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Sample records for access tariffs non-tariff

  1. Non-tariff barriers, market access, and trade

    Mathä, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of non-tariff barriers, in terms of both variable and fixed export costs, on trade structure. The relationship between fixed and variable trade costs determines whether international trade emerges. If trade emerges, only variable, but not fixed export costs, influence the trade structure. The empirical results suggest that non-tariff barriers act, in particular, as fixed export costs, as the trade and intra-industry trade emerge in a larger number of industries...

  2. Assessing Non-tariff Barriers in Syria

    Chemingui, Mohamed Abdelbasset; Dessus, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    International trade in Syria is highly regulated through a combination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers. At 8% of the value of imports on average, effective tariffs are relatively low. However, non-tariff barriers to trade actually make Syria's trade restrictiveness very high. Comparing world and domestic prices of imports indeed suggests that non-tariff barriers increase the domestic price of imported goods by 17% on average, notably the result of significant quantitative restrictions. Usi...

  3. NON-TARIFF TRADE BARRIERS IN AGRICULTURE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Koo, Won W.; Taylor, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    As trade agreements lower tariff rates throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These non-tariff barriers can be just as troublesome for exporting companies. Non-tariff barriers include technical measures, customs rules and procedures, transport regulations or costs, lack of knowledge of regional markets, and import policies. The objective of this study is to identify non-tariff barriers faced by U.S., and more specifically North Dakota, exporting businesses, especially those inv...

  4. Application of non-tariff barriers

    Vittoria Idrisova

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the sensitivity of the physical volume of imports of foreign goods to non-tariff measures in regulation of foreign trade in Russia and other former Soviet republics. The author gives estimates of the ad valorem equivalent of each non-tariff measure for various commodity groups. Research fi ndings can be used for the assessment of customs and tariff policy of the government.

  5. Addressing non-tariff measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  6. Addressing Non-tariff Measures in ASEAN

    Gloria O. Pasadilla

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members‘ NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  7. Non-Tariff Barriers and Trade Liberalization

    Anderson, Simon P.; Schmitt, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows that governments have no incentive to introduce non-tariff barriers when they are free to set tariffs but they do when tariffs are determined cooperatively. We then show three results. First, with trade liberalization, there is a progression from u sing tariffs only to quotas, and to antidumping constraints (when quotas are jointly eliminated). Second, there is a narrowing of the range of industries in which each instrument is used. Third, the degree of tariff liberalization ...

  8. Non-Tariff Measures and the World Trading System

    Ederington, Josh; Ruta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    With the success of the World Trade Organization and its predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, in reducing conventional tariff barriers, much of the recent focus of regional and multilateral trade agreements has switched to non-tariff measures, both border and behind-the-border policies. This paper considers the recent empirical and theoretical literature on non-tariff m...

  9. Rules of Origin and Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Perspectives from Bangladesh and Cambodia

    Uttam Kumar Deb

    2006-01-01

    Many developed and developing countries have been offering special schemes to benefit least developed countries (LDCs) from trade through increased market access. However, effective utilization of market access opportunities by the LDCs may be constrained by the rules of origin (RoO) criteria and non-tariff measures (NTMs) applied by the preference-giving countries. This report deals with RoO applied and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) imposed by developed and developing countries for importing ag...

  10. Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Issues and Implications for Least Developed Countries

    Uttam Kumar Deb

    2007-01-01

    Many developed and some developing countries have been offering special preferential market access schemes to least developed countries (LDCs). However, though these schemes have lowered tariff barriers for most of the agricultural products exported by LDCs, non-tariff barriers (NTBs) remain a major constraint to LDCs exports. For example, it has been calculated that Bangladesh and Cambodia, even though they have duty-free access to the EU market, faced NTBs equivalent to an average tariff of...

  11. Non-tariff barriers and the Uruguay Round

    Adlung, Rudolf

    1990-01-01

    The use of non-tariff barriers to trade, which began to be important in the 1970s, has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. Notwithstanding the difficulties and limitations it faces, the Uruguay Round probably presents the only present opportunity of coming to grips with many existing exemptions to, and distortions of, GATT rules.

  12. NON-TARIFF BARRIERS IN COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM MODELLING

    Marco Fugazza; Jean-Christophe Maur

    2008-01-01

    With diminishing tariff s, the focus of trade policy makers and analysts is logically turning towards non-tariff barriers (NTBs), but there much remains to be done. It is well-know that tackling NTBs poses many challenges for the analyst because of their diverse and complex nature, and the lack of available evidence. NTBs pose also particular diffi culties to computable/applied general equilibrium (CGE) modelling, traditionally more comfortable with policies whose impact can be interpreted in...

  13. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...

  14. A model of substitution of non-tariff barriers for tariffs

    Zhihao Yu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper some coherent explanations are suggested for tariff reductions and substitution of non-tariff barriers for tariffs, taking into account both organized special interests and unorganized consumer interests. The focus is on how the presence of informed consumers affects the political equilibrium choice of trade policy. Three effects are identified that interact with each other as an incumbent government substitutes a NTB for a tariff, and, among other things, it is found that an in...

  15. India Pakistan Trade Possibilities and Non-tariff Barriers

    Nisha Taneja

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the bilateral trade possibilities and non-tariff barriers between India and Pakistan. The study shows that there is a large untapped trade potential between the two countries. Using the potential trade approach, the study finds that the export potential from India to Pakistan is to the tune of US$ 9.5 billion while that from Pakistan to India is US$ 2.2 billion. Items having export potential from Pakistan are largely in the textile sector while items having export ...

  16. Estimating the Economic Effects of Reducing Non-Tariff Barriers in the EEU

    Vinokurov, Evgeny; Demidenko , Mikhail; Pelipas, Igor; Tochitskaya, Irina; Shymanovich, Gleb; Lipin, Andrey; Movchan, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    The report provides the first comprehensive assessment of the effects of non-tariff barriers on mutual trade in the EEU and gives recommendations as to how to remove them. It is based on a poll of 530 Russian, Kazakh and Belarusian exporters. In the research non-tariff barriers are divided into two groups. The first group includes non-tariff barriers such as sanitary and phytosanitary measures, technical barriers to trade, quotas, prohibitions, and quantitative controls. The second group comp...

  17. Effects of non-tariff measures on European horticultural and fish imports from African countries

    Nimenya, Nicodème

    2010-01-01

    The African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries benefit from preferential market access to the European Union (EU) thanks to the EU-ACP Partnership Agreements and their eligibility to the EU’s Generalized System of Preferences and Everything But Arms initiative. Despite these trade preferences, ACP countries have not improved accordingly their trade performance into the EU. There is a growing concern emerging through the literature that non-tariff measures (NTMs) could constitute a seriou...

  18. Non-Tariff Barriers - the Achilles' Heel of Trade Policy Analyses

    Fæhn, Taran

    1997-01-01

    This study demonstrates the quantitative, as well as the qualitative, role of non-tariff barriers (NTBs). The Norwegian nominal tariff and non-tariff barriers are identified and thoroughly quantified. Computations of effective rates of protection (ERP) show that NTBs entirely dominate tariffs as direct contributors to primary factor income, which again is an important determinant in allocation of resources among industries. The indirect input-output effects play a decisive role. This points t...

  19. How do free trade agreements reduce tariff rates and non-tariff barriers?

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Fukunari KIMURA

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates how far free trade agreements (FTAs) successfully lower tariff rates and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) for manufacturing industries by employing the bilateral tariff and NTB data in a time series for countries around the world. We find that FTAs under GATT Article XXIV and the Enabling Clause contribute to reducing tariff rates by 2.1% points and 1.5% points, respectively. In the case of NTBs, their respective impacts are 6.6% points and 5.7% points. Membershi...

  20. 75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    2010-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade... of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works closely with... maintain a current, up-to-date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  1. 78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...

    2013-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade.... One aspect of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works... maintain a current, up-to- date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...

  2. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  3. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Raditya Anggoro; Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the ca...

  4. Quantifying non-tariff measures in international agricultural trade: a tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade on African horticultural exports to the European markets

    Nimenya, Nicodeme; Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Ndimira, Pascal-Firmin

    2008-01-01

    Fresh food and agricultural products from sub- Saharan Africa meet few tariff barriers because of preferential market access granted to ACP countries through Lomé and Cotonou Act. However, non-tariff barriers are still serious impediments to trade. This paper focuses more specifically on technical barriers to trade (TBT) and sanitary and phytosanitary measures (SPS) on horticultural exports from Kenya and Zambia to France, Germany, the Netherlands and United-Kingdom. Using an extension of pri...

  5. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Z. Ardakani; Yazdani, S; O. Gilanpour

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs) can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importe...

  6. Is there a dirty little secret? Non-tariff barriers and the gains from trade

    Niven Winchester

    2008-01-01

    We estimate tariff equivalents (TEs) of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) using a series of gravity equations. Our analysis focuses on New Zealand, a nation that has a comprehensive free trade agreement (with Australia) that can be used to benchmark other trade negotiations. We estimate reductions in TEs following trade negotiations as differences between New Zealand-Australia TEs and those applying to trade between New Zealand and other nations. Simulating reductions in tariffs and NTBs in a comput...

  7. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Raditya Anggoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131 

  8. Effect of non-tariff measures on extensive and intensive margins of export in seafood trade

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    This paper is written with financial support by “Non-tariff barriers, food safety and international food trade” joint project of Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), University of Life Sciences and Kyiv School of Economics (KSE) funded by the Research Council of Norway (Contract no. 216742/O10).

  9. How Important Are Non-Tariff Barriers to Agricultural Trade within ECOWAS?

    Seck, Abdoulaye; Cissokho, Lassana; Makpayo, Kossi; Haughton, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that the countries of Africa trade relatively little with the outside world, and among themselves, despite an extensive network of regional trade agreements. We examine this proposition by focusing on agricultural trade. Specifically, we ask whether non-tariff barriers (NTBs) are stunting agricultural trade within ECOWAS, a grouping of 15 countries in West Africa that has removed tariffs on agricultural trade among its members. Our survey of truckers in Tambacounda (Sene...

  10. Non-Tariff Measures: What do we Know, What Should be Done?

    Céline CARRERE; Melo De, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    With the reduction in tariff barriers, Non-tariff and behind-the-border measures (NTM and BTB) have increased in importance. This paper surveys the state of knowledge with the view to drawing implications for policy suggestions to reduce those NTM barriers that are welfare reducing. Following a description of data bases and their shortcomings, the paper reviews the state of understanding on the effects of NTMs on trade flows. The more difficult issue of translating these effects into welfare ...

  11. Effect of the non-tariff barriers in the trade of Colombian mining goods

    The objective of this study is to identify and to provide information on the non tariff barriers NTB to a group of mining products on the excellent international markets for the Colombian case, and to analyze its magnitude and incidence on the external sales of this products, to advance toward this objective is defined which measures they can be considered as non tariff restrictions, its different mensuration methodologies are analyzed and finally a qualitative and quantitative approach of the NTB is made that face the exports of Colombian mining products in their main markets, by means of a survey carried out the managers of the sector in the country. Among the main discoveries, they were evidences of the application of NTB, although they turned out to be not very significant for the sector exporter of mining products; the most frequent are the technical obstacles to the trade, but of relatively moderate incidence

  12. The impacts of non-tariff barriers on the export price of Vietnamese catfish

    Khuu, Thi Phuong Dong

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study to identify the impacts of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on Vietnamese catfish export price in the international market. The time-series monthly data from 1999 to 2011 was used in our paper. Base on the demand and supply equilibrium theory, we constructed the function of Vietnamese catfish export price. The unit toot test results showed that our data was stationary at differenced level. Therefore, the econometric models, such as first-differenced model, Error correction mo...

  13. A Survey of Non-Tariff Measures in the East Asia and Pacific Region

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report seeks to give a multifaceted view of non-tariff issues facing countries in the East Asia and Pacific region both vis-a-vis their most important export markets as well as intra-regionally. While the first perspective is important today given the high dependence of East Asian and Latin American countries on the markets of the EU, the US and Japan, the second is important in the c...

  14. Non-tariff Barriers Affecting India’s Exports

    Rajesh Mehta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is first of all to highlight that Indian exports do face non-tariff barriers in major export markets especially the US, EU, Japan and other developed countries, which significantly hinder Indias exports to these markets. A second related aim is to illustrate the range of barriers, which confront Indian exporters. A third proximate goal is to suggest policy responses.

  15. Sustaining Free Trade with Imperfect Private Information about Non-Tariff Barriers

    Jee-Hyeong Park

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of sustaining free trade when countries receive imperfect private information about each other’s non-tariff barriers. Because the countries can misrepresent their private belief about other countries’ protection levels, the punishment scheme to deter deviations from free trade should provide right incentives for the countries to elicit the true private information. This incentive constraint (ICP) restricts the length of punishment phases. If the private infor...

  16. Trade Possibilities and Non-Tariff Barriers to Indo-Pak Trade

    Nisha Taneja

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the bilateral trade possibilities and non-tariff barriers between India and Pakistan. The study shows that there is a large untapped trade potential between the two countries. Using the potential trade approach, the study finds that the export potential from India to Pakistan is to the tune of US$ 9.5 billion while that from Pakistan to India is US$ 2.2 billion. Items having export potential from Pakistan are largely in the textile sector while items having export ...

  17. The Non-tariff Barriers in the Developed Countries (The Case of USA, EU and Japan)

    Miteva-Kacarski, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The non-tariff barriers have been a subject of discussion for a long period of time during the liberalization of the global trade flows between the countries. However, in order to understand the relation between free trade and protectionism in certain countries there should be analyzed not only their trade policies but also the submitted trade disputes. The focus has been placed on the dominant economies at the global market i.e. on the USA, EU and Japan as economic and political leaders in t...

  18. Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU

    Bohdan Tustanivskyy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

  19. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

  20. Trade impact of non-tariff trade costs. An Assessment of the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Mkrtchyan Arevik

    2013-01-01

    The recently established Eurasian Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan has generated considerable research interest. Using a rich panel data, this paper analyses the impact of the common external tariff and changes in non-tariff trade barriers on bilateral trade patterns. Tariff increases have expected negative impact on the trade ows. The Customs Union abolished the customs controls between the members in two stages. This allows to estimate the effect of border elimination which i...

  1. Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU

    Bohdan Tustanivskyy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. A...

  2. Tariffs and non-tariff frictions in the world wine trade

    Dal Bianco, Andrea; Boatto, Vasco; Caracciolo, Francesco; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    This article empirically investigates the impact of trade barriers on the world wine trade, focusing on trade costs impeding exports, including transport, tariffs, technical barriers and sanitary and phytosanitarystandards. A gravity model is estimated using data from the main importing and exporting countries for the years 1997 to 2010. The Poison Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator accounts for heteroskedasticity and the presence of zero trade flows. Our results identify which regula...

  3. Domestic support and tariff reductions in the presence of non-tariff barriers: A gravity model for primary and processed agricultural products

    Tamini, Lota; Ghazalian, Pascal; Gervais, Jean-Philippe; Larue, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies’ demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain trade flows of both primary agricultural commodities and processed foods....

  4. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  5. A Gravity approach to evaluate the significance of trade liberalization in vertically-related goods in the presence of non-tariff barriers

    Ghazalian, Pascal; Tamini, Lota; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    A gravity-based model is developed to explain bilateral trade flows in primary and processed agri-food commodities. It innovates by explicitly accounting for the vertical production linkages between primary and processed agri-food products, tariffs, and subsidies and by estimating the restrictiveness of non-tariff barriers in the upstream sector. Our application focuses on cattle/beef trade flows between forty-two countries. The structural parameters of the model are used to simulate trade fl...

  6. Legal aspects of Brazilian ethanol and non-tariff barriers to import; Aspectos juridicos relativos ao etanol brasileiro e as barreiras nao-tarifarias a sua importacao

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho

    2010-01-15

    This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.

  7. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  8. Market access through bound tariffs

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  9. On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note

    Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

  10. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present pa...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  11. Formulas for Industrial Tariff Reduction and Policy Implications

    Moonsung Kang

    2005-01-01

    A key element of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) negotiations under the WTO is the liberalization of trade in industrial products, so-called non-agricultural market access (NAMA). The mandate on the NAMA negotiations is contained in Paragraph 16 of the Doha Ministerial Declaration which aim(s), by modalities to be agreed, to reduce or as appropriate eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers,...

  12. 非关税壁垒下我国农产品出口对策研究%Research on Countermeasures for China's Exports of A-gricultural Products under Non-tariff Barriers

    于正尉; 杨兰

    2014-01-01

    中国入世以来,农产品进出口总额迅速增长,但与此同时贸易差额自2004年起连续十年呈贸易逆差。中国农产品贸易呈现出进口增长高于出口增长的趋势。贸易逆差究其外部原因主要是由于进口国贸易保护主义的盛行。随着国际贸易竞争加强,新型非关税壁垒措施逐渐替代关税保护措施成为国际贸易保护措施的主要表现形式。就农产品而言,随着科技的发展与社会的进步,技术性贸易壁垒与绿色壁垒已成为当下发达国家普遍实施的主要新型贸易保护措施。本文在分析了我国农产品出口现状以及非关税壁垒对农产品出口的影响后,研究出为应对非关税壁垒,企业应优化调整产业结构,建立绿色体系;政府应宏观调控行业结构,同时加强国际合作。%Since China's entrance into WTO, the total import and export of agricultural products have been increasing rapidly, but meanwhile, the trade balance has showed a deficit of ten consec-utive years since 2004. China's agricultural trade showed a trend of more rapid import growth than export growth. Investigating its external causes, the trade deficit was mainly due to the preva-lence of trade protectionism in the importing country. With the strengthening of international trade competition, new non-tariff measures have gradually replaced tariff protection measures and become the main form of international trade protection measures. For agricultural products, with the progress of science and tech-nology and social development, technical barriers to trade and green barriers have become a major new trade protection mea-sures implemented by developed countries in the moment. After analyzing the current situation of China' agricultural exports and the impact of non-tariff barriers on exports of agricultural prod-ucts, this paper proposed that: to deal with non-tariff barriers, companies should optimize the adjustment of

  13. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...... and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in...... Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality....

  14. Understanding the tariff. Access to the public power transportation network

    Since the European directive of December 19, 1996 about the common rules of the European power market, the eligible companies can chose their power supplier anywhere in Europe. The manager of the French power transportation network (RTE) supplies a network access to these companies according to a tariff fixed by the decree no. 2002-1014 from July 19, 2002. The aim of this document is to explain this tariff: tariffing principles ('mail-stamp' principle, voltage domain, subscribed output power tariffs, input power tariffs), tariffing elements (access to the grid, elements of output tariffs (subscribed power, overload, emergency tariffs, modifications etc..)), invoicing modalities, output tariffs, definitions. (J.S.)

  15. 47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ....3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of access service tariffs. 69.3 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES General § 69.3 Filing of access service tariffs. (a) Except as provided...

  16. Welfare versus market access : the implications of tariff structure for tariff reform

    Anderson, James E.; Neary, J. Peter

    2004-01-01

    We show that the effects of tariff changes on welfare and import volume can be fully characterised by their effects on the generalised mean and variance of the tariff distribution. Using these tools, we derive new results for welfare- and market-access-improving tariff changes, which imply two "cones of liberalisation" in price space. Because welfare is negatively but import volume positively related to the generalised variance, the cones do not intersect, which poses a dilemma for trade poli...

  17. Welfare vs. Market Access: The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform

    Anderson, James E.; J. Peter Neary

    2004-01-01

    We show that the effects of tariff changes on welfare and import volume can be fully characterized by their effects on the generalized mean and variance of the tariff distribution. Using these tools, we derive new results for welfare- and market-access-improving tariff changes, which imply two 'cones of liberalization' in price space. Because welfare is negatively but import volume positively related to the generalized variance, the cones do not intersect, which poses a dilemma for trade poli...

  18. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  19. 14 CFR 221.102 - Accessibility of tariffs to the public.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tariffs to the public. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.102 Accessibility of tariffs to the public. Each file of tariffs shall be kept in...

  20. IMPROVING MARKET ACCESS: THE ROLE OF AUCTIONS IN CONVERTING TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS INTO SINGLE TARIFFS

    Robert Joerin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the conversion of TRQs into single tariffs under perfect and imperfect competition. Based on experiences from Switzerland, auctions allow the determination of the equivalent tariffs. Results from auctions of TRQs of dried meat products under perfect competition show that the observed auction prices would lead to tariffs which are below the equivalent tariffs. Hence, if the ‘new tariffs’ would be determined through auctions, market access would be improved, but also farm prices would lower. However, under imperfect competition, based on Bhagwati’s theorem of the non-equivalence of tariffs and quotas, market access could be improved by converting TRQs into single tariffs even if farm prices are held constant. In order to ensure that auctions are competitive and collusion among bidders is prevented, the ‘variable supply’ auction format which re¬sists collusion needs to be adopted in the event of high buyer’s concentration. Despite the various benefits of auctions, quota holders’ persisting rent-seeking behaviour hinders that auctions are mainstreamed in allocating TRQs.

  1. Non-tariff barriers in Ukrainian export to the EU

    Malgorzata Jakubiak; Maryla Maliszewska; Irina Orlova; Magdalena Rokicka; Vitaly Vavryschuk

    2006-01-01

    The economic relations between the EU and Ukraine have intensified in recent years. Following the 2004 enlargement, Ukraine became the direct neighbour of the EU. At the same time, the country has been developing rapidly and both local production capacities and demand for foreign produce have been increasing. Ukraine also become more open to external partners. All this is reflected in the gradual effective trade integration with the EU; i.e. in growing bilateral trade flows. The overall EU ta...

  2. Non-Tariff Barriers and the Telecommunications Sector

    Stephenson, Sherry M.

    2002-01-01

    7 Dieses Papier behandelt das Wesen, die Bedeutung und die Messung nicht-tarifärer Handelsbeschränkungen (NTBs) im Dienstleistungshandel, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Telekommunikationsdienstleistungen. Es zeigt, dass NTBs, obwohl sie in der Telekommunikation auf der multilateralen Ebene wirksamer angegangen wurden als in anderen Dienstleistungsbereichen, noch immer weit verbreitet sind und den Dienstleistungshandel potentiell stark beeinträchtigen. Das Papier beschreibt die Erschein...

  3. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies....... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs are...

  4. Research on Replacing Effects & Examination System of TBT against Tariff Impediment to Textile and Apparel Trade

    2010-01-01

    With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional non-tariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) has gradually replaced tariff and general non-tariff Barriers to Trade and become an important measurement in new trade protectionism. This article analyzes the replacement of TBT on tariff barrier for exporting countries, as well as the trading pattern of TBT in its maturing period through the discussion of macro strategies of surpassing TBT; meanwhile it also probes into the examination and supervision policies of governmental functional departments.

  5. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... Internet. (2) Carriers or conferences shall ensure that their Internet service providers provide static... terminal emulation access; and (iii) Telephone line quality for data transmission. (2) The modem may be... networks (“PSTN”); or (2) The Internet (Web) by: (i) Web browser; or (ii) Telnet session. (b)...

  6. Reducing tariffs according to WTO accession rules: The case of Vietnam

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2011-01-01

    When Vietnam entered WTO in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007-2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises that do not behave in a profit maximizing way. The model simulations show that the WTO impose...

  7. Tariff Intervention in Trade of US and EU Cherry Products: A Guide to Information

    Nagai, Tomokazu; Woods, Mollie; Thornsbury, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The importance of the effects of non-tariff barriers on international agricultural trade has become widely recognized and discussed as WTO negotiation has promoted the reduction of tariff rates around the world. Administrative barriers include the high cost of obtaining accurate information on commodity classification codes and tariff schedules of partner countries. Such information includes commodity classification rules and tariff rates. Cherries are produced worldwide, but in much smaller ...

  8. On the Equivalence of Tariffs and Quotas with Endogenous Technology Choice

    Hsiu-Li Chen

    2000-01-01

    Due to the implementation of policies by the WTO and as a result of the GATT, tariff barriers become less important instruments for protecting domestic industry. Some non-tariff barriers have emerged as substitutes to protect domestic industries. In this paper, we endogenize technology choice, allowing domestic firms to select different levels of technology with respect to tariff or quota protection. We then find that the equivalence of tariffs and quotas do not exist. We are also able to pin...

  9. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels of...

  10. How much do tariffs matter? Evidence from the customs union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Asel Isakova; Zsoka Koczan; Alexander Plekhanov

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at how the formation of a customs union between Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia and associated changes in import schedules affected the structure of imports of the three member countries. The results suggest that the benefits of the new tariff policy to member countries are limited at best. Larger benefits could come from a gradual removal of non-tariff barriers.

  11. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small...

  12. Non-Tariff Barriers as a Test of Political Economy Theories

    Levy, Philip I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a rough test of a broad and prominent class of political economy of trade models and finds them wanting. The class features governments with weighted social welfare functions, including the prominent model of Grossman and Helpman. Whether the government is the single domestic player or there are other players involved (as with the lobbies in the Grossman-Helpman case) the government ultimately acts as a unitary player in international dealings. Recent work has shown that s...

  13. Hidden Protectionism? Evidence from Non-tariff Barriers to Trade in the United States

    Grundke, Robert; Moser, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Are product standards protectionism in disguise? This paper estimates the costs of non- compliance with U.S. product standards, using a new database on U.S. import refusals from 2002 to 2012. We find that import refusals significantly decrease exports to the United States. This trade reducing effect is driven by developing countries and by refusals without any product sample analysis, in particular during the Subprime Crisis and its aftermath. This empirical result is consistent with (but doe...

  14. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  15. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quotas - A case study applied to the import of an agricultural product in Romania

    Petru Catalin Bodea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents one methodology of calculating the tariff equivalent of the tariff-rate quota as a particular case of a non-tariff barrier for an agricultural product imported in Romania based on recommendations in international literature. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quota of imports from the EU is approximately 35%, lower than the tariff outside the quota. Nonetheless this is considerable higher when compared with the Common External Tariff (CET. Elimination of the nominal protection level as consequence of the adoption the CET is expected to stimulate imports pressure especially from price competitive import partners both from EU (such as Slovakia, Belgium, Austria, Czech Republic and Italy and non EU countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Croatia. A basic model forecasts that, with the lowered protection, annual imports will rise with at least 13.5 thousand tonnes, thus an increase of 23% compared with the average annual imports during 1990-2005.

  16. DISCUSSANT'S COMMENTS FOR AMERICAN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION ANNUAL MEETING, SELECTED PAPERS SESSION SP-6AA: "NON-TARIFF BARRIERS"

    Rude, James

    1998-01-01

    Sanitary and phytosanitary regulations, import quotas, government farm policies, and other trade restrictions are analyzed with regard to their effects on agricultural commodity trade. Veterinary Standards as Barriers to Trade: The Case of Poultry Trade Between the U.S. and the EU, Tian Xia and Sylvia Weyerbrock. Estimation of Import Demand under Quota Licenses: The Case of Japan's Wheat, Kevin Chen and Renee Kim, University of Alberta. Government Policies and their Effects on Resource Use in...

  17. Technical change, non-tariff barriers, and the development of the Italian locomotive industry, 1850-1913

    Ciccarelli, Carlo; Nuvolari, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of technical change in the Italian locomotive industry in the period 1850-1913. From an historical point of view, this industry presents a major point of interest: it was one of the few relatively sophisticated "high-tech" sectors in which Italy, a latecomer country, was able to set foot firmly before 1913. Using technical data on the performance of different vintages of locomotives, we construct a new industry-level index of technical change. Our reassessment...

  18. Does Uncertainty Matter? Consumer Behavior Under Three-Part Tariffs

    Anja Lambrecht; Katja Seim; Bernd Skiera

    2007-01-01

    In communication, information, and other industries, three-part tariffs are increasingly popular. A three-part tariff is defined by an access price, an allowance, and a marginal price for any usage in excess of the allowance. Empirical nonlinear pricing studies have focused on consumer choice under two-part tariffs. We show that consumer behavior differs under three-part tariffs and assess how consumer demand uncertainty impacts tariff choice. We develop a discrete/continuous model of choice ...

  19. Tariff structures for the transport of electricity

    Some possible tariff structures for electricity transport are discussed. First, the costs associated with the transport of electricity are explained. The fixed and variable costs of a transport are illustrated with some examples. Furthermore, the most common tariff structures (contract path, megawatt mile, postage stamp) and negotiated Third Party Access are discussed. Finally, the way the tariff structures reflect the costs of electricity transport are reviewed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  20. Tariff-Specific Preferences and Their Influence on Price Sensitivity

    Agnieszka Wolk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For many services, consumers can choose among a range of optional tariffs that differ in their access and usage prices. Recent studies indicate that tariff-specific preferences may lead consumers to choose a tariff that does not minimize their expected billing rate. This study analyzes how tariff-specific preferences influence the responsiveness of consumers’ usage and tariff choice to changes in price. We show that consumer heterogeneity in tariff-specific preferences leads to heterogeneity in their sensitivity to price changes. Specifically, consumers with tariff-specific preferences are less sensitive to price increases of their preferred tariff than other consumers. Our results provide an additional reason why firms should offer multiple tariffs rather than a uniform nonlinear pricing plan to extract maximum consumer surplus.

  1. Tariffication and Agricultural Trade

    E. Kwan Choi

    1991-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of tariffication-conversion of a variable import levy, widely used in the European Community, into an equivalent ad valorem tariff on trade and welfare. While tough negotiations lie ahead over the exact rates of tariff reduction, contracting countries in principle agreed to tariffication proposed by the United States. If producers are risk neutral, tariffication has no effect on production and trade, and gains from a GATT agreement in the Uruguay Round depend ...

  2. CUSTOMS DUTIES. CUSTOMS TARIFF

    Octavian Pasat

    2013-01-01

    Romania Import Tariff is from 1 January 2007, the Common Customs Tariff of the European Union. Applicable in all EU Member States, it ensures the smtooh functioning of the European internal market. From 1 January 2007, as a member state of the European Union, Romania applies the EU Common Customs Tariff. Common Customs Tariff duties lists applied to each tariff line imports from third countries, by all EU Member States, the regime most favored nation clause. Customs duties included in the Com...

  3. New tariffs confuse Mexican market

    Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling

  4. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing

  5. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  6. Pilot experience yellow tariff

    In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

  7. Hour-seasonal tariff versus conventional tariff

    A comparative study between conventional and how-seasonal tariffs used in consumers with 13,8 KV of tension band is shown, including, to the new consumers of tariffs, information that allow plan the cost of the future monthly count of electric power. (author)

  8. Revenue Tariff Reform

    Anderson, James E.; J. Peter Neary

    2013-01-01

    What kind of tariff reform is likely to raise welfare in situations where tariff revenue is important?  Uncertainty about specification and risk from imprecise parameter estimates of any particular specification reduce the credibility of simulation estimates.  A promising alternative is to develop rules which are robust with respect to such uncertainty.  We present sufficient conditions for a class of linear rule that guarantee welfare-improving tariff reform.  The rules span cones of welfare...

  9. 76 FR 60378 - Tariffs

    2011-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 61 Tariffs CFR Correction In Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 40 to... that publishes ] a tariff containing rates and regulations applicable to the portion or through...

  10. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

    2014-01-01

    . In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a...... natural benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform......, construct an index to measure the relative welfare effectiveness of any given tariff reform, determine conditions under which proportional and concertina reforms are locally optimal and provide illustrative examples....

  11. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical

  12. Pricing and tariffs

    Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

  13. Electric power and heat tariffs

    The electric power and heat tariffs are described for different periods. The electric power prices are compared with the prices of food and fuels. The influence of tariff on electric power consumption is discussed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Electric power tariffs for irrigation

    The tariff system compatible with the supply and demand evolution characteristics of electric power in Brazil based in economic costs is presented. The main purposes of the tariff politic is consolidated with the National Program of Irrigation. (author)

  15. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  16. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  17. A survey of transmission tariffs in North America

    One goal of electricity restructuring is to facilitate voluntary transactions in workably competitive wholesale electricity markets. Unfettered wholesale trading, however, can only take place under open and comparable access to transmission by all market participants at non-discriminatory tariffs. Since a rich body of literature exists for topics like nodal pricing, transmission rights, ancillary services, and optimal dispatch, this paper's focus is to survey the transmission tariffs actually used in North America to achieve open and comparable transmission access. In doing so, it provides a practical guide to developing a transmission tariff, illustrated by the survey's role in shaping the tariff filed by a company like the British Columbia Transmission Company (BCTC) with its regulator, the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). (author)

  18. Unilateral tariff liberalisation

    Richard Baldwin

    2010-01-01

    Unilateral tariff liberalisation by developing nations is pervasive but our understanding of it is shallow. This paper strives to partly redress this lacuna on the theory side by introducing three novel political economy mechanisms with particular emphasis is on the role of production unbundling. One mechanism studies how lowering frictional barriers to imported parts can destroy the correlation of interests between parts producers and their downstream customers. A second mechanism studies ho...

  19. 76 FR 71510 - Meeting of the Assembly of the Administrative Conference of the United States

    2011-11-18

    ... counterparts to accomplish their domestic regulatory missions and eliminate unnecessary non-tariff barriers to... participation by those who have historically faced barriers to access, including non-English speakers, users...

  20. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  1. 18 CFR 154.3 - Effective tariff.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.3 Effective tariff. (a) The effective tariff of a natural gas company is the tariff...

  2. Market Access and Welfare

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  3. Tariff charges for electric power and energy

    Tariff types and rules of their construction are presented. Present Polish tariffs are described in detail. The components of tariff charges are given together with some proposals of their optimization. 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  4. Tariff systems of electric power in France

    The tariff system of electric power in France is described. The choice of tariffs and the different tariffs are given so as the expenses of connection and reinforcement power supplies systems of customers. (o.L.). 13 tabs

  5. Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition

    Schröder, Philipp; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low...... tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare....

  6. Endogenous Trade Policy with Heterogeneous Firms

    Jennifer Abel-Koch

    2013-01-01

    The present paper modifies the \\Protection for Sale" model of Grossman and Helpman (1994) to account for heterogeneous firms lobbying for non-tariff barriers to trade, such as technical standards or certification requirements. They raise the fixed costs of market access for both domestic producers and foreign exporters, force the least efficient firms to exit and shift profits to the most efficient firms. Non-tariff barriers to trade shift profits both within and across countries, but not nec...

  7. Tariffs on power trading

    For optimal use of power systems transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and paid according to a tariff system approximating the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and demand bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system. (author)

  8. Tariffs on power trading

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  9. 46 CFR 520.7 - Tariff limitations.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff limitations. 520.7 Section 520.7 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.7 Tariff limitations. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) Be clear...

  10. Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow

    This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Ontario feed-in-tariff programs

    Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: → Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. → Most projects are either solar or wind. → Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) → Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

  12. 14 CFR 221.202 - The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The filing of tariffs and amendments to tariffs. 221.202 Section 221.202 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.202...

  13. 14 CFR 221.123 - Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected. 221.123 Section 221.123 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission To File on Less...

  14. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff...

  15. Time- and place dependent tariffs

    To study the variation of the marginal losses in the Norwegian regional and distribution networks, a stylized radial network and an existing network example were analyzed as described in this report. The main conclusion is that the marginal-cost (the marginal losses) varies with time and place in a way that is little reflected in the energy components of the transfer- and distribution tariffs. The difference between the actual marginal-cost at a given time at a given place and the transport price that confronts an actor through the tariffs is so large that one must ask if there is any point in basing a price on marginal-cost as long as today's calculation methods are used. The problem varies somewhat between the network levels. In the distribution network the range of variation is large within the same voltage level/tariff level. If the situation improves, a time differentiation is still required. A further improvement can be obtained by a place differentiation, for example by differentiation between densely and sparsely populated areas. However, this is difficult to realize. In the central network the problem is the same, but it is easier technically and administratively to arrive at a more correct arrangement. In practice there are no great problems in differentiating the price down to individual bus bars. This would relate input and output tariffs more correctly and logically. If time differentiation is intended to capture load variations, it seems that certain improvements are possible in the present classification. It appears that spring and autumn should stand apart as one period. Furthermore, the marginal loss tariff should be based on the water supply situation at the beginning of the tariff period. 10 refs., 13 figs., 17 tabs

  16. 14 CFR 221.70 - Who may amend tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may amend tariffs. 221.70 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.70 Who may amend tariffs. A tariff shall be amended only by the carrier or agent who issued the tariff (except as otherwise authorized in subparts P and Q)....

  17. 14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 221.212 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.212 Special tariff permission. (a) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which...

  18. International Stackelberg model with tariffs

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the effects of tariffs on an international economy with a monopolistic sector with two firms, located in two countries, each one producing a homogeneous good for both home consumption and export to the other identical country. We consider a game among governments and firms. First, the government imposes a tariff on imports and then we consider the two types of moving: simultaneous (Cournot-type model) and sequential (Stackelberg-type model) decisions by the firms. We also compare the results obtained in each model.

  19. Market Access and Welfare

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary and...

  20. Getting a grip on tariffs and subsidies

    The tariff and subsidy support available for windpower producers in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the U.K. is compared. Tariffs and subsidies, along with the availability of finance, are important supportive factors in the development of wind energy in Europe. The available tariffs, subsidies and financing mechanisms available in a country determines how the wind energy programme develops. (author)

  1. 49 CFR 377.103 - Tariff requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff requirements. 377.103 Section 377.103... CHARGES Handling of C.O.D. Shipments § 377.103 Tariff requirements. No common carrier of property subject....d. service unless such carrier has published, posted and filed tariffs which contain the...

  2. 47 CFR 64.709 - Informational tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informational tariffs. 64.709 Section 64.709... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.709 Informational tariffs. (a) Informational tariffs filed pursuant to 47 U.S.C. 226(h)(1)(A) shall contain specific rates expressed in dollars...

  3. 75 FR 4689 - Electronic Tariff Filings

    2010-01-29

    ... the public may retrieve and review tariffs. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No. 714, 73 FR 57515... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal..., 375 and 385 Electronic Tariff Filings Issued January 21, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy...

  4. The impact of a feed-in tariff on wind power development in Germany

    Hitaj, Claudia; Schymura, Michael; Löschel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the impact of a feed-in tariff for renewable power on wind power investment in Germany at the county level from 1996-2010 controlling for windiness and access to the electricity transmission grid. After the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) was passed in 2000, the feed-in tariff became linked to wind power potential, such that more windy locations received a lower incentive per unit of output. We find that a 1 e-cent/kWh increase in the feed-in tariff rate would increase additions to cap...

  5. Zero Tariff-Step #1

    Guo Liqin

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is widely reported that starting the first day of 201 0,China and six old ASEAN member nations,including Brunei,Indonesia,Malaysia,the Philippines,Singapore and Thailand,imposed zero tariffs on most normal products,while China and the other four new ASEAN members namely Cambodia,Lao PDR,Myanmar and Vietnam will do the same in 2015.

  6. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates....... This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression...... formula. No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....

  7. How can the crisis of liberalization trade be overcome?

    Minx, Eckard P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Since the seventies the existing order of international economic relations has been exposed to ever stronger pressures. Access to foreign markets must once again be regarded as a scarce commodity, since the far-reaching removal of tariff barriers has been more than compensated for by non-tariff restrictions.

  8. Tariff systems in offshore Norway

    The report presents studies of the tariff systems and the effects of different ownership shares in production, processing, and transportation of petroleum on the Norwegian continental shelf (NOCS). The aim of this study is to analyse the issue of the price field owners have to pay for using the infrastructure owned by others, what is meant by efficient pricing, and compare this with NOCS experience so far. In the report it is discussed whether the provision of NOCS infrastructure services, with an eye to determining the system of joint venture development on the NOCS, is beneficial to infrastructure provision. Main topics cover as follow: NOCS infrastructure; the effect of different ownership shares in production and transportation; tariff regimes. 19 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs

  9. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.300 Discontinuation of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or...

  10. 14 CFR 221.400 - Filing of paper tariffs required.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing of paper tariffs required. 221.400... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.400 Filing of paper tariffs... file tariffs electronically, the filer in addition to filing electronically must continue to...

  11. 14 CFR 221.20 - Specifications applicable to tariff publications.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specifications applicable to tariff... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Specifications of Tariff Publications § 221.20 Specifications applicable to tariff publications. (a) Numerical order. All items in a tariff shall be arranged...

  12. 14 CFR 221.63 - Other types of governing tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...

  13. 18 CFR 341.13 - Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications.

    2010-04-01

    ... tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed tariff publications. A proposed tariff publication which is...

  14. 14 CFR 221.100 - Public notice of tariff information.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of tariff information. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.100 Public notice of tariff information. Carriers must make tariff information available...

  15. 14 CFR 221.210 - Suspension of tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of tariffs. 221.210 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.210 Suspension of tariffs. (a) A fare, charge, rule or other tariff provision that is suspended by the Department pursuant to section 41509...

  16. 18 CFR 154.103 - Composition of tariff.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Composition of tariff..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.103 Composition of tariff. (a) The tariff must contain sections, in the following order:...

  17. Investigating Canadian Chicken Importers' Preferences Towards TRQ Import Licensing Mechanisms

    Surprenant, David; Gervais, Jean-Philippe

    2002-01-01

    The Agreement on Agriculture ratified at the end of the Uruguay Round of WTO negotiations called for the conversion of non-tariff barriers to trade into bound tariffs. This tariffication would have resulted in excessively high tariffs, which would have threatened historic market access levels if not for WTO member countries agreeing to introduce tariff-rate quotas (TRQs). TRQs are two-tier tariffs. Imports below an agreed quota are taxed at a usually low (or zero) in-quota tariff rate while i...

  18. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Communication Services

    Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a conceptual framework and a computational model for individual tariffs for mobile communication services. The purpose is to provide guidance for implementation by communication service suppliers or user groups alike. The paper first examines the sociological and economic incentives for personalized services and individual tariffs. Then it introduces a framework for individual tariffs which is centered on user and supplier behaviours. The user, instead of bei...

  19. Free Trade Agreements and External Tariffs

    Baybars Karacaovali

    2010-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of preferential trade agreements within the last two decades. In this paper I analyze the effects of free trade agreements (FTAs) on external tariffs under a political economy setup. I extend the Grossman and Helpman (1995) model by determining tariff rates endogenously instead of assuming they are fixed during or after the formation of FTAs. I show that for an exogenously established FTA, the tariff rates that apply to non-members essentially decline once the F...

  20. Race-To-The-Bottom Tariff Cutting

    Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  1. Comparative Study of ASEAN Tariff Profiles

    Azarcon, Chulia J.

    1997-01-01

    Contrary to earlier findings, tariffs in most favored nations have significantly declined by as much as 51 percent since 1986. Nevertheless, the obduracy of some sectors to remain behind the protective tariffs and the existence of non-trade barriers still remain to be hurdled. Key strategy in Common Effective Preferential Tariff implementation includes transparency. Sectors and sub-sectors that are likely candidates for further trade liberalization are identified.

  2. Comparative Tariff Policies of ASEAN Member Countries

    Azarcon, Chulia J.

    1997-01-01

    Contrary to earlier findings, tariffs in most favored nations have significantly declined by as much as 51 percent since 1986. Nevertheless, the obduracy of some sectors to remain behind the protective tariffs and the existence of nontrade barriers still remain to be hurdled. Key strategy in Common Effective Preferential Tariff implementation includes transparency. Sectors and subsectors that are likely candidates for further trade liberalization are identified.

  3. China Cut Tariffs on Refined Oil

    2011-01-01

    China has cut import tariffs on gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, and fuel oil significantly since July 1 this year. According to the information released by the Ministry of Finance, the rate of import tariffs on motor gasoline and aviation gasoline was reduced from 5% to 1%; the rates of import tariffs on aviation kerosene and light diesel were reduced from 9% and 6% to 0 separately; the rate of import tariffs on 5"-7" fuel oil was reduced from 6% to 1%.

  4. Rice Tariffs and Their Impact on the Japanese Market (Japanese)

    KEIDA Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how the volume of rice imports would be affected if the Japanese government were to reduce tariffs on rice by looking at the current state of the Simultaneous Buy-and-Sell (SBS) system for rice imports. The Japanese government is required to import 770,000 tons of rice per year to maintain minimum access. However, a large portion of minimum access rice is not used for domestic consumption—only 100,000 tons of SBS rice is used for human consumption. Under the SBS syst...

  5. Tariff based competition : latest developments in the US

    This presentation provided an explanation of the concept of regulated rates in the natural gas industry, including cost based rates, tariff defined services, tariff defined terms and conditions, discounting and capacity release. Definition of competitive alternatives, such as negotiated rates and negotiated terms and conditions, was included. Additional alternatives, comprising revisions to capacity release programs and further unbundling of the natural gas industry, were also examined. A section on market competition dealt with the development of market centers and hubs, the impact of new pipeline projects as well as recontracting and decontracting. Under the heading of 'Maximizing Value' were discussed issues such as seasonally adjusted contract quantities and seasonally adjusted rates. Other competitive issues, such as access to alternative supplies and alternative markets, quality of customer relations, and timing of contract expirations, also received attention

  6. New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)

    The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

  7. Ilusão de acesso: o modelo ALCA Delusion of access: the FTAA model

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas em curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental.The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.

  8. Proposition of the CRE for the tariffs concerning the use of natural gas transportation networks

    The national transportation network involves: the main network constituted by the transportation works binding the access and exit points of the national territory and the underground storages; the regional network for the regional distribution upstream of the main network. The chosen tariff model is a in-out type. Each tariff includes the access terms on the main network, the exit terms of the main network, sometimes the binding terms between the equilibrium zones, the transportation terms on the regional network and the delivery terms. (A.L.B.)

  9. Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

  10. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS... or regulations that in any way change, affect, or determine any part of the aggregate of the rates or... otherwise reveal in tariffs the inland division of a through rate....

  12. Electricity tariffs in France: price list

    On April 20, 1997, Electricite de France (EdF) started the first step of its tariffs change as planned in the 1997-2000 company contractual agreement. A second step followed on May 1, 1998. The 1997 tariffs represent an average decay of 6% explained in constant currency while the 1998 average decay is of 3.5%. The average decay over the whole 1997-2000 period will be of 14%. These decays are followed by changes in the tariffs structure which are summarized in this paper as a series of tables: tariff of sales (domestic customers and farmers, professionals, public, communal and inter-communal organizations, overseas departments and Corsica) and tariffs of purchase (hydraulic and wind producers in mother country and overseas departments). (J.S.)

  13. Residential dual energy programs: Tariffs and incentives

    The problem of efficiently pricing electricity has been of concern to economists and policy makers for some time. A natural solution to variable demand is tariffs to smooth demand and reduce the need for excessive reserve margins. An alternative approach is dual energy programs whereby electric space heating systems are equipped with a secondary system (usually oil) which is used during periods of peak demand. Comments are presented on two previous papers (Bergeron and Bernard, 1991; Sollows et al., 1991) published in Energy Studies Review, applying them to Hydro Quebec tariff structure and dual energy programs. The role of tariffs in demand-side management needs to be considered more fully. Hydro-Quebec's bi-energy tariff structure could be modified by using positive incentives to make use of bi-energy attractive below -12 C to give the following benefits. The modified tariff would be easier for consumers to understand, corrects the misallocation problem due to differential pricing in the current tariff, transfers the risk related to price fluctuations of the alternative energy source from the consumer to the utility, and corrects the potential avoidance problem due to the negative incentive of the current tariff. 21 refs

  14. New tariffs for renewable energies

    The French industry and trade minister has recently announced a first series of surrender prices for electricity produced from wind energy, hydro-energy and the combustion of house-wastes. Every producer could sign a long-term (15-20 years) contract according to which surrender prices will be set high for the first 5 years (about 0.55 FF/kWh for wind energy, 0.40 FF/kWh for hydro-energy) and then will be progressively decreased. These tariffs aim at urging renewable energy producers on developing their activities. According to the European regulations, 21% of the French electricity consumption will have to be produced from renewable energies by 2010. (A.C.)

  15. Tariff regulation with energy efficiency goals

    We study the optimal tariff structure that could induce a regulated utility to promote energy efficiency by its customers given that it is privately informed about the effectiveness of its effort on demand reduction. The regulator should optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If the firm's energy efficiency activities have a high impact on demand reduction, the consumer should pay a high fixed fee but a low per unit price, approximating the tariff structure to a decoupling policy, which strengthens the firm's incentives to pursue energy conservation. Instead, if the firm's effort to adopt energy efficiency actions is scarcely effective, the tariff is characterized by a low fixed fee but a high price per unit of energy consumed, thus shifting the incentives for energy conservation on consumers. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the cost of the consumer's effort (in case the consumer can also adopt energy efficiency measures) and on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts. - Highlights: • We study the optimal tariff structure that induces an utility to adopt energy efficiency activities. • The regulator optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. • If energy efficiency activities have a high effectiveness, decoupling emerges as a solution. • If the energy efficiency actions are less effective, the tariff has a higher per unit price and lower fixed fee. • The optimal tariff structure also depends on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts

  16. 49 CFR 1310.3 - Contents of tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of tariffs. 1310.3 Section 1310.3... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.3 Contents of tariffs. (a) Tariffs prepared under this part must include an...

  17. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of tariff. 341.3... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.3 Form of tariff. (a) Tariffs may be...

  18. 47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.54 Section 61.54 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.54 Composition of tariffs. (a) Tariffs must contain in...

  19. 47 CFR 1.772 - Application for special tariff permission.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for special tariff permission. 1... Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.772 Application for special tariff permission. Applications under section 203 of the Communications Act for special...

  20. 46 CFR 520.10 - Integrity of tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integrity of tariffs. 520.10 Section 520.10 Shipping... TARIFFS § 520.10 Integrity of tariffs. (a) Historical data. Carriers and conferences shall maintain the data that appeared in their tariff publication systems for a period of five (5) years from the...

  1. 47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.22 Section 61.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Nondominant Carriers § 61.22 Composition of tariffs. (a) The tariff must be submitted on a...

  2. 49 CFR 1312.7 - STB tariff designation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false STB tariff designation. 1312.7 Section 1312.7..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.7 STB tariff designation. (a) Format. Every tariff shall show an...

  3. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard tariff terminology. 520.5 Section 520.5... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.5 Standard tariff terminology. (a) Approved codes. The Standard Terminology Appendix.... They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate...

  4. 47 CFR 1.358 - Tariffs as evidence.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission is offered in evidence, such tariff schedule need not be produced or marked for identification,...

  5. 14 CFR 221.103 - Notice of tariff terms.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of tariff terms. 221.103 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.103 Notice of tariff terms. Each carrier shall cause to be displayed continuously in a conspicuous public place at...

  6. 47 CFR 61.87 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of tariffs. 61.87 Section 61.87 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.87 Cancellation of tariffs....

  7. Tax Regimes, Tariff Revenues and Government Spending.

    Gardner, Grant W; Kimbrough, Kent P

    1992-01-01

    This paper develops a model that describes the role of tariffs as a source of government revenue. The model takes a public finance perspective and treats as part of the optimum revenue-raising tax package, relating the behavior of tariff rates and revenues to observable macroeconomic variables such as income and government spending. Although the approach is quite general, the model is constructed to fit the stylized facts concerning the changing role of the tariff in U.S. history. It is shown...

  8. The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald;

    The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely...... tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase...

  9. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for...... both the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a...

  10. 76 FR 27658 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    2011-05-12

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...

  11. 78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    2013-04-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent...

  12. 77 FR 66601 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes

    2012-11-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 18, 2012, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC... 10 CFR 903.23 (2012) of the Department of Energy's regulations. Tariff records included in...

  13. 77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    2012-04-17

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United..., the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...

  14. Pricing of electricity tariffs in competitive markets

    In many countries electricity supply business has been opened for competition. In this paper we analyze the problem of pricing of electricity tariffs in these open markets, when both the customers' electricity consumption and the market price are stochastic processes. Specifically, we focus on regular tariff contracts which do not have explicit amounts of consumption units defined in the contracts. Therefore the valuation process of these contracts differs from the valuation of electricity futures and options. The results show that the more there is uncertainty about the customer's consumption, the higher the fixed charge of the tariff contract should be. Finally, we analyze the indication of our results to the different methods for estimating the customer's consumption in the competitive markets. Since the consumption uncertainties enter into the tariff prices, the analysis indicates that the deterministic standard load curves do not provide efficient methods for evaluating the customers' consumption in competitive markets

  15. Simultaneous Reform of Tariffs and Quotas

    Neary, J Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a general result for simultaneous reform of tariffs and quotas in a small open economy, where some of the quota rents do not accrue to domestic residents. Absent highly perverse income effects, welfare must rise following a uniform proportionate reduction in tariffs and a uniform proportionate relaxation of quotas, weighted by their rent-retention parameters. Previous results are shown to be special cases of this one, and its implications for practical policy advice and it...

  16. Temporary Tariffs and Capital Market Restrictions

    Saqib Jafarey; Sajal Lahiri

    2004-01-01

    We develop a two-period model with endogenous investment and credit flows. Credit is subject to quantitative restrictions. With an exogenous restriction, we analyze the welfare effects of temporary tariffs. We then consider three scenarios under which a monopoly lender optimally decides the level of credit and a borrower country chooses an import tariff: one in which the two parties act simultaneously and two scenarios where one of them has a first-mover advantage. The equilibrium under the l...

  17. Tariffs Ranking in Mixed Oligopoly with Revenue Constraint

    Leonard F. S. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing linear mixed oligopoly model, this paper explores the magnitude of the maximum-revenue tariff, optimum-welfare tariff, and revenue-constrained optimal tariff that is especially designed for the consideration of the bureaucratic inefficiency. In particular, the tariff ranking issue is examined under both cases of Cournot competition and domestic public leadership. We found that, under Cournot competition, the optimum-welfare tariff is the highest and it is followed by the revenue-constrained optimal tariff while the maximum-revenue tariff is the lowest. But, under Stackelberg public leadership, if the domestic private firms are fewer than the foreign firms, the maximum-revenue tariff becomes the highest and the optimum-welfare exceeds the revenue-constrained optimal tariff.

  18. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  19. Audit report on social tariffs of energy

    This document reports an audit study performed by the ADEME and related to energy social tariffs, to their modalities and distribution costs, and aimed at proposing recommendations to improve these arrangements or to create a new one. In a first part, it outlines that these tariffs are apparently based on simple and fair principles, describes how eligible households are identified, outlines that these tariffs do not solve arrangement structural inequity between heating modes, that the awarded amount depends on too many parameters, that providers are totally reimbursed (sometimes even more), and that the arrangement is still insufficient to solve the problem of energy poverty. The second part addresses operational modalities and highlights their complexity. Recommendations are then stated which are aimed at consolidating and simplifying them, and at modifying them to create an actual energy shield

  20. Tariffs by marginal cost are the real economic values

    An analysis of the electric power tariffs by marginal cost in Brazilian sectors is presented with some considerations bout the economy, politics and a forecasting for 1995. Two tables with tariffs and costs are also shown. (author)

  1. The Evolutionary History of Tariff System of China's Railway

    Ou, Guoli

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the history change of the China's railway tariff analyzes different period of development and change of the China's railway tariff and the internal characters of each period. It also analyzes the Internal mechanism of the history change.

  2. Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...

  3. 14 CFR 221.60 - When reference to governing tariffs permitted.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When reference to governing tariffs... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.60 When reference to governing tariffs permitted. (a) Reference to other tariffs prohibited except as authorized. A tariff shall...

  4. Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

  5. Study on Theory and Methods of Telecommunication Tariff

    2001-01-01

    The pricing of telecommunication services is quite important aswell as complicated. This paper strengthens the research of theories and implementation of telecommunication tariff in China. It is helpful for the government authorities and enterprises to unify and standardize the regulatory methods, to guide the deciding of the structure and level of telecommunication tariff by implementing scientific theories, to further develop and optimize the tariff system. This paper conducts a systematic, in-depth and creative research on some of the most popular and most difficult problems in the area of telecommunication tariff research, such as the regulation of telecommunication tariff, the theories of telecommunication tariff, the systematic pricing theory, the interconnection charge, the model cost evaluation theory, the long-run incremental cost theory, and the international telecommunication tariff. After studying the foreign methods on telecommunication tariff regulation, basing on the current situation of China's tariff regulation, the scope and methods for China's telecommunication tariff regulation are suggested. Aimed at the weakness of pricing theory for enterprises to set up telecommunication tariffs, an overall frame work of telecommunication tariff theories is proposed. The systematic pricing theory and model cost evaluation theory of telecommunication services are put forward from a brand new perspective. A front topic, the LRIC theory, is probed. In addition, the pricing practices of network interconnection charge and international telecommunication tariff, which are currently very attractive to the theorists, are discussed. Basing on these studies, this paper improves the structure of telecommunication tariff theory. It provides the Chinese government authorities with practical methods and helpful supports to regulate the telecommunication tariffs; in the mean time, it also provides the enterprises with scientific pricing theories and methods to set up

  6. COOPERATION IN THE TARIFF WATERS OF THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION

    Alessandro Nicita; Marcelo Olarreaga; Peri Silva

    2014-01-01

    It has been long recognized that in the presence of market power, positive import tariffs can be optimal. The rationale is that higher tariffs reduce import demand, which in the presence of inelastic export supply from the rest of the world allows the importing country to increase its terms of trade. Indeed, there is empirical evidence suggesting that countries often set tariffs to exploit their market power when they have policy space to do so. However, optimal tariff-setting often results i...

  7. 75 FR 82382 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    2010-12-30

    ... No. 714, 73 FR 57,515 (Oct. 3, 2008), 124 FERC ] 61,270, FERC Stats. & Regs [Regulations Preambles... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference December 22, 2010... to discuss issues relating to the electronic filing of tariff and tariff related materials...

  8. 49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies...

  9. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every...

  10. 18 CFR 341.9 - Index of tariffs.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Index of tariffs. 341.9... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.9 Index of tariffs. (a) In general. Each...

  11. 14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve...

  12. 47 CFR 61.55 - Contract-based tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract-based tariffs. 61.55 Section 61.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.55 Contract-based tariffs. (a) This section shall apply to price...

  13. 18 CFR 281.204 - Tariff filing requirements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tariff filing....204 Tariff filing requirements. (a) General rule. Each interstate pipeline listed in § 281.202 shall file tariff sheets, in accordance with § 154.4 of this chapter, including an index of...

  14. 49 CFR 1312.5 - Amendments to tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendments to tariffs. 1312.5 Section 1312.5..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.5 Amendments to tariffs. (a) Manner of making changes. An amendment is...

  15. 49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when providing...

  16. 18 CFR 341.5 - Cancellation of tariffs.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of tariffs..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.5 Cancellation of tariffs. Carriers...

  17. 48 CFR 252.239-7006 - Tariff information.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff information. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7006 Tariff information. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Tariff Information (JUL 1997) (a) The Contractor shall provide to the Contracting Officer—...

  18. 19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry, examination, and tariff status. 10.100... United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise....00.60, 9808.00.70, or other subheadings in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19...

  19. China Cancelled Export Tariff for Nine Kinds of Raw Materials

    2013-01-01

    <正>In the recently promulgated "Tariff Execution Plan for 2013", among new tariffs implemented since January 1, 2013, tariffs of nine kinds of raw material products including bauxite, coke,yellow phosphorus, fluorite, magnesium, manganese, silicon metal, silicon carbide and zinc exported by China will be lifted.

  20. 77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...

    2012-05-01

    ... International Trade, (202) 325-0009. Correction In notice document, FR Doc. 2012-9131, beginning on page 22796... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  1. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Communication Services

    H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper introduces a conceptual framework and a computational model for individual tariffs for mobile communication services. The purpose is to provide guidance for implementation by communication service suppliers or user groups alike. The paper first examines the sociological and ec

  2. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  3. Armenia Water Sector Tariff Study

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Armenia’s water and sanitation services (WSS) sector has seen impressive improvements over the last decade. The Government of Armenia (GoA) has restructured, reformed, and invested in the sector in ways that have improved access, continuity, and quality of WSS. The purpose of the report is to help the GoA: analyze the current levels and structures of water and wastewater ta...

  4. The world trading system: Recent trends

    Funke, Norbert

    1994-01-01

    Tariffs no longer represent the most serious impediment to international trade. As the importance of tariffs in restricting free trade has been declining, non-tariff barriers are becoming increasingly important. The use of selected non-tariff barriers is analyzed, focusing on anti-dumping measures, voluntary export restraints, trade related investment measures, and trade related intellectual property rights. Coming multilateral negotiations will have to concentrate on non-tariff barriers. A f...

  5. Gas transport networks: Entry–exit tariffs via least squares methodology

    Following some of the directives and regulations in the 3rd EU Energy Package, many of the EU members are reconsidering their methodologies to derive the tariffs charged for access and usage of their gas transport systems. Among these methodologies, the use of entry–exit tariffs computed via least squares has received the most attention over the last few years and there is a wide consensus towards the application of this approach. The main contribution of this paper is to raise awareness on the fact that, even after a given methodology has been chosen, there are still important details to be fixed before the final tariffs are computed. Within the context of the least squares methodology we argue that, although many of these details may seem minor, they can have a big impact on the final outcome. The paper also presents proposals on how these details can be handled while still pursuing the goals set by the EU; goals such as being transparent, cost-reflective, and non-discriminatory. Finally, the paper concludes with an illustration of the discussed proposals, applying them to the Spanish gas transport network. - Highlights: • We present a methodological discussion of entry–exit tariffs via least squares. • We discuss some implementation aspects that have to be handled carefully. • We present a series of proposals to handle these aspects. • Illustration with the Spanish Gas Transmission Network

  6. The new liberalism: Trade policy developments in emerging markets

    Drabek, Zdenek; Laird, Sam

    1997-01-01

    In the last ten years, there has been a sea change in trade and related policies in emerging markets. This results from autonomous reforms undertaken in conjunction with macro-economic stabilization programmes. Many non-tariff measures have been eliminated and tariffs, now the principal trade instrument, have been rationalized and reduced. Considerable increases in security of market access result from increased membership of the GATT/WTO system, which itself underwent important changes as a ...

  7. Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs

    Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIndividual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the user-centric service provisioning and tariffing philosophy and applies it to current mobile communication services setting, which differs significantly in scale and scope from the historical practices. A...

  8. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  9. Feed-in tariff in Ukraine: The only driver of renewables' industry growth?

    The paper aims to review the recently adopted legislation on feed-in tariffs in Ukraine, focusing on its advantages and drawbacks, as well as on the related challenges. The recommendations listed in the paper will help to change the existing legislation regarding green electricity by means of eliminating its main drawbacks. The best prospects for renewable electricity production are related to the energy from the wind and the sun, nonetheless energy from the sun and biomass is used mostly for heating purposes, whereas the number of plans for the construction of wind farms and solar plants is growing tremendously. Despite policies and legislation being in place for the inclusion of electricity from renewables in the grid, technical and financial obstacles exist. There are plenty of plans to build new generating facilities, but at the same time there is absolutely no information about the construction of power backup. The existing regulatory policy regarding green electricity production and consumption still has significant potential for improvement. Compared to other measures, feed-in tariff implementation has spurred green electricity production in Ukraine, because feed-in tariff rates are high, and grid access is guaranteed by law, a major advantage of the current legislation on renewables in Ukraine. - Highlights: ► The number of wind farms and solar plants construction plans in Ukraine is growing. ► Guarantees to obtain feed-in tariff investors get after completion of construction. ► The definition of the term “biomass” in Ukrainian legislation needs to be reviewed. ► The investments in renewables are mostly commenced by Ukrainian investors. ► Feed-in tariff is the most efficient measure for green electricity production.

  10. 14 CFR 221.72 - Reinstating canceled or expired tariff provisions.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reinstating canceled or expired tariff... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.72 Reinstating canceled or expired tariff provisions. Any fares, rules, or other tariff provisions which have been canceled or...

  11. 14 CFR 389.26 - Special rules for tariff page filings.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for tariff page filings. 389... § 389.26 Special rules for tariff page filings. (a) Tariffs issued by carriers. The filing fee for tariff pages filed by U.S. air carriers will be charged even if the tariff includes matters...

  12. 18 CFR 154.102 - Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs.

    2010-04-01

    ... rate schedules and tariffs. 154.102 Section 154.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.102 Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs. (a) All rates schedules, tariffs, and service agreements may be filed either by dividing the rate...

  13. 14 CFR 221.500 - Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission of electronic tariffs to... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.500 Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers. (a) Each filer that files an electronic tariff under...

  14. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... tariff treatment under the US-CFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  15. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    2010-04-01

    ...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... tariff treatment under the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...

  16. CHANGES EFFECT OF SUGAR IMPORT TARIFF IN INDONESIA

    Agnes Q. Pudjiastuti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of sugar import tariffs changes since the tariff import is the only policy to increase the sugar domestic production. This analysis is performed using a CGE (computable general equilibrium model of Indonesian economy in 2008. Results showed that the increases of sugar import tariff have some different conclusions. If sugar tariff import will rise to 41.6% and to 50%, the domestic output of sugar will increase about 1.89% and 3.77%; and household welfare would increase about 0.52 and 0.76%, respectively. But when the sugar import tariff is removed, domestic output of sugar and sugarcane have not changed, but the agricultural sector would reduce and income of all agents would decrease. Thus, the relevant tariff depends on the purpose of the government whether to increase domestic output and import or export of certain sectors, and the welfare of producers or consumers.

  17. Trade-Diverting Free Trade Agreements, External Tariffs, and Feasibility

    Baybars Karacaovali

    2013-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of preferential trade agreements within the last two decades. This paper analyzes the effects of free trade agreements (FTAs) on external tariffs in small economies where protection decisions are made politically. It extends the Grossman and Helpman (1995) model by determining tariff rates endogenously instead of assuming they are fixed during or after the formation of FTAs. We show that when an FTA is established, the tariff rates that apply to non-members esse...

  18. Aggregation and the Welfare Analysis of US Tariffs

    Arce, Hugh M.; Kenneth A. Reinert

    1994-01-01

    A recurrent concern of researchers who measure the cost of protection is that welfare estimates based on models with highly aggregated sectors of the economy in question will understate the true cost of protection if the tariff system is not uniform. Uses the 1988 tariff schedule of the US and a detailed 1988 social accounting matrix of the US to construct a number of aggregation schemes to calculate the extent to which tariff means and variances change under different aggregations. Then uses...

  19. Customs and Tariff Policy of the Republic Macedonia

    Kuskinski, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    The unique global market formed as a result of the opening of economic systems of states and their integration, necessarily entails the need for high levels of tariff protection of domestic industry limits in a realistic way. Task certainly was not easy but it made significant progress establishing harmonized general legal framework for the regulation of the world trade.Achievements concerning tariff barriers had their long journey through history, from the full tariff and non-...

  20. Tariff based value of wind energy

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  1. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  2. Agricultural market access proposals in the Doha round : Dutch agro-food interests

    Kuiper, M.H.; Banse, M.A.H.

    2007-01-01

    This report analyses the impact of market access proposals tabled in the current WTO Doha round. The first part of the study assesses the 'bite' of tariff reductions by comparing border prices of Dutch products with those of imports before and after implementing tariff reductions. The second part of the study analyses the impact of proposals for sensitive products in terms of tariff rate quota (TRQ) expansion and highlights complexities surrounding the implementation of the proposals.

  3. The Doha Agricultural Market Access Negotiations: Remaining Conceptual, Practical, and Technical Issues

    Wainio, John; Podbury, Troy

    2007-01-01

    Before the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Doha round of multilateral trade negotiations can be concluded negotiators will need to agree on a host of market access issues, including the size of tariff cuts, a methodology for opening tariff quotas in the case of products exempted from applying full tariff cuts, and the amount of flexibility to be provided under special and differential treatment for developing countries. Each of these issues harbours a number of complex problems that will hav...

  4. 49 CFR 1312.13 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    2010-10-01

    ... with 49 CFR 1312.13 has been made. (d) Charges. (1) If any charge is made, the charge for copies of... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A...

  5. Tariffs for natural gas, heat, electricity and cogeneration in 1998

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurance, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration and horticulture, and natural gas supply contracts. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, the tariffs and compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. Also attention will be paid to tariffs for electricity transport. Finally, several taxes, excises and levies that have a direct or indirect impact on natural gas tariffs, are discussed. 9 refs

  6. 9 CFR 201.17 - Requirements for filing tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for filing tariffs. 201.17 Section 201.17 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION... ACT Schedules of Rates and Charges § 201.17 Requirements for filing tariffs. (a) Schedules of...

  7. 49 CFR 1312.4 - Filing of tariffs.

    2010-10-01

    ... identifying each publication filed, and by the appropriate filing fee (see 49 CFR part 1002). Acknowledgment... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of tariffs. 1312.4 Section 1312.4..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER...

  8. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  9. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...

  10. Customs and Tariff Policy and Promotion of Innovations in Russia

    Sergey Prikhodko; Nadezhda Volovik; Galina Balandina

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the normative and legal basis which regulates Russian customs and tariff policy. The authors analyze the features of customs and tariff regulation in Russia and main directions of its improvement in the medium term perspective.

  11. 14 CFR 293.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 221, and will be canceled by operation of law. (b) One hundred and eighty days after the date... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effectiveness of tariffs on file. 293.22... Effectiveness of tariffs on file. (a) One hundred and eighty days after the date of effectiveness of...

  12. A Comparison Between Chinese and Foreign Power Tariffs

    Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    @@ With deepened reform of power system and marketization, power tariff has more and more become a topic of discussion, and furthermore, that the power tariff in China is high or low, reasonable or unreasonable is a top hot spot of the society.

  13. The new tariffs for photovoltaic power

    The new tariffs for the purchase of photovoltaic electricity were published by French authorities in January 2010. This new framework is more constraining and the tariffs are lower. For installations integrated to the building: 0.580 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for buildings dedicated to accommodation and buildings over 2 years of age dedicated to teaching and health; 0.500 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for other old buildings with 4 walls and a roof; 0.420 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for installations over 3 kWc on new buildings with a roof (but not necessarily with 4 walls) dedicated to any use except accommodation. For other installations: -)in the country: 0.314 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations below 250 kWc and from 0.310 to 0.377 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations over 250 kWc; -) in Corsica and DOM-COM: 0.400 euros/kWh (instead of 0.438 euros/kWh). (A.C.)

  14. The Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries

    Yaser Feizabadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze tariff protection policies in the agricultural sector of developing countries. The agricultural tariff structure in developing countries is characterized by: i high average tariffs, ii the existence of tariff escalation, iii dispersion of nominal tariffs across tariff lines, and iv a wide gap between average nominal tariffs and import-weighted average tariffs. Consequently, some features can be extracted that are consistent with the observed patterns of tariff protection in developing countries: i escalation of nominal tariff rates with the degree of processing, ii higher average tariffs in the agricultural sector compared to agriculture in developed countries, and iii higher non-agricultural than agricultural tariff protection. Here the Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in developing countries is described. This theory allows us to identify two sets of products. Agricultural products for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values, therefore, tariff cuts should occur in a long period of time and for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values therefore tariff reductions would not be politically costly.

  15. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation. (author)

  16. Nova Scotia's community feed in tariff

    With the increasing concern over environmental issues, many government bodies have taken an interest in renewable energy. In their 2010 Renewable Electricity Plan, the Nova Scotia Department of Energy set a goal of being 40% dependent on renewable electricity by 2020 and they have already created a number of incentives, including a community feed-in tariff program (COMFIT). For a project to qualify for the COMIFT program it must be community owned, connected to the grid, and its energy must come from an approved list of technologies. As a developer of renewable energy projects, Scotian Windfields Inc. works with Community Economic Development Investment Funds (CEDIFs) interested in investing in renewable energy projects. To maintain COMFIT eligibility, the CEDIFs must maintain voting control of the project. Over a 10 year period, CEDIF investors in Scotian Windfield Inc. projects have come to number over 800 and have raised over $3 million.

  17. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  18. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  19. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Goh, Wei Wei [Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  20. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a..., including tariffs, rate schedules, service agreements, and contracts, or parts thereof, and material...

  1. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    2010-01-01

    ... tariffs. 221.180 Section 221.180 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.180 Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs. (a) No carrier or filing agent shall file an electronic...

  2. 19 CFR 10.712 - Verification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of claim for preferential tariff... tariff treatment. A claim for preferential tariff treatment made under § 10.703 of this subpart... substantiate the claim, the port director may deny the claim for preferential tariff treatment....

  3. 18 CFR 341.4 - Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs.

    2010-04-01

    ... amendments to tariffs. 341.4 Section 341.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4 Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs. (a) Supplements to tariffs. (1) Supplements are limited to...

  4. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    2010-04-01

    ... tariffs and related materials. 341.1 Section 341.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a) General rule. Filings of tariff publications...

  5. 75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs May 21, 2010. Take Notice that the attached document ``Filing Procedures For Electronically Filed Tariffs, Rate Schedules And Jurisdictional Agreements'' has been posted on the eTariff...

  6. 18 CFR 154.112 - Exception to form and composition of tariff.

    2010-04-01

    ... composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...

  7. 19 CFR 10.237 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... preferential tariff treatment. 10.237 Section 10.237 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... preferential tariff treatment. (a) Verification by Customs. A claim for preferential tariff treatment made... port director may deny the claim for preferential tariff treatment. A verification of a claim...

  8. 14 CFR 221.130 - Applications for waiver of tariff regulations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for waiver of tariff... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Waiver of Tariff Regulations § 221.130 Applications for waiver of tariff regulations. Applications for waiver or modification of any of...

  9. 19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10... applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA, other than the condition that...

  10. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims... United States, and that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the...

  11. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10... to 5516) that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the...

  12. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... originating good under § 10.810 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...

  13. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... under § 10.770 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under...

  14. 18 CFR 154.603 - Adoption of the tariff by a successor.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff by a successor. 154.603 Section 154.603 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...

  15. Welfare-Ranking Ad Valorem and Specific Tariffs under Monopolistic Competition

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2005-01-01

    Actual trade and tariff policy prefers ad valorem tariffs to specific tariffs. Yet in this paper we show that, in a setting of monopolistic competition, realizing a given restriction on imports via a specific tariff would generate more consumer utility than obtaining the same restriction via an a...

  16. Todays electric power tariffs in France. Prices table

    This document is a series of tables which explain the reorganization of the electric power tariffs in France for the selling to consumers and the purchase from independent producers (hydro and wind power) according to the contract of Electricite de France (EdF) established for the four years period of 1997-2000. During this period, the tariffs of electric power selling will be reduced of 14% when explained in constant French Francs. The tariffs of 1997 correspond to a 6% reduction when explained in constant Francs which represents a 4.6% reduction when explained in current Francs according to the 1.4% estimated inflation rate. (J.S.)

  17. Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs

    Fernanda A. Ferreira; Ferreira, Flávio

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff result...

  18. Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis

    Marislei Nishijima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

  19. The end of regulated sales tariff of electricity for companies

    Within the frame of electricity market opening, regulated sales tariffs of electricity for companies are to be suppressed in January 2016. This note first indicates the three main types of clients who are concerned by these tariffs, indicates the objective of the suppression of the so-called green and yellow tariffs. It gives an overview of the presently existing offers in France, and notices the very slow transition of clients towards new offers. It describes what medium and high consuming sites must do to change their contract

  20. Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent...... tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs. Udgivelsesdato: OCT...

  1. Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    Schröder, Philipp

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent...... tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs....

  2. 国家经贸委公布部分产品进口配额及税率%SETC announces quotas and tariff rates on imported goods

    2002-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Import and Export of Goods"as well as China's pledges upon its accession to the World Trade Organisation, China's State Economics and Trade Commission(SETC)recently published quotas and tariff rates for some imported goods for 2002.

  3. THE ECONOMICS OF TWO-TIER TARIFF-RATE IMPORT QUOTAS IN AGRICULTURE

    Boughner, Devry S.; de Gorter, Harry; Sheldon, Ian M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economics of two-tier tariff import quotas (TRQs) and implications of alternative trade liberalization scenarios. The Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture had tariffs replace nontariff barriers as the protective mechanism while quotas ensured minimum trade flows. Our framework isolates the effects of changes either in the second-tier tariff, and first-tier tariff, or the quota. We show how market conditions or relative policy instrument levels determine which tariff ...

  4. Polish model of electric energy market-bulk energy tariff

    The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs

  5. Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?

    Miguel A. García-Rubio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the capacity of urban water tariffs to recover service costs and to promote efficiency, sustainability, affordability, and equity. Although it has made significant progress in recent years, the Spanish urban water tariff system still faces many challenges. Many of these challenges would be better addressed by a national independent regulatory body.

  6. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  7. Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

  8. Tariff barriers in the international market of forest products

    Orlando Monteiro da Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a great participant in the international market of forest products, occupying the fifth position in terms of value.In spite of having exported more than eight billion dollars in 2007, the country still faces significant tariffary barriers. This studypresented and discussed the tariffs that are in force at the international market, to the forest products exported by Brazil. The analysisof tariffs for 180 countries showed average values of 11% for wood and wood products and of 3.76% for wood pulp and fibrouscellulosic material. The applied tariffs to the forest products are not very high, if compared to tariffs of other sections of the economy,but if reduced they could increase exporting forest sector income significantly, since they are applied exactly on those products of largerexport demand.

  9. INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN THE COMPULSORY HEALTH INSURANCE TARIFF SETTING

    M. Yu. Zasypkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of a single channel financing in the health system of the Russian Federation based on the standards of the compulsory health insurance (CHI requires a single channel financing of the health system through the CHI as one of the main direction using payment of the medical services in the form of so-called «full» tariff [1-12].It is not a secret that for many years the medical services tariff in the CHI system contained from only five items of expenditures (salary, charges on payroll, soft goods and clothing, medicines, bandages, other medical expenses, and food. On one hand, such defective tariff was based on the parallel government financing of the medical institutions (MIs, on the other hand, because of this tariff, the manager was hoppled in the control of the financial flows.

  10. Desirable role in an international duopoly model with tariffs

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  11. Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry

    This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

  12. Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?

    Miguel A. García-Rubio; Alberto Ruiz-Villaverde; Francisco González-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the ca...

  13. Trade Liberalization, Antidumping, and Safeguards: Evidence from India's Tariff Reform

    Bown, Chad P.; Tovar, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the first to use product-level data to examine empirically whether countries use antidumping and safeguard exceptions to unwind commitments to lower tariffs in the face of domestic political-economic pressure. We focus on the case of India, a country that underwent a major exogenous tariff reform program in the early 1990s and subsequently initiated substantial use of safeguard and antidumping import restrictions. We first estimate structural determinants of India's import prote...

  14. Changes in Infrastructure and Tariff Barriers: Local Vs. Global Impacts

    Behrens, Kristian; Lamorgese, Andrea; Ottaviano, Gianmarco; TABUCHI Takatoshi

    2005-01-01

    We develop a multi-country Dixit-Stiglitz model to investigate the impacts of: (i) changes in the international distribution of consumers' expenditure; (ii) decreasing tariffs; and (iii) improvements in transportation infrastructure. We show that, in general, decreasing tariff barriers do not allow for any clear predictions regarding changes in industry location and welfare, whereas this is possible with respect to improvements in transportation infrastructure. In particular, infrastructural ...

  15. EU Antidumping and Tariff Cuts: Trade Policy Substitution?

    Tobias D. Ketterer

    2014-01-01

    The world trading system in its current form aims at reducing multilateral trade barriers across the board. Indeed, the last successfully concluded multilateral trade negotiations led to substantial tariff concessions on the part of most developed economies. What, however, happened to other forms of import protection? Have substantial tariff concessions subsequently been replaced by the use of alternative forms of import protection? In this paper we empirically investigate the relationship be...

  16. What Was Protected? Measuring India's Tariff Barriers 1968-1992

    Gang, Ira N.; Pandey, Mihir

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the inter-industry structure of production in India. It examines the structure of protection, asking how much protection each industry receives. We calculate, compare and analyze several measures of trade protection across agricultural, manufacturing and service industries. Nominal protection levels for both realized and nominal (published) tariff rates are calculated. Balassa and Corden measures of effective protection are constructed using both of these tariff rates....

  17. Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger...

  18. Farther Export Tariff Laid on Some RE Metallic Products

    2007-01-01

    @@ To further regulate the export of high-energy-consumption and high-pollution products and resources products, promote the import of energy products, resource products and key components and facilitate the trade balance, and approved by the 9th Meeting of Tariff Regulations Commission of the State Council, China would adjust the import and export tariff rate of some commodities since June 1st, 2007.

  19. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of

  20. Trends in protectionism: Anti-dumping and trade related investment measures

    Funke, Norbert

    1994-01-01

    The importance of non-tariff barriers in restricting free trade has risen during recent years. Due to their selectivity non-tariff barriers may distort trade even more significantly than tariffs. Developing countries and economies in transition are often most negatively affected.

  1. Zhodnocení netarifních opatření v mezinárodním obchodu

    Stehlíková, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    This master thesis evaluates the non-tariff measures used in international trade. It is based on the fundamental division of non-tariff measure types, namely phytosanitary, zooveterinary, quantitative and other types. The main aim of the thesis is the suggestion of the actual steps for the exporter in order to overcome and maybe remove the non-tariff barriers in international trade. One part of this thesis deals with the methods of measure removal. The chosen devices for the complaint sub...

  2. How the regulator overpays investor? A simple exposition of the principles of tariff setting

    Ignacio Velez-Pareja; Rauf Ibragimov; Joseph Tham; Daniel Toro

    2007-01-01

    In this teaching note, we discuss the basic principles for tariff setting. Tariff setting is very important for regulated industries, such as water and power. The tariff should provide an appropriate risk-adjusted return to the investor. If the tariff were too low, then the investors would not be willing to invest. On the other hand, if the tariff were too high, then it would reduce the consumers’ welfare. We examine the Rate of Return method for calculating the tariff in a regulated firm. In...

  3. 78 FR 15803 - Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...

    2013-03-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of... Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of opportunity to file petitions requesting accelerated tariff... proposals seeking accelerated tariff elimination under the USCTPA as well as proposals on...

  4. Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework

    The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would

  5. Reducing the power load by means of seasonal tariffs

    It has been found that, on a typical winter day, a network tariff that depends on the season may lead to a 5 per cent reduction in the power load of a row house. This is one of the results of a project which investigated the effect of season-dependent tariffs with 108 customers in Trondheim, Norway. For flats in blocks, the impact was insignificant and evidently other instruments were required. Results from this project and other projects in the 'End-user market' have been important for the proposed new seasonally differentiated tariffs. The effect of time variable network tariffs has been tested with 20 commercial customers in Trondheim over a period of three years and 13 of these customers adapted themselves actively to the new tariff and achieved a reduction of the peak load of from five to three per cent. In the summer, the price was about half that of a winter day. It is critical for the intended effect to occur that the arrangement is long-lasting and predictable for the customer. This contributes to increased adaptation and investment in the necessary equipment

  6. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

  7. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

    2008-03-15

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

  8. Reform of prices and tariffs in the power industry

    Yarkin, E.V.; Vershinin, L.A.; Gruzdova, N.M. (Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Institut po Tsenoobrazovanii Gosudarstvennogo Komiteta Tsen pri Gosplane SSSR, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-09-01

    Discusses in the light of the policy of reconstruction (perestroika) a proposed system of consolidated tariffs designed to promote self-financing of industry and due to be implemented from 1 January 1990. Cites main advantages of this new system as being that it takes into account the relationship between prices of different types of fuel and energy tariffs; abolishes regionalization of fuel prices and energy tariffs; abolishes reduced tariffs for special users; limits number of user groups to 5 and increases the mutual responsibility of supplier and consumers for the deteriorating quality of electrical energy. Other aspects discussed are need to encourage relocation of industrial areas to most economical areas of the country from the point of view of energy production, and overall reasons for non-profitability of much of industry. Discusses pros and cons of suggested differentiation of tariffs according to time zone which should encourage optimization of cost of production, transmission and consumption of energy, but is contrary to the policy of self-financing. 2 refs.

  9. NPP electrical price and tariff in the world

    Construction of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is always become a controversial issue. Nuclear utility and other party which support the NPP present a calculation of NPP electricity cost too optimistic. However for utility and other party that contra to nuclear present a calculation of NPP electricity cost too pessimistic. This study present to reduce the controversy of nuclear cost. In this study, capital cost (Engineering Procurement Construction, EPC) was taken from Asian, America and Europe, operating and maintenance cost uses experience data of PLN, and nuclear fuel cost uses data year of 2008 with high price, low price and average price scenario. The methodological tools used to compare electricity generation cost was LEGECOST, a program developed by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), while for electricity tariff- price calculation using a program developed by PLN research and development center. With the discount rate 10%, the result shows that the cheapest electricity generation cost of NPP is less than 40 mills/kWh, and average electricity tariff was 55 mills/kWh. In the Europe countries the electricity tariff more expensive than NPP in Asia. However generating cost and electricity tariff of NPP in United Stated of America (USA) less competitive because investment cost more expensive. Generating cost and electricity tariff was different at each country depend on salary, labor wage, materials price, construction specification, regulation related to NPP and environment aspect. (author)

  10. Electricity price and tariff problems and approaches to their solving

    The following problems are discussed: (i) integrity of the tariff system, price setting and price control in relation to the secondary market; (ii) long-term contracting relations between the subjects - primary and secondary market entities; (iii) the setting of electricity purchase prices from independent producers; (iv) international integration of national systems, including electricity import prices; (v) cross-subsidies within the system; (vi) identification of adverse environmental impacts and their remediation by incorporating the associated costs into electricity prices; (vii) the cost basis of prices; (viii) objectivization of the cost basis; (ix) unification/diversification of the price and tariff levels and the associated distribution rent problem; (x) rational structure of the tariff system with respect to its complexity and ties to the measuring and control instrumentation and their efficiency; and (xi) breakdown of the costs of heat and electricity cogeneration and a fair price setting. (J.B.)

  11. Tariffs for natural gas, electric power and cogenerated heat and power

    The cost effectiveness of cogeneration is determined by several cost aspects: fuel costs of the cogeneration system and the avoided costs in separated heat generation, avoided or saved costs of the electricity cost price, and sellback. In order to assess these aspects, knowledge of the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs is an absolute necessity. The brochure aims at informing everybody involved or interested in cogeneration projects. First, attention is paid to the natural gas tariff for large-scale consumers; the tariff for natural gas, used in cogeneration systems; and other special tariffs. Next the structure of electricity tariffs is discussed, focusing on the so-called National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff, tariffs for large-scale consumers, sellback and reimbursement for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 4 appendices

  12. 14 CFR 221.120 - Grounds for approving or denying Special Tariff Permission applications.

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission To... forth in § 399.35 of this chapter. (5) Lowered fares and charges. The prospective lowering of fares...

  13. A review of gas tariff systems in Europe

    This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

  14. Electricity trade and tariffs. Imports as a bargaining game

    Electricity transboundary trade could be characterized as a bilateral monopoly between two national electricity boards. The bargaining over prices that takes place between importer and exporter is considered in the framework of bargaining game theory. Strategies are strongly affected by the type of regulation of the national electric utility within the importing country. The most suitable tariff policy seems to be that based on marginal cost pricing because it reduces both tariff level and the consumers' welfare loss in respect to other pricing rules. 14 refs., 3 figs

  15. Prices and tariffs in a liberalized electricity market

    First, it is described how prices and tariffs were determined before the introduction of the liberalization. Next, a brief overview is given of the transfer to the liberalized market and how the situation is on this market at present. Special attention is paid to the pricing of electricity in a free market, which is determined by competition between electricity producers in the Netherlands and abroad. Finally, a comparison is made between the expected prices and tariffs in a liberalized market and the prices before the liberalization

  16. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  17. Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation

    Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

  18. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals....... Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more...

  19. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2011-01-01

    congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were......An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...

  20. Uncertain Demand, Consumer Loss Aversion, and Flat-Rate Tariffs

    Herweg, Fabian; Mierendorff, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model of firm pricing and consumer choice, where consumers are loss averse and uncertain about their future demand. Possibly, consumers in our model prefer a flat rate to a measured tariff, even though this choice does not minimize their expected billing amount - a behavior in line with ample empirical evidence. We solve for the profit-maximizing two-part tariff, which is a flat rate if (a) marginal costs are not too high, (b) loss aversion is intense, and (c) there are strong v...

  1. Optimal choice and consumption of cost cap tariffs: Theory and empirical evidence

    Köhler, Philip; Krämer, Jan; Krüger, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Cost cap tariffs are pay-per-use tariffs for which costs cannot exceed a predefined cost limit. They were recently introduced to telecommunications markets, but were previously also applied in the insurance industry as deductibles or in the rental industry as day rates. This paper develops and empirically validates a consumer surplus model that explains the optimal consumption pattern under cost cap tariffs and the conditions under which cost cap tariffs are chosen over pure pay-per-use and f...

  2. 78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses

    2013-07-29

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) to reflect the enlargement of the European Union to 27... withdrew their tariff schedules under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and applied the common...

  3. 14 CFR 372.25 - Tariffs to be filed for charter trips.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tariffs to be filed for charter trips. 372... § 372.25 Tariffs to be filed for charter trips. Effective October 1, 1972, a charter operator shall not... on file with the Department a currently effective tariff showing all rates, fares, and charges...

  4. 18 CFR 385.205 - Tariff or rate filings (Rule 205).

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tariff or rate filings... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pleadings, Tariff and Rate Filings, Notices of Tariff or Rate Examination, Orders To Show Cause, Intervention, and...

  5. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    2010-04-01

    ... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Documents To Be Submitted With a Filing § 35.12 Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs. (a) The letter of a public utility transmitting to the Commission for filing an initial...

  6. 19 CFR 10.703 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.703 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. An importer may make a claim for US-JFTA preferential tariff treatment by including on the...

  7. 19 CFR 147.21 - Marking under the Tariff Act of 1930.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking under the Tariff Act of 1930. 147.21 Section 147.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Tariff Act of 1930. The marking requirements of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and the...

  8. 19 CFR 10.235 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... Trade Partnership Act § 10.235 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. (a) Declaration. In connection with a claim for preferential tariff treatment for an article described in § 10.233(a)(1)...

  9. 49 CFR 1310.5 - Availability of tariffs at carrier offices.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. 1310.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.5 Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. (a) Each...

  10. 49 CFR 1312.3 - Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.3 Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria....

  11. 75 FR 75695 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, for the purpose of making certain further recommendations to the President relating to the addition of new tariff lines applicable to the subject footwear....

  12. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    2013-02-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program... from the Secretary of Agriculture, administers the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing...

  13. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    2013-03-21

    .... 770, 77 FR 71288 (Nov. 30, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,338 (cross-referenced at 141 FERC ] 61,120... Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric... changes to the company registration process applicable to filers of electronic tariffs (eTariff) and...

  14. 19 CFR 10.607 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    2010-04-01

    ... Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.607 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL claim consist of cotton or man-made fiber... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference level...

  15. 19 CFR 10.819 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.819 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.819 Section 10.819 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  16. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    2010-04-01

    ...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber apparel good of Nicaragua described in § 10.607 of... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level....

  17. 49 CFR 1312.9 - Statement of tariff application and other title page requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.9 Statement of tariff application and other title page requirements. Every new or reissued tariff or supplement filed with the Board... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of tariff application and other...

  18. Azerbaijan - Raising Rates : Short-Term Implications of Residential Electricity Tariff Rebalancing

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Tariffs are low in Azerbaijan and need to be raised to finance badly needed network maintenance and to balance supply and demand. This study presents an analysis of the short-term impacts of a 50 percent electricity tariff increase on residential consumers. The study starts by reviewing electricity tariffs, consumption levels, and expenditure patterns compared to neighboring countries. It ...

  19. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  20. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...

  1. What Is the Impact After the Change of Copper Custom Tariff

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Commission of Customs Tariff of the State Council issued"The notice from the Commis- sion of Customs Tariff of the State Council of the proposals on the implementation of customs tariff in 2008"numbered 25(2007)of the Commission,which was approved by the State Council and will take effort from Jan 1,2008.

  2. Evaluation and optimization of feed-in tariffs

    Feed-in tariff program is an incentive plan that provides investors with a set payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources that is fed into the power grid. As of today, FIT is being used by over 75 jurisdictions around the world and offers a number of design options to achieve policy goals. The objective of this paper is to propose a quantitative model, by which a specific FIT program can be evaluated and hence optimized. We focus on payoff structure, which has a direct impact on the net present value of the investment, and other parameters relevant to investor reaction and electricity prices. We combine cost modeling, option valuation, and consumer choice so as to simulate the performance of a FIT program of interest in various scenarios. The model is used to define an optimization problem from a policy maker's perspective, who wants to increase the contribution of renewable energy to the overall energy supply, while keeping the total burden on ratepayers under control. Numerical studies shed light on the interactions among design options, program parameters, and the performance of a FIT program. - Highlights: ► A quantitative model to evaluate and optimize feed-in tariff policies. ► Net present value of investment on renewable energy under a given feed-in tariff policy. ► Analysis of the interactions of policy options and relevant parameters. ► Recommendations for how to set policy options for feed-in tariff program.

  3. 14 CFR 292.22 - Effectiveness of tariffs on file.

    2010-01-01

    ... adherence to filed tariffs in 49 USC 41510 and the related provisions of 14 CFR part 221 as of November 30... well as under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 221, and they are canceled by operation of law. (b) As of... under 49 USC 41504 and the provisions of 14 CFR part 221, and are cancelled by operation of law....

  4. 75 FR 12540 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference

    2010-03-16

    .... 714, 73 FR 57,515 (Oct. 3, 2008), 124 FERC ] 61,270, FERC Stats. & Regs [Regulations Preambles] ] 31... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference March 9, 2010. As has been previously noticed, in Order No. 714,\\1\\ the Commission adopted regulations requiring...

  5. 75 FR 48629 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    2010-08-11

    ... the goals of the 1996 Act, the Commission released the Tariff Streamlining NPRM, 61 FR 49,987... Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers... ETFS Order, 63 FR 35,539, June 30, 1998, the Bureau established July 1, 1998, as the date after...

  6. Communications Satellite Tariffs for Television. IBI Monograph Number 3.

    Passell, Peter; Ross, Leonard

    Dealing with the experiences of and the conditions for international and intercontinental satellite transmissions as they have been carried out during the past decade, this paper focuses on the rules and practices applied within the Intelsat system. The purpose of the paper is to explore the issues involved in establishing tariffs in accord with…

  7. 76 FR 61956 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    2011-10-06

    ... published at 47 CFR in parts 61 and 64 published at 76 FR 43206, July 20, 2011, are effective November 17... requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 11-92, published at 76 FR 43206, July 20, 2011. The OMB... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 61 and 64 Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal...

  8. Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport

    This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)

  9. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

  10. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  11. New experimental electricity tariff systems for household end use

    M. Wolsink

    1997-01-01

    A significant tool in Demand Side Management is the structure of tariffs. Price incentives can be directed at different parts of the efficiency-concept: efficiency in capacity planning, efficiency in total electricity consumption, efficiency in total fossil fuel use, efficiency in total energy deman

  12. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

  13. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    Matyas Tamas, Meszaros [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Zhou Huizhong, E-mail: zhou@wmich.ed [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

  14. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    Tamas, Meszaros Matyas; Zhou, Huizhong [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

  15. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde;

    2015-01-01

    behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....

  16. Impact of Russian Log Export Tariffs on China

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Sino-Russian timber trade and the history about timber export in Russia,the paper gives the reasons for the adjustment in Russian timber export and its influence on timber import in China.Finally countermeasures against Russian adjustment in timber export tariffs are proposed.

  17. Coordinated Tax-Tariff Reforms, Informality, and Welfare Distribution

    Ligthart, J.E.; van der Meijden, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the revenue, efficiency, and distributional implications of a simple strategy of offsetting tariff reductions with increases in destination-based consumption taxes so as to leave consumer prices unchanged. We employ a dynamic micro-founded macroeconomic model of a small open develo

  18. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    2011-07-20

    ..., 61 FR 49,987, September 24, 1996, proposing measures to implement the tariff streamlining..., 1998, the Common Carrier Bureau (Bureau) released the ETFS Order, 63 FR 35,539, June 30, 1998, in which... and storage barriers. 3. On July 15, 2010, the Commission released the ETFS NPRM, 75 FR 48,629,...

  19. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  20. Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs

    The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

  1. Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies

    Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: → Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. → Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. → Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. → Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. → Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

  2. Do feed-in tariffs drive PV cost or viceversa?

    Highlights: • The distribution of PV installations on the territory is not a function of the solar radiation. • Cost of PV plants were adapted to the FIT framework. • The FIT for PV in Italy was considered an incentive to financial investment. • The FIT for PV in Italy did not stimulate the development of national PV industry. - Abstract: A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake façade of green economy

  3. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well

  4. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  5. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

    2007-11-15

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  6. 75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...

    2010-04-28

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...

  7. 78 FR 18334 - New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff Waiver and Expedited Action

    2013-03-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff... motion for limited tariff waivers of section 5.16.4 and, to the extent necessary, section 5.16.3 of its Market Administration and Control Area Services Tariff (Services Tariff). First, NYISO seeks a...

  8. 77 FR 51751 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    2012-08-27

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate Import... fee of $170 to be charged for the 2013 tariff- ] rate quota (TRQ) year for each license issued to a..., which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) of the...

  9. 78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    2013-08-01

    ... 2014 Tariff- Rate Import Quota Year AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces a fee of $200 to be charged for the 2014 tariff-rate quota (TRQ) year for each... dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  10. 76 FR 60801 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    2011-09-30

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate Import... fee of $170 to be charged for the 2012 tariff-rate quota (TRQ) year for each license issued to a... articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) of...

  11. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. Ad valorem tariff cuts switch from the least...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....

  12. Trade Spat on Technology Standards Heating up

    2010-01-01

    In the past few months technical barriers,often called non-tariff or hidden barriers,have increased sharply,even more than traditional instruments of protectionsim such as anti-dumping investigations and border tariffs.

  13. Lao PDR Market Access Guide: Trading with ASEAN Dialogue Partners – India

    Lord, Montague J.

    2013-01-01

    Laos benefits from the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement in Goods (AIFTA) by gaining preferential access to the large Indian market. Under the Agreement, India commits to eliminating customs duties on imports for 90% of its tariff lines under two separate lists: one being completed by the end of 2013; the other, by end-of-2016. For products on the sensitive list, India’s tariffs are being reduced to no more than 5% by the end of 2016. For its part, Laos has until 2021 to eliminate tariffs on i...

  14. Administrative Methods of State Management in the Sphere of Customs

    Мартюшевская, Елена Николаевна

    2015-01-01

    The article dedicates administrative methods of public administration in sphere of customs matters. The author pays attention on the definition of non-tariff measures with regard to non-tariff methods, also how to improve in existing science of classification of administrative methods of public administration in sphere of customs matters.

  15. The increased use of trade controls by the industrial countries

    Page, Sheila A. B.

    1980-01-01

    The increase in non-tariff barriers to trade in the industrial countries has given rise to much concern. This article attempts to summarize the formal non-tariff measures that have been introduced by the industrial countries to measure roughly how much trade is now affected by them.

  16. Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs

    Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2011-06-01

    Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.

  17. Power Tariff Reform and Energy Constraint in China

    2005-01-01

    Power tariff reform and power restructuring should be coordinately advanced. In the period of the power tariff reform, attention should be fully given to possible demand growth, investment characteristics and environment pressure when taking transitional measures. In the stage, focal point of the reform is to establish a rational system of sales price to power network. Moreover, it is necessary to raise the electricity price for household consumption. The highly-centralized system of state-owned power enterprises is the root-cause of some basic problems in the power industry. The system would cause a great power overproduction, squeeze out private and foreign investment and constrain efficiency improvement. Effective energy strategy and planning are a crux of dealing with crises of energy security. China needs a state-class energy administration body and should make massive research on energy economics.

  18. The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

    Arnim, Rudi von; Beck, Stefan; Compa, Lance; Eberhardt, Pia; Grumiller, Jan; Raza, Werner; Taylor, Lance; Tröster, Bernhard; Scherrer, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The United States of America and the European Union are currently negotiating a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It is one of the most ambitious free trade and investment initiatives, going much further than eliminating tariffs. TTIP mainly aims at reducing “non-tariff barriers”. While tariffs on goods have been imposed with an eye to foreign competition, most of the non-tariff barriers are the laws and regulations that are the result of social struggles for the protecti...

  19. Tarifní a netarifní opatření v zahraničním obchodě České republiky

    Demková, Kateřina

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with problems regarding protective measures which are used by government for protection of domestic producers. This work can provide basic information about the possible barriers for importers to entry into the Czech market. The first part of the work is divided into measures of tariff and non-tariff and particular steps are described and explained in detail. The second part is focused on the use of tariff and non-tariff measures in agriculture. There is described the im...

  20. Trade and Integration Sector Note: Chile

    Mauricio Mesquita Moreira

    2006-01-01

    This Trade and Integration Sector Note addresses a few different factors for trade in Chile: export diversification, trade and regional disparities, preferential agreements, trade and transport costs. The final section looks beyond the conventional tariff and non tariff-barriers to trade, and focuses on the role of transport costs. Given Chile's low tariff and non-tariff barriers and its network of trade agreements, the reduction of non-conventional trade costs are bound to offer the best ret...

  1. Reactive Energy Billing in Operator Tariffs in Poland

    Paweł Bućko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the current method of reactive energy billing in the tariffs of distribution grid operators in Poland. The current solutions are subject to critical assessment. Issues related to the motivation effect of the current solutions on consumers are analysed. Problems that occur in relation with connecting distributed generators to the distribution grid and challenges related to prosumer billing are indicated.

  2. Economics and Politics: The Case of Sugar Tariff Reform.

    Ellison, Sara Fisher; Wallace P. Mullin

    1995-01-01

    We study Congressional voting on sugar tariff reform in 1912 to investigate theories of constituent influence on trade policy. In this setting, consumer interest enjoyed substantial political efficacy. Moreover, since a variety of producer interest competed in the political marketplace, we can evaluate which producer interest were most effective. We explore these issues by integrating two techniques drawn from economics and political science, overcoming some common problems encountered in pol...

  3. Tariff-induced Transfer Pricing and the CCCTB

    Davies, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    The common consolidated corporate tax base has been suggested as a way to curb tax avoidance by allocating profits across borders via a formula. This paper demonstrates that when transfer pricing occurs both for tariff and tax minimization, that moving from separate accounting to formula apportionment can actually increase transfer pricing. This, combined with arm's length pricing regulations, can result in lower revenues for high-tax countries and lower overall revenues. This casts additiona...

  4. Gender dimensions to the incidence of tariff liberalization

    Reza C. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates a topic in the globalization and poverty debate that is often difficult to measure, namely the transmission of price changes associated with tariff liberalization to households. Furthermore, it raises the question of whether there are discernible differences between male- and female-headed households that affect this consumption-trade link. It is a partial analysis as a consequence, but one that demonstrates the importance of such a focus for continued research and policy...

  5. The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market

    The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed

  6. Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?

    (1) We estimate CO2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find −15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ► Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ► Net carbon exports: industrialized region −15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ► CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ► The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ► They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

  7. Determinants of green electricity tariff uptake in the UK

    A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a ‘green tariff’, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that – to the authors’ knowledge – have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: •Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. •Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. •Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome

  8. Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff

    Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

  9. Double Dividend from Tariff Differentiation of Reforestation Fund

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Distortionary levy applied uniformly to all diameter classes of logs from logging natural forest can lead to inefficiencies; certain diameter should be left in the field because it is not economical to be used. Win-win or Pareto improving solution can be achieved if the government is more flexible. Social welfare is higher because of the waste that can be utilized to create employment, production and additional benefits for employers, as well as revenue for the state. Even if the levy rates are forced to zero for small-diameter timber, governments is actually not harmed at all because from the beginning the government does not get any revenue from small timber that is left in the field as waste. In scarcity situations of timber from natural forests, it is desirable if the government is considering differentiating charges in order to reduce or possibly eliminate the volume of waste generated by the levy. In general, tariff differentiation done in the form of higher tariffs for higher diameter logs. If possible, the lowest diameter limit of logs is forced down to its technical limits. That is, the processing tool that will determine how the minimum diameter logs can be processed profitably.Keywords: tariff differentiation, efficiency, timber utilization, government revenue, win-win solutionDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.163

  10. Proposal Of A Spanish CPV Feed-in Tariff

    Pérez-Higueras, P.; Muñoz, E.; Almonacid, G.; Vidal, P. G.; Banda, P.; Luque-Heredia, I.; Valera, P.; Cabrerizo, M.

    2010-10-01

    The recent research and field experiences in CPV systems have proved that this technology has present and potential advantages when compared with other sources of energy. Despite of that, if this technology wants to initiate its learning curve with the increment of the production and the consequent price reduction, it is necessary an institutional support that allows this technology to compete against other sources of energy through the creation of a favourable and attractive economic environment for potential investors to get interested in this new technology. Nowadays, Spain is a world CPV referent. The research developed by some of its organism and the industrial experience obtained in the past years through the installation of thousands of MW, is a guarantee of its scientific and industrial potential. The intention of this report is to justify the reasons to set aside a power cap of 10 MW in the Spanish PV regulatory framework dedicated exclusively to CPV systems, and the increment of the feed-in tariff in 10.2 c€/kWh over the present tariff and to reduce progressively this support in a 13% annual until it reaches the flat PV tariff.

  11. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  12. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  13. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

  14. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  15. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  16. Which biofuel market does the ethanol tariff protect? Implications for social welfare and GHG emissions

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol tariff is one of the instruments used by the government to encourage domestic ethanol production. Existing literature analyzing the market and welfare effects of the US ethanol tariff has concluded that removing the tariff would increase social surplus and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, due to the replacement of corn ethanol with lower cost and lower GHG intensive sugarcane ethanol. This paper re-examines these findings in the presence of a domestic cellulosic ethanol indu...

  17. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  18. PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT

    Caba Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility

  19. Bill-and-Keep vs. Cost-Based Access Pricing Revisited

    Ulrich Berger

    2004-01-01

    We study network competition with two-part tariffs and termination-based price discrimination in the presence of call externalities. We show that both the collusive and the welfare maximizing access charges fall below marginal cost. Moreover, bill-and-keep arrangements are welfare improving compared with cost-based access pricing.

  20. The Impact of Kazakhstan Accession to the World Trade Organization : A Quantitative Assessment

    Jensen, Jesper; Tarr, David

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the authors use a computable general equilibrium model of the Kazakhstan economy to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), which encompasses (1) improved market access; (2) Kazakhstan tariff reduction; (3) reduction of barriers against entry by multinational service providers; and (4) reform of local content and value-added tax policies confront...

  1. Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions

    In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

  2. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  3. Lobbying for a common external tariff from inside and out

    Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sajal Lahiri

    2012-01-01

    We consider the interactions between domestic lobbying and two types of cross-border lobbying in a Customs Union (CU). The two types of cross-border lobbying are (i) lobbying from firms in one CU country to the governments of other CU countries, and (ii) that from firms outside the CU. We focus on the determination of the common external tariff (CET) in a two-stage game-theoretic model. When firms within the CU cooperate in lobbying, a sufficient condition for the CET to be higher compared to...

  4. Conclusion statement of the 'gas tariffs' Commission works

    This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  6. Tariff-jumping FDI and domestic firms' profits

    Bruce Blonigen; KaSaundra Tomlin; Wesley Wilson

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the welfare implications of trade policy often do not take account of the potential for tariff-jumping FDI to mitigate positive gains to domestic producers. We use event study methodology to examine the market effects for U.S. domestic firms that petitioned for antidumping (AD) relief, as well as the effect of announcements of FDI by their foreign rivals in the U.S. market on these U.S. petitioning firms. On average, affirmative U.S. AD decisions are associated with 3% abnormal gai...

  7. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  8. 77 FR 21763 - ReEnergy Stratton LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    2012-04-11

    ... Tariff Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Stratton LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  9. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    2012-08-01

    ... Tariff Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  10. 77 FR 21763 - ReEnergy Ashland LLC; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    2012-04-11

    ... Tariff Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Ashland LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  11. 78 FR 71724 - Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract Summaries

    2013-11-29

    ... Tariffs, Control Number 2140-26 (3) Agricultural Contract Summaries, Control Number 2140-0024 See 78 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract...

  12. 75 FR 75185 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    2010-12-02

    ... September 20, 2010 (75 FR 57293). The period for filing written submissions closed on October 22, 2010... COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... CONTACT: David Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax...

  13. 76 FR 15340 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    2011-03-21

    ... published in the Federal Register of December 2, 2010 (75 FR 75185)). This notice is being issued as an... COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax 202-205-2616,...

  14. 76 FR 70448 - Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause

    2011-11-14

    ... Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause This proceeding is... the Commission's regulations governing tariff requirements of ocean common carriers, 46 CFR part 520... service in the United States foreign trades must keep open to public inspection in an automated...

  15. 49 CFR 1312.2 - Requirement to publish and file a tariff.

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted in duplicate and accompanied by the appropriate fee (see 49 CFR part 1002). Packages containing... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to publish and file a tariff. 1312.2... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A...

  16. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Drawback and Duty-Deferral Programs § 181.52 Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. If...

  17. 76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...

    2011-05-12

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 420). The notice invited written ] comments on the petition from interested... Contest the Tariff Classification Determination of Wickless Wax Objects AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... interested party petition pursuant to section 516, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and 19 CFR part...

  18. 75 FR 43917 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implementation of Tariff Rate Quota Established...

    2010-07-27

    ... procedures for allocation of the tariff rate quotas (66 FR 6459, 15 CFR 335). Section 501(e) of the Act... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Implementation of Tariff Rate Quota Established Under Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 as Amended, for...

  19. 19 CFR 10.803 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.803 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for BFTA preferential...

  20. 19 CFR 10.583 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.583 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Basis of claim....

  1. 19 CFR 10.510 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.510 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Claim. An importer may make a claim for...

  2. 19 CFR 10.763 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.763 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for MFTA preferential...

  3. 19 CFR 10.410 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.410 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Declaration. In connection with a claim for...

  4. A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair?

    Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower

  5. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  6. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment. 10.616 Section 10.616 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff...

  7. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners’ be...

  8. Wright tariffs in the Spanish electricity industry: the case of residential consumption

    In this paper a capacity price model is developed for the Spanish electricity industry which allows the presentation of the Spanish utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is approximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. Using this model and data on the residential consumption of electricity, several optimal two-part tariffs are computed, considering different hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment. It has been found that the optimal tariff maintaining universal service increases welfare if the generating equipment and the output assignment to the different technologies are taken as given. Furthermore, if the regulator is concerned not only with efficiency, but also with distributive issues, then welfare losses associated with the existing regulatory regime are even larger

  9. 77 FR 76300 - Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    2012-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS). The goods involved include certain sensitized... appropriate to accomplish five general objectives, including to conform the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  10. 78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...

    2013-08-01

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...

  11. 75 FR 39613 - Request for Proposals To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...

    2010-07-09

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Proposals To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of... Representative. ACTION: Notice of opportunity to file proposals requesting accelerated tariff elimination and... tariff elimination under the USCFTA and describes the procedures for filing proposals. This notice...

  12. 77 FR 51681 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012...

    2012-08-27

    ... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...

  13. 75 FR 38805 - Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...

    2010-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time...Filings and eTariff submissions are made with the Commission. This time also will be used to determine... eTariff submissions. The time a filing is made is established when the last file uploaded appears...

  14. 75 FR 53565 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010...

    2010-09-01

    ... Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...

  15. 77 FR 63813 - Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request for Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing...

    2012-10-17

    ... Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements On October 9, 2012 Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC (THPP) filed a Request for a Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements. THPP requests that the Commission grant a temporary waiver from the tariff filing and reporting requirements...

  16. 75 FR 53271 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year

    2010-08-31

    ... 2011 Tariff- Rate Import Quota Year AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces a fee of $150 to be charged for the 2011 tariff-rate quota (TRQ) year for each... importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the...

  17. 76 FR 63538 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011...

    2011-10-13

    ... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate...

  18. 77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs

    2012-04-23

    ... Market-Based Rate Tariffs Docket Nos. Aleph One, Inc ER04-686-000 Alpha Domestic Power Trading, LLC... to file baseline tariffs.\\1\\ The Commission provided the utilities 60 days in which to file their baseline tariffs in accordance with Order No. 714 \\2\\ or face revocation of their market-based...

  19. 76 FR 72696 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to Etariff Refund Report Type of Filing Codes

    2011-11-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to Etariff Refund Report Type of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 27, 2011, the list of available eTariff Type of... Filing of Parts 35, 154, 284, 300, and 341 Tariff Filings, found on the Commission's Web site,...

  20. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    2010-10-01

    ... noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. 1319.1 Section 1319.1 Transportation Other... noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's jurisdiction under 49 U.S.C. 13531 are exempted from the tariff filing requirements of 49 U.S.C. 13702....

  1. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: → Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. → Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. → Further market-oriented reforms are needed. → Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  2. Evaluación de los efectos de la remoción de medidas para-arancelarias sobre las exportaciones argentinas de productos textiles

    León, Sonia M.; Roitman, Mauricio E.; Carlos A. Romero.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a quantification of price differentials not explained by tariff policy and the assessment of efficiency costs burned on different economic agents involved in textile products trade between Argentina (exporter) and Brazil (domestic producer). Simulations are carried out to show the effects of the distortion of price differentials, considered like non tariff barriers or a set of them and others obstacle to trade. From the removal of non tariff barriers results that consumers a...

  3. The Complexities of the Interface between Agricultural Policy and Trade

    Schmitz, Troy G.; Schmitz, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Tariff and non-tariff barriers are widespread as applied to agricultural trade. The theory of gains from trade considers the impacts of free trade relative to no trade and to non-tariff barriers, while the theory of agricultural policy generally places little weight on the international trading sector. However, it is necessary to combine agricultural policy with the international trading sector so that agricultural policy instruments such as price supports are considered together with barrier...

  4. Trade Barriers and Trade Flows across Countries and Industries

    Jong-Wha Lee; Phillip Swagel

    1994-01-01

    We use disaggregated data on trade flows, production, and trade barriers for 41 countries in 1988 to examine the political and economic determinants of non-tariff barriers, as well as the impact of protection (both tariff and non-tariff) on trade flows. We use an econometric framework that allows for the simultaneous detennination of trade barriers and trade flows. Our results are consistent with political-economy theories of the determinants of protection: even after accounting for industry-...

  5. Medidas não tarifárias como instrumento de política comercial: O conceito, sua importância e as evidências recentes de seu uso no Brasil

    Flavio L. Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    This article draws from the recent literature on non-tariff measures to provide an overview of the analysis of these measures, addressing its definition and classification, as well as some recent evidence on its use in the world and in Brazil. Non-tariff measures are defined as any policy measures, except import tariffs, which may have the potential to affect international trade, changing prices, quantities traded, or both. This definition comprises both measures that restrict trade and those...

  6. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  7. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  8. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions.

  9. Tariffs, Mechanisms and Equilibria at a Single Internet Link

    Courcoubetis, Costas; Dimakis, Antonis

    We analyze the interplay between the demand for downloads, choice of congestion control mechanism, and tariff structure at a single link, when users have preferences in terms of average download delay and they are charged according to the number of ECN marked packets they receive. Our model involves a timescale separation approach, where in the fast timescales active flows compete for instantaneous bandwidth share by optimally tuning congestion control parameters in a noncooperative fashion. This is modeled by letting flows choose utility functions within the network utility maximization framework laid down by Kelly [1]. On a slower timescale, users selfishly change their otherwise unrestricted demand for downloads based on the average experienced download delay and charges incurred. We study the equilibrium of this loop of interactions from the point of view of social welfare.

  10. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    Munk, Knud Jørgen

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on...... border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax......-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes....

  11. Modeling processes in the design of electricity tariffs. Doctoral thesis

    Raesaenen, M.

    1995-10-01

    This thesis considers the modeling process for analyzing consumers` responses to innovative electricity tariffs. Specifically, it focuses on estimating the rate effects from demand data, modeling the demand behavior and utilizing them in the design of optional rates. The econometric analysis is based on the dynamic pricing experiments which were conducted in Finland from 1988 to 1993. The results indicate that customer level load analysis is required, since the effects of rate changes on the consumption can vary considerably from customer to customer. When the analysis is conducted with respect to individual customers, those customers with high price response potential can be identified and their responsiveness can be efficiently utilized in rate design. The load analysis techniques are implemented in an object-oriented load modeling environment.

  12. Approximating a solution to the two-part tariff problem

    Ilko Vrankić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of setting the reservation price in terms of a two-part tariff requires, subject to new prices, reducing the difference between minimum expenditure for the starting level of utility and nominal consumer income. This difference in expenditure can be translated into the area below a compensated demand curve. The compensated demand curve is not directly observable, so the reservation price in this paper is approximated by a change in the consumer surplus. For the case of heterogeneous consumers, a number of reservation prices exist. This paper will address error estimation in setting prices of a capital good and a service. The results obtained are demonstrated using a numerical example.

  13. Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia

    2016-04-01

    Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy action was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.

  14. Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China

    Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ► We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ► Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ► Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ► Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.

  15. Structure of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat for bound customers in the Netherlands

    As a result of the new Dutch Electricity Law and the Natural Gas Law energy consumers in the Netherlands are or will be free to choose an energy supplier. The freedom of choice for small-scale consumers (e.g. households, small businesses) will be realized in a few years. For them, this booklet gives insight into the structure which forms the basis of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat in the Netherlands. How final consumption tariffs are determined is explained on the basis of the related starting points, tariffs for buying and selling, taxes and surcharges on the markets for the fore-mentioned energy carriers

  16. The tariff policy in Romania - strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    This paper presents the guiding lines of the Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs. The main constraints and difficulties of the electricity rates and tariffs designing activity in a transitional economy are analysed, focusing on: financial and economic aspects, such as the dramatic decrease of economic activity, high inflation, scarcity of financial resources...; technical aspects related to the existing metering equipment and obsolete electricity generation, transmission and distribution facilities; social aspects regarding the impact of using energy tariffs designed taking into account the real costs of the electricity company; regulatory policy, legal and administrative aspects

  17. IMPACTS ON U.S. PRICES OF REDUCING ORANGE JUICE TARIFFS IN MAJOR WORLD MARKETS

    Brown, Mark G.; Thomas H. Spreen; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2004-01-01

    A demand model is developed to examine the impacts on orange juice prices resulting from elimination or reduction of the tariffs on orange juice imposed by the United States, European Union, and Japan. An empirical analysis suggests that elimination of the U.S. tariff by itself would decrease the U.S. orange juice price by about $0.22 per gallon, while simultaneous elimination of the U.S., European, and Japanese tariffs would decrease the U.S. price by about $0.13 per gallon. Alternatively, r...

  18. Tariffs and quotas in a spatial duopoly with a land market

    Chao-cheng Mai; Shin Kun Peng

    2000-01-01

    This paper develops a spatial duopoly model by taking land consumption and mobile households into consideration and examines the respective effects of a tariff and a quota on an open economy with various price conjectural variations (including LÃschian, H-S and G-O competition). The main conclusions are: (i) The Metzler Paradox does not occur under a tariff but occurs under a quota in LÃschian competition; (ii) The tariff and the quota are completely equivalent under H-S competition if the na...

  19. Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey

    First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable

  20. Is Tariff Reduction a Viable Strategy for Economic Growth in the Periphery? An Examination of Tariff Interaction Effects in 69 Less Developed Countries

    Roy Kwon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional economic wisdom maintains that the reduction of domestic import restrictions assists in the development of less developed countries. But far from being a settled debate, the empirical research on tariffs and economic growth is much more controversial than is commonly recognized. In fact, so contentious and unsettled is this mode of inquiry that the research of some scholars directly contradicts the findings of others. In light of this difficulty encountered by researchers, the current study argues that the tariff~growth link is best analyzed by exploring the conditional effect of import restrictions on the development of low-income countries. Utilizing a panel dataset with information for 69 less developed countries, the results of this investigation show that tariff interactions with domestic investment and labor participation, respectively, augments the growth-generating impact of these variables. In addition, the constituent terms reveal that domestic investment and labor-force participation produces robust negative associations with economic growth when removing their tariff contingent effects. Taken as a whole, the evidence illustrates the value of exploring the indirect relationship between tariffs and economic growth as well as the potential usefulness of restrictive import policies for development in the periphery.

  1. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    2010-04-01

    ... portion of a customer's bundled wholesale power requirements. (2) Economy energy coordination agreement... organization's behavior may require investigation, including, but not limited to, suspected Market Violations...) Inclusiveness. The business practices and procedures must ensure that any customer or other stakeholder...

  2. Pareto-optimal electricity tariff rates in the Republic of Armenia

    The economic impact of electricity tariff rates on the residential sector of Yerevan, Armenia, is examined. The effect of tariff design on revenue generation and equity measures is considered, and the combination of energy pricing and compensatory social policies which provides the best mix of efficiency and protection for poor households is examined. An equity measure is defined in terms of a cumulative distribution function which describes the percent of the population that spends x percent or less of their income on electricity consumption. An optimal (Pareto-efficient) tariff is designed based on the analysis of survey data and an econometric model, and the Armenian tariff rate effective 1 January 1997 to 15 September 1997 is shown to be non-optimal relative to this rate. 22 refs

  3. Comparison of industrial tariffs for natural gas and electricity within the European Union

    In adherence to the EU Directive on the ''Transparency of Gas and Electricity Tariffs Paid by the Industrial End Consumer'' the Statistical Office of the European Union (eurostat) since July 1991 has biannually pusblished the gas and electricity tariffs paid by industrial consumers. In order to approximate the consumers' real situation as closely as possible these surveys determine the effective tariffs for typical consumption rates in certain towns or service areas of a country rather than just giving mean values. Selection of towns depends on several criteria such as, for example, population, economic import, different tariff zones, or the intent to give a representative picture of a country's geography. In the present study, one town was chosen from every country to permit an international comparison. (orig./UA)

  4. Community ideology vs national realism? The tricky problem of electricity tariffs

    In this article, the authors first outline that regulated electricity tariffs trend to crystallize oppositions between European and national political legitimacies. In this respect, they comment the obviously diverging and incompatible positions of France and of the European Union on the regulation of electricity prices: legal procedures against France exist for a defect of transposition of a European directive; another procedure concerns the control of State subsidies; France has maintained a tariff regulation. The authors outline that these oppositions will have to be solved by national and European judges, and then comment that this opposition is related to the strong attachment of France to a tariff system built as a protection against European harmonisation: tariffs are considered as the most efficient and fairest regulation system

  5. Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled...... as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff...... costs. The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more...

  6. 76 FR 68271 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    2011-11-03

    ... ] TD03NO11.020 ] TD03NO11.021 ] TD03NO11.022 ] TD03NO11.023 ] TD03NO11.024 ] TD03NO11.025 ] TD03NO11.026 [FR... November 3, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8742--To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States By the President of the United States of America...

  7. CUSTOMS AND TARIFF REGULATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SUPPORT FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMPLEX OF KRASNODAR REGION

    Zielinskaya M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the measures of indirect state support for domestic agricultural producer is a tariff policy, which is a key factor determining the national trade regimes and the conditions of admission of foreign products to domestic sales. The study agricultural imports in the Krasnodar region in the article are encouraged to use the weighted and substantiated the specificity of the current state of the domestic economy tariff quotas and duties on imports of agricultural products

  8. Social acceptance of green energy and dynamic electricity tariffs - a short review

    Anna Kowalska-Pyzalska

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of recent literature on consumer energy behaviors and willingness to pay for innovative products in the energy market. Among such products green energy and dynamic electricity tariffs will be considered. Social and psychological factors, that influence the adoption of these products will be discussed. Consumer engagement and acceptance of green energy as well as dynamic electricity tariffs are necessary to make the diffusion of these products possible and effectiv...

  9. TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis

    Siddiqui, Rizwana; Iqbal, Zafar

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses impact of one of the major trade liberalisation policies of Structural Adjustment reforms, tariff rate reduction, on functional income distribution to households in Pakistan through CGE modelling, that is well known for this type of analysis. Using SAM-based CGE model, simulation exercises are undertaken to describe the impact of key adjustment policy i.e., reduction in tariff rate by 80% on industrial imports. Simulation results of CGE model simply show the direction of ...

  10. Mass Customization in Wireless Communication Services: Individual Service Bundles and Tariffs

    Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents results on mass customization of wireless communications services and tariffs. It advocates for a user-centric view of wireless service configuration and pricing as opposed to present-day service catalog options. The focus is on design methodology and tools for such individual services and tariffs, using altogether information compression, negotiation algorithms, and risk portfolio analysis. We first analyze the user and supplier needs and aspirations. We then ...

  11. Mandates, Tax Credits, and Tariffs: Does the U.S. Biofuels Industry Need Them All?

    Bruce A. Babcock

    2010-01-01

    Expanded mandates under the Renewable Fuel Standard provide ethanol and biodiesel producers a guaranteed future market at volumes that exceed what they have produced in the past. Despite having these mandates in place, biofuel producers continue to support tax credits and ethanol import tariffs. An examination of how the new mandates will be implemented shows that biofuel producers will receive little or no additional benefit from tax credits. Ethanol import tariffs will continue to provide U...

  12. Tariff policy towards a monopolist in the presence of persuasive advertising

    Leahy, Dermot

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the positive and normative aspects of tariffs and advertising taxes in a situation in which a foreign monopolist chooses advertising as well as output. On the positive side it is shown that under certain circumstances a tariff will induce a fall in the domestic consumer price of the import. On the normative side the paper demonstrates that an import subsidy can be optimal under two different specifications of the welfare function.

  13. Coordinating Static and Dynamic Supply Chains with Advertising through Two-Part Tariffs

    L. Lambertini

    2013-01-01

    Zaccour (2008) investigates the behaviour of a marketing channel where firms invest in advertising to increase brand equity, showing that an exogenous twopart tariff cannot be used to replicate the vertically integrated monopolist’s performance. I revisit the same model proving the existence of a multiplicity of franchising contracts taht can do the job. In particular, I set out by illustrating an optimal two-part tariff specified as a linear function of the upstream firm’s advertising effort...

  14. Tariff and Nontariff Barrier Impacts on Illegal Migration: Us Fresh Winter Tomato Market

    Thompson, Gary D.

    1989-01-01

    A partial equilibrium, duality-based empirical model is used to measure the tariff and nontariff barrier effects on fresh tomato prices, quantities, and labour demand in Florida, USA, and Sinaloa, Mexico. Reduced-form estimates indicate that the US unit tariff has increased agricultural labour demand in Florida while reducing field labour demand in Mexico. Nontari:ff barriers have had a less significant impact on labour demand. Product heterogeneity may account for varying nontariff barrier i...

  15. A Tariff-Growth Paradox? Protection's Impact the World Around 1875-1997

    Clemens, Michael A.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses a new database to establish two findings covering the first globalization boom before World War I, the second since World War II, and the autarkic interlude in between. First, there is strong evidence supporting a Tariff-Growth Paradox: protection was associated with fast growth before World War II, while it was associated with slow growth thereafter. Second, there is strong evidence supporting regional asymmetry: while the tariff-growth association was powerful and positive i...

  16. Carbon Tariffs: Impacts on Technology Choice, Regional Competitiveness, and Global Emissions

    David F. Drake

    2011-01-01

    Carbon regulation is intended to reduce global emissions, but there is growing concern that such regulation may simply shift production to unregulated regions, potentially increasing overall carbon emissions in the process. Carbon tariffs have emerged as a possible mechanism to address this concern by imposing carbon costs on imports at the regulated region's border. Advocates claim that such a mechanism would level the playing field whereas opponents argue that such a tariff is anti-competit...

  17. Effects of Tariffs and Sanitary Barriers on High- and Low-Value Poultry Trade

    Peterson, Everett B.; Orden, David

    2005-01-01

    "A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between "high-value" (mostly white meat) and "low-value" (mostly dark meat) poultry products and simulates the trade flows between eight exporting and importing countries and regions. Removing all barriers simultaneously has larger impact on trade than only removing t...

  18. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. t...

  19. Effects of tariffs and sanitary barriers on high- and low-value poultry trade

    Peterson, E. B.; Orden, D.

    2005-01-01

    A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between "high-value" (mostly white meat) and "low-value" (mostly dark meat) poultry products and simulates the trade flows among eight exporting and importing countries and regions. Removing all barriers simultaneously has a larger impact on trade than removing only ta...

  20. Tariff Equivalent of Technical Barriers to Trade with Imperfect Substitution and Trade Costs

    Chengyan Yue; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H.

    2005-01-01

    The price-wedge method yields a tariff-equivalent estimate of technical barriers to trade (TBT). An extension of this method accounts for imperfect substitution between domestic and imported goods and incorporates recent findings on trade costs. We explore the sensitivity of this revamped tariff-equivalent estimate to its determinants (substitution elasticity, preference for home good, trade cost, and to the reference data chosen). We use the approach to investigate the ongoing U.S.-Japan app...

  1. The Tariff Equivalent and Forgone Trade Effects of Prohibitive Technical Barriers to Trade

    Yue, Chengyan; Beghin, John C.

    2007-01-01

    We derive a method to econometrically estimate the tariff equivalent and foregone trade effects of a prohibitive technical barrier to trade (TBT) based on Wales and Woodland's Kuhn-Tucker approach to corner solutions in consumer choice. The method overcomes the lack of observed data on bilateral trade flows and accounts for differentiated goods by place of origin. We apply the derived random utility model to international trade in apples to identify the tariff equivalent of prohibitive nontar...

  2. Tariff equivalents of nontariff measures: The case of European horticultural and fish imports from African countries.

    Nimenya, Nicodème

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the Partnership Agreements between the European Union (EU) and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries, this study estimates ad valorem tariff equivalents of European food safety standards on imports of key horticultural and fish products from Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. The study uses an extension of the price-wedge method to account for imperfect substitution and factor endowment in monopolistic competition. The estimated tariff equivalents are 55% and 98% f...

  3. Fair and efficient tariffs for wind energy : principles, method, proposal, data and potential consequences in France

    In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  5. The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'; Le tarif reglemente transitoire d'ajustement du marche de l'electricite dit 'tarif de retour'

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

  6. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  7. Smart Tariff for Smart Meters In Smart Grid

    Dr.D.P.Kothari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrow’s challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is “a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between”. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of “Smart Grid” technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.

  8. Tariff equivalent of Japanese sanitary and phytosanitary: Econometric estimation of protocol for U.S.-Japanese apple trade

    Keiichiro Honda

    2012-01-01

    This paper econometrically estimates the tariff equivalent of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) to U.S. apple imports in Japan. Many studies calculate the tariff equivalent of the Japanese SPS to imports of U.S. apple using the price differential between the domestic price and export prices, but this method is problematic when the SPS measures are prohibitive. This study uses a method that can econometrically estimate the tariff equivalent of the prohibitive technical barriers to trade suggest...

  9. Putting the Lid on Lobbying: Tariff Structure and Long-Term Growth when Protection is for Sale

    Nathan Nunn; Daniel Trefler

    2006-01-01

    It has long been recognized that a country's tariffs are the endogenous outcome of a rent-seeking game whose equilibrium reflects national institutions. Thus, the structure of tariffs across industries provides insights into how institutions, as reflected in tariff policies, affect long-term growth. We start with the commonplace perception among politicians that protection of skill-intensive industries generates a growth-enhancing externality. Modifying the Grossman-Helpman protection for sal...

  10. Electricity tariff reform and rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China

    China has implemented increasing-block power tariffs. It might be a breakthrough in the country's stagnant residential power tariff reform. Improving energy efficiency is the primary method adopted by the Chinese government for energy conservation in residential sector. However, negative effects brought by energy rebound would weaken the real effect of efficiency improvement. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact of residential electricity tariff adjustment on rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China. We set up an LA-AIDS Model (linear approximation of the almost ideal demand system model) to estimate the rebound effect of urban residential electricity consumption. The results show that the rebound effect is approximately 165.22%. This figure manifests the existence of ‘backfire effect’, indicating that efficiency improvement does not have energy-saving effect in practice. After the implementation of increasing-block electricity tariff policy in China, the rebound is reduced to 132.3%. In addition, we also obtain the electricity tariffs at which the rebound effect is less than 1 or even close to zero. In this regard, for Chinese electricity market, electricity tariff reform might be an effective method for mitigating rebound effect. - Highlights: • LA–AIDS Model was used to estimate price elasticity for residential electricity. • The rebound size of urban residential electricity in China is estimated. • The size of electricity rebound is approximately 165.22%. • The impact of increasing-block power tariffs on rebound is studied. • Electricity pricing reform is an effective method to mitigate the rebound effect

  11. Investigating preferences for dynamic electricity tariffs: The effect of environmental and system benefit disclosure

    Dynamic electricity pricing can produce efficiency gains in the electricity sector and help achieve energy policy goals such as increasing electric system reliability and supporting renewable energy deployment. Retail electric companies can offer dynamic pricing to residential electricity customers via smart meter-enabled tariffs that proxy the cost to procure electricity on the wholesale market. Current investments in the smart metering necessary to implement dynamic tariffs show policy makers’ resolve for enabling responsive demand and realizing its benefits. However, despite these benefits and the potential bill savings these tariffs can offer, adoption among residential customers remains at low levels. Using a choice experiment approach, this paper seeks to determine whether disclosing the environmental and system benefits of dynamic tariffs to residential customers can increase adoption. Although sampling and design issues preclude wide generalization, we found that our environmentally conscious respondents reduced their required discount to switch to dynamic tariffs around 10% in response to higher awareness of environmental and system benefits. The perception that shifting usage is easy to do also had a significant impact, indicating the potential importance of enabling technology. Perhaps the targeted communication strategy employed by this study is one way to increase adoption and achieve policy goals. - Highlights: • We evaluate preferences for domestic dynamic electricity tariffs in the US and EU. • We use an online choice experiment approach with two dynamic tariff options. • People are more likely to switch if shown environmental and system benefits. • People are more likely to switch if they find shifting demand easy to do. • Our results imply the importance of targeted communication and enabling technology

  12. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    Murray Christopher JL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff, which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science.

  13. International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria

    The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

  14. Encouraging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) participation through premium tariff rates

    Richardson, David B.

    2013-12-01

    The provision of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to an electric grid by electric vehicles (EVs) can potentially reduce the cost of vehicle ownership through revenue generation. Recent studies indicate that yearly vehicle profit from V2G may not be sufficient to induce widespread participation. This paper investigates the feasibility of a premium tariff rate for V2G power, similar to current feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs for renewable energy. Using Ontario, Canada as a case study, an hourly time-series model for a fleet of commuter EVs is created. Tariff rates for V2G peak power are calculated based on the same return on investment as the current FIT for renewable energy in Ontario. The tariff rates are competitive with the renewable energy tariffs, especially when EVs are allowed to provide ancillary services to the grid in addition to peak power. Despite the guaranteed rate of return, yearly vehicle profit is low. Two variations are considered to increase vehicle profit, thereby enhancing the attractiveness of V2G. A higher return on investment is favored over direct benefits offered to EV owners. A higher return on investment may be justifiable based on the higher level of risk inherent in V2G when compared to renewable energy.

  15. Electricity tariff systems for informatics system design regarding consumption optimization in smart grids

    Simona Vasilica OPREA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume of data is gathered via sensors and recorded by smart meters. These data are processed at the electricity consumer and grid operators' side by big data analytics. Electricity consumption optimization offers multiple advantages for both consumers and grid operators. At the electricity customer level, by optimizing electricity consumption savings are significant, but the main benefits will come from indirect aspects such as avoiding onerous grid investments, higher volume of renewable energy sources' integration, less polluted environment etc. In order to optimize electricity consumption, advanced tariff systems are essential due to the financial incentive they provide for electricity consumers' behaviour change. In this paper several advanced tariff systems are described in details. These systems are applied in England, Spain, Italy, France, Norway and Germany. These systems are compared from characteristics, advantages/disadvantages point of view. Then, different tariff systems applied in Romania are presented. Romanian tariff systems have been designed for various electricity consumers' types. Different tariff systems applied by grid operators or electricity suppliers will be included in the database model that is part of an informatics system for electricity consumption optimization.

  16. Turning green: Agent-based modeling of the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs

    Using an agent-based modeling approach we study the temporal dynamics of consumer opinions regarding switching to dynamic electricity tariffs and the actual decisions to switch. We assume that the decision to switch is based on the unanimity of τ past opinions. The resulting model offers a hypothetical, yet plausible explanation of why there is such a big discrepancy between consumer opinions, as measured by market surveys, and the actual participation in pilot programs and the adoption of dynamic tariffs. We argue that due to the high indifference level in today's retail electricity markets, customer opinions are very unstable and change frequently. The conducted simulation study shows that reducing the indifference level can result in narrowing the intention–behavior gap. A similar effect can be achieved by decreasing the decision time that a consumer takes to make a decision. - Highlights: • We propose an agent-based model to study the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs. • The decision to change the tariff is based on the unanimity of τ past opinions. • The model explains why the empirically observed intention–behavior gap exists. • The adoption of dynamic tariffs is impossible due to the high level of indifference in today's societies. • Reducing the indifference level or decreasing the decision time can result in narrowing the gap

  17. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  18. Renewables without limits : moving Ontario to advanced renewable tariffs by updating Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer program

    The Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) promotes the development of community-owned renewable energy generation. It was emphasized that in order to achieve OSEA's original objectives of developing as much renewable energy as quickly as possible through community participation, changes are needed to Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer contract (SOC) program. This report examined the status of Ontario's SOC program and proposed changes to the program as part of the program's first two-year review. The report provided a summary of the program and discussed each of the program's goals, notably to encourage broad participation; eliminate barriers to distributed renewable generation; provide a stable market for renewable generation; stimulate new investment in renewable generation; provide a rigorous pricing model for setting the tariffs; create a program applicable to all renewable technologies; provide a simple, streamlined, and cost-effective application process; and provide a dispute resolution process. The program goals as developed by the Ontario Power Authority and Ontario Energy Board were discussed with reference to mixed results to date; simplicity; removing barriers; balancing targets with value to ratepayers; and building on the efforts of OSEA. Advanced renewable tariffs (ART) and tariff determination was also discussed along with ART's in Germany, France, Spain and Ontario. Inflation indexing; tariff degression; proposed new tariffs by technology; and other costs and factors affecting profitability were also reviewed. ref., tabs

  19. 7 CFR 1486.209 - How are program applications evaluated and approved?

    2010-01-01

    ... various constraints to U.S. exports, including sanitary and phytosanitary issues and other non-tariff barriers; (v) Assessments and follow-up activities designed to improve country-wide food and...

  20. 78 FR 23890 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Emerging Markets Program

    2013-04-23

    ... practices, impediments (infrastructure, financing, ] regulatory or other non-tariff barriers) to the... Office of Management and Budget's issuance of a final policy (68 FR 38402 (June 27, 2003)) regarding...

  1. THE FOREIGN TRADE IN FEBRUARY 2015

    Nadezhda Volovik

    2015-01-01

    Early in 2015, a drop in the main indices of the Russian foreign trade amounted to the 2009 crisis level. The existing non-tariff barriers between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus highly complicate trade.

  2. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  3. Tariff advice for the supply of heat to small-scale consumers in 2003

    The title advice is based on the principle of 'not more than otherwise' (nmda, abbreviated in Dutch), which principle is applied for the calculation of the contribution for connection to the energy supply system, the reduced rate for those paying standing charges, and the price of heat. The principle implies that the determined tariff for the supply of heat is such that, on average, the consumer of heat does not pay more than in case natural gas is used for an individual central heating system. From the year 2000 on the tariff advice includes a so-called cost-effectiveness contribution. In this advice attention is paid to the cost-effectiveness contribution, the connection contribution, the reduced rate, and the heat price. In the final chapter the indexation and updating of the different tariff elements of the advice are discussed

  4. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them

  5. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard...... show that when openness is measured at retail prices, not border prices, the welfare rankings are sensitive to the degree of efficiency in revenue redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. As a result, multilateral tariff reductions can switch from the least...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization. Among the other three barriers we etablished a universal welfare ranking for any strictly positive level of revenue redistribution and for either measure of openness....

  6. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ► We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ► We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ► We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ► Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ► Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  7. 77 FR 413 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States and for Other Purposes

    2012-01-04

    ... thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-00020 Filed 1-3-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8771 of December 29, 2011 To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to...

  8. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  9. 78 FR 56658 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    2013-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas... INFORMATION: Background Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (the Act) created two tariff rate... final regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR part 335....

  10. 75 FR 54599 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    2010-09-08

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas... INFORMATION: Background Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (the Act) created two tariff rate... regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335. In order to...

  11. 78 FR 56657 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    2013-09-13

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas... Trade and Development Act of 2000 (the Act) created two tariff rate quotas (TRQs), providing for... the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335. In order to be eligible for an allocation, an applicant...

  12. 76 FR 58465 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...

    2011-09-21

    ... International Trade Administration Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas... INFORMATION: Background Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000 (the Act) created two tariff rate... adopted final regulations establishing procedures for allocating the TRQ. See 70 FR 61363; 19 CFR 335....

  13. The Dutch tariff : results and arguments for an effective design for national EQ-5D valuation studies

    Lamers, L M; McDonnell, J; Stalmeier, P F M; Krabbe, P F M; Busschbach, J J V

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate a Dutch EQ-5D tariff and to determine in a simulation study using the dataset of the original UK valuation study, the number of health states and respondents needed to estimate a reliable tariff. In all, 300 Dutch respondents directly valued 17 states comp

  14. The Dutch tariff: results and arguments for an effective design for national EQ-5D valuation studies.

    Lamers, L.M.; McDonnell, J.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Busschbach, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate a Dutch EQ-5D tariff and to determine in a simulation study using the dataset of the original UK valuation study, the number of health states and respondents needed to estimate a reliable tariff. In all, 300 Dutch respondents directly valued 17 states comp

  15. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined...

  16. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES... tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar. Pursuant to Additional...

  17. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    2013-09-18

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to...

  18. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or...

  19. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES... States (HTS), the United States maintains tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imports of raw cane sugar...

  20. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round...