility layout plays an important role in the design and usability of many engineering products and systems as mechanical design, facility layout, process plan, management and architecture including ship compartment layout. In real-world applications, all designer's requirements can not be formulated as simple mathematical expressions. The accessibility to components is one of these requirements which can not easily be taken into account in the layout optimization process. Firs...

  14. Accessing Databases within Esterel

    OpenAIRE

    White, David; Luettgen, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    A current limitation of the Esterel language for reactive-systems design is its lack of support for accessing databases. This talk presents the results of a summer student project which investigated a way of integrating databases and Esterel by providing an API for database use inside Esterel. A case study, involving a warehouse storage system built using Lego Mindstorms robotics kits, demonstrates the utility of the API. This system employs an Esterel-programmed robot...

  15. ADOPT Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

  16. Planning for solar access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckeroth, S.; McLees, C. [Homestead Enterprises, Albion, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Land use planning is often no more than a strategy for getting the most economic value from a given piece of land while attempting to minimize the expense of mitigating environmental impacts. Because conventional fuels are currently inexpensive, development takes place with little consideration for energy efficiency or solar access. By identifying sites with solar access now, planners and building designers can assure that the south facing roofs and walls of future buildings will receive the solar energy necessary to satisfy the energy needs of their occupants. Planner Ian McHarg outlined scientific methods to map natural determinants including geology, hydrology, wildlife, soils, climate, as well as social determinants like population density, energy consumption, and transportation patterns in the late 60s. Overlays of these hand plotted maps gave planners a method of finding the most suitable sites for identified needs but were cost prohibitive for most projects. The affordability of studies done on high speed computers now allows general application of McHargian planning methods. At the time McHarg was developing his planning theory photovoltaics were so expensive their use was restricted to government projects. The low cost of heating with fossil fuels made solar heating expensive by comparison. Today advances in solar technology have made solar electricity and heating competitive with non-renewable energy resources. This paper will show how McHargian planning methods can be effectively used in conjunction with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to include efficiency and renewable energy access in land use decision making.

  17. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

  18. Percutaneous transapical access: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudiy, Yuriy; Kliger, Chad; Jelnin, Vladimir; Elisabeth, Alzola; Kronzon, Itzhak; Ruiz, Carlos E

    2014-09-01

    Percutaneous transapical access provides a direct route to many cardiac structures difficult to reach with conventional interventional approaches. With recent developments of new technologies in structural heart disease, there has been an increasing interest in the use of transapical access for cardiac interventions. Meticulous planning, careful access and closure techniques are essential. Development of novel imaging technologies and dedicated closure devices are warranted to allow a greater number of operators to successfully adopt percutaneous transapical access and further reduce complication rates. This article is an overview of the current status and utility of percutaneous transapical access with focus on multimodality imaging, technique and potential complications of this approach. PMID:25256337

  19. Sandia Access Delay Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been involved in security systems development and application for approximately twenty years. This involvement has included the development of physical security system elements such as detection, assessment, access delay, and response. SNL has continued to be very active in access delay design, development, and application including fixed barriers, deployable barriers, and activated dispensables. Access delay is becoming increasingly important in physical security systems designs as threat capabilities increase and security personnel operational costs escalate. SNL is presently developing two access delay systems incorporating multiple access delay features. The first is the Intra- site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) which is being developed to address security and safety vulnerabilities during transportation. The second is a Rapid Deployment Access Delay System (RAPADS) that provides enhanced security for temporary storage or contingency operations. This paper includes a brief history of SNL involvement in access delay hardware development and the basic design features and capabilities of the ISTV and RAPADS

  20. Access Excellence: Food Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupe, Michael

    This immunological lesson plan was written for Access Excellence by Michael Grupe, a high school biology teacher from St. Louis. The inquiry-based lesson introduces students to the immune system and focuses on "the specificity of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen." The lesson, which spans four, 50-minute class periods, leads students through experiments designed to solve a food-related illness mystery. The concise lesson plan contains the mystery story, experiment instructions, a list of needed materials, background information, and an abstract.

  1. Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deciding whether a given quantum state is entangled or not is a difficult task. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses are used in order to prove presence of entanglement. Entanglement witnesses can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography). We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve linear entanglement witnesses and as a result detect more entangled states with high statistical significance. Second, we can go from evaluating linear entanglement witnesses to their nonlinear counterpart without additional experimental effort, which makes them attractive for implementations in current experiments.

  2. Cell Phone Accessibility (for the Visually Impaired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Using Technology Cell Phone Accessibility Cell Phone Accessibility Cell phones have revolutionized the way we communicate ... Cell Phones and the Law Video Cell Phone Accessibility Overview This cell phone accessibility overview was prepared ...

  3. Art : accessible, renewable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technologhas been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

  4. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiming Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  5. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Shuiming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the -Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  6. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker's actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions---if they are logged at all. Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also non-technical applications such as identifying possible suspects, or, beyond cyber crimes, picking the "best" actor for a certain task. We also sketch an online analysis that identifies where an actor can be located based on observed actions.

  7. Access Management for Digital Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahid Hossain Shoeb

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Access management illustrates the process of providing controlled, and secure access to resources. It involves both authentication—the process of determining the validity of a user who claims to be, and autorisation—the process of determining what resources a user is permitted to access. Access management is significant as an important as well as one of the key services for the network infrastructure of digital repository activities for a wide range of audiences. Like the digital collection of digital repository, it also requires that the content be accessed and distributed as widely as possible to valid users around the globe. Access management and control is one of the major concerns for digital content authority over the Internet. Confidentiality and integrity of information cannot be ensured without a proper access management mechanism. Though most of the Institutional Repositories or Open Access Repositories are satisfied with the current mechanisms of the Open Source Software, which they use to build the repositories, restricted repositories or digital libraries demand more security and authenticity. The paper discusses the current practices and issues of access management for digital repositories including user authentications, user authorisation, authentication, and the technology of secured digital communication of digital materials. This paper also gives a basic idea about access management practices in Bangladesh by the digital content providers.

  8. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of the territory about the proposal of law, adopted by the Senate, relative to electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report aims at filling up some gaps in the French legislation relative to the determination of electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs and to the beneficiaries of these tariffs. It makes a synthesis of four proposals of law dealing with: the possibility for end-users and small companies to benefit again of the regulated electricity prices (proposals no 369 and 149), the permission of reversibility in the exercise of the rights relative to the eligibility for the purchase of electric power (proposal no 427), and the preservation of households' purchasing power by keeping up the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas (proposal no 462). The different articles are examined and some amendments are proposed by the commission. (J.S.)

  9. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  10. Memory availability and referential access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Clinton L; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra L; Swaab, Tamara Y

    2014-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (event-related potentials) and offline (recognition memory) accessibility of names in word lists. In Experiment 2, we manipulated generation and syntactic prominence of antecedent names in sentences; both improved online and offline accessibility, but only syntactic prominence elicited a repeated-name penalty. Our results have three important implications: first, the form of a referential expression interacts with an antecedent's status in the discourse model during coreference; second, availability in memory and referential accessibility are separable; and finally, theories of coreference must better integrate known properties of the human memory system. PMID:24443621

  11. The effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina: a game theoretic analysis / Efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina: uma análise com teoria dos jogos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel Leão, Oliveira; Wilson da Cruz, Vieira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, analisaram-se os efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina, no período de 1990 a 2004. A metodologia utilizada inclui a estimativa da demanda de leite em pó para o Brasil e a Argentina como monopolistas, como membros do Mercosul e como exportadores mund [...] iais, e a simulação de jogos de Cournot, considerando o comércio deste produto sob diferentes políticas alternativas de tarifas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, embora a imposição de tarifas tenha criado distorções no comércio de leite em pó, este tipo de política foi importante para proteger o Brasil contra práticas ilegais de comércio e aumentar sua competitividade frente a competidores internacionais tradicionais. Abstract in english In this paper we analyzed the effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina from 1990 to 2004. The methodology included estimation of whole milk powder demands for Brazil and Argentina as monopolists, members of Mercosul, and world exporters; and simulation of Courno [...] t games considering the trade of this product under alternative tariff policies. The results show that although the tariff impositions create trade distortions, this kind of policy was important to protect Brazil against illegal practices of trade and to increase its competitiveness against traditional international competitors.

  12. Multiple Access Analog Fountain Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel rateless multiple access scheme based on the recently proposed capacity-approaching analog fountain code (AFC). We show that the multiple access process will create an equivalent analog fountain code, referred to as the multiple access analog fountain code (MA-AFC), at the destination. Thus, the standard belief propagation (BP) decoder can be effectively used to jointly decode all the users. We further analyse the asymptotic performance of t...

  13. Mobile Access to Oncology Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Acuff, Richard D.; Carlson, Robert W.; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Olson, Nels E.; Tuttle, Mark S.

    1996-01-01

    Although considerable effort has been put into creating extensive on-line reference resources for oncology, this compiled knowledge is underutilized in clinical situations. The Mobile Access To Oncology Knowledge (MATOK) project facilitates access to a variety of knowledge sources by providing a system designed to be used at the point-of-care. The system's key characteristics are mobility, homogeneous access, concept-based searching, step-wise refinement, and integration with on-line patient ...

  14. Memory availability and referential access

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Clinton L.; Gordon, Peter C; Long, Debra L.; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2012-01-01

    Most theories of coreference specify linguistic factors that modulate antecedent accessibility in memory; however, whether non-linguistic factors also affect coreferential access is unknown. Here we examined the impact of a non-linguistic generation task (letter transposition) on the repeated-name penalty, a processing difficulty observed when coreferential repeated names refer to syntactically prominent (and thus more accessible) antecedents. In Experiment 1, generation improved online (even...

  15. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter seeks to reframe the reductionist historical narrative explaining problems of overfishing with a combination of human economic behavior, technological innovations, and lack of property rights. Instead, contemporary Danish commercial fisheries are seen as part of a more complex long-term development, with close attention paid to the actions of state, management, organizational politics, private companies, fishers, and their communities. The aim is to show the interplay of a broad range of factors, structures, and actors that influence fisheries management. Thus, the chapter seeks to avoid reducing the history of quota privatization to a simple and deterministic narrative of technological development and the tragedy of open access. The history of fishing is much more nuanced than this. This inquiry therefore looks more closely at, behind, and around the axioms of fisheries management narratives.

  16. A quantum access network

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionise how information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, so far no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we show that adopting simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies to form a quantum access network can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We are able to demonstrate that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at the network node can be shared between up to 64 users, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This shared receiver architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application...

  17. Semantic access dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, E K; Shallice, T

    1979-03-01

    An analytical investigation of the residual reading capacities of a single patient with dyslexia without dysgraphia is reported. Both his ability to name and to comprehend letters and words were severely impaired. The major finding of this investigation was AR's striking capacity for categorizing words he could not read. In addition there was evidence of semantic priming effects. Thus AR was frequently able to achieve partial comprehension of words he could not read. The orthodox interpretation of the dyslexia without dysgraphia in terms of a disconnection syndrome is shown to be inappropriate, at least for the present case, where the deficit appears to be within the semantic domain; it is argued that this type of dyslexia is due to an impairment in accessing semantic information. PMID:427532

  18. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  19. High Speed Packet Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Santosh G. Bari1 , Mr. Kishor P. Jadhav2 Mr. Vishal P. Jagtap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.This paper review brief Advantages, futures of different technology against HAPA, Like CDMA2000/UMB, IEE802.16e Wi-MAX and the evolution of HSPA (HSPA+. HSPA offers operators a single network for multiple services, with a sound business case built on revenues from voice, SMS, MMS, roaming customers and mobile broadband.

  20. OPEN ACCESS MOVEMENT IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Qutab

    2008-01-01

    Open Access iS a vital trend for developing countries like Pakistan. OpenAccess (OA) has made its place in 1r formation world like a blessing for scholarly community to learn, search, write and share freely and timely. In this paper an effort has been made to explore the Open Access efforts in Pakistan on existing OA sources and to make recommendations for further developments in this regard. Open Access movements have been started in Pakistan on personal or institutional levels. There is no ...

  1. ACCESSIBLE TOURISM - THE IGNORED OPPORTUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souca Maria Luiza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To create a positive visitor experience, a key factor in obtaining economic benefits, the tourism industry must pay attention to all the elements that contribute to it, especially to accessibility. Visitor accessibility encompasses all tourism markets including seniors and people with disabilities, who have been defined through accessible tourism. This article offers a short presentation of the term accessible tourism, the existing research in the field and the main reasons why the worldwide tourism industry is seemly unaware of this particular market.

  2. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  3. The oil and gas market in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy of the People's Republic of China has more than quadrupled in size since 1978 because of the implementation of market liberalization policies and economic reform. This growing economy has triggered a high demand for energy. China has become one of the world's largest consumer markets for energy, particularly in the oil sector where consumption has widened the gap between supply and demand. This gap has forced China to become an important oil importing country. In addition, the consumption of coal in China is the highest in the world and its use in industrial regions has caused significant environmental damage. For that reason, China is focusing on the development of cleaner fuels and renewable energy sources for electric power generation. The energy policy in China is aimed at securing the supply of oil to fuel the growing economy. It is also aimed at capitalizing on the extensive natural gas resources within the country through the development of a natural gas infrastructure. Foreign investors can now control majority stakes in the $7.4 billion, 4,200 km east-west natural gas transportation pipeline. Canadian companies can take advantage of this significant opportunity by forming partnerships for both upstream and downstream projects. China is also focusing on exploration and development of oil fields in the western regions of China, presenting an additional opportunity for Canadian oil and gas companies with expertise in enhanced oil recovery methods andrtise in enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced oil technologies. China's expected accession to the WTO is set to lower tariff and non-tariff barriers to permit freer competition in the oil and gas sector. It is recommended that a local agent be used to conduct business in China. refs., tabs

  4. The energy market in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western exporters that are looking to distribute their products and services in mainland China can do so through the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Hong Kong's proposed upgrade to their electrical power industry will result in a strong demand for specialized power equipment and services. A total of $15.9 billion will be invested from 2000 to 2005 by the China Light and Power Holding Limited and Hong Kong Electric Company. The planned projects include the construction of a liquefied natural gas pipeline, the expansion of power transmission and distribution networks, plus the installation of gas fired generators at power plants. Canadian companies have the opportunity to form strategic alliances with the above mentioned electric utilities to pursue projects in other countries. Currently, the most significant environmental issue in Hong Kong is air pollution. The HKSAR is introducing strict standards for vehicle emissions, and is promoting cleaner fuels for the automotive industry, such as electric-powered vehicles and liquefied petroleum gas as a substitute for diesel and gasoline. The increased demand for clean technology for pollution prevention and environmental control presents new opportunities in the power sector. Currently, there are no tariff and non-tariff barriers inhibiting imports of power equipment into the HKSAR. Distributors in Hong Kong are ready to promote foreign products both in the HKSAR and mainland China. The most effective method mainland China. The most effective method for foreign distributors to market technology products and services is through a local agent or through joint ventures with domestic companies. In addition to providing legal advantages, such partnerships can help sort through import regulations and provide access to local staff and facilities. refs., tabs

  5. Accessibility in Internet services : case electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Vile?n, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Accessibility means easy access for all people regardless of disabilities. Accessibility in Internet services means an equal access to information and applications provided in the Internet regardless of a user terminal or assistive technology. Web accessibility is a young but important field, and is closely connected to usability. Legislation demanding equal access in Web-based services is also a possibility in Europe in the near future. This thesis investigates accessibility in electroni...

  6. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  7. Digital Image Representation and Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Javed

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the literature relating to the development and application of modern imaging technology between 1987 and 1993. Highlights include image representation, including image data, compression, and image formats; and image access, including indexing and modeling, user interface design, and distributed access. (143 references) (LRW)

  8. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  9. Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

  10. Open access and medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

  11. Accessible Information and Quantum operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-Yu

    2003-01-01

    The accessible information decreases under quantum operations. We analyzed the connection between quantum operations and accessible information. We show that a general quantum process cannot be operated accurately. Futhermore, an unknown state of a closed quantum system can not be operated arbitrarily by a unitary quantum operation.

  12. Accessibility in E-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Simon

    2009-01-01

    E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…

  13. NCI Web 508 Accessibility Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Web sites at the National Cancer Institute have been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users with disabilities may encounter problems accessing some pages.

  14. Rio 2016 accessibility technical guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This document combines the accessibility standards issued by the Brazilian Technical Standards Association (ABNT)* with the requirements of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC)’s Accessibility Guide and Brazilian laws, decrees and resolutions. The purpose of this publication is to guide the design, development and implementation of projects.

  15. Web Site Accessibility - Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site has been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the Section 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users may encounter problems accessing some pages.

  16. Strong accessibility for hyperbolic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Vavrichek, Diane M.

    2007-01-01

    We use an accessibility result of Delzant and Potyagailo to prove Swarup's Strong Accessibility Conjecture for Gromov hyperbolic groups with no 2-torsion. It follows that, if M is an irreducible, orientable, compact 3-manifold with hyperbolic fundamental group, then any hierarchy in which M is decomposed alternately along compressing disks and essential annuli is finite.

  17. Guidelines for Outsourcing Remote Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Ardoth; Neuman, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing remote access to campus computer networks and the Internet, focusing on improved service, cost-sharing, partnerships with vendors, supported protocols, bandwidth, scope of access, implementation, support, network security, and pricing. Includes a checklist for a request for proposals on…

  18. Distance-based accessibility indices

    CERN Document Server

    Csató, László

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to develop a suitable accessibility index for networks where each link has a value such that a smaller number is preferred like distance, cost, or travel time. A measure called distance sum is characterized by three independent properties: anonymity, an appropriately chosen independence axiom, and dominance preservation, which requires that a node not far to any other is at least as accessible. We argue for the need of eliminating the independence property in certain applications. Therefore generalized distance sum, a family of accessibility indices, will be suggested. It is linear, considers the accessibility of vertices besides their distances and depends on a parameter in order to control its deviation from distance sum. Generalized distance sum is anonymous and satisfies dominance preservation if its parameter meets a sufficient condition. Two detailed examples demonstrate its ability to reflect the vulnerability of accessibility to link disruptions.

  19. Achieving safe femoral arterial access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Kong, Jeremy

    2015-06-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention can lead to vascular access complications that prolong patient hospital stay and costs as well as increase patient morbidity and mortality. Given its ease of use and familiarity, transfemoral access is still the preferred method of approach by many operators. The transfemoral approach is used when large bore access is required or if transradial access is not feasible due to variations in the anatomy of the upper extremity artery. The use of fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, and femoral angiography can help the operator obtain proper arteriotomy of the common femoral artery. Measures to decrease vascular access complications include proper technique, optimal pharmacotherapy, and avoiding the use of arterial sheaths >6 Fr. Optimal pharmacotherapy includes the use of bivalirudin and weight-based unfractionated heparin to avoid supratherapeutic activated clotting times, and to avoid glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. When used appropriately, vascular closure devices can decrease the risk of bleeding complications. Randomized trials are needed to confirm these recommendations. PMID:25911441

  20. Editorial ~ Open Access in Action!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Anderson, Canada Research Chair in Distance Education

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mid 2006 finds the academic research community engaged in an ideological and fiscal war related to Open Access publishing. Open Access requires that the full text of publications be made available at no cost to anyone on the open Internet. Recent position and discussion papers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries, have called for dialogue amongst academics and strongly hinted that research supported by public funds should be made available freely to the general public. The resulting discussion has clearly split the academic community with both support and rejection of the notion from all sides of the politic and discipline spectra.IRRODL’s position is, as expected, to be solidly behind all moves to insure Open Access publication. We are proudly listed with the 2,256 other journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals and our publisher, Athabasca University, is a signature to the Budapest Open Access Initiative.