WorldWideScience
 
 
1

European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions), biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

Gilberto Sarfati

1998-01-01

2

The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

Lupien JR

2002-07-01

3

The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

Lupien, John R

2002-07-01

4

Legal aspects of Brazilian ethanol and non-tariff barriers to import; Aspectos juridicos relativos ao etanol brasileiro e as barreiras nao-tarifarias a sua importacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.

Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho

2010-01-15

5

Market Access through Bound Tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2009-01-01

6

Market access through bound tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2010-01-01

7

On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

2008-01-01

8

Open access transmission tariff, (Bonneville Power Administration).  

Science.gov (United States)

This document defines the open access transmission tariff for the Bonneville Power Administration. The contents of the document include common service provisions, definitions, ancillary services, open access same-time information system (OASIS), reciproci...

1998-01-01

9

Understanding the tariff. Access to the public power transportation network  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the European directive of December 19, 1996 about the common rules of the European power market, the eligible companies can chose their power supplier anywhere in Europe. The manager of the French power transportation network (RTE) supplies a network access to these companies according to a tariff fixed by the decree no. 2002-1014 from July 19, 2002. The aim of this document is to explain this tariff: tariffing principles ('mail-stamp' principle, voltage domain, subscribed output power tariffs, input power tariffs), tariffing elements (access to the grid, elements of output tariffs (subscribed power, overload, emergency tariffs, modifications etc..)), invoicing modalities, output tariffs, definitions. (J.S.)

2002-01-01

10

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. 35.28...35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a) Applicability... (c) Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariffs....

2013-04-01

11

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. 35.28...35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a) Applicability... (c) Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariffs....

2009-04-01

12

Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs are the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies.

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2006-01-01

13

Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels of protection.

JØrgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

2003-01-01

14

Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1999-06-16

15

Tariff-Specific Preferences and Their Influence on Price Sensitivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many services, consumers can choose among a range of optional tariffs that differ in their access and usage prices. Recent studies indicate that tariff-specific preferences may lead consumers to choose a tariff that does not minimize their expected billing rate. This study analyzes how tariff-specific preferences influence the responsiveness of consumers’ usage and tariff choice to changes in price. We show that consumer heterogeneity in tariff-specific preferences leads to heterogeneity in their sensitivity to price changes. Specifically, consumers with tariff-specific preferences are less sensitive to price increases of their preferred tariff than other consumers. Our results provide an additional reason why firms should offer multiple tariffs rather than a uniform nonlinear pricing plan to extract maximum consumer surplus.

Agnieszka Wolk; Bernd Skiera

2010-01-01

16

Application of additive tariffs in the electricity sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents and discusses a methodology for the calculation and application of tariffs in the electricity sector based on the principle of tariff additivity. It shows how such tariffs can reflect costs and assure the absence of cross subsidies between clients. The methodology presented was adopted in the Portuguese Tariff Code for electricity by the Portuguese Energy Regulator (ERSE). The work presented in this article reflects the experience acquired by ERSE during the preparation, discussion and implementation of that Code. Allowed revenues are determined separately for every regulated activity, assuring that there are no cross subsidies between activities. Additionally, the application of the tariff additivity principle assures the nonexistence of cross subsidies between consumers. Regulated tariffs applicable to end users of electricity are determined by summation, variable by variable, of the different activity tariffs in accordance with the services the costumer uses and in the proportion of that use. The corollary is that if the different activity tariffs are cost reflective and promote efficiency in resource allocation, the tariffs applicable to consumers (access tariffs or integral tariffs) will also reflect costs in the same manner. Therefore, besides economic efficiency, equity between non binding system consumers and binding system consumers is promoted. The examples presented in the article intend to show how additive tariffs reflect costs giving adequate economic price signals for the rational use of the networks and electric energy consumption

2004-01-01

17

Problems of tariff licensing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Guiding principles (official): 1. Provisional interlocutory tariff licensing (Sect. 12a Federal Tariff Regulation Electricity - BTO Elt) is unknown in the Law on Energy Economy. 2. It is uncertain whether tariff licensing is possible retroactively. In all events, the electric utility, under the General Contract Conditions for the Supply of Electricity (AVBElt), is not entitled to introduce a power price increase into the contracts with its customers retroactively. A corresponding reservation as to afterclaims cannot be relinquished by the tariff licensing authority under the provisions of Section 12a Federal Tariff Regulation Electricity (BTO Elt). Its introduction actually comes into the sphere of responsibility of the Federal Minister of Economy as the authority issuing the Tariff Regulation (Sect. 7 Subsect. 2 Law on Energy Economy).

1982-06-01

18

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations.

NONE

2007-01-15

19

Pricing and tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

1993-01-01

20

Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Tariffs on power trading  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For optimal use of power systems transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and paid according to a tariff system approximating the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and demand bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system. (author). 3 refs.

Water, C.J. van de; Wit, L.R. de; Frenken, R.F. [KEMA Research and Development, Engineering and Consultancy for the Electric Power Industry, Arnhem (Netherlands)

1996-12-31

22

Tariffs on power trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For optimal use of power systems transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and paid according to a tariff system approximating the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and demand bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system. (author).

1996-01-01

23

Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

1998-01-01

24

Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ``marketplace`` in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

Wangensteen, Ivar; Gjelsvik, Anders

1998-12-01

25

Modern electricity tariffs. Moderne Stromtarife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electricity tariffs in the FRG are for quite a while subject of committed discussions. In commissions and committees public utility companies have dealt with this subject in detail. Recommendations were worked out and new tariffs were tested in some regions. Many utilities have already reformed the tariff system in their supply area. In spite of this the discussion goes on undiminished. From different sides new statements on the tariff problem are made, behind these different starting points and targets become apparent. The IZE wants to give a factual basis for a sound analysis of this complex subject with this extensive volume of Strom Diskussion. Controversial positions are given in order to encourage factual dialogues. (orig./UA)

1994-01-01

26

Oil gluts and oil tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The free market does not provide the level of oil imports that is in the best interest of oil-importing nations. Common sense tells us that the best time to combat the economic power of a cartel is when it is weak, such as during a period of oil glut. The glut conditions still leave us with a large gap between the true cost of oil and the market price. The authors could justify an oil import tariff of 30-40% of the price of oil, or more. Nearly every other consideration, especially the positive effect on the federal budget, reinforces the recommendation for a large import tariff. An analysis in the appendix showing the otpimal tariff at 65-100% suggests that we should impose the largest tariff we can get through the political system. 9 references, 10 tables.

Hogan, W.W.

1982-01-01

27

New transmission tariffs for Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transmission tariff structure in Alberta is currently undergoing a review by ESBI Alberta. This paper by the Transmission Administrator of the Alberta Interconnected System discusses the process used by his office to design the new tariff system; review the problems with the current tariff system (poor locational signals, unusually high standby rates, volatile price signals for new generators; etc), reviews results of a study on international transmission tariff pricing systems (FERC pro-forma, investment cost related pricing, locational marginal pricing, cost reflective network pricing); and describes the new transmission pricing methodology of System Expansion Related Pricing (SERP) which combines the best features of the MW-mile system used in Texas, the locational marginal pricing system which is in current use in New York, Norway, Sweden and New Zealand and the load/generator relationships based on electrical distance as practiced in Australia. Features of the proposed Alberta system will be discussed at a forthcoming special seminar. Without providing details, it was, nevertheless, promised to be flexible, robust and transparent.

McNamara, F. (ESBI Alberta Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1999-01-01

28

New transmission tariffs for Alberta  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transmission tariff structure in Alberta is currently undergoing a review by ESBI Alberta. This paper by the Transmission Administrator of the Alberta Interconnected System discusses the process used by his office to design the new tariff system; review the problems with the current tariff system (poor locational signals, unusually high standby rates, volatile price signals for new generators; etc), reviews results of a study on international transmission tariff pricing systems (FERC pro-forma, investment cost related pricing, locational marginal pricing, cost reflective network pricing); and describes the new transmission pricing methodology of System Expansion Related Pricing (SERP) which combines the best features of the MW-mile system used in Texas, the locational marginal pricing system which is in current use in New York, Norway, Sweden and New Zealand and the load/generator relationships based on electrical distance as practiced in Australia. Features of the proposed Alberta system will be discussed at a forthcoming special seminar. Without providing details, it was, nevertheless, promised to be flexible, robust and transparent.

McNamara, F. [ESBI Alberta Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-10-01

29

British American Tobacco's tactics during China's accession to the World Trade Organization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 after years of negotiations. As a WTO member, China had to reduce tariffs on imported cigarettes and remove non-tariff barriers to allow foreign cigarettes to be more competitive in the Chinese market. Among foreign tobacco companies, British American Tobacco (BAT) was the most active lobbyist during China's WTO negotiations. OBJECTIVE: To review and analyse BAT's tactics and activities relating to China's entry into the WTO. METHODS: Internal tobacco industry documents were reviewed and are featured here. Industry documents were searched mainly on the website of BAT's Guildford Depository and other documents' websites. 528 documents were evaluated and 142 were determined to be relevant to China's entry into the WTO. RESULTS: BAT was extremely active during the progress of China's entry into the WTO. The company focused its lobbying efforts on two main players in the negotiations: the European Union (EU) and the US. Because of the negative moral and health issues related to tobacco, BAT did not seek public support from officials associated with the WTO negotiations. Instead, BAT lobbyists suggested that officials protect the interests of BAT by presenting the company's needs as similar to those of all European companies. During the negotiation process, BAT officials repeatedly spoke favourably of China's accession into the WTO, with the aim of presenting BAT as a facilitator in this process and of gaining preferential treatment from their Chinese competitor. CONCLUSIONS: BAT's activities clearly suggest that tobacco companies place their own interests above public health interests. Today, China struggles with issues of tobacco control that are aggravated by the aggressive practices of transnational tobacco companies, tobacco-tariff reductions and the huge number of smokers. For the tobacco-control movement to progress in China, health advocates must understand how foreign tobacco companies have undermined anti-tobacco activities by taking advantage of trade liberalisation policies. China should attach importance to public health and comprehensive tobacco-control policies and guarantee strong protection measures from national and international tobacco interests supported by international trade agreements.

Zhong F; Yano E

2007-04-01

30

Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula. No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff.

Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2005-01-01

31

Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare.

Schröder, Philipp; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

32

Commercial and tariff issues under conditions of competitiveness and private sector participation: access to network. Brazil; Questoes comerciais e tarifarias sob condicoes de competitividade e de participacao do setor privado: acesso a rede. Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses issues such as regulation models for the power sector, competition, transmission access and wheeling transactions, impact of wheeling on planning and operation process, marginal cost calculation. 7 figs.

Vieira Filho, Xisto [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1994-12-31

33

Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

2006-01-01

34

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Water pollution. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the water pollution equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Ceron, F.

1992-04-01

35

Industry sector analysis: The profile of the market for water and wastewater pollution control systems (the Philippines). Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the water and wastewater pollution control systems market in the Philippines. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Philippine consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Miranda, A.L.

1990-11-01

36

Tariffication Strategy in Telecommunication Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tariff policy of a telecommunication operator has a strategic importance on achieving of optimal revenues and a fundamental impact on its position in the competition with another operators on the liberalised telecommunication market. The payment for a connection through a telecommunication network is determined by a rate for one call unit, by the duration of the call unit and their count during a call. An operator derives the rate and the duration of the call unit from a detailed analysis of large databases that contain statistical data on counts and duration of particular calls depending on the call type. Only the operator knows these data files and it keeps them confidential. It will be shown in the paper how it is possible to come to an estimation of revenues from telecommunication traffic only knowing a pair of basic parameters. The first considerations handling with this topic can be found in [1], [2],[3].

Gustav Cepciansky

2004-01-01

37

On the electrical two-part tariff—The Brazilian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses, in terms of Brazil's situation, the use of a nonlinear pricing approach in the application of a two-part tariff to electricity distribution networks. The principles that uphold charging access and usage are to optimize energy systems that are based on a generation technology mix. Such a pricing approach is used in Brazil, where the generation mix is mainly hydro-generation. This study shows that, in a case like Brazil's, a two-part tariff may be used as a tool for network optimization. The paper presents a design for a two-part tariff for a distribution system with varying consumer behavior. To validate the discussion, we offer a numerical example. Finally, remarks are given concerning pricing access and usage for low voltage level consumers.

2012-01-01

38

The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

39

Change in tariff rate and supplementation of tariff rate system in Korea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance of tariff policy is rising recognized as legal industrial policy measures under the WTO system, which limits direct industrial support policy. In the case of the industry in a difficulty temporarily due to the rapid restructuring, increasing tariff rate can protect it. When the domestic industry suffers from a serious damage by the rapid increase of imports, it should consider applying any countermeasures using tariff. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Jin, Yang Hyun [Ministry of Finance and Economy, Kwachon (Korea)

1999-06-01

40

Will the new tariffs mean smaller bills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some industrial electricity users' bills could drop this year following the introduction of a radically different national electricity tariff system. The thinking behind the change and what effects it is likely to have for the consumer are discussed.

Sacks, T.

1984-04-06

 
 
 
 
41

Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a two-country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties increases for small tariffs. Firm profits are falling in both tariff and fixed export cost barriers. Tariff revenue falls when fixed export costs increase whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Welfare falls when fixed export costs increase and increases for small tariffs and falls for large tariffs, i.e. there exists a welfare maximizing tariff.

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2006-01-01

42

62 FR 50572 - Open Access Transmission Service Tariff  

Science.gov (United States)

...Point-To-Point Transmission Service Preamble 13 Nature of Firm Point-To-Point Transmission Service 13.1 Term...and energy to designated Point(s) of Delivery. 13 Nature of Firm Point-To-Point Transmission Service 13.1...

1997-09-26

43

63 FR 483 - Open Access Transmission Service Tariff  

Science.gov (United States)

...Point-to-Point Transmission Service Preamble 13 Nature of Firm Point-To-Point Transmission Service 13.1 Term...and energy to designated Point(s) of Delivery. 13 Nature of Firm Point-To-Point Transmission Service 13.1...

1998-01-06

44

63 FR 521 - Open Access Transmission Service Tariff  

Science.gov (United States)

...Point-to-Point Transmission Service Preamble 13 Nature of Firm Point-To-Point Transmission Service 13.1 Term...and energy to designated Point(s) of Delivery. 13 Nature of Firm Point-To-Point Transmission Service 13.1...

1998-01-06

45

Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author).

Manea, D.; Indre, G.; Gugu, F.; Vilceanu, M. [Romanian Electricity Authority, Bucharest (Romania)

1996-12-31

46

78 FR 24430 - Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the tariff-rate quota for Calendar Year 2013. DATES: Effective Dates: The 2013 tariff-rate quota is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption during the period January 1, through December 31, 2013....

2013-04-25

47

77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the tariff-rate quota for Calendar Year 2012. DATES: Effective Dates: The 2012 tariff-rate quota is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption during the period January 1, through December 31, 2012....

2012-04-17

48

Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)

Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.

1995-12-31

49

General tariffs - finally pro-customers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1938 up to now, all electric utilities of the Federal Republic of Germany fix the allocation price for tariff costumers with an agricultural demand or a commercial, professional or other demand more or less according to non-electric criteria. The Weser Ems AG (EWE)-electric utility and the Wilhelmshaven GmbH (GEW)-electric utility will replace this unique tariff structure - compared with foreign countries (exception: Austria) by a far more simple price structure, which leads to the lowest costs for the groups of customers concerned and the electric utility. This is a basic price structure, which contains quantity-dependent uniform allocation prices, and which mathematically corresponds to the district price described in paragraph 16 BTO electricity.

Cramer, G.; Grom, G.J.; Niebuhr, A.

1983-11-01

50

Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs.

1996-01-01

51

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically, CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describes a method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to a light industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the added benefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity of the system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, all under three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristic controls are adequate under the current tariff structure and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of the value of the distributed generation system. Even more value could be captured by simply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high natural gas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity, heuristic controls would capture only 70% of the value of distributed generation.

Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay

2007-01-01

52

CHANGES EFFECT OF SUGAR IMPORT TARIFF IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of sugar import tariffs changes since the tariff import is the only policy to increase the sugar domestic production. This analysis is performed using a CGE (computable general equilibrium) model of Indonesian economy in 2008. Results showed that the increases of sugar import tariff have some different conclusions. If sugar tariff import will rise to 41.6% and to 50%, the domestic output of sugar will increase about 1.89% and 3.77%; and household welfare would increase about 0.52 and 0.76%, respectively. But when the sugar import tariff is removed, domestic output of sugar and sugarcane have not changed, but the agricultural sector would reduce and income of all agents would decrease. Thus, the relevant tariff depends on the purpose of the government whether to increase domestic output and import or export of certain sectors, and the welfare of producers or consumers.

Agnes Q. Pudjiastuti; Ratya Anindita; Nuhfil Hanani; David Kaluge

2013-01-01

53

Welfare-Ranking Ad Valorem and Specific Tariffs under Monopolistic Competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Actual trade and tariff policy prefers ad valorem tariffs to specific tariffs. Yet in this paper we show that, in a setting of monopolistic competition, realizing a given restriction on imports via a specific tariff would generate more consumer utility than obtaining the same restriction via an ad valorem tariff. Udgivelsesdato: FEB

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2005-01-01

54

Tariff based value of wind energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

1995-12-31

55

Tariff based value of wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

1995-01-01

56

The sustainable cooperative tariffs : a political economy perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the international trade cooperation in order to determine the sustainable cooperative tariff rates in a political economy perspective. This paper establishes a tariff-setting game among two countries as a two-phase game : negotiation phase and implementation p...

Mehdi, Racem

57

On the redistributive effects of Germany's feed-in tariff  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article assesses the redistributive effects of a key element of German climate change policy, the promotion of renewables in the electricity mix through the provision of a feed-in tariff. The tariff shapes the distribution of households' disposable incomes by charging a levy that is prop...

Grösche, Peter; Schröder, Carsten

58

14 CFR 399.35 - Special tariff permission.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve a carrier's application... It is the policy of the Board to grant STP for tariffs that state lower fares, rates...that: (1) The Board will not grant STP to match a tariff filed on statutory...

2006-01-01

59

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Water pollution instruments, equipment, and services, September 1990. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Industry Sector Analysis (ISA) for water pollution instruments, equipment, and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation (Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors), and market access (Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, and distribution channels). The ISA also contains key contact information.

1990-09-01

60

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Emissions and air pollution control equipment. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the emissions and air pollution control equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

De Keratry, E.; Cooper-Bahar, D.

1992-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01

62

Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation.

2007-01-01

63

Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

Marislei Nishijima; Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes

2010-01-01

64

Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs. Udgivelsesdato: OCT

Schröder, Philipp

2004-01-01

65

Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs.

Schröder, Philipp

2004-01-01

66

Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

Evans, Meredydd

2007-04-01

67

Impact of Energy Imbalance Tariff on Wind Energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper summarizes the results of a study that uses actual wind power data and actual energy prices to analyze the impact of an energy imbalance tariff imposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission on wind power.

Wan, Y.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

2007-07-01

68

47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...symbols used in tariffs are reserved for the purposes indicated below: Rto signify reduction. Ito signify increase. Cto signify changed regulation. Tto signify a change in text but no change in rate or regulation. Sto signify reissued...

2010-10-01

69

76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...permission applications. For example, Sprint argues that it would be confusing for...examining such tariffs. In its comments, Sprint argues that certain of the Sec. 61...for nondominant carriers. For example, Sprint argues that nondominant carriers...

2011-07-20

70

Advice for adjustment of the MEP subsidy tariffs for 2006  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In view of the interim evaluation and possible subsequent changes to the incentive structures of the MEP subsidies for renewable electricity, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has asked ECN and KEMA to assess the need for the annual reassessment of the MEP subsidies for 2006. In this report it is concluded that any changes to the tariffs are likely to be modest and that it is better to await the outcome of the interim evaluation before calculating new tariffs

2004-01-01

71

EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail.

Kaczmarek, A.M. (Electricite de France, 75 - Paris)

1982-05-22

72

77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DATES: Effective Dates: This correction is effective May 1, 2012. The 2012 tariff- rate quota is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption during the period January 1, through December 31, 2012....

2012-05-01

73

The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of electricity received from the transmission network, between 1.64 and 2.37 USD/MWh (31%); The locational signal provided by the tariff is mitigated in certain respects by the average cost component related to the fixed costs, which represent 70% of the total costs of the transmission system operator

2004-01-01

74

Voluntary transmission access: The PSI proposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article examines a proposal from PSI Energy, Inc. (formerly Public Service Company of Indiana) to allow open access to its power transmission facilities and the response of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's response to that proposal. The topics discussed include transmission tariffs, competition, market share, expansion of transmission capacity and its funding, and reciprocal agreements to provide similar service

1990-07-19

75

How fair are grid tariffs?; Wie fair sind die Netznutzungsentgelte? Strukturunterschiede sind zu beruecksichtigen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efficient power markets and unrestrained competition require non discriminatory grid access. But today, governmental agencies, customers or power trader complain about occasional misbehavior of grid operators. Barriers to grid access are expected to disappear short term. Medium term, a 'benchmark-market' will prevail that eliminates inappropriate, excessive prices. Transmission and distribution tariff difference will, then, only be based on structural differences. (orig.) [German] Effizienter Wettbewerb im Strommarkt setzt einen diskriminierungsfreien Netzzugang voraus. Behoerden, Verbrauchervereinigungen und Haendler kritisieren vor allem Netzzugangsbehinderungen und vereinzelte Diskriminierung. Netzzugangsbehinderungen duerften jedoch kurzfristig verschwinden. Auch wird sich mittel- bis langfristig ein Vergleichsmarkt herausbilden, der missbraeuchlich ueberhoehte Preise eliminiert. Unterschiede in der Hoehe der Netznutzungsentgelte sind dann durch Strukturunterschiede zu begruenden. (orig.)

Ahlemeyer, Wolfgang; Beckers, Volker; Kutschke, Georg [RWE Net AG, Dortmund (Germany); Roethel, Thomas; Grobbel, Christoph [Electric Power und Natural Gas Practice Expert, McKinsey und Company, Koeln (Germany)

2002-06-17

76

Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

2008-01-01

77

Access same-time information systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An analysis of U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Rules is presented. The rules pertain to open access transmission, recovery of stranded costs, and open access same-time information systems. The pro forma tariff primary services (network, point-to-point, and ancillary) are described. The main emphasis of the article is explanatory; however, legal and political aspects are also discussed.

Watkiss, J.D. [Bracewell & Patterson, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31

78

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general/ Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos) para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos int (more) errogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos) para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1). Abstract in english Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon?s fee) to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investment by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical eth (more) ics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon?s fee) was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

García Echeverri, Pablo

2006-06-01

79

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos) para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos) para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1).Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon’s fee) to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investment by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon’s fee) was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

Pablo García Echeverri

2006-01-01

80

A review of gas tariff systems in Europe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

1988-01-01

82

Economic mechanisms of tariff regulation in housing-and-municipal services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article the problem of use of economic mechanisms of tariff formation and regulation in housing-and-municipal services is considered. In a basis of effective system of tariff regulation scientifically proved mechanism of charge of depreciation charges in structure of means for major overhaul is determined. The expediency of introduction of new approaches to tariff definition is shown, they are connected with use of two rates tariffs in housing-and-municipal services.

Svistunov Andrey Valerjevich

2011-01-01

83

Technical Aspects of Electricity Tariff System's Development and Changes in the Transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This article presents technical aspects of electricity tariff system's development in Croatia through analysis of previously established tariffs in the period between 1947-1991 compared with the positive foreign experiences and results, new demands and needs. Redefinition and new decisions on the technical aspects of electricity tariffs have been suggested during the realization of present electricity tariff system's reform in the conditions of transitions. (author). 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

1995-12-15

84

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

2010-01-01

85

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

Matyas Tamas, Meszaros [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Zhou Huizhong, E-mail: zhou@wmich.ed [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

2010-08-15

86

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

Tamas, Meszaros Matyas; Zhou, Huizhong [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

2010-08-15

87

Tariff Expansion and Storage of Pre-Altered Patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of U.S. Army special measurement orders for men's dress coat and trousers was made to determine the minimum and maximum sizes needed to fit soldiers. The minimum and maximum measurements were compared to the existing tariff. Statistical analys...

J. M. Robeck

1997-01-01

88

Software for industrial consumers electrical energy tariff optimal selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.

D. D. Micu; L. Czumbil; A. Ceclan; Simona Ardelean; E. Simion

2008-01-01

89

Gender dimensions to the incidence of tariff liberalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates a topic in the globalization and poverty debate that is often difficult to measure, namely the transmission of price changes associated with tariff liberalization to households. Furthermore, it raises the question of whether there are discernible differences between male- and fe...

Daniels, Reza C.

90

Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

1995-12-15

91

Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

2011-01-01

92

Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

2003-07-01

93

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

2007-01-01

94

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

2007-11-15

95

A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. Ad valorem tariff cuts switch from the least to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs.

Schröder, Philipp; SØrensen, Allan

2011-01-01

96

Energy tariff project - Latvia. Future gas tariffs structure in Latvia from the perspective of a gas distribution company. Activity number 4. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective is to establish a framework for a new natural gas tariff structure based on the latest adjustments in the official energy policy and the market developments and also to assess the competitive situation of natural gas in Latvia and to present tools for analysing the cost structure in the gas sector. The publication presents an analysis of the current natural gas tariff structure, assesses the economic consequences for the natural gas companies of the current tariff structure and supply situation, gives objectives for a new gas tariff structure, implies the cost for customers when using during different fuels, gives basic pricing principles for public utilities, measures the costs and basic economic risks in relation to Latvijas/Rigas Gaze, explains the distribution of economic costs for various consumer categories, calculates the future natural gas tariffs reflecting a real cost principle and international energy prices, reviews the price structure of competing fuels and assesses the potential effect on gas demand. The present Latvian state policy on energy tariffs is to liberalize prices and allow government controlled monopolies in the energy sector to cover all costs including a reasonable profit on the invested capital. The tariffs shall be based on a combination of actual costs and incentives for increasing energy efficiency. Tariffs will be monitored by an independent tariff board. The problems of the Latvijas Gaze gas company are elaborated. Other suggestions are given on the subject of future tariffs on natural gas in Latvia and on the calculation of tariffs, also related to the residential and bigger customers. (AB) 13 refs.

Bisgaard Pedersen, N. [Greater Copenhagen Natural Gas Company (Denmark)

1996-04-01

97

Tariff system with the wrong incentives; Tariefsysteem met verkeerde prikkels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first months of 1999 a bill to amend the Electricity Law 1998 is under discussion in the Dutch parliament. The amendment concerns the proposal for a new tariff structure for the transportation of electricity, the so-called cascade system. In a former issue of this magazine the advantages and disadvantages of the cascade system, compared to the so-called level playing field system, were discussed. However, a well-founded choice between the two systems can not be made without insight into the quantitative effects. In this report it is discussed to what extent the systems lead to different electricity transportation tariffs. In the cascade system costs are calculated for three types of consumers: high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage consumers. In a level playing field system the rule is that who causes the costs, pays the costs. 30 refs.

Aalbers, R.F.T.; Bressers, D.L.F.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Hoogendoorn, P.J.; De Klerk, S.C. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

1999-03-26

98

No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-05-15

99

Independent power generation in Italy: authorizations, contracts and tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Legislation in Italy gives ENEL (the National Electricity Board) monopoly in power production with the exception of small industrial sector generation plants which are permitted, for reasons of economy. This report deals with Italian standards on independent small-scale power generation. The key aspects examined are energy source, plant construction and operability. Moreover, technical and economical considerations, tariffs and costs of independent plants working in parallel with ENEL's grid are also considered.

Vazio, A.

1987-04-01

100

Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

Abhyankar, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Electrical Engineering, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Khaparde, S.A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Electrical Engineering, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 076 (India)

2009-01-15

 
 
 
 
101

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-05-01

102

Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

2009-01-01

103

Expanded Access  

Science.gov (United States)

... Options / What is Expanded Access? / Expanded Access Expanded Access FDA’s Expanded Access program, formerly called "compassionate use," ... view the instructions. How Can I Get Expanded Access to an Investigational Drug? The process must begin ...

104

Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

Porter, K.

1996-09-01

105

Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

2000-01-01

106

Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

1996-01-01

107

Green parking tariff solution for air quality problems? Environmental impacts of differentiated parking tariffs; Groen parkeertarief oplossing voor luchtkwaliteitsprobleem? Milieueffecten van gedifferentieerde parkeertarieven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The city of Amsterdam, Netherlands plans to differentiate between parking tariffs for vehicles: heavy and polluting vehicles should pay higher tariffs than less polluting vehicles. A differentiated parking tariff should contribute to European regulation for air quality in the year 2010. The environmental effects of a so-called green parking tariff for a medium-sized city in the Netherlands were investigated. The results of that study are presented and discussed in this article. [Dutch] Amsterdam wil parkeren voor zware, vervuilende auto's duurder maken dan voor minder vervuilende auto's. Een gedifferentieerd parkeertarief moet eraan bijdragen dat de stad in 2070 voldoet aan Europese normen voor de luchtkwaliteit. Werkt dit nu? In opdracht van VROM zijn de milieueffecten onderzocht van een groen parkeertarief voor een middelgrote stad in Nederland.

Schroten, A.; Blom, M. [CE, Delft (Netherlands)

2007-07-01

108

Two-band tariff for domestic use: Italian Electricity Board rate structure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has begun to introduce a new rate structure for households: the 'two-band tariff'. This article is an effort to examine in principle how the new tariff could optimize load management when applied to the whole household sector

1992-01-01

109

Two-band tariff for domestic use: Italian Electricity Board rate structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has begun to introduce a new rate structure for households: the 'two-band tariff'. This article is an effort to examine in principle how the new tariff could optimize load management when applied to the whole household sector.

Barteselli, R. (Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan (Italy))

1992-06-01

110

Tariff policy towards a monopolist in the presence of persuasive advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper considers the positive and normative aspects of tariffs and advertising taxes in a situation in which a foreign monopolist chooses advertising as well as output. On the positive side it is shown that under certain circumstances a tariff will induce a fall in the domestic consumer price of...

Leahy, Dermot

111

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Land pollution instruments, equipment, and services. Export Trade Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for land pollution instruments, equipment and services contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for land pollution instruments, equipment and services.

1990-09-01

112

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Water pollution instruments, equipment, and services. Export Trade Information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for water pollution instruments equipment and service contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for water pollution instruments, equipment and services.

1990-09-01

113

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

2010-01-01

114

Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

Alonso, Alejandro; Serrano, Miguel [National Energy Commission, Spain. CNE. Alcala 47, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Olmos, Luis [Institute for Research in Technology - IIT, Alberto Aguilera 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

2010-09-15

115

Hemodialysis access.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The number of patients requiring dialysis is increasing, in particular those patients over the age of 75. The arteriovenous fistula is the preferred access for hemodialysis due to fewer complications and decreased mortality. Access complications are common and require early recognition and treatment. Postoperative access surveillance is important to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of access-related complications. There is a continued need for high-quality data to assist in determining the best access for each patient.

Rose DA; Sonaike E; Hughes K

2013-08-01

116

Structure of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat for bound customers in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the new Dutch Electricity Law and the Natural Gas Law energy consumers in the Netherlands are or will be free to choose an energy supplier. The freedom of choice for small-scale consumers (e.g. households, small businesses) will be realized in a few years. For them, this booklet gives insight into the structure which forms the basis of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat in the Netherlands. How final consumption tariffs are determined is explained on the basis of the related starting points, tariffs for buying and selling, taxes and surcharges on the markets for the fore-mentioned energy carriers

2000-01-01

117

The tariff policy in Romania - strategic elements for developing electricity supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the guiding lines of the Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs. The main constraints and difficulties of the electricity rates and tariffs designing activity in a transitional economy are analysed, focusing on: financial and economic aspects, such as the dramatic decrease of economic activity, high inflation, scarcity of financial resources...; technical aspects related to the existing metering equipment and obsolete electricity generation, transmission and distribution facilities; social aspects regarding the impact of using energy tariffs designed taking into account the real costs of the electricity company; regulatory policy, legal and administrative aspects.

1995-01-01

118

The function of electricity tariff licensing under the German Federal Tariff Code for Electricity. Die Funktion der Tarifgenehmigung nach Para. 12 BTO Elt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article probes the question whether tariff licensing under Article 12 of the German Federal Tariff Code for Electricity (Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet, BTO Elt) constitutes an act of legal supervision or rather an instrument of structural policy. The Bavarian Higher Administrative Court assumes, in its ruling of 12.1.1989, that it is an instrument of structural policy, and only makes allowance for a limited judicial review of the discretionary freedom of energy price supervision authorities. The author, however, only sees a reactive and controlling role of legal supervision. In his view, the authority must continue to exercise a merely supervisory function in the tariff licensing procedure, even after the amendment to the BTO Elt of 18.12.1989. (HSCH).

Knoechel, H.

1992-01-01

119

Electric power industry privatization and question of tariffs in Italy. Privatizzazione elettrica e questione tariffaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The privatization of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) requires some pre-conditions particularly concerning the matter of tariffs. Its reform must eliminate the huge 'cross-subsidy' now existing and guarantee a fair return on equity capital.

Clo, A.

1993-09-01

120

Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of support schemes for market-based deployment of renewable energy in the UK and Germany shows that the feed-in tariff reduces costs to consumers and results in larger deployment. A survey among project developers suggests two explanations: (1) Site selection presents the biggest obstacle under the feed-in tariff. Uncertain financing of other schemes reduces efforts at initial project stages and planning permits become a major obstacle. (2) Project developers do not compete in price but for good sites under the feed-in tariff. Most importantly, turbine producers and construction services contribute to most of the costs, and face at least equal levels of competition under the feed-in tariff. (author)

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of support schemes for market-based deployment of renewable energy in the UK and Germany shows that the feed-in tariff reduces costs to consumers and results in larger deployment. A survey among project developers suggests two explanations: (1) Site selection presents the biggest obstacle under the feed-in tariff. Uncertain financing of other schemes reduces efforts at initial project stages and planning permits become a major obstacle. (2) Project developers do not compete in price but for good sites under the feed-in tariff. Most importantly, turbine producers and construction services contribute to most of the costs, and face at least equal levels of competition under the feed-in tariff. (author)

Butler, Lucy; Neuhoff, Karsten [Faculty of Economics, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 9DE (United Kingdom)

2008-08-15

122

Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs. The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms and a lower concentration.

JØrgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

2003-01-01

123

Can cost orientation be improved through different electric power tariffs. Verbesserung der Kostenorientierung durch neue Stromtarife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The revised version (January 1st, 1990) of the Federal Electric Power Tariff Regulations (Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet/BTO Elt) of December 1989 is guided by the principle of cost orientation. A definition is given of cost orientation. The possible contribution of the new electric power tariffs to the improvement of cost orientation, and the role of cost-oriented pricing in the implementation of control functions are discussed. (orig.).

Zimmermann, G. (Hochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Politik, Hamburg (Germany) Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebswirtschaftslehre 1)

1992-10-01

124

Tariffs estimation model by marginal cost; Modelo de calculo de tarifas por custo marginal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of Argentina`s privatization process in the electricity sector has been the assure of the electrical supply, the quality of the service, reasonable tariffs and returns of the electrical business similar to activities of the same risks. In this context, this model calculates the end users tariffs for different consumption level. (author) 8 refs.; e-mail: mposit at hotmail.com; egonza at mevosp.mecon.ar

Positino, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Enrique [Secretaria de Energia y Puertos, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Direccion Nacional de Prospectiva

1997-12-31

125

Saarland 'trial project time-variable linear electricity tariff'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of a time-variable linear electricity tariff in households is investigated in a fieldtrial in the Saarland. This includes a short survey, an acceptance analysis and a measuring phase for the empirical research into consumer behaviour. Theoretically the trial is accompanied by a model for the formation of tariffs and a simulation model for the forecasting of consumer behaviour. In this article the concept of the fieldtrial and the first results of the short survey are presented.

Brandt, M.; Hoeflich-Haeberlein, L.; Jochum, G.

1988-12-01

126

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

127

Smart Tariff for Smart Meters In Smart Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrow’s challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is “a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between”. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of “Smart Grid” technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.

P.Vijayapriya,; Garauv Bapna,; Dr.D.P.Kothari

2010-01-01

128

How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1). How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2). How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.

Simon JL; Larson BA; Zusman A; Rosen S

2002-01-01

129

How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1). How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2). How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases. PMID:12481212

Simon, Jonathon L; Larson, Bruce A; Zusman, Alexander; Rosen, Sydney

2002-12-03

130

How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs), netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1) How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2) How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.

Simon Jonathon L.; Larson Bruce A.; Zusman Alexander; Rosen Sydney

2002-01-01

131

Disputing about ways of reducing electric power consumption - will the rate structure lose its stabiblity. The Saarbruecken utilities suggest a time-variant electric power tariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Both the rate structure of electric power tariffs dating from the 30s and the present federal tariff agreement fixing electric power tariffs (Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet/BTO Elt) are quoting degressive tariffs which to the critic are a stimulus to an increasing electric power consumption. The dispute is given another impulse by an initiative of the Saarbruecken utilities suggesting the implementation of a time-variant linear electric power tariff.

Sietmann, R.

1987-07-10

132

The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'; Le tarif reglemente transitoire d'ajustement du marche de l'electricite dit 'tarif de retour'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

133

A review on feed-in tariff in Australia, what it is now and what it should be  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this paper is to review the feed-in tariffs introduced and now are being implemented in different states and territories of Australia for the grid-connected small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. A further objective is to take a closer look at the production cost of these solar PV systems to compare with the introduced feed-in tariffs. The review results show that the gap between production cost of PV electricity and the feed-in tariff is relatively high, particularly in those states, were feed-in tariff based on net metering is implemented. (author)

Zahedi, A. [School of Engineering, James Cook University, Queensland (Australia)

2010-12-15

134

A review on feed-in tariff in Australia, what it is now and what it should be  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to review the feed-in tariffs introduced and now are being implemented in different states and territories of Australia for the grid-connected small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. A further objective is to take a closer look at the production cost of these solar PV systems to compare with the introduced feed-in tariffs. The review results show that the gap between production cost of PV electricity and the feed-in tariff is relatively high, particularly in those states, were feed-in tariff based on net metering is implemented. (author)

2010-01-01

135

Special features of existing tariff policy that determines export transportation from coal loading stations of the West-Siberian Railway  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mechel-Trans transports 3.3 Mt of coal per month of which 800,000 t are exported. Mechel-Trans is also the consigner of goods (coal) of 'South Kuzbass' JSC and has a licence for handling activity. Current tariffs for coal exports through cross-border check points are considerably higher than through ports. That is why each coal company and its consigner is to the address Federal Tariff Service (FST) with requests and reasons to 2 get exceptional tariffs for coal transportation through overland cross-border check points. It is necessary to improve tariff policy in order to create competition in railway transport. It will make Russian goods including coal more competitive in the world market and create conditions for structural reform of railway transport. The development of common methodology of forming railway tariffs is required. It will allow unification of the principles of tariff formation for export and import goods transportation both through overland cross-border check points and Russian ports. By its decree of 15 December 2004 No. 787 the Russian government approved the basic principles of state regulation of railway tariffs and rules of providing exclusive railway tariffs. Taking into account that main coal exporters (including 'South Kuzbass' JSC) are situated in the Siberian Federal Okrug, Mechel-Trans will prepare its proposals concerning the correction of railway tariffs for transportation of Russian export coals from Kuznetsky coalfield and then submit them to the Transport Ministry and FST.

V.E. Artemchenko [Mechel-Trans LLC (Russian Federation)

2005-07-01

136

The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demand side management (DSM) has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and without the support of intelligent smart appliances. Sixty-seven households in Germany within an experimental design with fictive tariff model (August 11 to July 12) driven by RWE Effizienz GmbH, as the energy utility, and Miele & Cie.KG, as the appliance manufacturer, were equipped with intelligent smart meters and 41 of them also with smart appliances (washing-machine and tumble-dryer). As a first part of the experiment, the energy tariff changed per hour and day by day, depending on the forecast of the availability of renewable energy in Germany between 10 €-Cent and 40 €-Cent per kWh. Consumers could respond to this change by adjusting the operation of their energyconsuming appliances either by themselves or—with the smart appliances—by a programmed start at low tariffs. The behaviour of the 41 consumers with smart appliances and their motivation are intensively investigated and analysed during this running two year project including several questionnaires. The consumers had to fill out daily a diary about the usage of their washing-machine, tumble-dryer, dishwasher and ironing devices. These data were matched with the actual tariff. This did allow identifying if and to which extend the consumers adjust their household activities depending on availability of solar and wind energy. These data were also used to calculate the cost savings by using the flexible tariff. In comparison to the costs of the fixed tariff of 25 €-Cent per kWh savings of 25% were realised on average. The results of a first phase already show that flexible tariffs are able to influence the operation of household appliances towards a flexible demand.

Rainer Stamminger; Verena Anstett

2013-01-01

137

Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

138

Renewables without limits : moving Ontario to advanced renewable tariffs by updating Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) promotes the development of community-owned renewable energy generation. It was emphasized that in order to achieve OSEA's original objectives of developing as much renewable energy as quickly as possible through community participation, changes are needed to Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer contract (SOC) program. This report examined the status of Ontario's SOC program and proposed changes to the program as part of the program's first two-year review. The report provided a summary of the program and discussed each of the program's goals, notably to encourage broad participation; eliminate barriers to distributed renewable generation; provide a stable market for renewable generation; stimulate new investment in renewable generation; provide a rigorous pricing model for setting the tariffs; create a program applicable to all renewable technologies; provide a simple, streamlined, and cost-effective application process; and provide a dispute resolution process. The program goals as developed by the Ontario Power Authority and Ontario Energy Board were discussed with reference to mixed results to date; simplicity; removing barriers; balancing targets with value to ratepayers; and building on the efforts of OSEA. Advanced renewable tariffs (ART) and tariff determination was also discussed along with ART's in Germany, France, Spain and Ontario. Inflation indexing; tariff degression; proposed new tariffs by technology; and other costs and factors affecting profitability were also reviewed. ref., tabs.

2007-01-01

139

Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

2006-06-01

140

BTO Elt (Federal Electric Power Tariff Agreement) - a drafted agreement privileging the electric utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The revised version of the Federal Electric Power Tariff Agreement (Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet - BTO Elt) will be taking effect on January 1st, 1990. Power consumption will be shifted from peak-load to off-peak periods, thus enabling the electric utilities to efficiently and fully utilize their power generation and supply capacities. A critical view is taken on the fact that the agreement will be supporting the interests of the electric utilities. More than ever, tariffs will be at their discretion, meaning for example that during high tariff periods special conditions which have so far been reserved for heat pump heating systems can be offered for the least efficient systems (i.e. direct electric heating systems). (BWI).

Urbanek, A.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ? We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ? We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ? Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ? Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

2012-01-01

142

Impacts of a rise in electricity tariff on prices of other products in Vietnam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the impacts of increasing electricity tariff to the long run marginal cost on prices of other products using a static input-output approach. It is found that such an increase would drive up the prices of all other products. Although the aggregate price impact from such an increase is not large, it would be socially difficult to implement this increase at one time, particularly given that Vietnam is facing high inflation rate. A roadmap for electricity tariff increase is thus discussed. (author)

Nguyen, Khanh Q. [Institute of Energy, 6 Ton That Tung, Dong da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); GreenTech Ltd, 31/43 Chua Boc, Dong da, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

2008-08-15

143

Forbidden Access  

CERN Multimedia

TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM

C. Colloca TS/FM

2004-01-01

144

78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation...from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy product import licenses permanently...

2013-08-01

145

How do solar photovoltaic feed-in tariffs interact with solar panel and silicon prices? An empirical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preferential feed-in tariffs (FITs) for solar generated electricity increases the demand for solar photovoltaic systems. They can thus induce price to increase, creating the potential for PV systems producers to collect rents. This paper analyses the interactions between feed-in tariffs, silicon pri...

De La Tour, Arnaud; Glachant, Matthieu

146

Pricing and tariffs as energetic resource: an application study; Precificacao e tarifacao como recurso energetico: um estudo de aplicacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article introduces an electric power tariffs structure applied in a specific Brazilian region, located in Sao Paulo State and discusses the following issues: Brazilian energetic system historical aspects, tariffs composition, supply and demand, peak and off-peak load, electricity consumption, load factor and integrated resource planning. In consequence, electric power expansion short term investments can be postponed.

Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Amaro, Renato Citrini; Silva, Rodrigo Carlana da [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: xiko@amcham.com.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

1999-07-01

147

Electric power tariff composition: electronic spread sheet and applications; Composicao tarifaria de energia eletrica: planilha eletronica e aplicacoes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article introduces the electric power tariffs calculation from the marginal costs in the Excel 5.0 program. The article also introduces a case study aiming to show the related parameters sensibility and their reflexes in the electric power tariffs. Others program applications were considered: tool for the integrated resources planning and help to the load evolution forecast.

Katagiri, Mari; Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira; Nishida, Nelson Norio; Gouveia, Marcos; Nakagomi, Roberto Toshihide; Correia, James

1995-07-01

148

78 FR 46565 - Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2014 Tariff-Rate Import Quota Year  

Science.gov (United States)

...tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) of the United States. DATES: August 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER...certain dairy articles that are subject to TRQs set forth in the HTS. Those dairy articles may only be entered into the United...

2013-08-01

149

Queensland solar feed-in tariffs and the merit-order effect: economic benefit, or regressive taxation and wealth transfers?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premium residential solar feed-in tariffs have come under considerable scrutiny in Australia over the past 12 months following a sharp rise in the uptake of subsidised PV units and subsidy cost blow-outs. Using New South Wales data, Nelson, Simshauser and Kelley (2011) demonstrated that the inherent design of premium ‘gross’ feed-in tariffs are regressive in nature and required reform. Since the publication of that article in Economic Analysis & Policy (September 2011 edition), feed-in tariff policies have been substantially wound back in all Australian jurisdictions except Queensland. In this article, we examine the ‘net’ feed-in tariff in Queensland and similarly find it to be a regressive form of taxation. We also examine the so-called ‘merit order effect’ – a purported ‘economic benefit’ arising from premium feed-in tariffs. However, the evidence is clear that merit order effects must, by definition, be transient and above all, are not welfare enhancing.

Tim Nelson; Paul Simshauser

2012-01-01

150

Open access  

CERN Multimedia

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

151

Electricity tariff design for transition economies. Application to the Libyan power system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a general electricity tariff design methodology, especially applicable for transition economies. These countries are trying to modernize their power systems from a centralized environment (with normally, a public vertically integrated electric company) to a liberalized framework (unbundling electricity companies and, eventually, starting a privatization process). Two issues arise as crucial to achieving a successful transition: (1) ensuring cost recovery for all future unbundled activities (generation, transmission, distribution and retailing), and (2) sending the right price signals to electricity customers, avoiding cross-subsidies between customer categories. The design of electricity tariffs plays a pivotal role in achieving both objectives. This paper proposes a new tariff design methodology that, complying with these two aforementioned criteria, requires a low amount of information regarding system data and customer load profiles. This is important since, typically, volume and quality of data are poor in those countries. The presented methodology is applied to computing tariffs for the Libyan power system in 2006, using real data. (author)

2011-01-01

152

Three fuzzy reasoning models as a decision suport aid, to find an electrical energy tariff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This contribution is a laboratory-work developed as an example of approximate (fuzzy) reasoning for students, possible to be used as a decision – support to estimate an electrical energy (EE) price for consumers. The three fuzzy tariff estimation models that are developed, integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A.-single-supplier rate position, but and some (social) constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE) beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. Although is possible, the paper not refer to a partial-price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy, etc). This “laboratory-work-paper” shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A. and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model, until can obtain an acceptable and true price. In this aim, the three fuzzy models use different rules for pricing: conservative, aggressive, and different order of words concerning the rules respectively, finally doing a comparation among prices and models. The paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules) which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, with certitude, can create a discussion base, about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a modality to find and to refine an EE price.

Viorel DUGAN; Razvan SOLEA; Clara IONESCU; Daniela GHINITA

2005-01-01

153

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation schem...

Vogl, Matthias

154

78 FR 45597 - Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain Cheeses  

Science.gov (United States)

...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) to reflect the enlargement of the European...authorizes the President to embody in the HTS the substance of the relevant provisions...section 604 of the Trade Act to embody in the HTS the substance of any action taken by...

2013-07-29

155

Vote expectations and pre-electoral tariff cuts in Flemish municipalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data covering 3 election moments (1988-2000) for 294 Flemish municipalities we examine whether the decision to cut tariffs before elections depends on the government’s expectations of staying into office. Election moments are central to both the political budget cycle literature and the strate...

Goeminne, Stijn; Smolders, Carine

156

Strategic and rent extracting tariffs in the presence of persuasive advertising  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines positive and normative implications of tariffs in the presence of persuasive advertising. It demonstrates that protection affects imports, the domestic consumer price and the terms of trade directly and through its effect on the level of advertising. If protection reduces adverti...

Leahy, Dermot

157

The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

158

Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it is approved

1996-01-01

159

Vascular Access Procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular Access Procedures Play Video Clip (00:03:16) Your Radiologist Explains Vascular Access Procedures What are Vascular Access ... limitations of Vascular Access Procedures? What are Vascular Access Procedures? A vascular access procedure involves the insertion ...

160

Once again: The admissibility to license the tariff according para. 12a BTO Elt under resolutive condition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author refers to an article written by Mr. Buedenbender (RdE 1981, p. 170) who rejected the idea of including a resolutive condition in tariff licences. With a view to related subjects of law including comparable regulations, the author comes to sharing Buedenbender's view: wherever there is the duty to have tariffs, pertinent regulations ensure that there is never a situation where there are no tariffs. The purpose of this standard does not allow any regulation which would make a power company stumble into a ''price regulation hole''.

Fromm, G.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

2011-01-20

162

Informal Wage, Informal Price and Extortion under Migration and Tariff Reform*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a theoretical model where formal and informal sectors co-exist in tandem. Trade union segregates some labor from being formal. Capital is not allowed to freely move between formal and informal sectors. Using this sort of framework it has been shown that immigration of unskilled workers re-duces the return to informal labor and makes the informal good relatively cheap. A tariff slash also impinges on similar kind of results. In both the cases informal capitalists gain. Moreover, what is more striking is that both migration and tariff reform are equally bad for the economy as a whole since these policies enhance the ‘unproductive’ element or labor in the society which is really costly as these laborers could have been used to produce some more consumable commodities.

Biswajit Mandal; Saswati Chaudhuri

2011-01-01

163

Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

2009-03-01

164

Basic Assumptions of the New Price System and Supplements to the Tariff System for Electricity Sale  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The article outlines some basic assumptions of the new price system and major elements of the latest proposition for the changes and supplements to the Tariff system for Electricity Sale in the Republic of Croatia, including the analysis of those elements which brought about the present unfavourable and non-productive relations within the electric power system. The paper proposes measures and actions which should by means of a price system and tariff policy improve the present unfavourable relations and their consequences and achieve a desirable consumption structure and characteristics, resulting in rational management and effective power supply-economy relationships within the electric power system as a subsystem of the power supply sector. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

1995-12-15

165

Electricity tariffs based on long-run marginal costs for central grid system of Oman  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The electricity tariffs in Oman are subsidized and are based on a cost accounting approach and do not reflect the true cost incurred in generating, transmitting and distributing a kilowatt-hour of electricity at the consumer end. This paper presents the electricity tariff based on the estimation of long-run marginal cost at generation, 33kV, and 415 voltage level for Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water (MHEW) interconnected power system of Oman. The result shows that at the generation level a marginal kW costs US$ 75per year and a marginal kWh costs 2.07|/kWh. These costs increase as we move downstream from generation to consumer end. The average cost of electricity at the consumer end connected at 415V is 6.52|/kWh or 25.17Bz/kWh. (author)

2006-01-01

166

A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) forms part of integrated water resource management and can be used as an economically viable alternative to the upgrade of infrastructure to balance supply and demand. In order to enable effective decision-making, a model was developed in this study to estimate expected water savings and the financial impact of a change in water tariff as a WC/WDM measure. This paper describes a model that was developed for municipal (more) ities to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example.

Hoffman, JJ; du Plessis, JA

2013-01-01

167

78 FR 15803 - Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Promotion Agreement Implementation Act (``the TPA Act'' or ``the Act'') authorizes...those rules are implemented through the TPA Act. Under the Act, goods imported into...first page of the submission) ``Colombia TPA Tariff Acceleration,'' ``Colombia...

2013-03-12

168

Electric power tariffs: comparative study between Brazil and MERCOSUL; Tarifas de eletricidade: estudo comparativo entre Brasil e Mercosul  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work evaluates the present brazilian tariff system of the electric power industry. For comparison purposal, and considering the process of the integration, the work gives special attention to the countries which constitute the MERCOSUL.

Henriques, Luiz Otavio Assis; Strazzi, Paulo Ernesto [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

1994-07-01

169

77 FR 76300 - Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS). The goods involved include certain sensitized...requires that the Commission keep the HTS under continuous review and periodically...the President such modifications in the HTS as the Commission considers necessary...

2012-12-27

170

77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...sugar established by the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered...States entered into the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

2012-10-26

171

Rationalization of water reservoirs operation reduces energy cost with the application of period- and season-dependent tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] It is presented the utilization of differentiated tariffs for water supply by the Brazilian utility SABESP (Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo) as a mean to save electric power

1994-01-01

172

Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.).

1991-01-01

173

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level.

Vogl M

2012-01-01

174

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

Vogl, Matthias

2012-08-30

175

High-efficiency electric motors: An analysis of a feasible tariff policy for Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective is to calculate an average value for an electricity tariff which will facilitate the introduction of high-efficiency electric motors in the production sector. Two computational models will be developed for technical-economic evaluation to assess economic attractiveness by calculating feasible average electricity tariffs in order to create a market for substitution of standard motors by new high-efficiency models (Purchase Decision Model) as well as to determine if retrofitting of standard installed motors by others with high-efficiency characteristics is viable, and, if so, to specify the optimum timing for such substitution (Substitution Decision Model). It should be noted that the Purchase Decision Model takes into account power factor adjustment and the Substitution Decision Model incorporates considerations as to reduction in the electromechanical performance of operating motors. Results indicate that even where average electricity tariffs are low, as in Brazil, high-efficiency motors are economically attractive compared to standard motors. There is an obvious need for complementary instruments to assist massive market penetration.

Paiva Delgado, M.A. de; Tolmasquim, M.T.

1997-07-01

176

The dynamic efficiency of feed-in tariffs: The impact of different design elements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dynamic efficiency has received much less attention than the effectiveness and static efficiency criteria to assess policies to support electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E). On the other hand, the literature on RES-E support shows that the choice of design elements within RES-E support instruments is at least as important to successfully promote RES-E as the choice of specific instruments. The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis and assess the dynamic efficiency properties of the different design elements of feed-in tariffs. It is shown that, in fact, several design elements can have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency. Particularly relevant design elements in this context are technology-specific fixed-tariffs, floor prices, degression, reductions of support over time for existing plants, long duration of support and support falling on consumers. In addition, it is shown than some design elements would be more appropriate than others to activate specific dimensions. - Highlights: ? A theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis is built. ? The dynamic efficiency properties of feed-in tariffs design elements are assessed. ? Several design elements have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency.

2012-01-01

177

When Is Open Access Not Open Access?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As open access grows in prominence, so too has confusion about what open access means; such confusion arises from a genuine misunderstanding of open access by funders, authors, editors, and publishers alike.

MacCallum, Catriona J

178

'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard employment, the company's regional reorganisation involved the loss of hundreds of jobs. Conclusions Regional integration organisations and their member states should be aware of the capacity of TTCs to act in a coordinated transnational manner to influence policy in their own interests, and coordinate their own public health and tax policies in a similarly effective way.

Holden Chris; Lee Kelley

2011-01-01

179

EFFECT OF SUBSIDIZING EXPORT OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AFTER THE ACCESSION OF POLAND TO THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together with the accession of Poland to the European Union, the conditions of commodity exchange with the abroad have been considerably changed. Trade of Poland with the European Member State has been covered with the regulations of the Common European Market. Pursuant to the Accession Treaty, Poland has adopted acquiscommunautaire of the Community concerning trade policy, including all instruments and rules of common commercial policy, including external customs tariff and out-tariff measures as well as system of agreements with the commercial partners outside the European Union. Accession to the European Union meant the extension of greater protective barriers over Poland in the field of import of agricultural products from third countries and the possibility of taking an advantage of export subsidies to agro-food products exported to third countries on equal rights as other European Union entrepreneurs.

Daniela POPA

2012-01-01

180

Colimits of accessible categories  

CERN Multimedia

We show that any directed colimit of acessible categories and accessible full embeddings is accessible and, assuming the existence of arbitrarily large strongly compact cardinals, any directed colimit of acessible categories and accessible embeddings is accessible.

Pare, R

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The revised version of BTO Elt (Federal Tariff Regulations). Facts, commentaries, materials. Die neue Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet (BTO Elt). Darstellung, Kommentierung, Materialien  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The revised version of BTO Elt is determined by a double aim, i.e. the closer adaptation of tariffs to actual costs, and the efficient and economical use of electricity based on low-pollution power supplies in accordance with resource conservation. Compared with the old version, the new BTO Elt contains important modifications concerning the determination of tariffs, types of tariffs, tariff structures, the determination of demand rates, and the determination of electricity purchase prices. The revised version of BTO Elt was put into force on January 1, 1990. (orig./HSCH).

Berkner, U.; Hermann, H.P.; Schmitz, E.

1990-01-01

182

Federal Tariff Regulations Electric Power (BTO Elt). As of December 18, 1989 (BGBl. I p. 2255). Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet (BTO Elt). Vom 18. Dezember 1989 (BGBl. I S. 2255)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of the new BTO Elt is characterized by the double goal of, on the one hand, orientating the electricity prices more at the costs caused, and on the other hand, to succeed in the conservation of energy resources and the environment by using electricity in an efficient and thrifty way. BTO Elt regulates the following: General tariff concept principles (section 1 subsection 1), tariff types (section 1 subsections 2, 3, 8, 9), tariff structures (section 4), fiscing flat-rate prices (sections 5, 6, 7), electricity purchase prices (section 11) and authorization of tariffs and other payments (sections 12, 13). (orig./HSCH).

1990-01-01

183

Update of the environmental impacts of differentiation of parking tariffs; Update milieueffecten gedifferentieerde parkeertarieven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the means to contribute to improving air quality in urban areas is differentiation of parking tariffs. Insight is given in the environmental impacts of 'green' parking tariffs for license-holders and visitors of parking lots. By differentiation of parking taxes the use of clean automobiles in urban areas can be stimulated. This report is an update of the 2006 report. The variant of such tariffs, calculated in this update, results in a reduction of the emission of particulates and NOx, both for drivers parking their vehicles as for the emission in the centre of the urban area. [Dutch] Deze studie is een update van een eerder onderzoek dat door CE Delft in 2006 is uitgevoerd naar de milieueffecten van gedifferentieerde parkeertarieven. De update van dit onderzoek was gewenst om meer inzicht te krijgen in de nut en noodzaak van een experimenteerwet, die het voor een aantal gemeenten mogelijk maakt om hiermee te experimenteren. De in deze studie doorgerekende variant van gedifferentieerde parkeertarieven leidt tot een daling van de PM10- en NOx-uitstoot van de parkeerders met respectievelijk 3 tot 7% en 2 tot 6% en een daling van de PM10- en NOx-uitstoot in het centrumgebied met respectievelijk 1 tot 2% en 0,5 tot 1%. Lokale overheden kunnen de effectiviteit van gedifferentieerde parkeertarieven verhogen door in te zetten op goede OV-infrastructuur, fietsvoorzieningen en transferia, of door de maatregel te combineren met andere (lokale) maatregelen, zoals lokale tolheffingen of milieuzones. Een andere mogelijkheid om de effectiviteit te verhogen is door het gebied waar betaald dient te worden voor parkeren te vergroten, zodat een groter aantal auto's onder de maatregel valt.

Schroten, A.; Blom, M.J.

2011-03-15

184

Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import tariff in China has been an urgent topic in the field. This study reviews the existing research on luxury consumption as well as relative background home and abroad, especially focusing on the situation on Chinese consumers. Then it briefly introduces the current status of Chinese luxury consumption as well as luxury market, illustrating that expensive food and luxury goods consumption import tariff cut has a great contribution to the Chinese economy. Based on the conclusions, the proposing measures will be put forward when cutting luxury import tariff.

Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang

2013-01-01

185

Rate-stabilization tariffs and step adjustments as new departures in utility rate making  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author is in search of methods and measures which utility regulatory commissions might adopt for fuller achievement of the proper objectives of regulation, especially the enablement of utilities to recover all prudent costs of service and to earn a fair return on common equity investment; and for improved performance in the regulatory oversight of utilities. He examines two strategies in particular which have been utilized by some commissions, namely, rate stabilization tariffs and adjustments of rates on the basis of single or specific cost items, and cites what they can and cannot do by way of attainment of the stated regulatory objectives. 11 references.

Mandl, A.D.

1984-06-07

186

Two-Part Tariff Lottery: A Means to Provide Public Good at the Social Optimum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pure public goods provided by charitable organizations may be provided at the first-best level when the provision is financed by an appropriately designed lottery. If lottery tickets are sold using a two-part tariff, the level of provision of the public good is greater than when fees are not charged to participate in the lottery. Unlike [13] who asymptotically approach the first-best level of provision with an arbitrarily large prize, a Pareto efficient level of the public good is produced when participation fees for the lottery are set appropriately.

Amornrat Apinunmahakul; Vicky Barham

2012-01-01

187

Communication from the Commission of Energy Regulation about the new tariffs of utilization of natural gas networks published by Gaz de France, GSO and CFM; Communication de la Commission de Regulation de l'Energie sur les nouveaux tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport de gaz publies par Gaz de France, GSO et CFM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this document, the French commission on energy regulation (CRE) gives its advice about the tariffs of use of natural gas distribution networks published by the overall French gas operators, Gaz de France, GSO and CFM, on December 23, 20 and 24, 2002 respectively. The CRE estimates that the tariffs are on the right way and will favour the opening of the market at least in the northern part of France. However this opening would remain insufficient if some complementary dispositions are not implemented. The details of these dispositions are listed in the document (organization of hubs, implementation of short-duration contracts, improvement of users information, realization of the necessary investments, access to LNG facilities, productivity goals etc..). (J.S.)

NONE

2003-01-01

188

On the role of government regulation in creating conditions for the development of Russian regions: the case of tariff policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The elimination of disparities in the economic conditions of regional development is an important task of government regulation. The tariff policy influences the economic development of Russia and different regions. The market incentives for innovation are not sufficiently strong. The rise in prices and tariffs has a negative impact on cost structure and production efficiency. The research conducted shows the degree of variation in the level and dynamics of prices and rates in each region and provides a basis for analyzing the conditions of economic development and their comparison at a regional level. The paper shows the impact of tariff policy on the development of regional markets and the creation of conditions for economic development.

Gerasimenko V. V.

2013-01-01

189

Energy tariff project - Latvia. Organization of the natural gas sector. Activity number 3. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A survey of the present organization and regulation of gas transmission, distribution and sales in Latvia and a consideration of the implementation of a Western market-oriented type of organization and regulation of the Latvian gas sector. The survey includes analyses of the current organization and regulation of the country`s gas sector and of the organization of `Latvijas Gaze` structures concerning activities and decision making, the identification of cost and income regarding various business activities, governmental regulation within the gas sector, the implementation of a market oriented organization and regulation of the Latvian gas sector and a specification of the ideal organizational model. Latvia is dependent on the import of gas, the consumption of which has dropped reflecting the deteriorating competitive situation of this fuel. Partial privatization of `Latvijas Gaze` is not yet implemented. Increased gas prices caused the company`s liquidity to deteriorate. Tariffs are now more cost-based. The affiliated companies have little commercial freedom. According to a new law the future regulation of the gas industry will be the responsibility of a new Energy Regulation Board. The outlook for rebuilding the market for natural gas is promising but considerable organizational and commercial problems will have to be faced. Too restrictive regulations would hinder the Latvian gas industry in adapting to changing market conditions. Tariffs for small customers should be regulated and in the case of larger customers surveillance and intervention from the authorities should be carried out only in cases where competition is not functioning. (AB)

Olsen, O.J.; Albertsen, C.; Kjerulf, F. [Roskilde University (Denmark)

1996-04-01

190

Environmental impacts of differentiation of parking tariffs; Milieueffecten van differentieren van parkeertarieven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the means to contribute to improving air quality in urban areas is differentiation of parking tariffs. Insight is given in the environmental impacts of 'green' parking tariffs for license-holders and visitors of parking lots. By differentiation of parking taxes the use of clean automobiles in urban areas can be stimulated. [Dutch] Gemeenten kunnen door uitgekiende belastingheffing een belangrijke bijdrage leveren aan de verbetering van het milieu. Een van de slimme groene belastingmaatregelen betreft de differentiatie van parkeertarieven naar milieuprestatie. Diverse gemeenten (o.a. Amsterdam, Tilburg en Nijmegen en ook de VNG) hebben interesse getoond in gedifferentieerde parkeertarieven. Om gemeenten in de gelegenheid te stellen een dergelijke vergroeningsmaatregel door te voeren, zal de Gemeentewet worden aangepast. Ten behoeve van deze aanpassing is inzicht in de verwachte milieueffecten gewenst. In deze studie staan de milieueffecten van groene parkeertarieven bij vergunninghouders en parkeerbezoekers centraal. Via differentiatie in de parkeerbelasting kan het gebruik van schone auto's in de stad worden gestimuleerd en vuile auto's worden ontmoedigd. Uit deze CE-studie blijkt dat de onderzochte maatregel een belangrijke bijdrage kan leveren aan reductie van stedelijke emissies bij de doelgroepen vergunninghouders en bezoekers, hoewel de absolute omvang van deze reductie enigszins beperkt is.

Blom, M.J.; Schroten, A.; Van Essen, H.P.

2006-08-15

191

Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

2010-07-01

192

Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs; Commission chargee d'une mission de reflexion sur les tarifs du gaz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

Brochard, B. [Maire de Cannes, 06 (France); Durieux, B. [Inspection General des Finances, 75 - Paris (France); Chevalier, J.M

2006-03-15

193

Access: Diabetes Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... today. Home > News & Research > Research > Access: Diabetes Research Access: Diabetes Research Listen patientINFORM is a program that provides patients with access to research on the diagnosis and treatment of ...

194

Vascular Access for Hemodialysis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Kidney Failure Series : Vascular Access for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis On this page: What is an ... Top ] What is a venous catheter for temporary access? If your kidney disease has progressed quickly, you ...

195

The new Federal Tariff Regulation for Electricity and its application in electricity tariff structures. Explanations and comments. Die neue Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet und ihre Umsetzung in Strom-Tarifstrukturen. Erlaeuterungen und Hinweise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new Federal Tariff Regulation for Electricity has been valid since 1.1.1990. It contains fundamental changes from the previous legal regulation. This causes certain difficulties and problems in the translation of this rule into new electricity tariff structures. These explanations and comments are therefore meant to convey information to executive and line management in our member firms and their employees in the specialist departments and also be helpful for customer advice. Furthermore, they may be of use to members of the supervisory bodies and other interested parties who want to study in depth the problems of BTO and its realization. The Association has reported regularly on the status of consultations in the development of the new BTO and on attitudes towards it, in the form of circulars to members, in its information service and at regional group and association conferences. The various bodies within the association were also kept constantly in touch with current developments. Very soon after the final text of the regulation was known, almost all the regional groups organized information events for member firms and produced working-aids for conversion to the new tariff structures. This booklet aims to supplement previous information. It contains detailed explanations and comments on the BTO and its practical realization in the form of new electricity tariffs. This description is supplemented by collected materials and a comprehensive literature review which reflects the whole spectrum of opinions. (orig.).

Ohlms, W.; Weigt, N.

1990-01-01

196

Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados/ Water tariffs in irrigation districts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigação é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem n (more) ão somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica. Abstract in english In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, since the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the mo (more) nth, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

Ribeiro, Marcos C.; Oliveira Filho, Delly; Soares, Antônio A.; Martins, José H.; Mantovani, Everardo C.

2010-08-01

197

A tariff structure for electric power based on marginal costs; Uma estrutura tarifaria para energia eletrica, baseada em custos marginais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work is directed to the discussion of the concepts involved in a tariff structure for electric power, based on marginal costs, and to the obtention of generation marginal costs in hydrothermal power systems. A study case is performed and described. 41 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

Lima, Paulo C.

1987-07-01

198

78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...  

Science.gov (United States)

...under the tariff rate quotas. The Miscellaneous Trade Act also authorized Commerce to allocate a new HTS category, HTS 9902.51.16. This HTS refers to worsted wool fabric with average fiber diameter of 18.5 microns or less. The...

2013-01-28

199

78 FR 56658 - Notice of Solicitation of Applications for Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas on the Import of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) heading 9902.51.11); and (2) for...fiber diameters of 18.5 microns or less (HTS heading 9902.51.12). On August 6...the Department to allocate a TRQ for a new HTS category, HTS 9902.51.16. This...

2013-09-13

200

Reconciling WTP to actual adoption of green energy tariffs: A diffusion model of an induced environmental market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a formal model that links the willingness to pay (WTP) literature with the established innovation diffusion literature. This concern arises from an attempt to reconcile the large disparities that have been observed between actual adoption of green energy tariffs and WTP for such ...

DIAZ-RAINEY, Ivan; TZAVARA, Dionisia

 
 
 
 
201

Electricity tariffs in India: an assessment of consumers' ability and willingness to pay in Gujarat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A sample of electricity consumers covering agricultural, residential and industrial consumers, in the Indian State of Gujarat was surveyed in 1997 to investigate the consumers' ability and willingness to pay for electricity supplied from the grid. The ability to pay was estimated using the weight of the cost of electricity to meet at least the basic household needs in relation to the overall income or expenditure. The willingness to pay was estimated using the costs of meeting the needs by alternative sources of energy, namely diesel in the case of farmers to pump water for irrigation and captive power generation using diesel generators in the case of industrial users. Survey results reveal the proportion of consumers in different categories, which do not have the ability to pay more or are even not willing to pay more for electricity. The survey findings have been used as a guideline in the proposed adjustment of tariffs charged by the Gujarat Electricity Board. (author)

2001-01-01

202

Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

NONE

2006-12-20

203

Australian Residential Solar Feed-in Tariffs: Industry Stimulus or Regressive Form of Taxation?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feed-in Tariffs (FiT) for residential photovoltaic solar technologies are available inmost Australian jurisdictions. Financial incentives under FiT are in addition to those provided by the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme which forms part of the national 20% Renewable Energy Target. Little attention has been paid to the welfare impacts of FiT on retail electricity prices and social policy objectives. Our analysis indicates that current FiT are a regressive form of taxation. By providing estimates of household impact by income groupings, we conclude that wealthier households are beneficiaries and the effective taxation rate for low income households is three times higher than that paid by the wealthiest households.

Tim Nelson; Paul Simshauser; Simon Kelley

2011-01-01

204

Electricity tariffs in Hong Kong: what went wrong and what can we do about it?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hong Kong economy has undergone radical changes over the past two decades and as a result profoundly affected the electricity supply industry. The level of excess capacity maintained by the two vertically integrated utilities and the tariffs they charged are both one of the highest among all developed countries, and they are the adverse results of the Scheme of Control regulation. What happened in the local electricity market has drawn much criticism among researchers and consumer groups, and major reform of the entire market is being suggested. This paper outlines the structure of the electricity supply industry and its regulatory arrangement in Hong Kong, and discusses the problems and inefficiencies caused by the specific type of regulation. Without compromising efficiency, a number of policy alternatives are proposed with a view to rectifying the current problems. (Author)

Luk, Stephen [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., School of Accounting and Finance, Hong Kong (China)

2005-05-01

205

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned

2007-01-01

206

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned. (author)

2007-01-01

207

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned. (author)

Rio, P. del [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Faculty of Social Sciences and Law; Gual, M.A. [University of Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain). Dpto. Economics, Economic History and Quantitative Methods

2007-02-15

208

Engel curves, household characteristics and low-user tariff schemes in natural gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explore the relative importance of income and household characteristics (such as family size) in explaining differences in household consumption of natural gas and LPG. In a simple model of vertically (willingness to pay) ordered households we posit that the relative importance of the income elasticity of demand (vs. the family size elasticity) depends positively on the price faced by households. Thus, very low prices tend to depress the across households income elasticity of demand relative to the characteristic-elasticity and the opposite holds for under high prices. We test this hypothesis using, for the first time in Argentina, data from the household expenditure survey on Natural gas and LPG and compare the cross-consumption equations for both fuels, which have quite different price regimes. Finally, we explore welfare implications for low-user tariff scheme reforms in natural gas. (author)

2009-01-01

209

75 FR 41891 - Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission may also be obtained by accessing its Internet server (http://www.usitc.gov). Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission should contact the Office of the...

2010-07-19

210

Compliance with technical codes becomes obligatory for receipt of feed-in tariff and ancillary services bonus for wind power plants in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German government aims at a share of electricity generation based on renewable sources (RES-E) of more than 30% by 2020. A major part of this share will be reached by the use of wind power plants (WPP). Therefore, when amending the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in June 2008, the German government acknowledged the importance of enhanced technical requirements for WPP and announced the development of a respective technical ordinance. For all WPP that go into operation after June 2010, full grid code-compliance becomes a precondition for privileged network access, receipt of feed-in tariff, and extra payments (''ancillary services bonus''). The basis for the technical requirements in the EEG has been laid down by Medium-Voltage (MV)-Directive 2008 and the TransmissionCode 2007. However, the work of the authors - consulting the German government during the development of the technical ordinance - showed that the TransmissionCode 2007 needed careful review and some clarifying specifications were proposed. Eventually, the so called ''Ancillary Services Ordinance'' for wind power plants went into power in July 2009. The interrelation between all three grid codes as well as their specifications and implications for renewable energy sources generators, with special regard to wind power plants, are presented in this paper. (orig.)

Boemer, Jens. C. [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Electrical Power Systems Group; Burges, Karsten [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Kumm, Thomas [VDE, Network Technology and Operation Forum (FNN), Berlin (Germany); Poeller, Markus [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

2009-07-01

211

CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations  

CERN Document Server

From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

2003-01-01

212

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

Fujita, K. Sydny

2011-06-23

213

Price control and cartel law under the new German Federal Tariff Order Electricity ('BTO Elt'). Preisaufsicht und Kartellrecht nach der neuen BTO Elt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses connections and possible points of conflict between the new Federal Tariff Order Electricity ('BTO Elt') and antitrust law arising from the new version of section 11 BTO Elt: Firstly, the involved changes in tariff approval procedures in the considersation of costs for power fed in from renewable energy sources and CHP generators. Secondly, the introduced approval procedure for prices of electricity supplied by generators to secondary distributors if the generator does not himself supply any tariff consumers. In this connection the questions concerning price control over supply prices of previous suppliers, and renewables and CHP input compensations are discussed in detail. (RST).

Markert, K.

1990-05-01

214

Electricity prices for tariff customers. Standardized prices for domestic and business users. Strompreise fuer Tarifkunden. Einheitliche Preise fuer Haushalt und Gewerbe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new German Tariff Order for Electricity (BTOElt) came into force on January 1st 1990. New tariffs complying with the BTO have already been introduced by many electricity undertakings. In the field of tariff reform, there have been various discussions on doing away with differentiation between prices according to the type of demand (domestic, agricultural or business), for simplicity's sake. Investigations carried out in the meantime have shown that the electricity used by these groups of customers causes such distinctly different costs, that levelling of the prices can hardly be harmonized with cost-orientated price formation. (orig.).

Meier, H. (RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Elektrizitaetswirtschaft)

1991-06-01

215

Structure of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat for bound customers in the Netherlands; Structuur tarieven voor gas, elektriciteit en warmte voor gebonden klanten in Nederland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a result of the new Dutch Electricity Law and the Natural Gas Law energy consumers in the Netherlands are or will be free to choose an energy supplier. The freedom of choice for small-scale consumers (e.g. households, small businesses) will be realized in a few years. For them, this booklet gives insight into the structure which forms the basis of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat in the Netherlands. How final consumption tariffs are determined is explained on the basis of the related starting points, tariffs for buying and selling, taxes and surcharges on the markets for the fore-mentioned energy carriers.

NONE

2000-04-01

216

75 FR 61959 - Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System  

Science.gov (United States)

...FERC involving the Company's Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT...FERC involving the Company's Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT...involving Southern Companies' Open Access Transmission Tariff....

2010-10-06

217

77 FR 55817 - Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System  

Science.gov (United States)

...FERC involving the Company's Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT...FERC involving the Company's Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT...involving Southern Companies' Open Access Transmission Tariff....

2012-09-11

218

Access 2010 Programmer's Reference  

CERN Multimedia

A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

2010-01-01

219

Access 2010 bible  

CERN Multimedia

The expert guidance you need to get the most out of Access 2010 Get the Access 2010 information you need to succeed with this comprehensive reference. If this is your first encounter with Access, you'll appreciate the thorough attention to database fundamentals and terminology. If you're familiar with earlier versions, you can jump right into Access 2010 enhancements such as the new Access user interface and wider use of XML and Web services.Takes you under the hood of Microsoft Access 2010, the database application included with Microsoft Office 2010Explores the latest en

Groh, Michael R

2010-01-01

220

Access to Investigational Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to Investigational Drugs Key Points An investigational drug is one that is under study and is ... receive investigational drugs through mechanisms such as expanded access protocols and special exception programs, but specific criteria ...

 
 
 
 
221

Access: Diabetes Research  

Science.gov (United States)

... more information, Please visit www.diabetes.org News & Research Research Research Database Research Discoveries Support Our Research ... News & Research > Research > Access: Diabetes Research Access: Diabetes Research Listen patientINFORM is a program that provides patients ...

222

Cancer Data Access System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) is a web portal that facilitates access to PLCO data. Investigators can register with CDAS and request access to data collected through December 31, 2009 for the first 13 years of participation for each subject in the PLCO trial. Newly diagnosed cancers and deaths continue to be collected and will be available in the future.

223

Open Access and beyond.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature.

Mathur S; Schmidt C; Das C; Tucker PW

2006-01-01

224

Open Access Alternatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Open access publishing is a hot topic today. But open access publishing can have many different definitions, and pros and cons vary with the definitions. Open access publishing is especially attractive to companies and small colleges or universities that are likely to have many more readers than authors. A downside is that a membership fee sounds…

Tenopir, Carol

2004-01-01

225

Are state renewable feed-in tariff initiatives truly throttled by Federal statutes after the FERC California decision?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the last few years, several local and state governments have adopted ''feed-in tariffs'' to promote development of dispersed, small-scale renewable generation through incentive pricing. Most FITs are intended to stimulate development of small solar or renewable energy facilities. In July, FERC issued a decision restating that the Federal Power Act and PURPA 210, not state (or local) legislation, govern the price that local utilities may pay under FITs. (author)

Yaffe, David P.

2010-10-15

226

"Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.

Foley EC; Bird HA

2013-04-01

227

A Discrete Choice Experiment to Obtain a Tariff for Valuing Informal Care Situations Measured with the CarerQol Instrument.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: / OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluations adopting a societal perspective need to include informal care whenever relevant. However, in practice, informal care is often neglected, because there are few validated instruments to measure and value informal care for inclusion in economic evaluations. The CarerQol, which is such an instrument, measures the impact of informal care on 7 important burden dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and values this in terms of general quality of life (CarerQol-VAS). The objective of the study was to calculate utility scores based on relative utility weights for the CarerQol-7D. These tariffs will facilitate inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. METHODS: The CarerQol-7D tariff was derived with a discrete choice experiment conducted as an Internet survey among the general adult population in the Netherlands (N = 992). The choice set contained 2 unlabeled alternatives described in terms of the 7 CarerQol-7D dimensions (level range: "no,"some," and "a lot"). An efficient experimental design with priors obtained from a pilot study (N = 104) was used. Data were analyzed with a panel mixed multinomial parameter model including main and interaction effects of the attributes. RESULTS: The utility attached to informal care situations was significantly higher when this situation was more attractive in terms of fewer problems and more fulfillment or support. The interaction term between the CarerQol-7D dimensions physical health and mental health problems also significantly explained this utility. The tariff was constructed by adding up the relative utility weights per category of all CarerQol-7D dimensions and the interaction term. CONCLUSIONS: We obtained a tariff providing standard utility scores for caring situations described with the CarerQol-7D. This facilitates the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations.

Hoefman RJ; van Exel J; Rose JM; van de Wetering EJ; Brouwer WB

2013-06-01

228

A Discrete Choice Experiment to Obtain a Tariff for Valuing Informal Care Situations Measured with the CarerQol Instrument.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: / OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluations adopting a societal perspective need to include informal care whenever relevant. However, in practice, informal care is often neglected, because there are few validated instruments to measure and value informal care for inclusion in economic evaluations. The CarerQol, which is such an instrument, measures the impact of informal care on 7 important burden dimensions (CarerQol-7D) and values this in terms of general quality of life (CarerQol-VAS). The objective of the study was to calculate utility scores based on relative utility weights for the CarerQol-7D. These tariffs will facilitate inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. METHODS: The CarerQol-7D tariff was derived with a discrete choice experiment conducted as an Internet survey among the general adult population in the Netherlands (N = 992). The choice set contained 2 unlabeled alternatives described in terms of the 7 CarerQol-7D dimensions (level range: "no,"some," and "a lot"). An efficient experimental design with priors obtained from a pilot study (N = 104) was used. Data were analyzed with a panel mixed multinomial parameter model including main and interaction effects of the attributes. RESULTS: The utility attached to informal care situations was significantly higher when this situation was more attractive in terms of fewer problems and more fulfillment or support. The interaction term between the CarerQol-7D dimensions physical health and mental health problems also significantly explained this utility. The tariff was constructed by adding up the relative utility weights per category of all CarerQol-7D dimensions and the interaction term. CONCLUSIONS: We obtained a tariff providing standard utility scores for caring situations described with the CarerQol-7D. This facilitates the inclusion of informal care in economic evaluations. PMID:23771881

Hoefman, Renske J; van Exel, Job; Rose, John M; van de Wetering, E J; Brouwer, Werner B F

2013-06-14

229

"Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).  

Science.gov (United States)

The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating. PMID:23417345

Foley, E C; Bird, H A

2013-02-16

230

Managing tariff risks in cogeneration: the example of La Doua; La maitrise des risques tarifaires en cogeneration: exemple de la Doua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combined to a district heating system based on a coal burning plant, a cogeneration unit has been installed in Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France, with a gas engine using natural gas for power production and complementary heat production. Electric power surplus is sold back to the national grid, EDF. Costs and tariffs for power, heat and natural gas have been evaluated and the tariff evolutions are considered for price indexing and adapted financial coverings. Results after one year of operation are discussed

Lartigue, D. [SLEC / Prodith (Country unknown/Code not available)

1996-12-31

231

Green electricity tariffs discussed from the microeconomic perspective; Gruene Tarife aus mikrooekonomischer Perspektive  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green electricity tariffs have been introduced in the early 1990s and stem from the green pricing approach, relying on the idea that exploiting the potential of consumer groups willing to pay more for electricity from renewables will bear the enhanced costs for electricity generation from renewable sources. The article analyses the green pricing approach with instruments of microeconomic theories and discusses the results of the analysis in the context of allocation of external effects. (RHM/CB) [Deutsch] Gruene Tarife wurden Anfang der Neunziger Jahre in der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft entwickelt, um den Anteil regenerativer Energien in der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung zu erhoehen. Sie bauen auf den sogenannten Green-Pricing-Gedanken auf, der eine Finanzierung der hoeheren Produktionskosten umweltschonend erzeugter Produkte durch die Ausschoepfung der erhoehten Zahlungsbereitschaft bestimmter Konsumentengruppen fuer diese Gueter vorschlaegt. In diesem Beitrag wird das Konzept der Gruenen Tarife mit dem Instrumentarium mikrooekonomischer Theorien naeher analysiert und beurteilt. In einem Vergleich mit klassischen Ansaetzen zur Internalisierung externer Effekte erweist sich der Gruene Tarif bezueglich seiner Wirkungsmechanik als eine Instrumentalisierung der Coase`schen Loesung. Da jedoch nicht alle Geschaedigten erfasst werden koennen, einige aus strategischen Ueberlegungen ihre wahre Zahlungsbereitschaft verheimlichen und auch Transaktionskosten entstehen, kann eine allokativ optimale Loesung nicht erreicht werden. Beruecksichtigt man aber, dass jede Instrumentalisierung des Coase-Ansatzes diese Maengel aufweisen wird, kann der Gruene Tarif dennoch als effektiver, wenn auch nicht ausreichender Ansatz zur Internalisierung externer Effekte gewertet werden. (orig./RHM)

Schnorrenberg, B.

1998-12-31

232

Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.

Mulder, M.

2010-12-15

233

Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.

2010-01-01

234

Challenges facing the European power transmission tariffs: The case of inter-TSO compensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article draws attention to problems important for all EU power consumers-the unfairness in individual payments for power transmission and in the cross-border subsidy element in the mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operators (TSO) Compensation (ITC). A brief review of power transmission tariffs brings out the structure of the problems. A short retrospection explains their growth. The essence of the ITC mechanism is explained and existing shortcomings are illustrated. The deficiencies of existing regulations for transmission pricing are analyzed. In the light of this analysis, the ITC problem is reconsidered and defined more precisely. The basic prerequisites to an ITC reformulation process are presented. The main principles of a new simple, transparent and equitable approach are suggested, in accordance with the contemporary legal positions and functions of the TSOs. - Highlights: ? Investigations in the mechanism known as Inter-TSO Compensation (ITC). ? Deficiencies in European regulations for cross-border power transmission payments. ? Main principles of a new approach avoiding the existing cross-subsidies. ? Appeal for reconsideration and a more precise definition of the ITC problem. ? Public welfare enhancement by fairness in payment for power transmission.

2011-01-01

235

Challenges facing the European power transmission tariffs: The case of inter-TSO compensation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article draws attention to problems important for all EU power consumers-the unfairness in individual payments for power transmission and in the cross-border subsidy element in the mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operators (TSO) Compensation (ITC). A brief review of power transmission tariffs brings out the structure of the problems. A short retrospection explains their growth. The essence of the ITC mechanism is explained and existing shortcomings are illustrated. The deficiencies of existing regulations for transmission pricing are analyzed. In the light of this analysis, the ITC problem is reconsidered and defined more precisely. The basic prerequisites to an ITC reformulation process are presented. The main principles of a new simple, transparent and equitable approach are suggested, in accordance with the contemporary legal positions and functions of the TSOs. - Highlights: > Investigations in the mechanism known as Inter-TSO Compensation (ITC). > Deficiencies in European regulations for cross-border power transmission payments. > Main principles of a new approach avoiding the existing cross-subsidies. > Appeal for reconsideration and a more precise definition of the ITC problem. > Public welfare enhancement by fairness in payment for power transmission.

Stoilov, Dimo, E-mail: dstoilov@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, Yulian [Elektroenergien Sistemen Operator-EAD, 8 Vesletz Str., Sofia 1040 (Bulgaria); Francois, Bruno [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Cite scientifique, BP 48, 59651, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

2011-09-15

236

The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: ? We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. ? We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. ? The scheme is really a series of put options. ? Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. ? The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

2011-01-01

237

IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

Talles Vianna Brugni; Adriano Rodrigues; Cláudia Ferreira da Cruz; Natan Szuster

2012-01-01

238

Evaluation of feed-in tariff-schemes in African countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Almost all African countries are planning to increase their power supply capacities and to diversify the resource base of the electricity sector. In sharp contrast to the ambitious objectives, grid connected power plants, based on renewable energies, are very rare except large scale hydropower in African countries. The small number of renewable energy (RE)-plants in Africa shows that a quick diffusion of these technologies cannot be expected from the dynamic of market for (more) ces alone. Political support is necessary. By now, feed-in tariffs (FIT) is the most prominent economic instrument promoting renewable energy technologies in the power sector. They are applied in more than 50 countries, among them several African countries like Algeria, Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania. The objective of the paper is to investigate the outcome and effectiveness of African FIT-schemes. It is assumed that most of the FIT-schemes in Africa are poorly working because of unfavourable institutional design, insufficient level of FIT rates or obstacles in the process of implementation. Deficiencies in the design of FIT-schemes and the implementation process can be explained by conflicting policy targets like affordable power prices and grid stability but also with an unclear allocation of property rights that can lead to time-consuming negotiations of Power Purchase Agreements.

Meyer-Renschhausen, M

2013-01-01

239

Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2012-01-01

240

Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES) and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâ??s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB) using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB)-424 MW and kernel-236 MW). However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE) by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Pro Access 2010 Development  

CERN Multimedia

Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

Collins, Mark

2011-01-01

242

Access 2013 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2013-01-01

243

Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control  

CERN Multimedia

Cryptographic access control (CAC) is an approach to securing data by encrypting it with a key, so that only the users in possession of the correct key are able to decrypt the data and/or perform further encryptions. Applications of cryptographic access control will benefit companies, governments and the military where structured access to information is essential. The purpose of this book is to highlight the need for adaptability in cryptographic access control schemes that are geared for dynamic environments, such as the Internet. "Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control" presents th

Kayem, Anne V D M; Martin, Patrick

2010-01-01

244

Access Data Analysis Cookbook  

CERN Multimedia

This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.

Bluttman, Ken

2008-01-01

245

Access control Tutorial 5  

CERN Multimedia

This tutorial will review current access management technologies and invite participants to discuss use cases and requirements for access management, particularly with respect to scholarly archives and their users. The presenters will describe the concepts and architecture of Federated Access Management (FAM) with reference to some large-scale federation implementations, and discuss the challenges faced particularly in Identity Management by academic institutions. The tutorial will include a practical demonstration of how FAM can be applied to an Open Archive repository.

CERN. Geneva; Oberknapp, Bernd

2007-01-01

246

Sterile vascular access kit  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sterile vascular access kit contains sterile supplies needed to access an implanted vascular device, such as a Mediport. The kit contains all the medical supplies needed to accomplish the vascular access procedure, thereby eliminating the need to locate and gather such medical supplies. The medical supplies include a facemask and gloves, Tegaderm dressing for providing a sterile covering, a needleless blood transfer device, an injection cap, syringes containing normal saline for flushing the tubing, and empty syringe for drawing blood, preferably a syringe of heparin for flushing the tubing and port. The kit also contains sponges, sterile adhesive strips, alcohol prep pads and Chloraprep for cleansing the access site.

HICKS LOIS A

247

Demystifying Open Access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

2007-05-14

248

Access 2013 bible  

CERN Document Server

A comprehensive reference to the updated and new features of Access 2013 As the world's most popular database management tool, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data as well as build powerful database solutions. However, databases can be complex. That's why you need the expert guidance in this comprehensive reference. Access 2013 Bible helps you gain a solid understanding of database purpose, construction, and application so that whether you're new to Access or looking to upgrade to the 2013 version, this well-rounded resource provides you with a th

Alexander, Michael

2013-01-01

249

Access 2003 bible  

CERN Multimedia

The most comprehensive reference on this popular database management tool, fully updated with the new features of Access ""X"" including increased use of XML and Web servicesExplores the new, tighter integration with SharePoint and BizTalk in Office ""X"" that enables greater flexibility for gathering and manipulating dataWritten by an international bestselling author team with several books to their credit, including previous editions of Access BibleGets Access beginners started with hundreds of examples, tips, and techniques for getting the most from AccessOffers adva

Prague, Cary N; Reardon, Jennifer

2003-01-01

250

Optical Access Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-06-01

251

West Kootenay Power Ltd. Transmission access application: Decision  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On March 9, 1998, West Kootenay Power Ltd (WKP) filed a Transmission Access Application (TAA) to the Commission seeking approval of wholesale transmission access and retail transmission access for its largest industrial customers. WKP also requested interim approval of tariff settlement and of rates for use by eligible customers seeking wholesale transmission access. WKP`s TAA proposes two forms of service, i.e. `network service` and `point-to-point service`. Network service is charged on a load ratio share of the aggregate network revenue requirement and is available with a minimum term of one year. WKP proposed three rate classes for its point-to-point service. In place of functionally separating generation and transmission function (the normal procedure by utilities undertaking open-access) WKP proposed to address non-discriminatory access through the use of a Code of Conduct and an Open Access Council, plus an Open Access Same-Time Information System (OASIS) to manage access to the transmission system and the exchange of relevant information, including discounting offers. With respect to system expansion and modification, WKP proposed that customers pay directly for expansions or re-enforcements that they specifically trigger. After a public hearing and review of the WPK proposal the Commission accepted WKP`s Network Integration Proposal; directed WKP to file a long-term discount policy, offer all ancillary services at embedded cost rates, charge system average losses (instead of incremental losses as proposed by WKP), file additional information to enable the Commission to re-assess the need for functional separation of the Utility, and market all surplus power through an affiliate. Flow of information is to be governed by a Code of Conduct. The Commission declined to order WKP to create an Open Access Council. It also declined to `grandfather` any existing agreements with respect to their relationship to the TAA, or to accept WKP`s system extension and re-enforcement plans, and ordered WKP to file new proposals on all these points.

NONE

1999-03-10

252

Access to mobile services  

CERN Document Server

Focuses on methods for accessing broadcast based M-services from multiple wireless channels. This book presents a novel infrastructure that provides a multi-channel broadcast framework for mobile users to effectively discover and access composite M-services. It is suitable for those who work in the general area of mobile services.

Bouguettaya, Athman

2009-01-01

253

Access Options - SEER Datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

When you submit a request for the data and choose the access option, "Through my Internet connection", you will be given a username and password within two business days of SEER receiving your signed research data agreement. This username and password may be used to access the data through either of these two Internet-based options.

254

Broadband access networks  

CERN Multimedia

Considering the key evolutions within the access network technologies as well as the unprecedented levels of bandwidth demands by end users, this book presents the research, design, and deployment experience of these networks. It provides a comprehensive overview of the major broadband access technologies and deployments.

Shami, Abdallah

2010-01-01

255

I support Open Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prof Brenda Wingfield, Professor in Genetics and Deputy-Dean of Reseach and Postgraduate Studies of the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences discusses the importance of access to research journals. As developing world countries have smaller budgets, Open Access has become increasingly import...

Wingfield, Brenda D.

256

Natural monopolies regulation: the electric power transmission tariffs case; Regulacao dos monopolios naturais: o caso das tarifas de transmissao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy transmission tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.

Santos, Ricardo Henrique dos; Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Sauer, Ildo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: rosana2@uol.com.br

1999-07-01

257

Dynamic Context Aware Access  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OF THE THESISDynamic Context Aware Access Control for GridApplicationsby Guangsen ZhangThesis Director: Professor Manish ParasharWhile the primary objective of Grid Computing is to facilitate the sharing ofresource and service spanning across largely distributed and heterogeneous system,the success deployment of Grid infrastructure will make lots of applications possible.The applications range from pure scientific computing to commercial utilization. Itwill enhance the human creativity by increasing the computing capability and performance;allow geographically distributed people and computers to collaborate. TheGrid infrastructure presents many challenges due to its inherent heterogeneity, multidomaincharacteristic, and highly dynamic nature. One critical challenge is providingauthentication, authorization and access control guarantees. Although lots of researcheshave been done on di#erent aspects of security issues for Grid computing,these e#orts focus on relatively static scenarios where access depends on identity ofthe subject. They do not address access control issues for pervasive Grid applicationswhere the access privileges of a subject not only depend on its identity but also onits current context (i.e. current time, location, system resources, network state, etc.)and state. In this thesis, we present the SESAME dynamic context-aware accesscontrol mechanism for pervasive Grid applications. SESAME complements currentauthorization mechanisms to dynamically grant and adapt permissions to users basedon their current context. The underlying dynamic role based access control (DRBAC)model extends the classic role based access control (RBAC). We also present a prototypeimplementation of SESAME and DRBAC with the Discover computationalcollabo...

Guangsen Zhang; Graduate School---new Brunswick

258

Pediatric vascular access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

2006-05-15

259

Web Accessibility Checking Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater) entered. Then it reads the page line by line, compare it with WCAG standard and report the corresponding error.

Tripti Singh; Nitish Sharma

2013-01-01

260

Access Database Design & Programming  

CERN Multimedia

Access Database Design & Programming takes you behind the details of the Access interface, focusing on the general knowledge necessary for Access power users or developers to create effective database applications. When using software products with graphical interfaces, we frequently focus so much on the interface that we forget about the general concepts that allow us to understand and use the software effectively. In particular, this book focuses on three areas: Database design. The book provides an enjoyable, informative overview of database design that carefully shows you how to norma

PhD, Steven

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Access 2010 for dummies  

CERN Multimedia

A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2010-01-01

262

Optical Access Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 Background With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. Scope of Contributions This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-01-01

263

Sustainable water use in cities: water tariff as tool for consumption control; El uso sostenible del agua en nucleos urbanos: las tarifas como herramienta de control del consumo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)

Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.

2012-07-01

264

Advice for adjustment of the MEP subsidy tariffs for 2006; Advies aanpassing MEP-subsidietarieven voor 2006  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In view of the interim evaluation and possible subsequent changes to the incentive structures of the MEP subsidies for renewable electricity, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has asked ECN and KEMA to assess the need for the annual reassessment of the MEP subsidies for 2006. In this report it is concluded that any changes to the tariffs are likely to be modest and that it is better to await the outcome of the interim evaluation before calculating new tariffs. [Dutch] In het licht van de tussenevaluatie en de mogelijke wijzigingen ten aanzien van de stimuleringssystematiek binnen de MEP heeft het Ministerie van Economische Zaken aan ECN gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de noodzaak en wenselijkheid van het aanpassen en consulteren van de berekeningsaannames in het kader van het vaststellen van de MEP-subsidietarieven voor 2006. De conclusie in deze notitie is dat de eventuele wijzigingen in de MEP-subsidietarieven zeer beperkt zullen zijn en dat het beter is om de uitkomst van de evaluatie af te wachten alvorens nieuwe tarieven worden berekend.

Van Sambeek, E.J.W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Cleijne, H. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

2004-03-01

265

Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L

2002-07-01

266

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

2005-11-14

267

Vascular Access in Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

2011-01-01

268

Do patents for antiretroviral drugs constrain access to AIDS treatment in Africa?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Public attention and debate recently have focused on access to treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in poor, severely affected countries, such as those in Africa. Whether patents on antiretroviral drugs in Africa are impeding access to lifesaving treatment for the 25 million Africans with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. We studied the patent statuses of 15 antiretroviral drugs in 53 African countries. Using a survey method, we found that these antiretroviral drugs are patented in few African countries (median, 3; mode, 0) and that in countries where antiretroviral drug patents exist, generally only a small subset of antiretroviral drugs are patented (median and mode, 4). The observed scarcity of patents cannot be simply explained by a lack of patent laws because most African countries have offered patent protection for pharmaceuticals for many years. Furthermore, in this particular case, geographic patent coverage does not appear to correlate with antiretroviral treatment access in Africa, suggesting that patents and patent law are not a major barrier to treatment access in and of themselves. We conclude that a variety of de facto barriers are more responsible for impeding access to antiretroviral treatment, including but not limited to the poverty of African countries, the high cost of antiretroviral treatment, national regulatory requirements for medicines, tariffs and sales taxes, and, above all, a lack of sufficient international financial aid to fund antiretroviral treatment. We consider these findings in light of policies for enhancing antiretroviral treatment access in poor countries.

Attaran A; Gillespie-White L

2001-10-01

269

The stakes of gas and electricity transport: the fixing of access charges; Les enjeux du transport pour le gaz et l'electricite: la fixation des charges d'acces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of opening of network industries to competition is the lowering of the tariffs paid by the end-user. This opening is accompanied by a bookkeeping separation and sometimes a legal un-bundling between the different segments of activities (production, transport, distribution, commercialization). When natural monopolies exist, a system of access to the network by third parties must be implemented and controlled by an independent regulation authority. The main question remains the fixing of a just, efficient, transparent and non-discriminatory tariff of access which allows a long-term viability of this network activity. This paper presents first, the lessons of the economical theory and then, the practical experience in France, UK and the USA and the difficult arbitrations with their perverse side effects. (J.S.)

Percebois, J.; David, L.

2001-05-01

270

Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

1997-01-01

271

Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

Seeto, Dewey [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Woo, C.K. [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Horowitz, Ira [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Coll. of Business Administration

1997-05-01

272

Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs; Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, sur les tarifs de l'electricite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

273

Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

274

Annulus access valve system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes an annulus access apparatus for use in a drill string positioned in a well bore, the apparatus comprising: a valve adapted for fitting in the drill string and defining a longitudinal opening therethrough and a substantially transverse port therein for interconnecting the longitudinal opening with an annulus formed between the valve and the well bore. The valve includes annulus access means for placing the transverse port in communication with the longitudinal opening when in an open position and covering the transverse port when in a closed position; a retrievable actuator movable through a central opening of the drill string for moving the annulus means from the closed position to the open position and having selectable fluid flow control means for alternately preselecting one of a closed position thereof. Fluid pumped through the drill string will be totally diverted through the transverse port in the valve when the annulus access means is in the annulus access means open position, and a preset open position thereof. A portion of the fluid is diverted through the transverse port in the valve with a remaining portion of the fluid continuing downwardly through the central opening of the drill string below the valve; and return means for returning the annulus access means to the closed position when the actuator is retrieved from the valve.

Tinsley, P.J.

1987-02-24

275

Access control system operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

1981-07-13

276

Broadband Fixed Radio Access  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The requirements for the digital signal processing of broadband wireless accesssystems are investigated. A discussion of different multiple access schemes consideringthe boundary conditions of future services is given, resulting in a Time DivisionMultiple Access (TDMA) proposal. The dominant TDMA component is the adaptiveequalizer. Different eligible equalizer structures and adaptation algorithms are assessed.It is shown that with the ongoing evolution of microelectronics, the proposed system canbe implemented at an attractive price in the near future.1. IntroductionIt is a well-known fact that Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) is the user access method offeringa maximum of data rates. Unfortunately, investment costs to install demand-covering opticalaccess networks are still far too high for any network provider. Therefore, they adopt strategiesusing the existing infrastructure in the Last Mile (twisted pair and coax cable), or wireless transmission.Accordingly, fiber is ...

Christian Drewes; Ralph Hasholzner; Joachim S. Hammerschmidt

277

Policy Fiasco: The Sabotage of Cabotage Policy Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that Cabotage policy as a non-tariff barrier has harmed the domestic economy and is inconsistent with the premise of trade liberalisation agenda. The effect of Cabotage policy limits market access and has formed monopoly in the shipping industry. The policy might increase efficiency in term of technology and consolidating resources in one participant of the industry but does not improve the overall welfare the industry. This paper proposes a mid-way-out approach by taking incremental steps towards change and requires a committee system to review and streamline the Cabotage policy. We named the committee as logistic committee that envisioned working on towards liberalizing the transportation and logistics industry. It is proposed that the committee decision as binding and as primary source of policy making input.

Firdausi Suffian; Mohammed Rahezzal Shah Abdul Karim; Abdul Kadir Rosline; Kamal Solhaimi Fadzil

2013-01-01

278

A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países, este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a c (more) onclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese estabelecida. A Primeira Guerra Mundial, contudo, foi um momento decisivo para o Brasil. Ao fazer-se este estudo, usaram-se os melhores dados disponíveis, partindo-se ocasionalmente dos usados por Clemens e Williamson. As nossas conclusões prevalecem com dados alternativos. Abstract in english This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion t (more) hat the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.

Mata, Maria Eugénia; Love, Joseph L.

2008-09-01

279

Sprawl and Accessibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay argues that many of the assumptions that have been made about sprawl are misleading or just wrong. Nowhere has this been more the case than in debates about transportation and access. Because of this, it is not surprising that a good many of the policies advocated by proponents of Smart Growth would almost certainly lead to reduced mobility and impaired accessibility for a large part of the population. At very least, the debates over sprawl have pitted private vs. public transportation in a way that has contributed to serious underfunding of transportation infrastructure of all kinds.

Robert Bruegmann

2008-01-01

280

Landscape Accessibility: Spaces for Accessibility or Spaces for Communication?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article gives an overview of contemporary studies on landscape accessibility. We focus on the broadened meaning of the term, where accessibility is not delimited with territorial access. The overview of landscape accessibility is widened by post-structural approaches. Discursive, socio-politica...

Kadri Semm; Hannes Palang

 
 
 
 
281

Migrants' access to healthcare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare.

Norredam, Marie

2011-01-01

282

Reaction of 'Windkoepel' to ECN with regard to the market consultation on MEP-tariffs 2004-2005 for onshore wind energy in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'Windkoepel is a cooperative between several wind energy-related organizations in the Netherlands. This article is a reaction to the so-called MEP-tariffs (MEP stands for environmental quality of power generation) for the years 2004-2005 for onshore wind energy

2003-01-01

283

The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

1991-01-01

284

Minimal access anterior mediastinotomy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anterior mediastinotomy and VATS are today the most common surgical approaches to obtain tissue diagnosis or to remove mediastinal lesions. However, both methods lead to inconveniences. This report demonstrates the advantages of a minimal access mediastinotomy to remove or diagnose mediastinal lesions.

Migliore M; Criscione A; Calvo D; Routledge T

2013-03-01

285

Open access / accesso aperto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sto collaborando, per la voce Open access, a un e-book a più mani dal titolo Le parole dell’innovazione. Ricorro all’archivio Marini per mettere a disposizione di tutti una versione estesa del mio lemma. Non dice nulla di nuovo rispetto al già noto; può però essere utile a chi sia completamente disinformato sul tema.

Maria Chiara Pievatolo

2012-01-01

286

Open access to transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig

1996-01-01

287

Open access publishing demystified  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation was presented during the 2009 international Open Access Day celebrations on Wednesday 21 October from 12:30-14:00 in the Conference Hall 100, Conference Centre, Hatfield campus in partnership with the Department of Research and Innovation Support. , http://www.aosis.co.za

De Villiers, Pierre J.T.

288

Funding scientific open access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

2006-01-01

289

Integrating excel and access  

CERN Multimedia

This unique reference shows you how to combine the powerful analysis tools of Excel with the structured storage and more powerful querying of Access. It covers everything you need to know, including interfaces, object models, and code. Learn how to crunch and visualize data like never before. Perfect for all Microsoft Office users

Schmalz, Michael

2006-01-01

290

Accessibility to dental services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Access to dental care has become a key focus for Government officials in Scotland. Newton et al. (2004) note that the White Paper ‘Towards a healthier Scotland’ (The Scottish Office Department of Health, 1999), identifies dental health as a key area for action, with large numbers of the...

Evenden, Craig Andrew

291

Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

Reichenbach, Johanna

2011-07-19

292

Electricity tariffs in India: an assessment of consumers' ability and willingness to pay in Gujarat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sample of electricity consumers covering agricultural, residential and industrial consumers, in the Indian State of Gujarat was surveyed in 1997 to investigate the consumers' ability and willingness to pay for electricity supplied from the grid. The ability to pay was estimated using the weight of the cost of electricity to meet at least the basic household needs in relation to the overall income or expenditure. The willingness to pay was estimated using the costs of meeting the needs by alternative sources of energy, namely diesel in the case of farmers to pump water for irrigation and captive power generation using diesel generators in the case of industrial users. Survey results reveal the proportion of consumers in different categories, which do not have the ability to pay more or are even not willing to pay more for electricity. The survey findings have been used as a guideline in the proposed adjustment of tariffs charged by the Gujarat Electricity Board. (author)

Ranjan Kumar Bose; Megha Shukla [Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi (India). Policy Analysis Div.

2001-05-01

293

Ten years of renewable electricity policies in Spain: An analysis of successive feed-in tariff reforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spain has been one of the most successful countries in the public promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), particularly wind electricity. This support has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme. Although the basic structure of the system was implemented in 1998, it has been modified in 2004 and 2007. This paper provides an overview of the last 10 years of RES-E promotion in Spain, focusing on the FIT system and analysing the main differences and improvements of the three FIT systems. A political economy approach, which considers the interactions between key stakeholders in RES-E promotion, is used to interpret the actual outcomes of successive FIT reforms and their main design elements.

2008-01-01

294

Ten years of renewable electricity policies in Spain: An analysis of successive feed-in tariff reforms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spain has been one of the most successful countries in the public promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), particularly wind electricity. This support has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme. Although the basic structure of the system was implemented in 1998, it has been modified in 2004 and 2007. This paper provides an overview of the last 10 years of RES-E promotion in Spain, focusing on the FIT system and analysing the main differences and improvements of the three FIT systems. A political economy approach, which considers the interactions between key stakeholders in RES-E promotion, is used to interpret the actual outcomes of successive FIT reforms and their main design elements.

Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Faculty of Social Sciences and Law, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo 45071 (Spain)], E-mail: pablo.rio@uclm.es

2008-08-15

295

Ten years of renewable electricity policies in Spain: An analysis of successive feed-in tariff reforms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spain has been one of the most successful countries in the public promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), particularly wind electricity. This support has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme. Although the basic structure of the system was implemented in 1998, it has been modified in 2004 and 2007. This paper provides an overview of the last 10 years of RES-E promotion in Spain, focusing on the FIT system and analysing the main differences and improvements of the three FIT systems. A political economy approach, which considers the interactions between key stakeholders in RES-E promotion, is used to interpret the actual outcomes of successive FIT reforms and their main design elements. (author)

del Rio Gonzalez, Pablo [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Faculty of Social Sciences and Law, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, C/ Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Toledo 45071 (Spain)

2008-08-15

296

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

297

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of underinvestment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com

2010-07-01

298

Access Solutions Tips, Tricks, and Secrets from Microsoft Access MVPs  

CERN Multimedia

Two Microsoft Access MVPs show how you can become an Access power user: Microsoft Access is the world’s leading database system, with millions of users and hundreds of thousands of developers. The best practices, tips, and techniques in this book can turn users into power users.; Millions of eager users make Access the most popular database system in the world. These Microsoft MVPs exploit key features in Access, providing advice on techniques for capturing, sharing and reporting Access data.; Each tip provides detailed solutions with clear instructions for implementation, and samples of all

Meyer, Arvin

2010-01-01

299

Implementing retail access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights of the historic events that have shaped the electric power industry in North America were recalled. The changes began in 1970 with a focus on improving the efficiency of power production and consumption. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 1992, and FERC order 888 and 889 issued in 1996 were the principal instruments that opened up energy markets. Other issues discussed include the introduction of independent service operators (ISOs), customer choice and retail access and the problem of how to deal with stranded costs. Details of some of these national trends and issues and New York State`s retail access program were reviewed. The New York state plan includes goals for lower rates, encouragement of economic development, enhanced customer choice and continued provision of reliable service. Separation of generation from transmission and distribution, wholesale competition and reasonable opportunity to recover stranded costs are the backbone of the New York plan. 1 fig.

Tedesco, R. [New York State Electric and Gas Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States)

1998-09-01

300

Mobile Information Access  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to access information on demand when mobile will be a critical capability in the 21stcentury. In this paper, we examine the fundamental forces at work in mobile computing systems andexplain how they constrain the problem of mobile information access. From these constraints, wederive the importance of adaptivity as a crucial requirement of mobile clients. We then develop ataxonomy of adaptation strategies, and summarize our research in application-transparent andapplication-aware adaptation in the Coda and Odyssey systems respectively.This research was supported by the Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) and the Advanced Research ProjectsAgency (ARPA) under contract number F196828-93-C-0193. Additional support was provided by the IBM Corp.,Digital Equipment Corp., Intel Corp., Xerox Corp., and AT&T Corp. The U.S. government is authorized toreproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes, notwithstanding any copyright notation thereon.The views and conclusi...

M. Satyanarayanan

 
 
 
 
301

Bentham Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

Are you fascinated by fascia? Might you find silica scintillating? Look no further gentle reader as Bentham Open Access can provide information about these topics. Bentham Publishers recently launched over 200 peer-reviewed open access journals, and visitors should feel free to browse around at their leisure. Visitors can browse titles by discipline, and everything from agriculture to virology exists within these electronic pages. Of course, for those who already know the title of the journal they are looking for, there is an "A-Z" section as well. In each journal, visitors can browse through the articles, learn about the editorial board, and also take in their manuscript submission requirements. Overall, it is an ambitious journal and one that may spur other electronic publishers to action.

302

Access the CCOP Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Cancer Institute has long recognized the problems independent investigators face in accruing adequate numbers of study participants to their federally funded research projects. As a result, the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) has developed guidelines and mechanisms to assist investigators in accessing the Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) network, a nationwide consortium of community hospitals and physicians that participate in NCI-approved cancer treatment, prevention, and control clinical trials.

303

Telecommunication access to INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding from the features of on-line retrieval from the INIS data base, a description is given of the technical and organizational conditions established by the national INIS Centre of the GDR in using the INIS direct access service. Data are presented on the structure of search queries, retrieval precision, and connect time to the computer. Experience has shown that efficient dialogue searching necessitates the searcher's skill and familiarity with the system. (author).

1983-01-01

304

The transmission - access game  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent regulatory changes have made the times tumultuous for electric utilities. These changes are a direct result of the enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. A close look at the effect of this statute and its implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests who the winners and losers will be under the new transmission-access regime - and, more important, some winning lessons for utility managers who want to avoid unnecessary losses.

Benkin, I.D.

1994-05-15

305

Quantum random access memory  

CERN Multimedia

Random access memory, or RAM, is a device that allows one to address at will one cell out of an array of memory cells: one n-bit address selects one out of 2^n memory cells. In a quantum random access memory, or qRAM, an n-qubit address register allows one to access a coherent quantum superposition of 2^n memory cells. RAMs, both classical and quantum, represent a relatively slow and inefficient part of computers: in conventional designs, O(2^n) switches must be thrown in order to make a single memory call. This paper presents an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: only O(n) switches need be thrown during a memory call. This architecture could result in significant energy savings for classical computers, and in large qRAMs that can operate efficiently without the use of quantum error correction. A quantum optical model of such a qRAM architecture is presented.

Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo

2007-01-01

306

ADOPT Open Access  

CERN Multimedia

Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

2007-01-01

307

Planning for solar access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Land use planning is often no more than a strategy for getting the most economic value from a given piece of land while attempting to minimize the expense of mitigating environmental impacts. Because conventional fuels are currently inexpensive, development takes place with little consideration for energy efficiency or solar access. By identifying sites with solar access now, planners and building designers can assure that the south facing roofs and walls of future buildings will receive the solar energy necessary to satisfy the energy needs of their occupants. Planner Ian McHarg outlined scientific methods to map natural determinants including geology, hydrology, wildlife, soils, climate, as well as social determinants like population density, energy consumption, and transportation patterns in the late 60s. Overlays of these hand plotted maps gave planners a method of finding the most suitable sites for identified needs but were cost prohibitive for most projects. The affordability of studies done on high speed computers now allows general application of McHargian planning methods. At the time McHarg was developing his planning theory photovoltaics were so expensive their use was restricted to government projects. The low cost of heating with fossil fuels made solar heating expensive by comparison. Today advances in solar technology have made solar electricity and heating competitive with non-renewable energy resources. This paper will show how McHargian planning methods can be effectively used in conjunction with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to include efficiency and renewable energy access in land use decision making.

Heckeroth, S.; McLees, C. [Homestead Enterprises, Albion, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

308

Expanding the access to electricity in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian electrical service sector initiated a restructuring process by unbundling the generation, transmission, and distribution components of the existing companies some years ago. This ultimately led to the privatization of most of the service distribution assets and some of the service generation assets. ANEEL (Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica), the power sector's regulatory agency, was established in 1996 to regulate the overall operations of the sector. However, little attention was paid in the process to the expansion of the services to low-income and rural areas. Sponsored by international donors and implemented mainly through concessionaires, a series of pilot experiences of off-grid electrification that used PV (photovoltaic), vind, or hybrid systems in very remote villages resulted in the creation of PRODEEM (Programa de Desenvolvimento Energetio de Estados e Municipios) in 1994 by the federal government. This programme currently managed by MEE (Ministerio de Mins e Energia) and aims to promote the off-grid electrification of those villages that use PV systems. Partnerships have been established with the state ministries of energy and With utilities to ensure the installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. However, there has always been a question mark over the sustainability of this programme, which was aggravated by the privatization of distribution utilities. The difficulties related to servicing the low-income markets, either urban or rural, are intrinsically characteristic of there markets: low consumption per unit significantly reduces the recovery time for initial investments and it is aggravated in the case of rural markets by high dispersion implying higher initial investments. This situation, which was already difficult under state-owned companies, has become more serious due to a privatization process intended to maximize the value of assets to be sold and to minimize obligations to future concessionaires. Once private distribution companies were in place, the weaknesses in the recently created framework became evident. There was a lack of incentives and obligations to implement rural electrification programme, to improve supply to low-income consumers, and sustain existing off-grid projects. Consequently, both the executive and legislative branches of the federal government have jointly started parallel initiatives to create incentives and obligations for the new concessionaires to invest in rural electrification and to supply such services to low-income consumers. Eletrobras, under the aegis of MME launched an ambitious programme, Luzno-Campo, to finance the electrification of i million new rural consumers over a threeyear-period and to focus exclusively on grid extension. Concurrently, budgets for PRODEEM have been continuously increased. The Brazilian Congress passed Law io 438, in April 2002, with provisions for the reduction of tariffs to low-income consumers, the establishment of targets for concessionaires and 'permissionaires'3 to provide full coverage, and the creation of a national fund CDE (Conta de Desenvolvimento En ergetico) to promote universal access to electricity and the use of innovative sources of energy. ANEEL is expected to pass regulations implementing the Law, whereby concessionaires must provide full coverage under a target plan. On parallel lines, MME is preparing a programme to accelerate universal access to electricity by ensuring additional resources, and particularly by creating rules for use of CDE resources. It is recognized that power sector restructuring and privatization of the distribution utilities have not yet provided any benefit to expand the access to energy services. It can even be argued that privatization has served to reduce the pace of rural electrification and to increase the cost of grid extension, due to new standards introduced, and the freeze of incipient renewable energy projects based mainly in SHS (solar home systems). Thus, a concerted effort of the MME, ANEEL, and Eletrobras are vital to overcome this impa

Goldemberg, J.; Rovere La, E.L.; Coelho, S.T.; Pereira, O.S.; Muylaert, M.S.; Simoes, A.; Zilles, R.; Guardabassi, P.; Paletta, C.E.M

2004-07-01

309

Method for a national tariff comparison for natural gas, electricity and heat. Set-up and presentation; Methode voor een nationale tariefvergelijking voor gas, elektriciteit en warmte. Opzet en wijze van presentatie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several groups (within distribution companies and outside those companies) have a need for information and data on energy tariffs. It is the opinion of the ad-hoc working group that a comparison of tariffs on the basis of standard cases is the most practical method to meet the information demand of all the parties involved. Those standard cases are formulated and presented for prices of electricity, natural gas and heat, including applied consumption parameters. A comparison of such tariffs must be made periodically.

NONE

1998-05-01

310

Planning of a tariff structure for the electric power, based on marginal costs, using mathematical programming; Planejamento de uma estrutura tarifaria para energia eletrica, baseada em custos marginais, utilizando programacao matematica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper starts with a theoretical essay about tariffs for electric energy and the advantages of using tariffs based on marginal costs. Different ways of obtaining this last type of tariff are then assessed. Following, a lines programing, model is used to optimize the expansion of a hydrothermal power system; the marginal costs are obtained as dual costs, taking into account financial constraints of the utility, income distribution problems of the affected population and the matter of implementing gradually the new scheme. (author). 12 refs

Bajay, Sergio V.; Lima, Paulo C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

1984-12-31

311

A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

Domiciano, Jose Antonio

2002-07-01

312

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La Budapest Open Access Initiative data al 2002 e rappresenta una pietra miliare nella storia del movimento per l'accesso aperto all'informazione scientifica.The Budapest Open Access Initiative was issued in 2002 and represents a milestone in the history of the Open Access movement, since it giv...

Redazione JLIS.it

313

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Budapest Open Access Initiative data al 2002 e rappresenta una pietra miliare nella storia del movimento per l'accesso aperto all'informazione scientifica.The Budapest Open Access Initiative was issued in 2002 and represents a milestone in the history of the Open Access movement, since it gives the first definition of what OA is.

Redazione JLIS.it

2012-01-01

314

?????????????? Access Conference Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?Conference proceedings are becoming increasingly important for Sci-Tech communication especially in highly dynamic and mult-disciplinary fields of knowledge. How to access to conference proceedings becoming more important for Libraries. Collects and analyzes data about conference literature in the field of library from Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library Literature. Describing them in year division. This study presented describing the state of conference literature situation in the very diverse conditions that govern information dissemination in the libraries. This analysis shows the history, influence and value of conference papers and proceedings source for librarians.

Sheue-fang Song

1998-01-01

315

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC) system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE) based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ) framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

Shuiming Ye; Ying Luo; Jian Zhao; Sen-Ching S. Cheung

2009-01-01

316

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC) system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE) based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the -Anonymous Quantization (kAQ) framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

Ye Shuiming; Luo Ying; Zhao Jian; Cheung Sen-ChingS

2009-01-01

317

Challenges of open access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As utilities provide open access to their transmission grids under new federal regulations, the volume of bulk power transactions is expected to rise sharply - putting a strain on already heavily loaded delivery systems. Can everybody ride a grid that was designed to be operated in a simpler business environment New EPRI software and analysis methods can help utilities cope with the practical problems that open access brings, such as accurately calculating the costs of providing transmission services to third parties and operating power systems closer to their inherent technical limits. A variety of power system analysis programs are already available for planning purposes, and on-line versions for use by operations personnel are beginning to enter utility demonstration. In addition, new resource scheduling and generation control software can help utilities reduce the total cost of electricity production by up to 3%. A decision framework has also been prepared that a utility can use to integrate technical information about its power system with overall corporate strategy.

Douglas, J.

1994-09-01

318

EPICS: Channel Access security design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

1994-05-01

319

Summary of the FERC final rules on comparable open access, stranded cost recovery, and same-time information systems: order 888 and order 889  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

FERC Final Rules of wholesale electricity generation and transmission services and their impact in implementing non-discriminatory open access to transmission facilities in the United States, were discussed. The article focused on the scope of the rule, the definition of legal authority, comparability, ancillary services, real-time information networks, co-ordination arrangements for power pools, public utility companies, and independent system operators. Rules concerning pro forma tariffs, definition of federal and state jurisdictions, and the mechanism for settling problems of stranded costs were also explained.

NONE

1996-12-31

320

Rationalization of water reservoirs operation reduces energy cost with the application of period- and season-dependent tariffs; Racionalizacao da operacao de pocos associada a reservacao reduz custo de energia com aplicacao de tarifa horo-sazonal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is presented the utilization of differentiated tariffs for water supply by the Brazilian utility SABESP (Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo) as a mean to save electric power 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Cassiano Filho, Almiro; Orsati, Walter; Bianchi Neto, Cesar [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), SP (Brazil)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
321

Tariff proposal for the use of the public power transportation and distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de transport et de distribution d'electricite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This proposal made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) integrates the overall network costs mentioned in the article 2 of the decree no. 2001-365 from April 26, 2001 relative to the tariffs of use of public power transportation and distribution networks. These tariffs include the use of international interconnections with the exception of the optimization costs for international transit capacities and the DC interconnection between France and UK. The proposal concerns: the tariffs applicable to power producers, the tariffs applicable to consumers and distributors connected in high voltage (HVA, HVB, 225 kV or 400 kV: multiplicity of connection points, distributors tariffing, tariffing of emergency power supplies, of power excesses, special tariffing for non-warranted punctual power excesses, tariffing of reactive energy, of metering services); tariffing for low voltage connected users (up to 36 kVA, above 36 kVA). (J.S.)

NONE

2002-01-01

322

Heating systems working with night-tariff power and fluorochlorcarbon-free heat pump with zeolite. Nachtstromspeicherheizungen und FCKW-freie Waermepumpe mit Zeolith  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zeolite, a natural crystal which since appr. 40 years can also be produced synthetically might make a significant contribution to energy saving in the future. Using a sorption system made of zeolites and water, both energy-saving heatings with night-tariff power and fluorochlorcarbon-free heat pumps/water heaters can be constructed. A prototype has been running in a Munich hotel for more than 2 years. (orig.).

Maier-Laxhuber, P.; Schwarz, J. (Zeo-Tech GmbH, Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))

1990-08-01

323

Role-Based Access Control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based access control (RBAC) - that is more central to the secure processing needs of non-military systems then DAC.

David Ferraiolo; Richard Kuhn

324

Role-Based Access Controls  

CERN Document Server

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based access control (RBAC) - that is more central to the secure processing needs of non-military systems then DAC.

Ferraiolo, David F

2009-01-01

325

Grassroots action for renewable energy. How did Ontario succeed in the implementation of a feed-in tariff system?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the policymaking process of Ontario's Green Energy Act (GEA) which enabled the introduction of the first comprehensive feed-in tariff (FIT) in North America. The FIT, which is a payback system for renewable energy (RE) producers, was implemented in order to make Ontario a Green Leader in North America. This article analyzes this process through a consideration of the role played by grassroots action. The Green Energy Act Alliance (GEAA) succeeded in the implementation of the GEA. Using Lober's collaborative window, this article explores factors that led to the realization of the FIT. The conclusion will show that the GEAA succeeded in opening the collaborative window, even though the model's prerequisites were not completely fulfilled, namely there was a lack of public awareness. The diffusion of innovation theory helps us to understand this, with regard to the GEAA's strategy. The policymakers had recognized the importance of RE but had not yet been motivated to develop RE generating capacity in the region. The GEAA changed their opinion by showing the success of the FIT in Europe in boosting the economy. After the European study tour, the Minister of Energy, George Smitherman, as one of the important policymakers, started to support the GEA, and this was the key factor leading to the introduction of the FIT, despite a lack of public awareness. (orig.)

Nishimura, Kensuke [Free Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre

2012-12-15

326

The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

2012-01-01

327

Insulation and bivalent heating system optimization: residential housing retrofits and time-of-use tariffs for electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Time-of-use tariffs, which reflect the cost of producing one extra unit of electricity, will be more common in the future. In Sweden the electricity unit price will be high during the winter and cheaper during the summer. A bivalent heating system, where an oil-fired boiler takes care of the peak load, when the electricity price is high, and a heat pump the base load, may decrease the cost of space heating substantially. However, insulation retrofits are also likely to reduce the peak space-heating load in a building. This paper shows how a bivalent heating system can be optimized while also considering the insulation measures. The optimization is elaborated by the use of a mixed integer programming model and the result is compared with a derivative optimization method used in the OPERA (optimal energy retrofit advisory) model. Both models use the life-cycle cost (LCC) as a ranking criterion, i.e. when the lowest LCC for the building is achieved, no better retrofit combination exists for the remaining life of the building. (author).

Gustafsson, S.-I.; Karlsson, B.G. (Institute of Technology, Linkoeping (SE). Div. of Energy Systems)

1989-01-01

328

Reasons for decision in the matter of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Alberta Clipper expansion project : facilities and tolls and tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In May 2007, Enbridge Pipelines Inc. applied for approval to construct the Alberta Clipper Expansion Project which consists of 1074 km of oil pipeline and associated facilities between its Hardisty, Alberta terminal and the Canada/United States border near Gretna, Manitoba. The purpose of the project is to increase the takeaway capacity out of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and into PADD 2 and eastern Canadian markets. The pipeline would have an initial capacity of 71,500 cubic metres per day. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion with a targeted in-service data for July 2010. Public hearings into the Alberta Clipper project began in November 2007 and included an oral hearing. The Board was presented with evidence from intervenors on many issues including impacts to Aboriginal peoples and the impact of the project on domestic interests. The Board reviewed the design and operation of the proposed facilities as well as routing and land requirements. Issues regarding the environment, socio-economic matters, tolls, tariffs and economics were also addressed. The Board was satisfied from the evidence that the proposed facilities are, and will be, required by the present and future public convenience and necessity. In approving the project, the Board attached several conditions, including one that requires Enbridge to conduct an emergency response exercise at its South Saskatchewan River crossing. This condition is in response to public concerns raised during the hearing process. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs., 4 appendices.

2010-07-00

329

International trade and investment law reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten reports provide the latest information on the legal and policy framework renewable energy companies will need to understand to enter foreign markets. Information includes the national policy toward renewable energy, relevant tariff and non-tariff regulations, as well as controls on licensing arrangements. The reports also describe the government's general policies and controls on foreign investors, and list incentives the government has enacted specifically to encourage renewable energy investments.

1986-01-01

330

Evaluation of the energy component in the main grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates; Evaluering av energileddet i sentralnettstariffen og bruk av marginaltapssatser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, we make an evaluation of the energy component of the central grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates. We will first review the theory of optimum transmission tariffs and describes how the marginal loss rates are calculated and how these are used in combination with the system price in the current transmission costs. We describe the trend in the Swedish marginal loss schedule, and we refer the very short development in the PJM area (U.S. east coast). As the Swedish and the Norwegian system is apparently based on the same principles, we problematize the lack of harmonization, since the systems actually are now very different. There is little doubt that Statnett has refined and improved methods for calculating the marginal loss rates, while ensuring that bottlenecks are still handled fairly easy by a few large price areas on Nord Pool Spot. We discuss the relationship between loss-tariff and congestion management, and we recommend that Statnett considering using the area price as the settlement price. This will make it much easier for operators to take account of losses. (Author)

Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette

2010-11-15

331

A quantum access network  

CERN Multimedia

The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionise how information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, so far no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we show that adopting simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies to form a quantum access network can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We are able to demonstrate that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at the network node can be shared between up to 64 users, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This shared receiver architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application...

Fröhlich, Bernd; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

2013-01-01

332

Comunicazione e Open Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il potenziale editoriale della rivista, sebbene compia appena il suo terzo anno di attività, è considerevole: basti pensare che la scelta fondante una parte del progetto editoriale, la pubblicazione di testi integrali, accessibili liberamente e gratuitamente su formato html, ha permesso l’accrescersi costante della consultazione delle pagine web pubblicate su internet e del numero dei visitatori che hanno avuto accesso agli articoli diffusi per ogni numero trimestrale. Condividendo e promuovendo i principi dell’Open-Access, il libero accesso al patrimonio culturale e scientifico, partecipando ad una comunicazione scientifica che favorisca una democratizzazione della conoscenza, si è inoltre indotto un valore aggiunto allo strumento editoriale: la valorizzazione della produzione scientifica e degli stessi contributi degli autori, insieme all’ampia divulgazione dei contenuti, liberamente accessibili da qualsiasi luogo del mondo tramite una connessione ad internet.

Orazio Maria Valastro

2005-01-01

333

High Speed Packet Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.This paper review brief Advantages, futures of different technology against HAPA, Like CDMA2000/UMB, IEE802.16e Wi-MAX and the evolution of HSPA (HSPA+). HSPA offers operators a single network for multiple services, with a sound business case built on revenues from voice, SMS, MMS, roaming customers and mobile broadband.

Mr. Santosh G. Bari1 , Mr. Kishor P. Jadhav2 Mr. Vishal P. Jagtap

2013-01-01

334

[The difficult venous access].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Venipunctures in children are difficult. Some factors can hardly be influenced, for example, a well-developed subcutaneous fat tissue. Technical devices may help to identify invisible veins. With the help of ultrasound deep peripheral veins on the wrists and ankles can be presented and punctured. Stiff resistance of a child thwarts any successful puncture. Children should therefore be adequately sedated, if cannot be induced by mask. Missing practice venipuncture and inadequate knowledge of appropriate puncture sites can be met easily by practicing and reading.The possibility of intraosseous puncture today is standard of anesthesia care for children. Within in a few seconds, a secure access to the vein system can be created.

Strauß JM; Denk A

2013-04-01

335

Accessing SDO Data  

Science.gov (United States)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools.

Hourcle, Joseph; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

336

SEALED SURGICAL ACCESS DEVICE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A surgical device (50) is adapted to facilitate access through an incision (100) in a body wall (18) having an inner surface and an outer surface, and into a body cavity of a patinet. The device includes (55) and second (65) retention members adapted to be disposed in proximity to the outer surface and the inner surface of the body wall, respectively. A membrane (75) extending between the two retention members form a throat (90) which is adapted to extend through the incision (100) and form a first funnel extending from the first retention member (55) into the throat (90), and a second funnel extending from the second retention member (65) into the throat (90). The throat of the membrane has characteristics for forming an instrument seal in the presence of an instrument and a zero seal in the absence of an instrument. The first retention member (55) may include a ring with either a fixed or variable diameter.

EWERS Richard C.; BRUSTAD John R.; PINGLETON Edward D.; HILAL Nabil; ADLPARVAR Payam; TAYLOR Scott; DULAK Gary R.; DUNN Michael J.; MORALES Norman; HART Charles C.; BOWES II Robert R.

337

Linux Access HOWTO  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this document is to serve as an introduction to the technologies which are available to makeLinux usable by people who, through some disability would otherwise have problems with it. In otherwords the target groups of the technologies are, the blind, the partially sighted, deaf and the physicallydisabled. As any other technologies or pieces of information are discovered they will be added.The information here not just for these people (although that is probably the main aim) but also to allowdevelopers of Linux to become aware of the difficulties involved here. Possibly the biggest problem is that,right now, very few of the developers of Linux are aware of the issues and various simple ways to make lifesimpler for implementors of these systems. This has, however, changed noticeably since the introduction ofthis document, and at least to a small extent because of this document, but also to a large extent due to thework of some dedicated developers, many of whom are mentioned in the document's Acknowledgements.Please send any comments or extra information or offers of assistance to !access-howto@ed.ac.uk? Thisaddress might become a mailing list in future, or be automatically handed over to a future maintainer ofthe HOWTO, so please don't use it for personal email.I don't have time to follow developments in all areas. I probably won't even read a mail until I have timeto update this document. It's still gratefully received. If a mail is sent to the blind-list or the access-list, I

338

A quantum access network.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionize the way in which information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, until now no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate the concept of a 'quantum access network': based on simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies, the scheme can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We show that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at a network node can be shared between up to 64 users for exchanging secret keys with the node, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This point-to-multipoint architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application of QKD. It presents a viable method for realizing multi-user QKD networks with efficient use of resources, and brings QKD closer to becoming a widespread technology.

Fröhlich B; Dynes JF; Lucamarini M; Sharpe AW; Yuan Z; Shields AJ

2013-09-01

339

VASCULAR ACCESS FOR HAEMODIALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of 254 arterio-venous fistulas made in 223 patients with end stage renal disease for chronic hemodialysisis presented. 122 patients had 138 side to side (side of artery to side of vein) fistulae and 99 patients had116 end to side (end of vein and side of artery) fistulae fashioned. The different complications in both thetypes of fistulae were similar. No patient had infection. 13 (11%) patients with a side to side fistula had earlyfailure while 15 (15%) of the end to side had early failure. The main cause of early thrombosis was due tojudgmental error. The vein was either too small or was thrombosed proximally resulting in poor proximalflow. Other complications like stenosis, aneurysm formation and a painful swollen hand were rarely seen.Arteriovenous fistula is a safe operation which can be performed under local anesthesia with minimal morbidityand no mortality. There is no significant difference in the complication rate of either type of fistula. Side toside fistulae are as good as end to side fistulae for vascular access in chronic hemodialysis.

Mohammad Usman Khan

1995-01-01

340

Making Astronomy Accessible  

Science.gov (United States)

A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

Grice, Noreen A.

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Supporting Relationships in Access Control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Role Based Access Control (RBAC) model andmechanism have proven to be useful and effective. This isclear from the many RBAC implementations in commercialproducts. However, there are many common exampleswhere access decisions must include other factors, inparticular, relationships between entities, such as, the user,the object to be accessed, and the subject of the informationcontained within the object. Such relationships are often notefficiently represented using traditional static securityattributes centrally administered. Furthermore, theextension of RBAC models to include relationshipsobscures the fundamental RBAC metaphor.

John Barkley; Konstantin Beznosov

342

Vehicle barrier with access delay  

Science.gov (United States)

An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

2013-09-03

343

Performance metrics for advanced access.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced access is an outpatient scheduling technique that aims to provide sameday appointment access. It is designed to reduce the time patients must wait for a scheduled appointment and to improve continuity of care by matching daily appointment supply and demand. Factors that make it difficult to sustain initial success in achieving supply-demand balance include different practice styles of doctors, differences in panel compositions and patient preferences, and time-varying demand patterns. This article proposes several performance measures that can help clinic directors monitor and evaluate their advanced access implementation. We also discuss strategies for sustaining advanced access in the long run. PMID:16916118

Gupta, Diwakar; Potthoff, Sandra; Blowers, Donald; Corlett, John

344

First Monday: Open Access Publishing  

Science.gov (United States)

The peer-reviewed Internet journal, First Monday (discussed in the August 23, 1996 Scout Report), presents a dreary picture for open access publishing and research. The author of this article, Joseph J. Esposito, comments on The Unexpected Future of Open Access Publishing. Esposito is skeptical of the idea that the age of the Internet and online publishing will bring access to the world's research publications free for everyone, "by shifting the costs to other places in the value chain and disintermediating publishers." Instead, he argues that Open Access will come about at the cost of authors and their proxies. The author details his argument regarding these unanticipated outcomes in this article.

345

ACCESS IT courses feedback session ACCESS IT courses feedback session  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this session we will discuss possible improvements to ACCESS IT courses. Finally we willdiscuss ideas for course promotion and certification. , In this session we will discuss possible improvements to ACCESS IT courses. Finally we willdiscuss ideas for course promotion and certification.

Dudczak, Adam; Wró?, Bogna; Dudczak, Adam; Wró?, Bogna

346

A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

2001-01-01

347

Critical Access Hospitals (CAH) Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home > Topics & States > Topics > Critical Access Hospitals Critical Access Hospitals Frequently Asked Questions What is a Critical ... of EHRs and CAHs? What is a Critical Access Hospital? A Critical Access Hospital (CAH) is a ...

348

Supporting Relationships in Access Control Using Role Based Access Control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Role Based Access Control (RBAC) model andmechanism have proven to be useful and effective. This isclear from the many RBAC implementations in commercialproducts. However, there are many common exampleswhere access decisions must include other factors, inparticular, relationships between entities, such as, the user,the object to be accessed, and the subject of the informationcontained within the object. Such relationships are often notefficiently represented using traditional static securityattributes centrally administered. Furthermore, theextension of RBAC models to include relationshipsobscures the fundamental RBAC metaphor.This paper furthers the concept of relationships for use inaccess control, and it shows how relationships can besupported in role based access decisions by using theObject Management Group's (OMG) Resource AccessDecision facility (RAD). This facility allows relationshipinformation, which can dynamically change as part ofnormal application p...

John Barkley; Konstantin Beznosov

349

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Med...

Swain, Chris

350

Controlling Access to Suicide Means  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of ...

Marco Sarchiapone; Laura Mandelli; Miriam Iosue; Costanza Andrisano; Alec Roy

351

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

Swain, Chris

2007-01-01

352

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

Swain Chris

2007-01-01

353

Ask me about Open Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The University of Pretoria's Department of Library Services celebrated Open Access Day 27th October 2011. Various students, researchers and library staff members took part in the Open Access competition sponsored by Bookmark and the Department of Library Services. , http://www.library.up.ac.za/openup/o...

Olivier, Elsabe

354

Open Access: an institutional perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview of Open access and its two routes is given. It highlights South African achievements in creating Open access to scholarly output and discusses practical implementation strategies that the Open scholarship office at the University of Pretoria follows in making their research article outpu...

Olivier, Elsabe

355

Accessibility and visually impaired users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Internet accessibility for the visually impaired community is still an open issue. Guidelines have been issued by the W3C consortium to help web designers to improve web site accessibility. However several studies show that a significant percentage of web page creators are still ignoring the propose...

Fernandes, António Ramires; Pereira, Jorge; Campos, J. Creissac

356

Conscious access overflows overt report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Block proposes that phenomenal experience overflows conscious access. In contrast, we propose that conscious access overflows overt report. We argue that a theory of phenomenal experience cannot discard subjective report and that Block's examples of phenomenal "overflow" relate to two different type...

Sergent, C; Rees, G

357

Importance of accessible cancer care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accessibility is a fundamental principle of government run health systems. Despite this, many factors impair access to care including geography, language, socioeconomic status and gender. Waiting for health care is a barrier to access that can result in significant anxiety and stress, deterioration in functional status and loss of income. Prompt access to diagnosis and treatment are key requirements to improving survival and quality of life for patients with cancer. This review will focus on studies, programs and policies aimed at improving access to care, applicability to patients with lymphoma, and potential impact. There is a growing burden on health care systems due to increasing cancer incidence and escalating health expenditures. Accordingly, initiatives and programs must be evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency.

Skrabek P

2013-08-01

358

Role-Based Access Control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure militaryapplications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meetingthe security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper arguesthat reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriatefor many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paperdescribes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based access control (RBAC)- that is more central to the secure processing needs of non-military systems then DAC.1 IntroductionThe U.S. government has been involved in developing security technology for computer andcommunications systems for some time. Although advances have been great, it is generallyperceived that the current state of security technology has, to some extent failed to addressthe needs of all. [1], [2] This is especially true of organizations outside the Department ofDefense (DoD). [3]The curre...

David Ferraiolo; Richard Kuhn

359

Editorial ~ Open Access in Action!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mid 2006 finds the academic research community engaged in an ideological and fiscal war related to Open Access publishing. Open Access requires that the full text of publications be made available at no cost to anyone on the open Internet. Recent position and discussion papers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries, have called for dialogue amongst academics and strongly hinted that research supported by public funds should be made available freely to the general public. The resulting discussion has clearly split the academic community with both support and rejection of the notion from all sides of the politic and discipline spectra.IRRODL’s position is, as expected, to be solidly behind all moves to insure Open Access publication. We are proudly listed with the 2,256 other journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals and our publisher, Athabasca University, is a signature to the Budapest Open Access Initiative.

Terry Anderson, Canada Research Chair in Distance Education

2006-01-01

360

Optimal accessing and non-accessing structures for graph protocols  

CERN Document Server

An accessing set in a graph is a subset B of vertices such that \\existsD \\subseteq B, \\forallv \\in V \\B,|N(v)\\capD| = 0 mod2. In this paper, we introduce new bounds on the minimal size {\\kappa}'(G) of an accessing set, and on the maximal size {\\kappa}(G) of a non-accessing set of a graph G. We show strong connections with perfect codes and give explicitly {\\kappa}(G) and {\\kappa}'(G) for several families of graphs. Finally, we show that the corresponding decision problems are NP-Complete.

Gravier, Sylvain; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs) nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam, em média, 33 vezes mais entre si do que com o resto do mundo. A introdução explícita da tarifa no modelo indicou um efeito redutor nas exportações, mais que proporcional ao aumento tarifário. Isolando a influência das tarifas do efeito-fronteira, os estados brasileiros ainda comercializariam 26 vezes mais entre si. O cálculo do equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias mostrou que as BNTs correspondiam à uma tarifa ad valorem de aproximadamente 29%.The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest model, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.

Orlando Monteiro da Silva; Fernanda Maria de Almeida

2009-01-01

362

The suitability of a feed-in tariff for wind energy in New Zealand—A study based on stakeholders' perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New Zealand (NZ) aims to expand the deployment of wind energy as one means to achieve 90% of electricity generation from renewables by 2025 and in addition to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Due to electricity market regulations that inhibit market entry for independent developers, New Zealand's wind energy development has been limited to primarily large wind farms developed by a handful of electricity utilities. In contrast to many other countries, NZ lacks policy support for entry of smaller investors into the wind generation sector. In order to gage the acceptability of a feed in tariff (FIT) for wind energy in New Zealand, a survey questionnaire (366 respondents) with land owning farmers and semi structured interviews with wind energy stakeholders was conducted. Although international literature suggests that a FIT would be the most suitable policy support scheme to accelerate wind energy deployment, this conclusion was not reached by many influential stakeholders in NZ. However, a majority of the surveyed farmers supported the introduction of a FIT for wind energy. The study also revealed that farmers' acceptance of wind energy in their local area increases with their awareness about climate change issues. - Highlights: ? Of countries in the world with a good wind regime, NZ has a low level of policy support for wind energy. ? A survey of landowning farmers in NZ (366 respondents) indicated support for a feed in tariff for wind energy. ? The major electricity generators, however, did not indicate support for a feed in tariff. ? A low level of recognition of climate change being anthropogenic was found among landowning farmers.

2012-01-01

363

Data Access Performance Through Parallelization and Vectored Access: Some Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High Energy Physics data processing and analysis applications typically deal with the problem of accessing and processing data at high speed. Recent studies, development and test work have shown that the latencies due to data access can often be hidden by parallelizing them with the data processing, thus giving the ability to have applications which process remote data with a high level of efficiency. Techniques and algorithms able to reach this result have been implemented in the client side of the Scalla/xrootd system, and in this contribution we describe the results of some tests done in order to compare their performance and characteristics. These techniques, if used together with multiple streams data access, can also be effective in allowing to efficiently and transparently deal with data repositories accessible via a Wide Area Network.

Furano, Fabrizio; /INFN, Padua; Hanushevsky, Andrew; /SLAC

2011-11-10

364

Power price signal from the socket - efficient load management by variable tariffs; Strompreissignal an der Steckdose - effiziente Laststeuerung durch variable Tarife  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the project is to develop a service that enables end customers to manage and control their power consumption according to the changing energy market price. Economic efficiency, environmental sustainability and safety of the energy supply all will be enhanced. Energy trading will be open to a wider public. Via a variable power tariff, customers can optimize their consumption as well as their decentralized generation of electricity. The first step of the implementation is the preparation of the pilot scheme in Baden-Wuerttemberg. (orig.)

Frey, H. [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

2006-07-01

365

Access control system for ISABELLE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An access system based on the one now in operation at the CERN ISR is recommended. Access doors would presumably be located at the entrances to the utility tunnels connecting the support buildings with the ring. Persons requesting access would insert an identity card into a scanner to activate the system. The request would be autologged, the keybank adjacent to the door would be unlocked and ISABELLE operations would be notified. The operator would then select the door, activating a TV-audio link. The person requesting entry would draw a key from the bank, show it and his film badge to the operator who would enable the door release

1977-07-29

366

SM18 Visits and Access  

CERN Multimedia

  VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

2012-01-01

367

Increasing Access to Special Collections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

Ricky Erway

2012-01-01

368

Heating fuel oil tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel-oil sellers must quote gross prices. The addition to the net price, plus added value tax, is not enough. Now, the competent authorities control the offers of the fuel-oil traders. Net prices are punished as illegal acts.

1981-05-01

369

2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States  

CERN Multimedia

13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

Françoise Benz

2003-01-01

370

Access Control: The Neglected Frontier  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Access control is an indispensable security technology. However, it has been relatively neglected by the research community. Over the past ten years, the doctrine of mandatory and discretionary access controls has slowly become discredited but no dominant doctrine has emerged to replace it. There are promising candidates such as role and task-based access controls but these are still in their formative stages and have not gained wide acceptance. This paper gives my personal perspective on these issues and identifies some of the important access control issues that researchers and practitioners should focus on. 1 Introduction Information and system security is a multi-faceted discipline. Security presents diverse and conflicting objectives. Availability, confidentiality, integrity and privacy have been explicitly recognized in the security literature for some time. Other objectives such as intellectual property protection, copyright, secure electronic transactions, metering systems a...

Ravi Sandhu

371

Access Control: The Neglected Frontier  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Access control is an indispensable security technology. However, it has been relatively neglected by the research community. Over the past ten years, the doctrine of mandatory and discretionary access controls has slowly become discredited but no dominant doctrine has emerged to replace it. There are promising candidates such as role and task-based access controls but these are still in their formative stages and have not gained wide acceptance. This paper gives my personal perspective on these issues and identi#es some of the important access control issues that researchers and practitioners should focus on. 1 Introduction Information and system securityisamulti-faceted discipline. Security presents diverse and con#icting objectives. Availability, con#dentiality,integrity and privacy have been explicitly recognized in the security literature for some time. Other objectives suchasintellectual property protection, copyright, secure electronic transactions, metering systems a...

Ravi Sandhu

372

Information Security Course: Access Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Material covering Access Control: Authentication and authorization, password-based security, ACLs and capabilities, multilevel and multilateral security, covert channels and inference control, BLP and Biba's models, firewalls, and intrusion detection systems

Segura, Eduardo

2007-04-16

373

National Alliance for Accessible Golf  

Science.gov (United States)

With the aim of creating a more inclusive environment on golf courses, the National Alliance for Accessible Golf website provides a variety of online resources. Of especial interest are two PDF toolkits which help guide golf course owners, operators and players through the specifics of making golf more accessible to people with disabilities. Project GAIN (Golf: Accessible and Inclusive Networks) is a national research project and a key component in the Alliance's strategy to help make golf more accessible - a basic outline of the project is provided on the site as well as a video which outlines the aims of the GAIN. Also provided for users is a list of links to other online resources related to golf and disability issues as well as information about how to get involved with both the Alliance and Project GAIN.

2007-02-04

374

OFDM towards broadband wireless access  

CERN Document Server

Presenting the state-of-the-art in broadband wireless access technology, this unique resource shows you how to design OFDM transceivers and develop a novel wireless transceiver system architecture - one that streamlines wireless system development and deployment because of its reusability, scalability and flexibility. The book gives you a solid understanding of reconfigurable baseband transceiver architecture, fixed broadband access, and 802.16 (WiMax) and 802.20 network design.

Jha, Uma Shanker

2007-01-01

375

Textual information access statistical models  

CERN Multimedia

This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

Gaussier, Eric

2013-01-01

376

[The concepts of health access].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes four dimensions of health access-availability, acceptability, ability to pay and information-correlating these dimensions to indicators and discussing the complexity of the concept of access. For a study of these four dimensions, searches were conducted using the PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and World Health Organization Library & Information Networks for Knowledge (WHOLIS) databases. Large-circulation media vehicles, such as The Economist, The Washington Post, and the BBC network were also searched. The concept of health access has become more complex with time. The first analyses, carried out in the 1970s, suggested a strong emphasis on geographical (availability) and financial (ability to pay) aspects. More recently, the literature has focused on less tangible aspects, such as cultural, educational, and socioeconomic issues, incorporating the element of acceptability into the notion of health access. The literature also shows that information provides the starting point for access to health, in association with health empowerment and literacy for health care decision-making. The study concludes that improvements in access to health and the guarantee of equity will not be achieved by initiatives focusing on health care systems alone, but rather will depend on intersectoral actions and social and economic policies aimed at eliminating income and education differences.

Sanchez RM; Ciconelli RM

2012-03-01

377

75 FR 57920 - Kerr-Philpott System  

Science.gov (United States)

...involving the Company's or PJM's Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT...involving the Company's or PJM's Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT...involving the Company's or PJM's Open Access Transmission Tariff...

2010-09-23

378

Reasons for decision in the matter of Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc. (formerly Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc.) : tariffs[Capacity allocation procedures March 2006 to August 2007  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2006 and 2007 Terasen Pipelines (Trans Mountain) Inc. (now Trans Mountain Pipeline Inc.) submitted a series of applications to the National Energy Board for revisions to the Trans Mountain Tariffs. They were filed in response to apportionment concerns on the Trans Mountain pipeline. Four of the applications involved pronounced and contentious changes to the capacity allocation procedures on the pipeline system. For ease of reference, the Board amalgamated its 4 decisions on these applications into a single document. A map of the Trans Mountain pipeline system as a whole was presented along with a detailed map indicating the delivery locations served by the system in the lower mainland of British Columbia and the state of Washington. The issues considered by the Board in each of these decisions included capacity allocation for Westridge Dock; capacity allocations to export destinations; common carriage requirements; and the need for creating a new barge subcategory. Relevant sections of the National Energy Board Act referred to in the decisions were highlighted. This document also listed the Trans Mountain Tariffs that have introduced notable revisions to the capacity allocation procedures on the system since September 2003. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2007-07-01

379

The "SAFARI" technique using retrograde access via peroneal artery access.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The "SAFARI" technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade-retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

Zhuang KD; Tan SG; Tay KH

2012-08-01

380

Vantagens comparativas e restrições comerciais: uma avaliação do comércio Brasil/Alemanha em 2001/ Comparatives advantages and trade restrictions: an evaluation of the Brazil/Germany trade in 2001  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo analisa as exportações do Brasil para a Alemanha em 2001, por grupos de produtos exportados, com base na intensidade da utilização do fator de produção correspondente à qualificação da mão-de-obra. Define as vantagens comparativas das exportações brasileiras para o mercado alemão com base no modelo de Heckscher-Ohlin. Após a identificação dos produtos brasileiros que apresentam vantagens comparativas, analisamos os principais obstáculos impost (more) os pelo mercado alemão a esses produtos, tendo em vista as barreiras comerciais (tarifárias e não tarifárias) e aplicadas pela Alemanha às exportações brasileiras, no âmbito da regulamentação comunitária da União Européia. Abstract in english This article analyzes Brazilian exports to Germany in 2001 focusing on groups of exported products and the use of the factor of production corresponding to the qualification of workers. The aim is to define the comparative advantages of Brazilian exports to the German Market, based upon Heckscher-Ohlin's theory of international trade. After such identification, the main obstacles to the access of Brazilian products to the German Market have been analyzed, considering the (more) trade barriers (tariff and non-tariff based) imposed by Germany to Brazilian exports in the realm of the UE's communitarian regulation.

Cardoso, Alaor Silvio; Soares, Fernando Antônio R.; Moreira, Tito Belchior Silva; Loureiro, Paulo Roberto A.

2005-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

78 FR 20255 - Leased Commercial Access  

Science.gov (United States)

...07-42; FCC 07-208] Leased Commercial Access AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...revised rules concerning Leased Commercial Access. Some of the revised rules contained...Register reflect the Leased Commercial Access rules that have remained in effect...

2013-04-04

382

A Hybrid Multiple Access Scheme Approaching  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recently, an alternative multiple access scheme wasproposed by Li Ping. Its ability to separate the users accessing thecommon time and frequency resource is solely based on chip-levelinterleaving and it is therefore referred to as IDMA (interleavedivisionmultiple-access).

Hendrik Schoeneich; Peter A. Hoeher

383

Tiered Contention Multiple Access' (tcma),  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Distributed multiple access techniques providequality of service through prioritization of access. TieredContention Multiple Access (TCMA) is a CSMA/CAprotocol that differentiates between traffic priority classeswith respect to the following: arbitration time, persistencefactor, and the MAC layer dwell-time limit. The arbitrationtime is the idle time required before transmission may beattempted. The persistence factor is the coefficientmultiplying the contention window size in successiveretransmission attempts following a collision. The MAClayer dwell-time limit restricts the time a packet spends inthe MAC layer. Several variations of TCMA are possible.Features of TCMA have been adopted as the EDCF MACprotocol presently under review for adoption into the 802.11Standard. Simulation results are presented comparing theperformance of TCMA to the legacy 802.11 MAC protocol.

Mathilde Benveniste

384

Social Innovation: Access and Leadership  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We live in an age where the rapid pace of technological innovation and the ability to disseminate knowledge far exceed our capacity to ensure that all members of society receive their benefits. The challenges in providing access to technology have been largely solved in this globally connected world. How to best use that technology to increase social value and alleviate lack of education, poverty, and other societal problems is an ongoing question with no easy answers. This article explores the challenges for social innovation and the use of information technology. These challenges are: i) access to technology; ii) access to learning; iii) the use of technology in teaching and research; and iv) the establishment of a framework of knowledge.

Roseann O'Reilly Runte

2008-01-01

385

[Drug access in poor countries].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a responsible player in the global pharmaceutical industry, Sanofi-Aventis recognizes its special responsibility to provide poor countries with access to drugs and vaccines. This is a key component of the Group's approach to sustainable development. As such, the Access to Medicines department draws on Sanofi-Aventis' expertise in order to address major public health issues, starting with the treatment of malaria, tuberculosis, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and epilepsy, as well as access to vaccines. The department has four main activities: research and development of new drugs; improvement of existing treatments; information, communication and education of patients and healthcare professionals; and development of a differential pricing and distribution policy adapted to patients' income, with a "no profit-no loss" equilibrium.

Sebbag R

2007-11-01

386

Aproximació al moviment ?open access?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L?article descriu els antecedents i l?estat actual del moviment open access (OA). Els objectius d?aquest moviment, que té les arrels en el desig tradicional dels científics de difondre el seu treball, en la preocupació dels bibliotecaris per la ?crisi? de les revistes i en els avenços tecnològics, van ser articulats formalment en la declaració de la Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) el 2002. Aquesta declaració planteja dues estratègies per arribar a l?accés a la informació científica sense cap obstacle econòmic, tècnic o legal: la publicació d?articles en revistes OA o el dipòsit dels treballs, per part dels autors, en arxius estables institucionals o temàtics. L?article suggereix que aquesta segona ?ruta? sembla oferir possibilitats més bones per assolir l?OA a curt termini. Però encara es requereix una gran labor de difusió dels conceptes d?OA i de formació dels autors en els procediments per dipositar els seus treballs; és a dir, un conjunt d?activitats promocionals per superar un dels grans desafiaments actuals: la inèrcia dels autors.The article describes the background and current state of the open access (OA) movement. Its objectives --with roots in scientists' traditional desire to disseminate their works, in librarians' concerns about the serials crisis, and in technological advances-- were formally articulated in the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) declaration of 2002. This statement established two strategies for providing access to scientific information without any economic, technical, or legal obstacles: 1) publication of articles in OA journals or 2) deposit by authors of their works in stable institutional or subject-based repositories. The article suggests that this secondEl artículo describe los antecedentes y el estado actual del movimiento Open Access (OA). Los objetivos de dicho movimiento, fruto del tradicional interés de los científicos por difundir su trabajo y de la preocupación de los bibliotecarios por la

Keefer, Alice

2005-01-01

387

Social services in accession countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The 1st May 2004 10 new countries joined the European Union. It is one of the most impor-tant events in the history of the European Union and all of Europe. New nations are accessing the Community and so new challenges are emerging. An important challenge is the exchange of information in order to better understand each other. This article aims to outline informa-tion on the social services in selected accession countries - Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary (hereinafter "Visegrad countries").

Tomeš, Kristina Koldinská and Igor

2004-01-01

388

Difficult biliary access at ERCP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography allows intervention for a variety of diseases of the biliary tract. Cannulation of the bile duct is the prerequisite step for biliary intervention. Although obtaining biliary access is straightforward in many cases, it can occasionally be challenging. Multiple devices, all with additional wire-guided techniques, have been developed to aid cannulation. More advanced techniques have also been developed to aid biliary access if it is unsuccessful with standard devices. Multimodality techniques can be used if other approaches fail. This article provides an evidence-based discussion of these approaches, and provides insight into their appropriate application.

Bakman YG; Freeman ML

2013-04-01

389

Achieving universal access to broadband  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP), and others.

Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

2009-01-01

390

Role-Based Access Control  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this module is to teach the concept of Role-Based Access Control to chemical engineering students in a senior capstone course. This module makes use of anchored learning and the legacy cycle in particular as a pedagogical tool to engage students in learning. The module approaches Role-Based Access Control from an analytical and design perspective and asks students to consider the subject from both of these standpoints. Assessment can be performed by examining the students' notes and responses to questions. The entire module is available online and is implemented using CAPE interactive web software and the eLMS learning platform.

Lee, Christina

2009-02-17

391

Achieving Universal Access to Broadband  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP), and others.

Morten FALCH; Anders HENTEN

2009-01-01

392

Code division multiple access (CDMA)  

CERN Document Server

This book covers the basic aspects of Code Division Multiple Access or CDMA. It begins with an introduction to the basic ideas behind fixed and random access systems in order to demonstrate the difference between CDMA and the more widely understood TDMA, FDMA or CSMA. Secondly, a review of basic spread spectrum techniques are presented which are used in CDMA systems including direct sequence, frequency-hopping and time-hopping approaches. The basic concept of CDMA is presented, followed by the four basic principles of CDMA systems that impact their performance: interference averaging, universa

Buehrer, R Michael

2006-01-01

393

Access Control in Virtual Communities  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We are interested in the design of access control policiesfor virtual communities of agents based on the grid infrastructure.In a virtual community agents can play boththe role of resource consumers and the role of resourceproviders, and they remain in control of their resources. Weargue that this requirement imposes a distinction betweenthe authorization to access a resource given by the virtualcommunity and the permission to do so issued by the resourceproviders. Our model is based on a logical multiagentframework that distinguishes the three roles of resourceconsumption, provision, and of authorization.

Guido Boella; Leendert Van Der Torre

394

Negotiations on market access within world trade organization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the author examines GATT/WTO's actual contribution to lower tariffs and more open markets. The GATT has played a core role in the reduction of non-agricultural tariffs in developed countries, but some of the oft-quoted trade liberalization figures may be misleading. Developing countries for many decades prior to the Uruguay Round made little use of the GATT to reduce or bind their tariffs. Uruguay Round commitments have mostly extended the binding coverage, sometimes at levels far above the applied rates. It is also important to evaluate the effect of the GATT/WTO on border measures. Here again, the multilateral system can claim partial success. The author also examines GATT/WTO's contribution to world trade growth.

Jelisavac Sanja

2009-01-01

395

Molecular random access memory cell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electronically programmable memory devices utilizing molecular self-assembled monolayers are reported. The devices exhibit electronically programmable and erasable memory bits compatible with conventional threshold levels and a memory cell applicable to a random access memory is demonstrated. Bit retention times {gt}15 min have been observed. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Reed, M. A.; Chen, J.; Rawlett, A. M.; Price, D. W.; Tour, J. M.

2001-06-04

396

Open Access Publishing with Drupal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In January 2009, the Colorado Association of Libraries (CAL) suspended publication of its print quarterly journal, Colorado Libraries, as a cost-saving measure in a time of fiscal uncertainty. Printing and mailing the journal to its 1300 members cost CAL more than $26,000 per year. Publication of the journal was placed on an indefinite hiatus until the editorial staff proposed an online, open access format a year later. The benefits to migrating to open access included: significantly lower costs; a green platform; instant availability of content; a greater level of access to users with disabilities; and a higher level of visibility of the journal and the association. The editorial staff chose Drupal, including the E-journal module, and while Drupal is notorious for its steep learning curve—which exacerbated delays to content that had been created before the publishing hiatus—the fourth electronic issue was published recently at coloradolibrariesjournal.org. This article will discuss both the benefits and challenges of transitioning to an open access model and the choice Drupal as a platform over other more established journal software options.

Nina McHale

2011-01-01

397

Random Access Heterogeneous Mimo Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the design and implementation of 802.11n+, a fully distributed random access protocol for MIMO networks. 802.11n+ allows nodes that differ in the number of antennas to contend not just for time, but also for the degrees of freedom provided by multiple antennas. We show that even ...

Lin, Kate Ching-Ju; Gollakota, Shyamnath; Katabi, Dina

398

Community Access to Atmospheric Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

This poster provides an overview of the computer system that provides community access to atmosphere measurements derived from backscatter ultraviolet sources. It is funded by NASA's Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science (ACCESS), and is devoted to Measurements of Atmospheric Composition in the Ultraviolet. The purpose is to provide "one-stop shopping" for data and information of interested to the Backscattered Ultraviolet (BUV) community. It is built from the well-used, highly successful Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) web site, and is being evolved into a broader focus for the BUV community. This effort supports NASA's evolutionary step toward science measurement processing and analysis systems, and enables the BUV community to easily access information and expertise from multiple sources over a nearly 30 year history of space-based remote sensing of the atmosphere. It facilitates finding algorithms and scientific results from different parts of the BUV science community as well as from different instruments and missions. It provides the means to access the products of the Ozone Community Oriented Measurement-based Processing System (ComPS). The system contains components that store and manage data, manage user access to that data, provide multi-dimensional views of the data and other information, serve data based on user criteria, and facilitate on-line collaboration. The web site hosts Algorithm Theoretical Basis documents, quality assessment of data products, published papers, instrument descriptions, access to mission information, reports and assessments of events and issues, problem reporting and tracking, a moderated forum, and a user collaboration area. Visitors to the web site fall into several categories: the general public; students, educators, and researchers outside the BUV community; members of the BUV community who validate the measurements; members of the community who develop algorithms and software. Access to the information, data, and tools hosted on the site is managed based on the category of each visitor. The general public may view and download only information and data approved by NASA for public release.

Marshall, J. J.; Batluck, G. R.; Durbin, P. B.; Gerard, R.; Larko, D. E.; Martin, A.; Tilmes, C. A.

2007-05-01

399

Third party protection of a standard of administrative law (here sect. 12a BTO Elt), right of action, tariff approval. Drittschuetzende Wirkung einer verwaltungsrechtlichen Norm (hier Para. 12a BTO Elt), Klagebefugnis, Tarifgenehmigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An administrative action for annulement of a tariff customer against the approval of an increase in rates according to Paragraph 12 a BTO Elt for the benefit of an electric utility is dismissed as the plaintiff has no right of action. Oberverwaltungsgericht Muenster judgement of 27.th Mai 1992 Ref.No. 4 A 588/90 (pending appeal). (orig./HP).

Anon.

1992-11-01

400

Admissibility of the tariff permit according to Para. 12a BTO-ELT under the cancelling condition of not increasing the prices of consumers under a special contract during the validity of the permit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the addition of a cancelling condition automatically abolishes the permit decision if this condition is fulfilled, in the case of reservation of revocation a revocation decision from the authorities is needed. As long as such a decision has not been pronounced, the tariff permit remains valid even after a price increase in the field of separate contracts. Considerable consequences from the different procedures arise furthermore in relation with the legal protection of the energy supply companies. Under these circumstances a carefull scrutiny of the legal admissability of those cancelling conditions. A legal price vacuum that derives from the cancelling conditions in tarif permits, infringes the authorities' obligation to procure at any time approved tariff prices. As a consequence of their duty to supply their consumers the energy supply companies have a claim to the existence of approved tariff prices at any time, because this is the only way they can fulfill their obligation. In short: the cancelling conditions in tariff permits, according to which the permit expires automatically in the case of a price increase for consumers under special contract, are inadmissable.

Buedenbender, U.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Controlling Access to Suicide Means  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

Marco Sarchiapone; Laura Mandelli; Miriam Iosue; Costanza Andrisano; Alec Roy

2011-01-01

402

Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

Online Submission, 2009

2009-01-01

403

Access to care: Beyond health insurance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Access to healthcare is derived from a complex mix of personal beliefs, cultural norms, and social structure, combined with available individual and community resources. This article reviews the concept of access to care and its evolution since the 1960s. The difference between potential and realized access and the question of social justice as it relates to access to care also are explored.

Strand de Oliveira J

2013-11-01

404

Opening Access to research : an African perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation gives an overview of the Open Access movement, the costs of the "Big deal" and explains the two roads to Open Access : Open Access repositories (green route) and Open Access journals (gold route). Other issues that are discussed are : copyright and national and international collab...

Olivier, Elsabe

405

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectivel

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15

406

Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs; Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien mit Schwerpunkt auf kostenbasierter Einspeiseverguetung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.

Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

2006-07-01

407

Data Access in Canada: CivicAccess.ca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a global movement to liberate government-"owned" data sets, such as census data, environmental data, and data generated by government-funded research projects. This open data movement aims to make these datasets available, at no cost, to citizens, citizen groups, non-governmental-organizations (NGOs) and businesses. The arguments are many: such data spurs economic activity, helps citizens make better decisions, and helps us understand better who we are and where we are going as a country. Further, these data were collected using tax dollars, yet the government holds a monopoly which makes data available only to those able to pay the high access fees, while some data is not made available at all. The open data movement is lagging in Canada as demonstrated by exorbitant fees for such basics as the data set of postal codes correlated to electoral districts. This data could be used for any number of civic engagement projects, but it costs thousands of dollars due to Statistics Canada's policies of cost recovery. This article aims to bring these issues to a wider public. The long-term vision is a country in which citizens, specialists, professionals, academics, community groups and even businesses can work together, developing innovative information access and visualization tools, better decision-making models, and more tools responsive to the needs of the citizens. Liberating data will spur grassroots research on important social, economic, political and technical areas, currently hampered by lack of access to and high cost of civic data. Further, we want to link the debate about data to questions of government transparency and accountability, which pivot on access to accurate, reliable, and timely data.

Tracey P. Lauriault; Hugh McGuire

2008-01-01

408

Database Access In Intelligent Networks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Future telecommunication services will extensively exploit database technology. Informationneeded in operations and management of telecommunication services willbe organized as a logical entity. The world-wide nature of telecommunication dictatesthat the logical entity can only be realized through interoperability of autonomousdatabases that may have different internal characteristics. We review the requirementsfor database access in the IN architecture. Our premises are derived from theIN long-term architecture framework as specified in ITU-T Recommendation Q.1201.1. INTRODUCTIONDatabases will have a dominant role in telecommunication services based on the IntelligentNetwork architecture. The databases hold the information needed in operationsand management of telecommunication services. The performance, reliability, and availabilityrequirements of data access operations are hard. Thousands of retrievals must beexecuted in a second. Allowed down-time is only a few second...

Kimmo E. E. Raatikainen

409

Database Access In Intelligent Networks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Future telecommunication services will extensively exploit database technology. Informationneeded in operations and management of telecommunication services willbe organized as a logical entity. The world-wide nature of telecommunication dictatesthat the logical entity can only be realized through interoperability of autonomousdatabases that may have different internal characteristics. We review the requirementsfor database access in the IN architecture. Our premises are derived from theIN long-term architecture framework as specified in ITU-T Recommendation Q.1201.1. INTRODUCTIONDatabases will have a dominant role in telecommunication services based on the IntelligentNetwork architecture. The databases hold the information needed in operationsand management of telecommunication services. The performance, reliability, and availabilityrequirements of data access operations are hard. Thousands of retrievals must beexecuted in a second. Allowed down-time is only a few ...

Kimmo E. E. Raatikainen

410

Accessing SDO Data : The Poster  

Science.gov (United States)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools. This poster serves as a supplement to the oral presentation as a place to distribute information about the various interfaces and to collect feedback about any unmet needs for data access.

Hourcle, Joseph; Addison, K.; Bogart, R.; Chamberlin, P.; Freeland, S.; Hughitt, V. K.; Ireland, J.; Maddox, M.; Mueller, D.; Somani, A.; Sommers, J.; Thompson, B.; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

411

Single access laparoscopic right hemicolectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Single Access Laparoscopic Colectomy (SALC) were reported in several studies. The first Single Access laparoscopic right colectomy was descibed by Remzi et Al. We report our experience in SALC describing our approach for Right Colectomy. In our experience we perform as well an extracorporeal side-to-side anastomosis, in contrast wit a conventional laparoscopic right colectomy in which we perform an intra-corporeal anastomosis. We think that an important limit of this approach is represented by the difficult to perform a safe intra-corporeal anastomosis. In conclusion we think that right SALC is a safe and feasible approach. However, many issues will be established, as well as technological, economical and educational aspects, before its introduction in the daily clinical practice.

Bracale Umberto; Mijatovic Sr?an; Lazzara Fabrizio; Perna Fabrizio; Badessi Francesco; Pignata Giusto

2012-01-01

412

Training in minimal access surgery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Minimal access surgery is a new technique involving surgical treatment with the aid of endoscopy. Training in these procedures has, in the UK, been largely self-taught and haphazard. Variation on a surgical skill already achieved is acceptable, but learning a totally new skill by trial and error on a large scale is both unethical and potentially dangerous for the patients involved. This article represents the personal views of a trainee and his trainer in these new techniques.

Cutner A; Erian J

1995-03-01

413

CACI: Children Accessing Controversial Information  

Science.gov (United States)

CACI: Children Accessing Controversial Information through computer networks mailing list has now moved from media.mit.edu to cygnus.com. Here's the updated list description: A lot of kids are getting online these days--sharing data about acid rain, talking about social issues, meeting adults as well as kids, and learning about other cultures. Computer networks hold tremendous promise, but also raise difficult issues which need to be discussed openly. Unfortunately, much of the publicity related to these issues has only dealt with potential dangers--and it has not encouraged reflection on solutions. Can children be prevented from accessing materials which are controversial? Is preventing access even desirable? We believe censorship is not the answer. What alternatives do we have or could we provide? How do we talk with children about these issues? What can we say to concerned parents and school administrators? How and by whom are community standards set? The stakes are clear: if we don't find ways to manage these difficult issues, parents and school administrators may choose to deny children access to networking in an attempt to protect them. And prohibitions against undirected exploration through networking could prevent many of the benefits which the technology could support. We hope to form a community of people interested in discussing these issues and developing helpful materials. send email to: caci-request@cygnus.com in the body of the message type: subscribe to unsubscribe, type: unsubscribe If you have difficulty, write to caci-owner@cygnus.com This announcement as well as additional information may be found at

1997-01-01

414

Fast Access Data Acquisition System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

Dr. Vladimir Katsman

1998-03-17

415

FACTS technology for open access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Summary of the present state of the art on the key technological developments in the FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) area, addressing in particular the open access aspects of networks and the scope for the application of FACTS devices therein. Contains the approved terms of reference. Definition of FACTS includes conventional devices such as phase shifting transformers, series capacitors and HVDC links for completeness and the possibility of combining them with FACTS devices to improve HVAC transmission system flexibility and control. (author)

NONE

2001-07-01

416

Support the Open Access Movement  

CERN Multimedia

CERN's Executive Board recently endorsed a new policy of open access to the laboratory's results: Continuing CERN action on Open Access (OA) [http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/828991/files/open-2005-006.pdf]. What does this policy mean for you? CERN authors have two responsibilities: Submit your document to the CERN Document Server; Consider submitting future articles to an Open Access journal. Since 2001, Operational Circular No. 6 has required every CERN author (Staff member, Fellow, or any Associated member of personnel who is allowed to use CERN as his affiliation) to submit a copy of their scientific documents to the CERN Document Server (CDS). For some groups all approved documents are submitted by the secretary (see the Departments' policies at: http://library.cern.ch/cern_publications/cern_publication_policy.html). Each author should personally also ensure the submission of any other articles which are not added in this way, such as conference contributions and review articles. It is not sufficient to...

2005-01-01

417

Reducing haemodialysis access infection rates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infections are the second most common cause of vascular access loss in the long-term haemodialysis patient, and recent years have seen an increase in healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) associated with vascular access (Suhail, 2009). There have been a number of drivers including publication guidelines (Department of Health, 2006; 2007) and local protocols providing evidence-based recommendations that, when implemented, can reduce the risk of these infections. In England, the selection of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a significant clinical outcome has led to a vast amount of work in this area. Root cause analysis of individual infections (by the clinical teams when these occur) in many specialities identified areas where practice could be improved, including practice relating to vascular access within the renal setting. Manufacturers have also supported this work by focusing on developing products that are designed to reduce the likelihood of infections occurring. One product identified and used within the NHS is Chloraprep.

Dorman A; Dainton M

2011-05-01

418

Reducing haemodialysis access infection rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections are the second most common cause of vascular access loss in the long-term haemodialysis patient, and recent years have seen an increase in healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) associated with vascular access (Suhail, 2009). There have been a number of drivers including publication guidelines (Department of Health, 2006; 2007) and local protocols providing evidence-based recommendations that, when implemented, can reduce the risk of these infections. In England, the selection of bloodstream infections caused by methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as a significant clinical outcome has led to a vast amount of work in this area. Root cause analysis of individual infections (by the clinical teams when these occur) in many specialities identified areas where practice could be improved, including practice relating to vascular access within the renal setting. Manufacturers have also supported this work by focusing on developing products that are designed to reduce the likelihood of infections occurring. One product identified and used within the NHS is Chloraprep. PMID:21646994

Dorman, Amanda; Dainton, Marissa

419

Telerehabilitation Technologies: Accessibility and Usability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services, and practices as well as to the telerehabilitation end-user. This white paper will first present the numerous professional considerations that shape the use of technology in telerehabilitation service and set it somewhat apart from telemedicine. It will then provide an overview of concepts essential to usability analysis; present a summary of various telerehabilitation technologies and their strengths and limitations, and consider how the technologies interface with end users’ clinical needs for service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness. The paper will highlight a conceptual framework (including task analyses and usability issues) that underlies a functional match between telerehabilitation technologies, clinical applications, and end-user capabilities for telerehabilitation purposes. Finally, we will discuss pragmatic issues related to user integration of telerehabilitation technology versus traditional face-to-face approaches. Key Words: Remote, Technology, Usability, Accessibility, Decision Factors, Decision Support

Michael Pramuka; Linda van Roosmalen

2009-01-01

420

Vertical and horizontal access configurations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

The Stratified Economics of Open Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing recognition within the academic community that ‘open access’ to research and scholarship can increase its value and reach. A variety of open access models have developed over the last twenty years, including author self-archiving, immediate (sponsored) open access, delayed open access, and article-processing-fee open access. Yet the economics of open access is being largely determined, at this point, by the interests of a stratified scholarly publishing market that can be roughly divided among independent journals, scholarly society publishers, and commercial publishers. Each of these market segments is experimenting with forms of open access that hold promise for sustaining, if not extending, the segment’s current position. This paper reviews the economics of these open access models, while drawing attention to the consequences of this market stratification for access to knowledge and the sustainability of scholarly publishing as a whole.

John Willinsky

2009-01-01

422

Software Accessibility: Where Are We Today?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While it seems intuitive that applications, especially open source ones, should allow all to use and enjoy them, many developers are unaware of the need for accessible applications. Providing accessibility in information technology is not difficult, but it does require a basic understanding of different types of disabilities, commonly used assistive technologies, and the special accessibility features built into languages and standards. Most of all, accessibility requires a conscious effort and a desire to include everyone. The accessibility of computer software has seen drastic improvements over the past two decades. This article reviews this progress, examining the technologies developed and offering guidelines for developers to create accessible applications.

Marco Zehe

2008-01-01

423

75 FR 2138 - Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Wyoming (DOE/EIS-0438)  

Science.gov (United States)

...to consider SWE's interconnection request under its Open Access Transmission Service Tariff (Tariff). This EIS will...request under Western's Tariff, which provides for open access to its transmission system through an...

2010-01-14

424

75 FR 74040 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and To Conduct Scoping Meetings...  

Science.gov (United States)

...consider NextEra's interconnection request under its Open Access Transmission Service Tariff (Tariff). This EIS will...request under Western's Tariff, which provides for open access to its transmission system through an...

2010-11-30

425

75 FR 74042 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and To Conduct Scoping Meetings...  

Science.gov (United States)

...consider NextEra's interconnection request under its Open Access Transmission Service Tariff (Tariff). This EIS will...request under Western's Tariff, which provides for open access to its transmission system through an...

2010-11-30

426

Enterprise wide transparent information access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts.

Brown, J.

1995-05-01

427

Enterprise wide transparent information access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts.

1995-01-01

428

ACCESS SEALING APPARATUS AND METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A surgical access device includes a seal housing and a roller disposed in the housing and defining a working channel. The roller may be stationary or moveable within the seal housing to form both a zero seal in the absence of an instrument, and an instrument seal in the presence of an instrument. Rotation of the roller is contemplated and low-friction surfaces are discussed to reduce instrument insertion forces. Multiple rollers, wiper elements, low-friction braid, pivoting elements and idler rollers are contemplated. The rollers will typically be formed of a gel material in order to facilitate the desired compliance, stretchability and elongation desired.

TAYLOR SCOTT V; KAHLE HENRY

429

Digital signal processing instant access  

CERN Multimedia

Digital signal processing is commonplace in most electronics including MP3 players, HDTVs, and phones, just to name a few of the applications. The engineers creating these devices are in need of essential information at a moment's notice. The Instant Access Series provides all the critical content that a signal or communications engineer needs in his or her daily work. This book provides an introduction to DSPs as well as succinct overviews of linear systems, digital filters, and digital compression. This book is filled with images, figures, tables, and easy to find tips and tricks fo

Broesch, James D

2008-01-01

430

?????????? Subject Access in Online Catalog  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?This paper first (describes the current clevelopments of online catalog subject access. In particular, it emphasizes the application of DDC, LCC and LCSH for retrieving subject information through online catalogs. Subsequently, studies in the literature on enhancements to the above subject searching as well as keywords or phrases extracted from the bibliographic record are discussed. Finally, an overall pictures of online catalog which is under the Internet environment and some directions in which the future online catalog should evolve are provided.

Ming-Yueh Tsay

1995-01-01

431

Accessing arteries in interventional radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transbrachial and transfemoral punctures are the conventional methods for accessing arteries in digital subtraction angiography (DSA). How to perform the punctures and how to use the different materials are elementary basics for diagnostic interventions in DSA, such as dilatating, stenting, coiling, implanting ports or chemical embolization. With both puncture methods different anatomic settings have to be considered and also experience with handling the surgical instruments has to be acquired. The management of complications and knowledge on the risk factors associated with each procedure are further requirements. An essential subject of studies is increasing the comfort for the patients by finding less invasive techniques in DSA. (orig.)

2008-01-01

432

Floor Acquisition Multiple Access with Collision Resolution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Collision avoidance and resolution multiple access (CARMA) protocols are presented and analyzed. These protocols use a floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA) strategy based on carrier sensing, together with collision resolution of floor requests (RTS) b...

J. J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves R. Garces

1996-01-01

433

Disparities in access to specialized epilepsy care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: Both individual and community characteristics play substantial roles in access to high quality epilepsy care. Policy interventions that incorporate strategies to address disparities at both levels are necessary to improve access to specialized care for PWE.

Schiltz NK; Koroukian SM; Singer ME; Love TE; Kaiboriboon K

2013-08-01

434

Home Access HIV-1 Test System  

Science.gov (United States)

... Home Access HIV-1 Test System. ... Product Information. Label - Home Access HIV-1 Test System (PDF - 2.2MB). -. -. Supporting Documents. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

435

Access control in cloud computing environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cloud computing is one of the emerging technologies. The cloud environment is a large open distributed system. It is important to preserve the data, as well as, privacy of users. Access Control methods ensure that authorized user’s access the data and the system. This paper discusses various features of attribute based access control mechanism, suitable for cloud computing environment. It leads to the design of attribute based access control mechanism for cloud computing.

Abdul Raouf Khan

2012-01-01

436

Access to care: Beyond health insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to healthcare is derived from a complex mix of personal beliefs, cultural norms, and social structure, combined with available individual and community resources. This article reviews the concept of access to care and its evolution since the 1960s. The difference between potential and realized access and the question of social justice as it relates to access to care also are explored. PMID:24153091

Strand de Oliveira, Justine

2013-11-01

437

Personalizing Access to Learning Networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query results level. Query rewriting is based on learning and language preferences; rule-based and ranking-based personalization improves these results further. Rule-based reasoning techniques are supported by formal ontologies we have developed based on standard information models for learning domains; ranking-based recommendations are supported through ensuring minimal sets of predicates appearing in query results. Our evaluation studies show that the implemented solution enables learners to find relevant learning resources in a distributed environment and through goal-based personalization improves relevancy of results. Udgivelsesdato: February 2008

Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd

2008-01-01

438

Microfibrillated cellulose: morphology and accessibility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) is prepared by subjecting dilute slurries of cellulose fibers to repeated high-pressure homogenizing action. A highly microfibrillated product will have a gel-like appearance at 2% concentration in water. Such gels have pseudoplastic viscosity properties and are very fluid when stirred at high shear rate. The relative viscosity of 2% MFC dispersions may be used as a measure of the degree of homogenization or microfibrillation of a given wood cellulose pulp. The water retention value of an MFC product can also be used as an indicator for degree of homogenization. Structurally, MFC appears to be a web of interconnected fibrils and microfibrils, the latter having diameters in the range 10-100 nm as observed in scanning and transmission electron micrographs. Chemical studies have revealed that MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC is only moderately degraded, while being greatly expanded in surface area. The accessibility of cellulose in MFC toward chemical reagents is greatly increased. Higher reactivity was demonstrated in dilute cupriethylenediamine solubility, triphenylmethylation, acetylation, periodate oxidation, and mineral acid and cellulase enzyme hydrolysis rates. 16 references, 8 figures, 7 tables.

Herrick, F.W.; Casebier, R.L.; Hamilton, J.K.; Sandberg, K.R.

1983-01-01

439

Fully Reusable Access to Space  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This paper provides an overview of the Fully Reusable Access to Space Technology (FAST) program. The program is an Air Force Research Laboratory initiative to methodically mature the technologies required for next generation operationally responsive space access - an Air Force Space Command mission. Program goals and requirements are delineated as well as technology approaches. The acquisition strategy matures key technologies in ground experiments through 2011, and then integrates the experiments into a subscale X-aircraft for ground or potentially flight test by 2013. The airframe experiment includes propellant tanks, structure and thermal protection systems fabricated and tested at the X-aircraft scale. In addition, subsystems experiments shall be accomplished such as a Flight Operations Control Center, avionics, adaptive GN&C, Integrated Systems Health Management, etc. An approach is also identified for either using an off-the-shelf propulsion system or a low cost, high ops tempo propulsion experiment. Key program goals include ensuring component demonstrations are scaleable to larger future operational systems, and that the technology demonstrations directly transition to fabrication and flight test of the experimental flight test vehicle. Potential future applications of the technologies are also briefly reviewed.

2007-01-01

440

Dynamic Role-Based Access Control Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract-With the rapid development of network and the coming of information age, access control is particularly important, role-based access control (RBAC) is an access control which is popular. RBAC authorizes and controls the roles corresponding to the users to opera...

Jun Zheng; kun Qi Zhang; wen Shang Zheng; an Yu Tan