Chemingui, Mohamed Abdelbasset; Dessus, Sebastien
International trade in Syria is highly regulated through a combination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers. At 8% of the value of imports on average, effective tariffs are relatively low. However, non-tariff barriers to trade actually make Syria's trade restrictiveness very high. Comparing world and domestic prices of imports indeed suggests that non-tariff barriers increase the domestic price of imported goods by 17% on average, notably the result of significant quantitative restrictions. Usi...
Gloria O. Pasadilla
Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...
This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...
This study demonstrates the quantitative, as well as the qualitative, role of non-tariff barriers (NTBs). The Norwegian nominal tariff and non-tariff barriers are identified and thoroughly quantified. Computations of effective rates of protection (ERP) show that NTBs entirely dominate tariffs as direct contributors to primary factor income, which again is an important determinant in allocation of resources among industries. The indirect input-output effects play a decisive role. This points t...
... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade... of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works closely with... maintain a current, up-to-date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...
... International Trade Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade.... One aspect of increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI works... maintain a current, up-to- date list of non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports...
Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.
Tudela Marco, Lorena; GarcÃa Alvarez-Coque, JosÃ© MarÃa; Martinez Gomez, Victor David
The significance of and interest in non-tariff measures (NTMs) have increased as a consequence of the reduction in agricultural tariffs. This paper analyses the relationship between NTMs and tariffs in southern Mediterranean countries (SMCs) through two complementary analyses. First, the authors construct a taxonomy of protection for products, distinguishing between high protection, transparent protection, low protection and disguised protection. The low protection category is most widely rep...
Céline CARRERE; de Melo, Jaime
With the reduction in tariff barriers, Non-tariff and behind-the-border measures (NTM and BTB) have increased in importance. This paper surveys the state of knowledge with the view to drawing implications for policy suggestions to reduce those NTM barriers that are welfare reducing. Following a description of data bases and their shortcomings, the paper reviews the state of understanding on the effects of NTMs on trade flows. The more difficult issue of translating these effects into welfare ...
Sun, L; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; van Kooten, G.C.
Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap and estimate trade and economic impacts of non-tariff barriers and compare them to the impacts of tariffs. Ad-valorem equivalent estimates for a set of well-defined non-tariff trade restrictions are ...
The objective of this study is to identify and to provide information on the non tariff barriers NTB to a group of mining products on the excellent international markets for the Colombian case, and to analyze its magnitude and incidence on the external sales of this products, to advance toward this objective is defined which measures they can be considered as non tariff restrictions, its different mensuration methodologies are analyzed and finally a qualitative and quantitative approach of the NTB is made that face the exports of Colombian mining products in their main markets, by means of a survey carried out the managers of the sector in the country. Among the main discoveries, they were evidences of the application of NTB, although they turned out to be not very significant for the sector exporter of mining products; the most frequent are the technical obstacles to the trade, but of relatively moderate incidence
Vinokurov, Evgeny; Demidenko, Mikhail; Pelipas, Igor; Tochitskaya, Irina; Shymanovich, Gleb; Lipin, Andrey
After the establishment of the Customs Union (CU) and the Single Economic Space (SES), Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia have repeatedly stated the need to eliminate exemptions, limitations, and barriers to mutual trade in goods and services. This report represents the first stage of a study on the economic impact of reduction within the SES and the emerging Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to trade among Member States. It gives an overview of works on the definition a...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.
Lupien, John R
International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779
Dal Bianco, Andrea; Boatto, Vasco; Caracciolo, Francesco; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
This article empirically investigates the impact of trade barriers on the world wine trade, focusing on trade costs impeding exports, including transport, tariffs, technical barriers and sanitary and phytosanitarystandards. A gravity model is estimated using data from the main importing and exporting countries for the years 1997 to 2010. The Poison Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimator accounts for heteroskedasticity and the presence of zero trade flows. Our results identify which regula...
Tamini, Lota, D.; Ghazalian, Pascal; Gervais, Jean-Philippe; Larue, Bruno
Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain trade flows of both primary agricultural commodities and processed foods....
GONZALEZ MELLADO AIDA ARACELI; GAY Stephan; M'BAREK Robert; FERRARI EMANUELE
This paper evaluates the role of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) on agro-food trade between the EU and Africa. Given that the effects of NTMs cannot be generalised across products and regions. The analysis considers several agricultural and horticultural products exported from CÃ´te d'Ivoire, Kenya, Morocco, Uganda and South Africa. In five countries 95 exporters have been interviewed to obtain first hand information on obstacles to exports in five main topics: taxes and subsidies, customs and proc...
Ghazalian, Pascal; Tamini, Lota, D.; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-Philippe
A gravity-based model is developed to explain bilateral trade flows in primary and processed agri-food commodities. It innovates by explicitly accounting for the vertical production linkages between primary and processed agri-food products, tariffs, and subsidies and by estimating the restrictiveness of non-tariff barriers in the upstream sector. Our application focuses on cattle/beef trade flows between forty-two countries. The structural parameters of the model are used to simulate trade fl...
Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho
This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.
Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)
Sala, Davide; SchrÃ¶der, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...
Tingqin Zhang; Lihong Han
The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for Chinas economy. We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market. China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have arisen...
Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....
Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis
When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 20072014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will re...
Sala, Davide; SchrÃ¶der, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal
risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive...
This paper analyses the conversion of TRQs into single tariffs under perfect and imperfect competition. Based on experiences from Switzerland, auctions allow the determination of the equivalent tariffs. Results from auctions of TRQs of dried meat products under perfect competition show that the observed auction prices would lead to tariffs which are below the equivalent tariffs. Hence, if the new tariffs would be determined through auctions, market access would be improved, but also farm pr...
....3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of access service tariffs. 69.3 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES General § 69.3 Filing of access service tariffs. (a) Except as provided...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tariffs to the public. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.102 Accessibility of tariffs to the public. Each file of tariffs shall be kept in...
Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-MÃ¸ller, Pascalis
and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in...
... access transmission tariff. 35.28 Section 35.28 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a... voluntary compliance with jurisdictional transmission tariff reciprocity conditions. (b)...
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs are...... the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies....
Petru Catalin Bodea
The paper presents one methodology of calculating the tariff equivalent of the tariff-rate quota as a particular case of a non-tariff barrier for an agricultural product imported in Romania based on recommendations in international literature. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quota of imports from the EU is approximately 35%, lower than the tariff outside the quota. Nonetheless this is considerable higher when compared with the Common External Tariff (CET). Elimination of the nominal prot...
Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis
When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 20072014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality.
Kee, Hiau Looi; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Silva, Peri
This paper assesses the foreign lobbying forces behind the tariff preferences that the United States grants to Latin American and Caribbean countries. The basic framework is the one developed that is extended to explain the relationship between foreign lobbying and tariff preferences. Results suggest that returns to Latin American and Caribbean exporters lobbying for tariff preferences in ...
Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp
Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels of...
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark for the...... evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some...... theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small...
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).
The present study seeks to provide quantitative tools to carry out industry-level assessments of tariff and subsidy reforms that will both support Viet Nams current WTO accession negotiations and provide needed capacity for analyzing alternative policy reforms. To this end, the present study elaborates modeling tools for production shift analysis and the calculations of trade tax revenue effects associated with tariff reform policies. It builds on the recent ADB-assisted study on the structu...
Petru Catalin Bodea
Full Text Available The paper presents one methodology of calculating the tariff equivalent of the tariff-rate quota as a particular case of a non-tariff barrier for an agricultural product imported in Romania based on recommendations in international literature. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quota of imports from the EU is approximately 35%, lower than the tariff outside the quota. Nonetheless this is considerable higher when compared with the Common External Tariff (CET. Elimination of the nominal protection level as consequence of the adoption the CET is expected to stimulate imports pressure especially from price competitive import partners both from EU (such as Slovakia, Belgium, Austria, Czech Republic and Italy and non EU countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Croatia. A basic model forecasts that, with the lowered protection, annual imports will rise with at least 13.5 thousand tonnes, thus an increase of 23% compared with the average annual imports during 1990-2005.
Sanjuán López, Ana Isabel; Philippidis, George; Resano Ezcaray, Helena
Under development: This year marks the formal opening of trade negotiations between the world's two largest trading partners the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA). It is expected that the transatlantic partnership negotiations will face significant obstacles on both sides, which in turn places the burden on economists to provide plausible impact assessments to inform policy makers. Unfortunately, modelling databases whilst rich with detailed disaggregated representa...
Some possible tariff structures for electricity transport are discussed. First, the costs associated with the transport of electricity are explained. The fixed and variable costs of a transport are illustrated with some examples. Furthermore, the most common tariff structures (contract path, megawatt mile, postage stamp) and negotiated Third Party Access are discussed. Finally, the way the tariff structures reflect the costs of electricity transport are reviewed. 3 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs
Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...
Matthew T. Cole; Ronald B Davies
The majority of research to date investigating strategic tariffs in the presence of multinationals finds a knife-edge result where, in equilibrium, all foreign firms are either multinationals or exporters. Utilizing a model of heterogeneous firms, we find equilibria in which both pure exporters and multinationals coexist. We utilize this model to study the case of endogenously chosen tariffs. As is standard, Nash equilibrium tariffs are higher than the socially optimal tariffs. Unlike existin...
Lord, Montague J
Laos benefits from the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area (AANZFTA). The Agreement has eliminated tariffs on 90% of Australias and New Zealands imports, with the remaining tariff lines to be removed by 2020. For Laos, it provides for a much longer transition period for eliminating tariffs in recognition of the countrys status as a newer ASEAN member having as least developed country status. The Agreement also eliminates non-tariff barriers like licensing requirements; offers ...
Indelpro - the Grupo Alfa/Himont joint venture 150,000-m.t./year polypropylene (PP) plant in Altamira, Mexico - has been working to find its place in the Mexican market since coming onstream in March. At the same time, that market has been complicated by the imposition of import and export tariffs by the U.S. Department of Commerce early this fall. Commerce's accession to a 10% ad valorem tax on US PP exports to Mexico surprised some industry observers. The tariff is scheduled to be phased out within 10 years and is partly countermanded by a 5% tariff over a five-year period on Mexican PP exports to the US. But some market analysts say the arrangement is baffling
One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing various transport/transit tariff methodologies (i.e. cost-plus, incentive tariff regulation, negotiated tariffs as well as distance-related, stamp, exit/entry model) that are used in the countries examined. Chapter 6 compares available information on transit tariffs by country and by methodology used. It also compares these tariffs with domestic transport tariffs, where appropriate and possible. Finally, chapter 7 attempts to evaluate the consistency of transit tariffs with the obligations of the Energy Charter framework and highlights the areas requiring further analysis
US International Trade Commission The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) was enacted by Congress and made effective on January 1, 1989, replacing the former Tariff Schedules of...
In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Alan D. WOODLAND
This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the source...
A comparative study between conventional and how-seasonal tariffs used in consumers with 13,8 KV of tension band is shown, including, to the new consumers of tariffs, information that allow plan the cost of the future monthly count of electric power. (author)
Bastos, Paulo; Straume, Odd Rune; Urrego, Jaime A.
This paper examines whether and how rainfall shocks affect tariff setting in the agricultural sector. In a model of strategic trade policy, the authors show that the impact of a negative rainfall shock on optimal import tariffs is generally ambiguous, depending on the weight placed by the domestic policy maker on tariff revenue, profits and the consumer surplus. The more weight placed on d...
Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.
Full Text Available En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.
In this paper, we address the impact of multilateral trade liberalisation (MTL) on the preferential tariffs granted by the EU, which is one of the largest traders and one of the biggest contributors to MTL. We empirically address two important questions. First, if the MFN tariff for a product is higher, does it lead to a higher or lower preferential tariff? Second, the EU being a large trading partner in such agreements, does reciprocity matter for giving meaningful preferential access? For a...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 61 Tariffs CFR Correction In Title 47 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 40 to... that publishes ] a tariff containing rates and regulations applicable to the portion or through...
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan
natural benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform......, construct an index to measure the relative welfare effectiveness of any given tariff reform, determine conditions under whichproportional and concertina reforms are locally optimal and provide illustrative examples........ In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a...
Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations
Böhringer, Christoph; Müller, André; Schneider, Jan
Concerns about adverse impacts on domestic energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries are at the fore of the political debate about unilateral climate policies. Tariffs on the carbon embod-ied in imported goods from countries without emission pricing appeal as a measure to reduce carbon leakage and protect domestic EITE industries. We show that the introduction of carbon tariffs can do more harm than good to domestic EITE industries. Two determinants drive the sign and magnitude of ...
Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)
Shepotylo, Oleksandr; TARR, David
The Russian tariff structure contains over 11,000 tariff lines. Of these, a specific tariff may apply for about 1,700. Due to a new data set, this is the first paper to accurately assess tariff rates. We find that the average tariff in Russia has increased between 2001 and 2003, from about 11.5 percent to between 13 percent and 14.5 percent, but held steady in 2004 and 2005. This places Russia's tariffs at a level slightly higher than other middle-income countries and considerably higher than...
The electric power and heat tariffs are described for different periods. The electric power prices are compared with the prices of food and fuels. The influence of tariff on electric power consumption is discussed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 8 tabs
The tariff system compatible with the supply and demand evolution characteristics of electric power in Brazil based in economic costs is presented. The main purposes of the tariff politic is consolidated with the National Program of Irrigation. (author)
The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs
Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver
As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEFâs extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.
New tariffs of gas transportation networks usage will be enforced on January 1, 2009. They will greatly simplify the access to transportation networks, favorable to the development of competition, and will allow market actors to have a better visibility. They represent a favorable framework for investments on the transportation network and will incite the gas suppliers to improve their quality of service and to control their expenses. (J.S.)
This paper investigates how corrupt public officials and firms adjust to policy reforms that change opportunities for bribery deals to take place. I take advantage of an exogenously determined tariff liberalization program that altered opportunities to extract bribes through a particular method -selling tariff evasion-, to study how changes in tariff levels affected the incidence, the distribution, and the level of bribes paid during different stages of the process of importing goods. Th...
The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective tariff. 154.3... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.3 Effective tariff. (a) The effective tariff of a natural gas company is the tariff...
Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Lange, Mirjam R. J.
This paper provides an empirical analysis how tariff diversity affects broadband uptake, utilizing a new data set with 1497 fixed-line and 2158 mobile broadband tariffs from 91 countries across the globe. An instrumental variable approach is applied to estimate the demand for fixed broadband internet access, controlling for various industry and socio-economic factors. The empirical results indicate that, first, in addition to lower prices and higher income, more tariff diversity additionally ...
Tariff types and rules of their construction are presented. Present Polish tariffs are described in detail. The components of tariff charges are given together with some proposals of their optimization. 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab
The tariff system of electric power in France is described. The choice of tariffs and the different tariffs are given so as the expenses of connection and reinforcement power supplies systems of customers. (o.L.). 13 tabs
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objectives at the same time.
Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...
Germán A., de la Reza.
Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas e [...] m curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental. Abstract in english The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric [...] negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.
Germán A. de la Reza
Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas em curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental.The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.
We develop a two-country (Home and Foreign) by two-good (consumption good and investment good) by one factor (capital) endogenous growth model with international knowledge spillover to study the relationship between an import tariff and economic growth and welfare. First, unlike the past literature, we do not need to make an assumption such that the growth rates between countries are identical in a balanced growth path (BGP). Second, we show that there exists a unique and saddle-point BGP w...
Angel-Urdinola, Diego; Cosgrove-Davies, Malcolm; Wodon, Quentin
Rwanda is facing a severe electricity crisis. Higher demand and production cost as well as a reduction in revenues in real terms have led to large operating losses for the electricity operator Electrogaz. In order to deal with this crisis, a doubling of electricity tariffs was recently approved, from a flat rate of RWF 42/kwh to a flat rate of RWF82/kwh. This flat rate may not be appropriate to protect some of the poorer residential customers of Electrogaz from the necessary increase in the...
Schröder, Philipp; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low...... tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare....
Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: ? Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. ? Most projects are either solar or wind. ? Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.
Flexible delivery reliability (FLP), which is in focus in this report, means that the customer shall be able to choose from a number of different grid tariffs of different qualities. This way he shows his actual willingness to pay for quality. It is an important difference compared with the KILE system, which is based on a surveyed willingness to pay. As it is planned to be implemented, FLP assumes that the customer must choose one of a number of different subscriptions and that he makes his choice based on his own preferences and costs what suits him best. The various subscribers entail different degrees of delivery reliability. For the grid companies, customers and regulatory authorities the FLP represents a challenge. It is assumed that the customers have a conscious attitude or preference with respect to delivery quality. That is not always the case today
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff limitations. 520.7 Section 520.7 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.7 Tariff limitations. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) Be clear...
... the public may retrieve and review tariffs. \\1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings, Order No. 714, 73 FR 57515..., 375 and 385 Electronic Tariff Filings Issued January 21, 2010. AGENCY: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Order establishing procedures relating to tariffs filed electronically. ] SUMMARY:...
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff contents. 520.4 Section 520.4 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.4 Tariff contents. (a) General. Tariffs published pursuant to this part shall: (1) State...
This paper quantifies the distortions from specific tariffs levied by the EU. The most-favored-nation (MFN) specific tariffs levied by the EU translate into higher tariff barriers for poor countries exporting low price goods. We show that for poor countries, these higher tariff barriers from specific tariffs offset the gains from preferential tariffs. We apply a two-stage analysis to show that the specific tariffs levied by the EU on its agricultural imports wash away more than half of the we...
Wey, Christian; Aghadadashli, Hamid
We study sequential bargaining between two unions and a single firm. Parties bargain bilaterally and efficiently (over wage and employment). The unions' workforces can be substitutable ("tariff competition") or complementary ("tariff plurality" or "craft unionism"). If unions are substitutable, then too many workers from the first union are employed at the cost of employment from the second union (with overall overemployment). If unions are complementary, then employment of both unions is red...
This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs
Cororaton, Caesar B.
The Philippines undergoes a tariff reform program. After more than a decade of implementation, significant achievements have been attained in terms of changes in the tariff structure. For example, quantitative restrictions on important commodities have been tariffied. The tariff structure has been simplified from a multi-layered one into a structure with fewer tariff rates. Furthermore, tariff rates have been substantially reduced. The objective of the paper is to analyze the effects of the t...
With the help of a simple model of production and trade, we examine the differential impact of tariff escalation on skilled and unskilled wages in an economy. Our findings provide a lobbying-based explanation of the prevalence of tariff escalation in developed countries. It also predicts the possible response of a developing country and shows how similar lobbying activity in that country can slow the pace of liberalization of service sector trade.
Rotunno, Lorenzo; Vézina, Pierre-Louis
In this paper we combine the tariff evasion analysis of Fisman and Wei (2004) with Rauch and Trindade's (2002) study of Chinese trade networks. Chinese networks are known to act as trade catalysts by enforcing contracts and providing market information. As tariff evasion occurs outside the law, market information is scant and formal institutions inexistent, rendering networks the more important. We find robust evidence that Chinese networks, proxied by ethnic Chinese migrant populations, incr...
Sannarnes, Jan Gaute
This paper discusses how the government can set transportation tariffs to induce socially optimal transportation of natural gas in a network owned by a syndicate of gas producers. In a setting where the gas is exported to end-user markets and a foreign third party has access to the gas grid, it would be optimal to differentiate the tariff. However, if the tariff scheme has to be based on the principles of open access on nondiscriminatory conditions, organizing the transportation network as a ...
Raimondos-MÃ¸ller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market......According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...
...2010-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8 Section 1312.8 Transportation...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every tariff...
... manufacturer exporters in foreign market destinations. OTM strives to provide senior U.S. Government policy..., with emphasis on tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and global market access. DATES: Tuesday... market access challenges they face. Dated: Tuesday, October 16, 2012. Thomas Sobotta, Acting...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Re-use of Special Tariff Permission when tariff is rejected. 221.123 Section 221.123 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission To File on Less...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may amend tariffs. 221.70 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.70 Who may amend tariffs. A tariff shall be amended only by the carrier or agent who issued the tariff (except as otherwise authorized in subparts P and Q)....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 221.212 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.212 Special tariff permission. (a) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which...
To study the variation of the marginal losses in the Norwegian regional and distribution networks, a stylized radial network and an existing network example were analyzed as described in this report. The main conclusion is that the marginal-cost (the marginal losses) varies with time and place in a way that is little reflected in the energy components of the transfer- and distribution tariffs. The difference between the actual marginal-cost at a given time at a given place and the transport price that confronts an actor through the tariffs is so large that one must ask if there is any point in basing a price on marginal-cost as long as today's calculation methods are used. The problem varies somewhat between the network levels. In the distribution network the range of variation is large within the same voltage level/tariff level. If the situation improves, a time differentiation is still required. A further improvement can be obtained by a place differentiation, for example by differentiation between densely and sparsely populated areas. However, this is difficult to realize. In the central network the problem is the same, but it is easier technically and administratively to arrive at a more correct arrangement. In practice there are no great problems in differentiating the price down to individual bus bars. This would relate input and output tariffs more correctly and logically. If time differentiation is intended to capture load variations, it seems that certain improvements are possible in the present classification. It appears that spring and autumn should stand apart as one period. Furthermore, the marginal loss tariff should be based on the water supply situation at the beginning of the tariff period. 10 refs., 13 figs., 17 tabs
Roberto Hernan; Praveen Kujal
In a vertically differentiated duopoly the use of import tariffs by an importing country decreases domestic welfare if import tariffs are chosen once the firms have made their quality decisions. In this paper we propose import tariffs that are contingent on some minimum quality level (MQL) being met. A firm is taxed if it fails to meet these MQL. Import tariffs conditional on fulfilling the MQL are welfare improving over free trade. Investment in quality increases, market coverage goes up and...
Ogawa, Yoshitomo; Ono, Yoshiyasu
This paper provides a welfare comparison of a tariff with a combination of a production subsidy to, and a commodity tax on, an import-competing commodity in a two-country economy. We treat some plausible situations of industry protection, including where the initial tariff is above the optimal tariff, where a certain output level of a tariff-imposed commodity must be maintained, and where there is positive externality of its domestic production. In those cases we explore the optimal combinati...
Ferreira, Fernanda A.
This paper analyses the effects of tariffs on an international economy with a monopolistic sector with two firms, located in two countries, each one producing a homogeneous good for both home consumption and export to the other identical country. We consider a game among governments and firms. First, the government imposes a tariff on imports and then we consider the two types of moving: simultaneous (Cournot-type model) and sequential (Stackelberg-type model) decisions by the firms. We also compare the results obtained in each model.
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informational tariffs. 64.709 Section 64.709... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.709 Informational tariffs. (a) Informational tariffs filed pursuant to 47 U.S.C. 226(h)(1)(A) shall contain specific rates expressed in dollars...
... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff requirements. 377.103 Section 377.103... CHARGES Handling of C.O.D. Shipments § 377.103 Tariff requirements. No common carrier of property subject....d. service unless such carrier has published, posted and filed tariffs which contain the...
The tariff and subsidy support available for windpower producers in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and the U.K. is compared. Tariffs and subsidies, along with the availability of finance, are important supportive factors in the development of wind energy in Europe. The available tariffs, subsidies and financing mechanisms available in a country determines how the wind energy programme develops. (author)
... (65 FR 19477-19478) or you may visit www.regulations.gov . Regulatory Evaluation This regulation... Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation 33 CFR Part 402 RIN 2135-AA32 Tariff of Tolls AGENCY... Tariff of Tolls in their respective jurisdictions. The Tariff sets forth the level of tolls assessed...
Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
. This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression......WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates...... formula. No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....
The report presents studies of the tariff systems and the effects of different ownership shares in production, processing, and transportation of petroleum on the Norwegian continental shelf (NOCS). The aim of this study is to analyse the issue of the price field owners have to pay for using the infrastructure owned by others, what is meant by efficient pricing, and compare this with NOCS experience so far. In the report it is discussed whether the provision of NOCS infrastructure services, with an eye to determining the system of joint venture development on the NOCS, is beneficial to infrastructure provision. Main topics cover as follow: NOCS infrastructure; the effect of different ownership shares in production and transportation; tariff regimes. 19 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs
Lahiri, Sajal; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Wong, Kar-Yiu; Alan D. WOODLAND
This paper investigates the optimality of international income transfers in a two-country model in which each country engages in non-cooperative trade policy behaviour. It is shown that unconditional income transfers can never be optimal for the donor country, which not only suffers the loss of income but is harmed as the recipient responds optimally by raising tariffs. It is further shown that it is possible for the donor to attach carefully designed conditionality rules to the aid package t...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other types of governing tariffs. 221.63... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.63 Other types of governing tariffs. Subject to approval of the Department, carriers may publish other types of governing tariffs not specified...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of tariffs. 221.210 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.210 Suspension of tariffs. (a) A fare, charge, rule or other tariff provision that is suspended by the Department pursuant to section 41509...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Composition of tariff..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.103 Composition of tariff. (a) The tariff must contain sections, in the following order:...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specifications applicable to tariff... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Specifications of Tariff Publications § 221.20 Specifications applicable to tariff publications. (a) Numerical order. All items in a tariff shall be arranged...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public notice of tariff information. 221... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.100 Public notice of tariff information. Carriers must make tariff information available...
... tariff publications. 341.13 Section 341.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.13 Withdrawal of proposed tariff publications. (a) Proposed tariff publications. A proposed tariff publication which is...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.300 Discontinuation of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delivering tariff publications to... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing Tariff Publications With Department § 221.91 Delivering tariff publications to Department. Tariff publications will be received for filing only...
... such case the justification or attachment shall state whether the new or changed matter is identical to... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department Â§ 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs....
This presentation provided an explanation of the concept of regulated rates in the natural gas industry, including cost based rates, tariff defined services, tariff defined terms and conditions, discounting and capacity release. Definition of competitive alternatives, such as negotiated rates and negotiated terms and conditions, was included. Additional alternatives, comprising revisions to capacity release programs and further unbundling of the natural gas industry, were also examined. A section on market competition dealt with the development of market centers and hubs, the impact of new pipeline projects as well as recontracting and decontracting. Under the heading of 'Maximizing Value' were discussed issues such as seasonally adjusted contract quantities and seasonally adjusted rates. Other competitive issues, such as access to alternative supplies and alternative markets, quality of customer relations, and timing of contract expirations, also received attention
The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)
The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs
On April 20, 1997, Electricite de France (EdF) started the first step of its tariffs change as planned in the 1997-2000 company contractual agreement. A second step followed on May 1, 1998. The 1997 tariffs represent an average decay of 6% explained in constant currency while the 1998 average decay is of 3.5%. The average decay over the whole 1997-2000 period will be of 14%. These decays are followed by changes in the tariffs structure which are summarized in this paper as a series of tables: tariff of sales (domestic customers and farmers, professionals, public, communal and inter-communal organizations, overseas departments and Corsica) and tariffs of purchase (hydraulic and wind producers in mother country and overseas departments). (J.S.)
Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia
This paper discusses, in terms of Brazil's situation, the use of a nonlinear pricing approach in the application of a two-part tariff to electricity distribution networks. The principles that uphold charging access and usage are to optimize energy systems that are based on a generation technology mix. Such a pricing approach is used in Brazil, where the generation mix is mainly hydro-generation. This study shows that, in a case like Brazil's, a two-part tariff may be used as a tool for network optimization. The paper presents a design for a two-part tariff for a distribution system with varying consumer behavior. To validate the discussion, we offer a numerical example. Finally, remarks are given concerning pricing access and usage for low voltage level consumers.
The problem of efficiently pricing electricity has been of concern to economists and policy makers for some time. A natural solution to variable demand is tariffs to smooth demand and reduce the need for excessive reserve margins. An alternative approach is dual energy programs whereby electric space heating systems are equipped with a secondary system (usually oil) which is used during periods of peak demand. Comments are presented on two previous papers (Bergeron and Bernard, 1991; Sollows et al., 1991) published in Energy Studies Review, applying them to Hydro Quebec tariff structure and dual energy programs. The role of tariffs in demand-side management needs to be considered more fully. Hydro-Quebec's bi-energy tariff structure could be modified by using positive incentives to make use of bi-energy attractive below -12 C to give the following benefits. The modified tariff would be easier for consumers to understand, corrects the misallocation problem due to differential pricing in the current tariff, transfers the risk related to price fluctuations of the alternative energy source from the consumer to the utility, and corrects the potential avoidance problem due to the negative incentive of the current tariff. 21 refs
Full Text Available The tariff policy of a telecommunication operator has a strategic importance on achieving of optimal revenues and a fundamental impact on its position in the competition with another operators on the liberalised telecommunication market. The payment for a connection through a telecommunication network is determined by a rate for one call unit, by the duration of the call unit and their count during a call. An operator derives the rate and the duration of the call unit from a detailed analysis of large databases that contain statistical data on counts and duration of particular calls depending on the call type. Only the operator knows these data files and it keeps them confidential. It will be shown in the paper how it is possible to come to an estimation of revenues from telecommunication traffic only knowing a pair of basic parameters. The first considerations handling with this topic can be found in , ,.
We study the optimal tariff structure that could induce a regulated utility to promote energy efficiency by its customers given that it is privately informed about the effectiveness of its effort on demand reduction. The regulator should optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If the firm's energy efficiency activities have a high impact on demand reduction, the consumer should pay a high fixed fee but a low per unit price, approximating the tariff structure to a decoupling policy, which strengthens the firm's incentives to pursue energy conservation. Instead, if the firm's effort to adopt energy efficiency actions is scarcely effective, the tariff is characterized by a low fixed fee but a high price per unit of energy consumed, thus shifting the incentives for energy conservation on consumers. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the cost of the consumer's effort (in case the consumer can also adopt energy efficiency measures) and on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts. - Highlights: We study the optimal tariff structure that induces an utility to adopt energy efficiency activities. The regulator optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If energy efficiency activities have a high effectiveness, decoupling emerges as a solution. If the energy efficiency actions are less effective, the tariff has a higher per unit price and lower fixed fee. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariffs as evidence. 1.358 Section 1.358....358 Tariffs as evidence. In case any matter contained in a tariff schedule on file with the Commission is offered in evidence, such tariff schedule need not be produced or marked for identification,...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.22 Section 61.22 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Nondominant Carriers § 61.22 Composition of tariffs. (a) The tariff must be submitted on a...
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integrity of tariffs. 520.10 Section 520.10 Shipping... TARIFFS § 520.10 Integrity of tariffs. (a) Historical data. Carriers and conferences shall maintain the data that appeared in their tariff publication systems for a period of five (5) years from the...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of tariffs. 61.87 Section 61.87 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Specific Rules for Tariff Publications of Dominant and Nondominant Carriers § 61.87 Cancellation of tariffs....
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Index of tariffs. 341.9... SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.9 Index of tariffs. (a) In general. Each carrier must publish as a separate tariff publication under its FERC Tariff numbering system, a complete...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false STB tariff designation. 1312.7 Section 1312.7..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.7 STB tariff designation. (a) Format. Every tariff shall show an...
... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard tariff terminology. 520.5 Section 520.5... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.5 Standard tariff terminology. (a) Approved codes. The Standard Terminology Appendix.... They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate...
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for special tariff permission. 1... Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.772 Application for special tariff permission. Applications under section 203 of the Communications Act for special...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of tariffs. 1310.3 Section 1310.3... OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.3 Contents of tariffs. (a) Tariffs prepared under this part must include an...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of tariff terms. 221.103 Section 221...) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.103 Notice of tariff terms. Each carrier shall cause to be displayed continuously in a conspicuous public place at...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form of tariff. 341.3... OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.3 Form of tariff. (a) Tariffs may be...
This paper challenges the widely held view that tariff protection was the major factor in explaining the poor performance of Spanish agriculture in the half century prior to the 1936 Civil War. After examining the general level of tariffs, it is argued that these were not sufficient in themselves to explain either the poor diets or weak demand for manufactured goods. Secondly, farmers were slow to switch resources out of cereals, not so much because of the tariffs, but rather because of the l...
Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald; Frandsen, Søren E.
The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely...... tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase...
... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2011 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...
... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United..., the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 18, 2012, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC... 10 CFR 903.23 (2012) of the Department of Energy's regulations. Tariff records included in...
... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna-Tariff Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2013 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the apparent...
Uros Andrejevic; Giuliana Campanelli Andreopoulos; Alexandros Panayides
The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumer...
Wang, Leonard F. S.; Jean Wang; Long Tang; Jen-Yao Lee
Utilizing linear mixed oligopoly model, this paper explores the magnitude of the maximum-revenue tariff, optimum-welfare tariff, and revenue-constrained optimal tariff that is especially designed for the consideration of the bureaucratic inefficiency. In particular, the tariff ranking issue is examined under both cases of Cournot competition and domestic public leadership. We found that, under Cournot competition, the optimum-welfare tariff is the highest and it is followed by the revenue-con...
New incentive programmes could mean that the Italian solar thermal market will see renewed growth. But instead of the planned feed-in tariff, the incentives will first come in the form of a grant scheme.
In many countries electricity supply business has been opened for competition. In this paper we analyze the problem of pricing of electricity tariffs in these open markets, when both the customers' electricity consumption and the market price are stochastic processes. Specifically, we focus on regular tariff contracts which do not have explicit amounts of consumption units defined in the contracts. Therefore the valuation process of these contracts differs from the valuation of electricity futures and options. The results show that the more there is uncertainty about the customer's consumption, the higher the fixed charge of the tariff contract should be. Finally, we analyze the indication of our results to the different methods for estimating the customer's consumption in the competitive markets. Since the consumption uncertainties enter into the tariff prices, the analysis indicates that the deterministic standard load curves do not provide efficient methods for evaluating the customers' consumption in competitive markets
In this paper, author examine the issue of the optimal tariff in circumstances in which trade between the North (a developed country) and the South (a developing country) takes place. Firms compete in quantities (Cournot competition) in an imperfectly competitive Northern market. In addition, there are leakages of technological knowledge (spillovers) from the North to the South. The interaction between tariffs and spillovers, together with its consequences for the social welfare of th...
Reutern, Mikhail Kh.
The experience of the ten years which have elapsed since the enactment of the present Tariff demonstrates the necessity of a revision, with the view to an augmentation of the revenue, and in order to promote a more regular trade. It is, however, necessary to proceed with much caution, for changes in Customs duties strongly affect industries which have been created under a highly protective system. The results of former legislation on this subject afford very important data. By the Tariff of 1...
In a Cournot duopoly with one foreign firm and one domestic firm we show that a tariff on foreign products can be an effective instrument to influence the licensing strategy of the foreign firm. Under free trade technology transfer occurs with a royalty contract, but a suitably designed tariff rate can induce the foreign firm transfer its superior technology to the domestic firm under the fee contract where consumers welfare is maximized and social welfare is larger. Such a policy appears to...
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier on...... the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for...... both the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a...
Cruz, Marcio; Bussolo, Maurizio
In the last decade Morocco undertook substantial, if gradual, trade liberalization by reducing tariffs, reforming trade regulations and signing free and preferential trade agreements with several regions and countries, including the United States, Turkey, the European Union and Arab countries. This paper analyzes the impact of input tariff reduction on Moroccan exporting firms through the ...
In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete Ã la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: â¢ One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. â¢ Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. â¢ Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment
This paper aims to analyze tariff protection policies in the agricultural sector of developing countries. The agricultural tariff structure in developing countries is characterized by: i) high average tariffs, ii) the existence of tariff escalation, iii) dispersion of nominal tariffs across tariff lines, and iv) a wide gap between average nominal tariffs and import-weighted average tariffs. Consequently, some features can be extracted that are consistent with the observed...
Harding, Torfinn; Rattsø, Jørn
The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. We seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage of multilateral tariff liberalization using reductions in industrial sector tariffs in other world regions as instruments for sectoral tariff reductions in South Afri...
This document reports an audit study performed by the ADEME and related to energy social tariffs, to their modalities and distribution costs, and aimed at proposing recommendations to improve these arrangements or to create a new one. In a first part, it outlines that these tariffs are apparently based on simple and fair principles, describes how eligible households are identified, outlines that these tariffs do not solve arrangement structural inequity between heating modes, that the awarded amount depends on too many parameters, that providers are totally reimbursed (sometimes even more), and that the arrangement is still insufficient to solve the problem of energy poverty. The second part addresses operational modalities and highlights their complexity. Recommendations are then stated which are aimed at consolidating and simplifying them, and at modifying them to create an actual energy shield
US International Trade Commission This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...
An analysis of the electric power tariffs by marginal cost in Brazilian sectors is presented with some considerations bout the economy, politics and a forecasting for 1995. Two tables with tariffs and costs are also shown. (author)
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When reference to governing tariffs... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Governing Tariffs § 221.60 When reference to governing tariffs permitted. (a) Reference to other tariffs prohibited except as authorized. A tariff shall...
PRUSA, Thomas J; Kolev, Dobrin
We examine the incentives for a government to levy an optimal tariff on a foreign monopolist. With complete information, the home government uses tariffs to extract rents and therefore implements a policy of discriminatory tariffs entailing higher tariffs on more efficient firms. By contrast if the government is incompletely informed about costs, we show that under reasonable conditions the unique self-enforcing outcome involves pooling where firms export the same quantity regardless of effic...
Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)
Hashimzade, N; Khodavaisi, H.; Myles, G.D.
The gradualist approach to trade liberalization views the uniform tariffs implied by MFN status as an important step on the path to free trade. We investigate whether a regime of uniform tariffs will be preferable to discriminatory tariffs when countries engage in non-cooperative interaction in multilateral trade. The analysis includes product differentiation and asymmetric costs. We show that with the cost asymmetry the countries will disagree on the choice of tariff regime. When the choice ...
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Zhao, Haoran; Liu, Zhaoxi
This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme ou...
Petreski, Marjan; Jovanovic, Branimir; Velickovski, Igor
In this paper we investigate if tariffs affect manufacturing value added in 25 countries from Central and Southeast Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States and Middle East and North Africa over the period1990-2010. We use an instrumental variable approach, with the World Trade Organization bound tariff and the lagged tariff as instruments. Results suggest that, in general, lower tariffs seem to lead to higher value added, through the higher imports of inputs in the production process w...
Mario J Crucini; Kahn, James
In this paper we revisit the issues addressed in Crucini and Kahn (1996) in the light of recent research on the Great Depression. In that paper we had argued that particular features of the Hawley-Smoot tariffs could have provided them with a stronger impact than conventional wisdom had held, and we described the magnitudes in a calibrated general equilibrium model. We suggested that while the tariffs could directly account for only a small part of the Great Depression, they nonetheless had a...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to maintain tariffs. 1310.2 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.2 Requirement to maintain tariffs. (a) Except when providing...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendments to tariffs. 1312.5 Section 1312.5..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.5 Amendments to tariffs. (a) Manner of making changes. An amendment is...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellation of tariffs..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.5 Cancellation of tariffs. Carriers...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract-based tariffs. 61.55 Section 61.55 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.55 Contract-based tariffs. (a) This section shall apply to price...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every...
... No. 714, 73 FR 57,515 (Oct. 3, 2008), 124 FERC ] 61,270, FERC Stats. & Regs [Regulations Preambles... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference December 22, 2010... to discuss issues relating to the electronic filing of tariff and tariff related materials...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.6 Furnishing copies of tariff publications. (a) Copies...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry, examination, and tariff status. 10.100... United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise....00.60, 9808.00.70, or other subheadings in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific rules by tariff classification. 102.20...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.20 Specific rules by tariff classification... rule. HTSUS Tariff shift and/or other requirements (a) Section I: Chapters 1 through 5 0101-0106...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special tariff permission. 399.35 Section... PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.35 Special tariff permission. (a) Definition. As used in this section, to grant STP means to approve...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff information. 252... Provisions And Clauses 252.239-7006 Tariff information. As prescribed in 239.7411(a), use the following clause: Tariff Information (JUL 1997) (a) The Contractor shall provide to the Contracting Officer...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representation at Tariff Commission hearings. 6.8... § 6.8 Representation at Tariff Commission hearings. The Department of Agriculture shall be represented at all hearings conducted by the Tariff Commission under section 22 by persons designated by...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General tariff requirements. 61.2 Section 61.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General § 61.2 General tariff requirements. (a) In order to remove all doubt as to their proper...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tariff filing....204 Tariff filing requirements. (a) General rule. Each interstate pipeline listed in § 281.202 shall file tariff sheets, in accordance with § 154.4 of this chapter, including an index of...
... International Trade, (202) 325-0009. Correction In notice document, FR Doc. 2012-9131, beginning on page 22796... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...
Felbermayr, Gabriel; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario
This paper characterizes analytically the optimal tariff of a large one-sector economy with monopolistic competition and firm heterogeneity in general equilibrium, thereby extending the small-country results of Demidova and Rodriguez-Clare (JIE, 2009) and the homogeneous firms framework of Gros (JIE, 1987). The optimal tariff internalizes a markup distortion and a terms of trade externality. It is larger the higher the dispersion of firm-level productivities, and the bigger the country's rela...
Zhang, Yan; Chen, Yan
We explore the equivalence between the factor income taxes (in Schmitt-Grohe and Uribe 1997) in the closed economy and the tariff in the open economy, in the sense that they share similar propagation mechanism of sunspot and fundamental shocks under a balanced-budget rule.
Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Zhao, Haoran; Liu, Zhaoxi
This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...... behavior in such a way that the power system operation issues, such as system balance and congestion, can be alleviated. From the comparison study, including analysis and case study, the DT scheme outperforms the other tariff schemes in terms of cost saving and network operation condition improving....
The Republic of Armenias water and sanitation services (WSS) sector has seen impressive improvements over the last decade. The Government of Armenia (GoA) has restructured, reformed, and invested in the sector in ways that have improved access, continuity, and quality of WSS. The purpose of the report is to help the GoA: analyze the current levels and structures of water and wastewater ta...
Following some of the directives and regulations in the 3rd EU Energy Package, many of the EU members are reconsidering their methodologies to derive the tariffs charged for access and usage of their gas transport systems. Among these methodologies, the use of entryexit tariffs computed via least squares has received the most attention over the last few years and there is a wide consensus towards the application of this approach. The main contribution of this paper is to raise awareness on the fact that, even after a given methodology has been chosen, there are still important details to be fixed before the final tariffs are computed. Within the context of the least squares methodology we argue that, although many of these details may seem minor, they can have a big impact on the final outcome. The paper also presents proposals on how these details can be handled while still pursuing the goals set by the EU; goals such as being transparent, cost-reflective, and non-discriminatory. Finally, the paper concludes with an illustration of the discussed proposals, applying them to the Spanish gas transport network. - Highlights: We present a methodological discussion of entryexit tariffs via least squares. We discuss some implementation aspects that have to be handled carefully. We present a series of proposals to handle these aspects. Illustration with the Spanish Gas Transmission Network
...ER11-2127-001, ER11-2127-002, EL11-37-000] Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; Order on Rehearing and...access transmission tariff (OATT) submitted by Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC (Terra-Gen), in response to a Commission order...
... networks (âPSTNâ); or (2) The Internet (Web) by: (i) Web browser; or (ii) Telnet session. (b) Dial-up...) Internet connection. (1) This connection option requires that systems provide: (i) A universal resource locator (âURLâ) Internet address (e.g., http://www.tariffsrus.com or http://22.214.171.124); and/or (ii) A...
...conferences shall ensure that their Internet service providers provide static Internet addresses. (d) Commission...PSTNs or a connection over the Internet. Connectivity will be provided...fees, hardware rental fees, usage fees or any other...
Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay
The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment avai...
Blonigen, Bruce A.; Matthew T. Cole
Recent theoretical work suggests that the presence of foreign direct investment (FDI) lowers a countrys noncooperative Nash tariff. To test this hypothesis, we first adapt the theoretical model formulated by Blanchard (2010) to derive an intuitive, empirically testable equation. This equation is an augmentation of the standard formula equal to the inverse of export supply elasticity. Using constructed estimates of export supply elasticities and measures of FDI, we test this hypothesis with r...
Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Usin...
The market survey covers the electrical power systems market in China. This includes power transmission equipment, power generation equipment, automatic controls, coal handling equipment, pollution prevention equipment, and other auxiliary equipment. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels).
Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs
The paper aims to review the recently adopted legislation on feed-in tariffs in Ukraine, focusing on its advantages and drawbacks, as well as on the related challenges. The recommendations listed in the paper will help to change the existing legislation regarding green electricity by means of eliminating its main drawbacks. The best prospects for renewable electricity production are related to the energy from the wind and the sun, nonetheless energy from the sun and biomass is used mostly for heating purposes, whereas the number of plans for the construction of wind farms and solar plants is growing tremendously. Despite policies and legislation being in place for the inclusion of electricity from renewables in the grid, technical and financial obstacles exist. There are plenty of plans to build new generating facilities, but at the same time there is absolutely no information about the construction of power backup. The existing regulatory policy regarding green electricity production and consumption still has significant potential for improvement. Compared to other measures, feed-in tariff implementation has spurred green electricity production in Ukraine, because feed-in tariff rates are high, and grid access is guaranteed by law, a major advantage of the current legislation on renewables in Ukraine. - Highlights: ? The number of wind farms and solar plants construction plans in Ukraine is growing. ? Guarantees to obtain feed-in tariff investors get after completion of construction. ? The definition of the term biomass in Ukrainian legislation needs to be reviewed. ? The investments in renewables are mostly commenced by Ukrainian investors. ? Feed-in tariff is the most efficient measure for green electricity production.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission of electronic tariffs to... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.500 Transmission of electronic tariffs to subscribers. (a) Each filer that files an electronic tariff under...
... rate schedules and tariffs. 154.102 Section 154.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.102 Requirements for filing rate schedules and tariffs. (a) All rates schedules, tariffs, and service agreements may be filed either by dividing the rate...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for tariff page filings. 389... § 389.26 Special rules for tariff page filings. (a) Tariffs issued by carriers. The filing fee for tariff pages filed by U.S. air carriers will be charged even if the tariff includes matters...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reinstating canceled or expired tariff... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Amendment of Tariffs § 221.72 Reinstating canceled or expired tariff provisions. Any fares, rules, or other tariff provisions which have been canceled or...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of the tariff... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Tariff Changes § 154.603 Adoption of the tariff by a successor. Whenever the tariff or...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... tariff treatment under the US-CFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...
Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager
Actual trade and tariff policy prefers ad valorem tariffs to specific tariffs. Yet in this paper we show that, in a setting of monopolistic competition, realizing a given restriction on imports via a specific tariff would generate more consumer utility than obtaining the same restriction via an ad...... valorem tariff. Udgivelsesdato: FEB...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level... tariff treatment under the SFTA under an applicable tariff preference level (TPL). To make a TPL...
This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on the location of firms, innovation and environmental policy. Besides the standard effect of reducing trade and production of dirty goods, green tariffs discourage firms from relocating to pollution havens and induce them to engage in pollution abatement R&D instead. With no concern about pollution among Southern residents, green tariffs can block delocation to serve as the only means of ...
This thesis studies the impact of innovative nonlinear tariffs that are formed by a cost cap component over and beyond traditional tariff components. Thereby, cost cap components fix an upper cost ceiling, after which consumption is exempt from further costs. The thesis demonstrates the use of different methodologies in order to study the effects of these pricing schemes. Implications for consumers and providers caused by the extension of tariffs by a cost cap component are discussed in detail.
The paper studies how second degree price discrimination can be implemented in a duopoly with differentiated products. Two firms serve consumers having heterogeneous willingness to pay for the good, willingness to pay being private knowledge. Consumers choose from a menu of tariffs and are subsequently billed according to the chosen tariff. Although product differentiation enables the firms to implement price discrimination, it is shown that competition has important effects on the tariff str...
Network operators are looking for ways how to introduce a flexible tariff for electricity transport and how such a tariff would look like. This has several reasons. The most important one is that the planned broad introduction of smart meters gives the opportunity to introduce such a tariff on a large scale. But also the expected developments in the future like an increase of distributed generation and an increase of consumers peak capacity because of a rise in electric vehicles and heat pump...
Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio
This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a speci?c import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign ?rm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign ?rm and increasing in the production costs of the home ?rm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff result...
Zhang, Fan; Hankinson, Denzel
The government of the Republic of Belarus plans to increase district heating tariffs to cost recovery levels and gradually phase out subsidies, replacing them with social assistance programs. Residential district heating tariffs in Belarus are currently at roughly 1021 percent of cost-recovery levels. District heating subsidies are highly regressive, add costs to business, and create significant fiscal risks and macroeconomic vulnerabilities. Belarus Heat Tariff Reform and Social Impact ...
Böhringer, Christoph; Brita BYE; Taran FÆHN; Rosendahl, Knut Einar
Climate effects of unilateral carbon policies are undermined by carbon leakage. To counteract leakage and increase global cost-effectiveness carbon tariffs can be imposed on the emissions embodied in imports from non-regulating regions. We present a theoretical analysis on the economic incentives for emission abatement of producers subjected to carbon tariffs. We quantify the impacts of different carbon tariff designs by an empirically based multi-sector, multi-region CGE model of the global ...
This paper addresses the impact of Multilateral Trade Liberalisation (MTL) on the preferential tariffs granted by the United States. For a given MFN tariff, we model the preferential tariff with a simple linear functional form. We take MTL of the US as known to the world by the end of Uruguay Round in 1994 and estimate its impact on preferential tariff negotiations during 1995 to 2007. We use a three dimensional panel data, which takes into account the partner, product and time variation of t...
... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.818 Section 10.818...States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric, apparel,...
... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.520 Section 10.520...States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or...
... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778...States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric or apparel...
... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421...States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...
... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.779 Section 10.779...States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...
... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.420 Section 10.420...States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or...
... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.819 Section 10.819...States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.819 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...
Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.
According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary and sufficient condition and a simple sufficient condition
In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)
Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)
In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)
Kuiper, M.H.; Banse, M.A.H.
This report analyses the impact of market access proposals tabled in the current WTO Doha round. The first part of the study assesses the 'bite' of tariff reductions by comparing border prices of Dutch products with those of imports before and after implementing tariff reductions. The second part of the study analyses the impact of proposals for sensitive products in terms of tariff rate quota (TRQ) expansion and highlights complexities surrounding the implementation of the proposals.
Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.
tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....
... CFR part 221, and will be canceled by operation of law. (b) One hundred and eighty days after the date... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effectiveness of tariffs on file. 293.22... Effectiveness of tariffs on file. (a) One hundred and eighty days after the date of effectiveness of...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for filing tariffs. 201.17 Section 201.17 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION... ACT Schedules of Rates and Charges § 201.17 Requirements for filing tariffs. (a) Schedules of...
... with 49 CFR 1312.13 has been made. (d) Charges. (1) If any charge is made, the charge for copies of... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1312.13... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A...
The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurance, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration and horticulture, and natural gas supply contracts. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, the tariffs and compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. Also attention will be paid to tariffs for electricity transport. Finally, several taxes, excises and levies that have a direct or indirect impact on natural gas tariffs, are discussed. 9 refs
... identifying each publication filed, and by the appropriate filing fee (see 49 CFR part 1002). Acknowledgment... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of tariffs. 1312.4 Section 1312.4..., POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER...
... rates in this tariff are increases, or, All rates on this page are reductions, except as otherwise... reductions except as otherwise indicated. (3) Items which have not been in effect 30 days when brought... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of tariffs. 61.54 Section...
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...
The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)
Briceno-Garmendia, Cecilia; Shkaratan, Maria
This is the first paper to build a comprehensive empirical picture of power pricing practices across Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a new database of tariff structures in 27 countries for the years 2004-2008. Using a variety of quantitative indicators, the paper evaluates the performance of electricity tariffs against four key policy objectives: recovery of historic power production costs, e...
Full Text Available Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican partys protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress urged revising the Tariff of 1857 to arrest the growth of the federal deficit. However, the bitter rhetoric that accompanied the secession crisis has obscured the true nature of this short-lived, but important, revenue measure. An examination of the Morrill Tariff and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that it re-established the rates from the free trade Tariff of 1846 while providing incidental protection for select industries, a practice accepted, even advocated, by the Democratic party for over a decade.
The new tariffs for the purchase of photovoltaic electricity were published by French authorities in January 2010. This new framework is more constraining and the tariffs are lower. For installations integrated to the building: 0.580 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for buildings dedicated to accommodation and buildings over 2 years of age dedicated to teaching and health; 0.500 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for other old buildings with 4 walls and a roof; 0.420 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for installations over 3 kWc on new buildings with a roof (but not necessarily with 4 walls) dedicated to any use except accommodation. For other installations: -)in the country: 0.314 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations below 250 kWc and from 0.310 to 0.377 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations over 250 kWc; -) in Corsica and DOM-COM: 0.400 euros/kWh (instead of 0.438 euros/kWh). (A.C.)
Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation. (author)
Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation
The purpose of this Consultation Paper is to inform stakeholders and the general public of Government's intentions to develop a Feed-In Tariff (FIT) Regulation, to provide relevant background information and solicit comments for consideration when drafting the regulation to support fulfillment of British Columbia's Energy Objectives. A FIT would be intended to support the development and commercialization of emerging technologies using clean or renewable energy sources (biomass, biogas, geothermal heat, hydro, solar, ocean, wind, etc.). The Regulation will provide BC Hydro with the authority to set rates for a FIT. Differences from existing FITs are presented, and the process by which feedback can be given is detailed. This Consultation Paper also includes discussion questions which are designed to gather input on key points which will guide the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources drafting of the Regulation. Comments received are treated confidentially by Ministry staff.
This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)
With the increasing concern over environmental issues, many government bodies have taken an interest in renewable energy. In their 2010 Renewable Electricity Plan, the Nova Scotia Department of Energy set a goal of being 40% dependent on renewable electricity by 2020 and they have already created a number of incentives, including a community feed-in tariff program (COMFIT). For a project to qualify for the COMIFT program it must be community owned, connected to the grid, and its energy must come from an approved list of technologies. As a developer of renewable energy projects, Scotian Windfields Inc. works with Community Economic Development Investment Funds (CEDIFs) interested in investing in renewable energy projects. To maintain COMFIT eligibility, the CEDIFs must maintain voting control of the project. Over a 10 year period, CEDIF investors in Scotian Windfield Inc. projects have come to number over 800 and have raised over $3 million.
Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL
This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.
... amendments to tariffs. 341.4 Section 341.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.4 Filing requirements for amendments to tariffs. (a) Supplements to tariffs. (1) Supplements are limited to...
... tariffs. 221.180 Section 221.180 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Electronically Filed Tariffs § 221.180 Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs. (a) No carrier or filing agent shall file an electronic...
... tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a..., including tariffs, rate schedules, service agreements, and contracts, or parts thereof, and material...
... preferential tariff treatment. 10.237 Section 10.237 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... preferential tariff treatment. (a) Verification by Customs. A claim for preferential tariff treatment made... port director may deny the claim for preferential tariff treatment. A verification of a claim...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for waiver of tariff... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Waiver of Tariff Regulations § 221.130 Applications for waiver of tariff regulations. Applications for waiver or modification of any of...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed Tariffs May 21, 2010. Take Notice that the attached document ``Filing Procedures For Electronically Filed Tariffs, Rate Schedules And Jurisdictional Agreements'' has been posted on the eTariff...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transmission of tariff filings to... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Availability of Tariff Publications for Public Inspection § 221.108 Transmission of tariff filings to subscribers. (a) Each carrier required to file...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA, other than the condition that...
... composition of tariff. 154.112 Section 154.112 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition of Tariff § 154.112 Exception to form and composition of tariff. (a) The...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... to 5516) that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... under § 10.770 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... originating good under § 10.810 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International dominant carrier tariff filing... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Tariff Rules for International Dominant Carriers § 61.28 International dominant carrier tariff filing requirements. (a) Any carrier classified as dominant for...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of claim for preferential tariff... tariff treatment. A claim for preferential tariff treatment made under § 10.703 of this subpart... substantiate the claim, the port director may deny the claim for preferential tariff treatment....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tariffs for domestic air transportation on... Relating to Rates and Tariffs Â§ 399.40 Tariffs for domestic air transportation on or after January 1, 1983. The Board will not approve or accept any tariff filings for interstate of overseas air...
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the short-run effect of the tariffs on Chinese tires imposed by the US in September 2009. First, we investigated whether the tariffs were beneficial to the US domestic tire industry in terms of employment. Our empirical analysis found that there were no significant benefits to US employment in the tire industry. This result led us to the next question: Who benefited from the tariffs? We found that the tire imports to the US were significantly deviated ...
Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.
This document is a series of tables which explain the reorganization of the electric power tariffs in France for the selling to consumers and the purchase from independent producers (hydro and wind power) according to the contract of Electricite de France (EdF) established for the four years period of 1997-2000. During this period, the tariffs of electric power selling will be reduced of 14% when explained in constant French Francs. The tariffs of 1997 correspond to a 6% reduction when explained in constant Francs which represents a 4.6% reduction when explained in current Francs according to the 1.4% estimated inflation rate. (J.S.)
A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent...... tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs....
A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent...... tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs. Udgivelsesdato: OCT...
Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio
This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a specific import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign firm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign firm and increasing in the production costs of the home firm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tariff results in both firms increasing their prices, an increase in both expected sales and expected profits for the home firm, and a decrease in both expected sales and expected profits for the foreign firm.
Within the frame of electricity market opening, regulated sales tariffs of electricity for companies are to be suppressed in January 2016. This note first indicates the three main types of clients who are concerned by these tariffs, indicates the objective of the suppression of the so-called green and yellow tariffs. It gives an overview of the presently existing offers in France, and notices the very slow transition of clients towards new offers. It describes what medium and high consuming sites must do to change their contract
Abu-Madi, M.; R. Al-Sa`ed; Braadbaart, O.D.; Alaerts, G.
Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of fresh...
This paper studies the impact of trade liberalization in terms of tariff cuts within the Eastern European enlargement on German and Austrian firm productivity. Unique matching of data from 1994 to 2003 suggests that tariff reductions raise parent firm productivity significantly. A ten percentage point decrease in tariff rates can lead to total factor productivity gains of up to 2 percent. The data allow distinction between three types of tariffs: output, intra-firm and input tariff rates. The...
Zhong, L; Mol, A.P.J.
In the late 1990s China started to expand its market economic reform to the public sector, such as water services. This reform led to major changes in urban water management, including water tariff management. The reforms in water tariff management relate not only to tariffs, but also to the decision-making on tariffs. Water tariff decision-making seems to move away from China's conventional mode of highly centralized and bureaucratic policy- and decision-making. The legalization, institution...
...) Upon notification to the filer that it may commence to file its tariffs solely in an electronic mode... mutually acceptable electronic medium accompanied by an affidavit attesting to the accuracy of such...
For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.
Serup, Karl Emil
Modelbeskrivelse af det danske energisystems tariffer og afgifter. Modellen viser energiforbrugernes udgifter og statens provenue for alternative udviklinger i energi- og miljøafgifterne. Der opstilles forslag til ændring i kalkulereglerne for energipriserne samt forslag til nye og ændrede energi...
The key problem of electric energy supply industry reform is gradually launching a competitive wholesale generation market since 1994. In process of this transformation the important role plays bulk energy supply tariff in electricity transactions between Polish Power Grid Company and distribution and retail supply companies (distributors). Premises, factors and constrains having influence on shaping of the bulk energy supply tariff are presented. A brief outline of economic foundation for calculation of demand charges and energy rate is given. Particular attention has been paid to description of bulk energy supply tariff structure. The scope and manner of adjustment of this tariff to circumstances and constrains in the initial stage of the wholesale electric energy market have been described as well. (author). 8 refs
Since July 1, 2003, the price for electricity is much higher as a result of higher tariffs for the power network. An overview is given of how the prices for electricity are set for households and small businesses
Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.
This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.
Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, JÃ¶rg; TrÃ¼g, Moritz
Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals....... Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more...... likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts....
Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio
In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.
Miguel A. García-Rubio; Alberto Ruiz-Villaverde; Francisco González-Gómez
Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the ca...
Chen, Been-Lon; Lee, Shun-Fa
This paper studies the relationship between tariffs and economic growth in a two-country AK growth model. We find that a sufficiently higher tariff can increase or decrease economic growth, which depends on the levels of productivity coefficients in both countries. Moreover, the Ricardian theorem of comparative advantage holds in the long-run equilibrium and local indeterminacy emerges in the case of incomplete specialization under milder conditions compared with conventional literature.
Hagen, Kåre Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute
This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why...
Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz
Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff set...
Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican partys protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress ur...
Bettendorf, Leon; Heijdra, Ben
A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff shock has significant intergenerational distribution effects which are different for creditor and debtor nations. Bond policy neutralizes the intergenerational inequities and allows the computation of first-bes...
A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger...
This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)
BOWN, Chad P.; Tovar, Patricia
This paper is the first to use product-level data to examine empirically whether countries use antidumping and safeguard exceptions to unwind commitments to lower tariffs in the face of domestic political-economic pressure. We focus on the case of India, a country that underwent a major exogenous tariff reform program in the early 1990s and subsequently initiated substantial use of safeguard and antidumping import restrictions. We first estimate structural determinants of India's import prote...
Alilio, Martin; Mwenesi, Halima; Barat, Lawrence M; Payes, Roshelle M; Prysor-Jones, Suzanne; Diara, Malick; McGuire, David; Shaw, Willard
Seven years ago, the removal of taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) was considered one of the easiest resolutions for most countries to implement among the targets agreed upon at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria in Abuja, Nigeria, on April 25, 2000. However, seven years later, 24 of the 39 Abuja signatories continue to impose taxes and tariffs on this life-saving tool. Taxes and tariffs significantly increase the price of an insecticide treated net, reduce affordability, and discourage the commercial sector from importing insecticide treated net products. Consequently, Roll Back Malaria partners are engaged in advocacy efforts to remove taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets in malaria-endemic countries of Africa. This viewpoint summarizes key obstacles to the removal of taxes and tariffs that have been identified through a review of country situations. To achieve the goal of producing and supplying more than 160 million insecticide treated nets needed to reach the revised Roll Back Malaria Partnership targets by 2010, tax and tariff reforms are urgently needed. Such reforms must be accompanied by country-specific systems to protect the poor (e.g., through voucher systems for vulnerable groups and other forms of targeted subsidies). PMID:18165497
This paper compares the optimum-welfare tariffs with the maximum-revenue tariffs in a model of vertically related markets characterized by Cournot competition. It shows that the optimum-welfare tariff on the intermediate good exceeds the maximum-revenue tariff if the home intermediate-good firm is much more cost-competitive than the foreign intermediate-good firm. Further, the optimum-welfare tariff on the final good exceeds the maximum-revenue tariff if the home intermediate-good firm i...
... Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public... Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public...user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff Public...
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of... Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of opportunity to file petitions requesting accelerated tariff... proposals seeking accelerated tariff elimination under the USCTPA as well as proposals on...
The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design
It has been found that, on a typical winter day, a network tariff that depends on the season may lead to a 5 per cent reduction in the power load of a row house. This is one of the results of a project which investigated the effect of season-dependent tariffs with 108 customers in Trondheim, Norway. For flats in blocks, the impact was insignificant and evidently other instruments were required. Results from this project and other projects in the 'End-user market' have been important for the proposed new seasonally differentiated tariffs. The effect of time variable network tariffs has been tested with 20 commercial customers in Trondheim over a period of three years and 13 of these customers adapted themselves actively to the new tariff and achieved a reduction of the peak load of from five to three per cent. In the summer, the price was about half that of a winter day. It is critical for the intended effect to occur that the arrangement is long-lasting and predictable for the customer. This contributes to increased adaptation and investment in the necessary equipment
Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig
This article examines a proposal from PSI Energy, Inc. (formerly Public Service Company of Indiana) to allow open access to its power transmission facilities and the response of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's response to that proposal. The topics discussed include transmission tariffs, competition, market share, expansion of transmission capacity and its funding, and reciprocal agreements to provide similar service
The following problems are discussed: (i) integrity of the tariff system, price setting and price control in relation to the secondary market; (ii) long-term contracting relations between the subjects - primary and secondary market entities; (iii) the setting of electricity purchase prices from independent producers; (iv) international integration of national systems, including electricity import prices; (v) cross-subsidies within the system; (vi) identification of adverse environmental impacts and their remediation by incorporating the associated costs into electricity prices; (vii) the cost basis of prices; (viii) objectivization of the cost basis; (ix) unification/diversification of the price and tariff levels and the associated distribution rent problem; (x) rational structure of the tariff system with respect to its complexity and ties to the measuring and control instrumentation and their efficiency; and (xi) breakdown of the costs of heat and electricity cogeneration and a fair price setting. (J.B.)
(1) We estimate CO2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find ?15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ? Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ? Net carbon exports: industrialized region ?15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ? CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ? The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ? They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.
The cost effectiveness of cogeneration is determined by several cost aspects: fuel costs of the cogeneration system and the avoided costs in separated heat generation, avoided or saved costs of the electricity cost price, and sellback. In order to assess these aspects, knowledge of the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs is an absolute necessity. The brochure aims at informing everybody involved or interested in cogeneration projects. First, attention is paid to the natural gas tariff for large-scale consumers; the tariff for natural gas, used in cogeneration systems; and other special tariffs. Next the structure of electricity tariffs is discussed, focusing on the so-called National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff, tariffs for large-scale consumers, sellback and reimbursement for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 4 appendices
Köhler, Philip; Krämer, Jan; Krüger, Lars
Cost cap tariffs are pay-per-use tariffs for which costs cannot exceed a predefined cost limit. They were recently introduced to telecommunications markets, but were previously also applied in the insurance industry as deductibles or in the rental industry as day rates. This paper develops and empirically validates a consumer surplus model that explains the optimal consumption pattern under cost cap tariffs and the conditions under which cost cap tariffs are chosen over pure pay-per-use and f...
This paper examines positive and normative implications of tariffs in the presence of persuasive advertising. It demonstrates that protection affects imports, the domestic consumer price and the terms of trade directly and through its effect on the level of advertising. If protection reduces advertising a Metzler paradox can occur. A tariff can be used to induce foreigners to allow entry. Jointly optimal tariffs and advertising taxes and the optimal tariff for the situation when it is the onl...
Castro Rodríguez, Fidel
This paper develops a capacity price model for the Spanish electricity industry and presents utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is aproximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. With this model and with the data on residential consumption of electricity several optimal t\\\\'o part tariffs for the residential level of utilization considering several hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment are computed. This allo...
The so called flat-rate bias is a well documented phenomenon caused by consumers' desire to be insured against fluctuations in their billing amounts. This paper shows that expectation-based loss aversion provides a formal explanation for this bias. We solve for the optimal two-part tariff when contracting with loss-averse consumers who are uncertain about their demand. The optimal tariff is a flat rate if marginal cost of production is low compared to a consumer's degree of loss aversion and ...
Herweg, Fabian; Mierendorff, Konrad
We consider a model of firm pricing and consumer choice, where consumers are loss averse and uncertain about their future demand. Possibly, consumers in our model prefer a flat rate to a measured tariff, even though this choice does not minimize their expected billing amount - a behavior in line with ample empirical evidence. We solve for the profit-maximizing two-part tariff, which is a flat rate if (a) marginal costs are not too high, (b) loss aversion is intense, and (c) there are strong v...
Jensen, Sissel; Sørgard, Lars
We analyze two-part tariffs in oligopoly, where each firm commits to a certain quantity. The model is an extension of the one introduced in Har (2001). We show that their main results are reversed when the model is extended from one to two types of consumers. In particular, we find that price per unit can exceed marginal costs, and the fixed fee can be below costs. We also show that two-part tariffs may collapse, because each firm would rather commit to a traditional Cournot price system (zer...
Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased
O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Cha, Seung-Tae
An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...... congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were...
First, it is described how prices and tariffs were determined before the introduction of the liberalization. Next, a brief overview is given of the transfer to the liberalized market and how the situation is on this market at present. Special attention is paid to the pricing of electricity in a free market, which is determined by competition between electricity producers in the Netherlands and abroad. Finally, a comparison is made between the expected prices and tariffs in a liberalized market and the prices before the liberalization
This review of the gas tariff systems in Europe did not confirm the previously established opinion that there is a large difference between the situation in Western Europe and the Central and Eastern Europe. The differences are not as great as the differences inside Western Europe and inside the Central and Eastern Europe countries. This overview was done according to the UN Gas centre questionnaire that was sent to all the countries with economies in transition and the information Gasunie has about he tariff system in western Europe
Electricity transboundary trade could be characterized as a bilateral monopoly between two national electricity boards. The bargaining over prices that takes place between importer and exporter is considered in the framework of bargaining game theory. Strategies are strongly affected by the type of regulation of the national electric utility within the importing country. The most suitable tariff policy seems to be that based on marginal cost pricing because it reduces both tariff level and the consumers' welfare loss in respect to other pricing rules. 14 refs., 3 figs
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tariffs to be filed for charter trips. 372... § 372.25 Tariffs to be filed for charter trips. Effective October 1, 1972, a charter operator shall not... on file with the Department a currently effective tariff showing all rates, fares, and charges...
... schedules and tariffs. 35.12 Section 35.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... AND TARIFFS Documents To Be Submitted With a Filing § 35.12 Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs. (a) The letter of a public utility transmitting to the Commission for filing an initial...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. 1310.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.5 Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. (a) Each...
... Rule § 281.212 Draft tariff and index of entitlements. (a) Each interstate pipeline shall prepare draft tariff sheets or sections and a draft index of entitlements in accordance with this subpart. (b) The draft tariff sheets or sections and index of entitlements shall be served on all customers of...
The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff... Trade Partnership Act § 10.233 Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment. (a) General. The preferential tariff treatment referred to in § 10.231 applies to any of the following articles, provided...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking under the Tariff Act of 1930. 147.21 Section 147.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Tariff Act of 1930. The marking requirements of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and the...
... COMMISSION Certain Footwear: Recommendations For Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United...- 8, Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) relating to certain footwear featuring outer soles of...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.3 Tariff contents and standards; Essential criteria....
... COMMISSION Certain Footwear: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, for the purpose of making certain further recommendations to the President relating to the addition of new tariff lines applicable to the subject footwear....
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Modification of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States for Certain... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) to reflect the enlargement of the European Union to 27... withdrew their tariff schedules under the World Trade Organization (WTO) and applied the common...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States... Classification § 152.11 Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States. Merchandise shall be classified in accordance with the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202) as interpreted...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Claim. An importer may make a claim for SFTA preferential tariff treatment, including an exemption from the merchandise processing fee, based on...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tariff or rate filings... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pleadings, Tariff and Rate Filings, Notices of Tariff or Rate Examination, Orders To Show Cause, Intervention, and...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.4 Incorporation of tariff provisions by reference....
.... 770, 77 FR 71288 (Nov. 30, 2012), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,338 (cross-referenced at 141 FERC ] 61,120... Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric... changes to the company registration process applicable to filers of electronic tariffs (eTariff) and...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... Trade Partnership Act § 10.235 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. (a) Declaration. In connection with a claim for preferential tariff treatment for an article described in § 10.233(a)(1)...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.703 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. An importer may make a claim for US-JFTA preferential tariff treatment by including on the...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statement of tariff application and other title... TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.9 Statement of tariff...
... COMMISSION Proposed Modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States AGENCY: United..., Proposed Modifications to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, pursuant to section 1205 of... to keep the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber apparel good of Nicaragua described in § 10.607...
... COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the.... 1205-9, Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) relating to certain utilitarian...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment... preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Declaration. In connection with a claim for preferential tariff treatment for an originating good under the US-CFTA, including an exemption from the...
... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1, Appendices... Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Supersedure of Import Regulation 1, Revision 7. Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to SubpartDairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix 1,...
World Bank, (WB)
This paper is about trade issues in East Asia. One of the most important non-tariff measures is regulations and standards aimed at securing the safety and or quality of products, labeling requirements and protection of the environment. Standards are now recognized as a trade issue since they determine market access. The use of standards by governments to meet public health and safety objec...
Höffler, Felix; Kranz, Sebastian
We study an industry with a monopolistic bottleneck (e.g. a transmission network) supplying an essential input to several downstream firms. Under legal unbundling the bottleneck must be operated by a legally independent upstream firm, which may be partly or fully owned by an incumbent active in downstream markets. Access prices are regulated but the upstream firm can perform non-tariff discrimination. Under perfect legal unbundling the upstream firm maximizes only own profits; with imperfecti...
Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.
... adherence to filed tariffs in 49 USC 41510 and the related provisions of 14 CFR part 221 as of November 30... well as under the provisions of 14 CFR Part 221, and they are canceled by operation of law. (b) As of... under 49 USC 41504 and the provisions of 14 CFR part 221, and are cancelled by operation of law....
Pawe? Bu?ko; Artur Wilczy?ski
The paper describes the current method of reactive energy billing in the tariffs of distribution grid operators in Poland. The current solutions are subject to critical assessment. Issues related to the motivation effect of the current solutions on consumers are analysed. Problems that occur in relation with connecting distributed generators to the distribution grid and challenges related to prosumer billing are indicated.
Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.
Simona Ardelean; A. Ceclan; L. Czumbil; D. D. Micu; E. Simion
This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.
Feed-in tariff program is an incentive plan that provides investors with a set payment for electricity generated from renewable energy sources that is fed into the power grid. As of today, FIT is being used by over 75 jurisdictions around the world and offers a number of design options to achieve policy goals. The objective of this paper is to propose a quantitative model, by which a specific FIT program can be evaluated and hence optimized. We focus on payoff structure, which has a direct impact on the net present value of the investment, and other parameters relevant to investor reaction and electricity prices. We combine cost modeling, option valuation, and consumer choice so as to simulate the performance of a FIT program of interest in various scenarios. The model is used to define an optimization problem from a policy maker's perspective, who wants to increase the contribution of renewable energy to the overall energy supply, while keeping the total burden on ratepayers under control. Numerical studies shed light on the interactions among design options, program parameters, and the performance of a FIT program. - Highlights: ? A quantitative model to evaluate and optimize feed-in tariff policies. ? Net present value of investment on renewable energy under a given feed-in tariff policy. ? Analysis of the interactions of policy options and relevant parameters. ? Recommendations for how to set policy options for feed-in tariff program.
.... 714, 73 FR 57,515 (Oct. 3, 2008), 124 FERC ] 61,270, FERC Stats. & Regs [Regulations Preambles] ] 31... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Technical Conference March 9, 2010. As has been previously noticed, in Order No. 714,\\1\\ the Commission adopted regulations requiring...
... the goals of the 1996 Act, the Commission released the Tariff Streamlining NPRM, 61 FR 49,987... Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers... ETFS Order, 63 FR 35,539, June 30, 1998, the Bureau established July 1, 1998, as the date after...
..., 61 FR 49,987, September 24, 1996, proposing measures to implement the tariff streamlining..., 1998, the Common Carrier Bureau (Bureau) released the ETFS Order, 63 FR 35,539, June 30, 1998, in which... and storage barriers. 3. On July 15, 2010, the Commission released the ETFS NPRM, 75 FR 48,629,...
... published at 47 CFR in parts 61 and 64 published at 76 FR 43206, July 20, 2011, are effective November 17... requirements contained in the Commission's Order, FCC 11-92, published at 76 FR 43206, July 20, 2011. The OMB... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 61 and 64 Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal...
Munk, Knud Jørgen
border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff...
A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a green tariff, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that to the authors knowledge have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome
This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)
...tariff filers. The Chief of the Wireline Competition Bureau will be responsible for administering...INFORMATION CONTACT: Pamela Arluk, Wireline Competition Bureau, Pricing Policy Division, 202-418-1520...at least one day's notice. (e) Non-price cap local exchange carriers...
Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao
This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)
The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries
Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.
Highlights: â¢ The distribution of PV installations on the territory is not a function of the solar radiation. â¢ Cost of PV plants were adapted to the FIT framework. â¢ The FIT for PV in Italy was considered an incentive to financial investment. â¢ The FIT for PV in Italy did not stimulate the development of national PV industry. - Abstract: A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake faÃ§ade of green economy
Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)
Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business
Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)
... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United... the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14.22, HTSUS, is based on the...
... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2012 Tariff- Rate Import... fee of $170 to be charged for the 2012 tariff-rate quota (TRQ) year for each license issued to a... articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) of...
... Energy Regulatory Commission New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff... motion for limited tariff waivers of section 5.16.4 and, to the extent necessary, section 5.16.3 of its Market Administration and Control Area Services Tariff (Services Tariff). First, NYISO seeks a...
... Foreign Agricultural Service Assessment of Fees for Dairy Import Licenses for the 2013 Tariff- Rate Import... fee of $170 to be charged for the 2013 tariff- ] rate quota (TRQ) year for each license issued to a..., which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule (HTS) of the...
... 2014 Tariff- Rate Import Quota Year AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces a fee of $200 to be charged for the 2014 tariff-rate quota (TRQ) year for each... dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...
Lord, Montague J.
Laos benefits from the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement in Goods (AIFTA) by gaining preferential access to the large Indian market. Under the Agreement, India commits to eliminating customs duties on imports for 90% of its tariff lines under two separate lists: one being completed by the end of 2013; the other, by end-of-2016. For products on the sensitive list, Indias tariffs are being reduced to no more than 5% by the end of 2016. For its part, Laos has until 2021 to eliminate tariffs on i...
Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina
Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.
This article follows a previous note about the Understanding of the 'historical' electricity tariffs implemented in France since the 1960's. This tariffing construction has been under severe strain during the market opening era, but paradoxally, it has also influenced this opening and in particular the competition itself. In reality, the basic principles of the power system have been strongly affected. The French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law aims at finding a solution to this triple problem now, with a useful but probably insufficient text. Regulated prices and opening to competition have encountered strong difficulties since 10 years and can hardly coexist in France. Several decisions taken to try to solve this difficulty have led in fact to terribly complexify the construction of electricity tariffs, finally creating an hybrid situation between the monopoly and the deregulation which satisfies none of the intervening parties and in particular the end-users
Shafqat Nabi Mughal
Full Text Available Throughout the world, power industries are moving rapidly from regulated conventional set up to a deregulated environment. However still many power systems experienced energy shortage problems and caused heavy losses for industries and inconvenience of social life and India is one of them. However the Unscheduled Mechanism (UI enforced in the interstate sale-purchase of power has succeeded in transforming the fabric of the Indian power system operation in a manner unparallel. In this paper we propose a new methodology for penalty evaluation in deregulated power system using UI tariff. The scheme is linked to Availability based tariff which is prevailing in India since 2002.Moreover we have drawn a flow chart depicting how this method could be beneficial.
Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)
Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.
Arnim, Rudi von; Beck, Stefan; Compa, Lance; Eberhardt, Pia; Grumiller, Jan; Raza, Werner; Taylor, Lance; Tröster, Bernhard; Scherrer, Christoph
The United States of America and the European Union are currently negotiating a Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It is one of the most ambitious free trade and investment initiatives, going much further than eliminating tariffs. TTIP mainly aims at reducing non-tariff barriers. While tariffs on goods have been imposed with an eye to foreign competition, most of the non-tariff barriers are the laws and regulations that are the result of social struggles for the protecti...
Jing Ma; Weiquan Yang
Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of Chinas textile industry from international tradeperspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barrierswhich consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriersto Chinas textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of theindustry.
This paper extends an economic geography model by tariffs to analyze their impact on welfare and sustainability of agglomerations. Policies with and without cooperation are compared, with the goal of maximizing aggregated welfare in the former and regional welfare in the latter case. The main result is that under cooperation poorer regions are worse off in two respects. In the short-run they loose even more welfare and in the long-run sustainable agglomerations in richer regions get more like...
Felbermayr, Gabriel; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario
Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (ACR, 2012) prove that, conditional on the change in openness, the welfare gains from foreign trade reforms are quantitatively identical across single-sector trade models with radically different micro-foundations. We generalize this result to domestic and multilateral trade reforms. And we extend it to cover revenue generating import tariffs. This gives rise to a new type of welfare isomorphisms across models and liberalization scenarios and allows der...
Eichner, Thomas; Pethig, Rüdiger
In the basic model of international environmental agreements (IEAs) (Barrett 1994, Rubio and Ulph 2006) extended by international trade, self- enforcing - or stable - IEAs may comprise up to 60% of all countries (Eichner and Pethig 2013). But these IEAs reduce total emissions only slightly compared to non-cooperation. Here we analyze the capacity of sign-unconstrained tariffs to enhance the size and performance of self-enforcing IEAs. We show that the size of stable IEAs shrinks when climate ...
Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.
A major constraint on trade liberalization in many countries is the prospective loss of government revenue.Recent results, however, have established a simple and appealing strategy for overcoming this difficulty, whilst still realizing the efficiency gains from liberalization, in small, competitive economies: combining tariff cuts with point-for-point increases in destination-based consumption taxes unambiguously increases both national welfare and total government revenue.This note explores ...
Reza C. Daniels
This paper evaluates a topic in the globalization and poverty debate that is often difficult to measure, namely the transmission of price changes associated with tariff liberalization to households. Furthermore, it raises the question of whether there are discernible differences between male- and female-headed households that affect this consumption-trade link. It is a partial analysis as a consequence, but one that demonstrates the importance of such a focus for continued research and policy...
Davies, Ronald B.
The common consolidated corporate tax base has been suggested as a way to curb tax avoidance by allocating profits across borders via a formula. This paper demonstrates that when transfer pricing occurs both for tariff and tax minimization, that moving from separate accounting to formula apportionment can actually increase transfer pricing. This, combined with arm's length pricing regulations, can result in lower revenues for high-tax countries and lower overall revenues. This casts additiona...
The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed
Pérez-Higueras, P.; Muñoz, E.; Almonacid, G.; Vidal, P. G.; Banda, P.; Luque-Heredia, I.; Valera, P.; Cabrerizo, M.
The recent research and field experiences in CPV systems have proved that this technology has present and potential advantages when compared with other sources of energy. Despite of that, if this technology wants to initiate its learning curve with the increment of the production and the consequent price reduction, it is necessary an institutional support that allows this technology to compete against other sources of energy through the creation of a favourable and attractive economic environment for potential investors to get interested in this new technology. Nowadays, Spain is a world CPV referent. The research developed by some of its organism and the industrial experience obtained in the past years through the installation of thousands of MW, is a guarantee of its scientific and industrial potential. The intention of this report is to justify the reasons to set aside a power cap of 10 MW in the Spanish PV regulatory framework dedicated exclusively to CPV systems, and the increment of the feed-in tariff in 10.2 c/kWh over the present tariff and to reduce progressively this support in a 13% annual until it reaches the flat PV tariff.
Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)
Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.
Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars
The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.
Full Text Available The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution. The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.
The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment
The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment
The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment
Hui Wen Cheng; Shih-Shen Chen
This paper investigates the optimum ad valorem tariffs under the Cournot competition. There are three situations that exceptions to most-favored-nation (MFN) principle are made within the GATT framework: free trade agreement, safeguard actions and escape clause. Hence, the issue of discriminatory tariffs has important policy implications. Most of the literature concerning the discriminatory tariffs assumes that the objective of the government is to maximize their countrys welfare by choosi...
Fernández Villadangos, Laura
During the last two decades there has been an increase in using dynamic tariffs for billing household electricity consumption. This has questioned the suitability of traditional pricing schemes, such as two-part tariffs, since they contribute to create marked peak and offpeak demands. The aim of this paper is to assess if two-part tariffs are an efficient pricing scheme using Spanish household electricity microdata. An ordered probit model with instrumental variables on the determinants of po...
Díez, Federico J.
This paper studies the effects of tariffs on intra-firm trade. Building on the Antràs and Helpman (2004) North-South theoretical framework, I show that higher Northern tariffs reduce the incentives for outsourcing and offshoring, while higher Southern tariffs have the opposite effects. I also show that increased offshoring and outsourcing imply an increase in the ratio of Northern intra-firm imports to total imports, which is an empirically testable prediction. Using a highly disaggregated da...
Böhringer, Christoph; Brita BYE; Taran FÆHN; Rosendahl, Knut Einar
In the absence of effective world-wide cooperation to curb global warming, import tariffs on embodied carbon have been proposed as a potential supplement to unilateral emissions pricing. We consider alternative designs for such tariffs, and analyze their effects on global welfare within a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of global trade and energy. Our analysis suggests that the most cost-efficient policy could be region-specific tariffs on all products, b...
This paper analyzes the trade-offs for using feed-in tariffs or tenders to remunerate different scales of solar photovoltaics (PV) projects. In recent years, European countries increasingly combined feed-in tariffs for small renewables systems with tenders for large installations. This study develops an analytic framework to quantify deployment effectiveness of responsive feed-in tariff adjustment mechanisms across project scales and to compare specific cost effectiveness factors of feed-in t...
Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C
This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower risk of shortage. Aggregating to the national level, higher tariffs are correlated with higher GDP and better governance. A different country-level analysis shows that a higher percentage of the po...
Varian , Brian
Until the late nineteenth century, the British alkali industry enjoyed a colossal export market in the United States. Yet, as several scholars have already noted, the highly protectionist Dingley Tariff of 1897 caused a precipitous and irreversible decline in the volume of British alkali exports to the United States. Drawing upon an abundance of textual evidence, this study argues that, in addition to the climactic Dingley Tariff, previous American tariff acts in 1883, 1890, and 1894 also exe...
This paper explores the effects of tariff reduction on macroeconomic indicators and sectoral output in Bangladesh using a computable general equilibrium approach. The simulation results indicate that a reduction in all tariffs expands gross domestic product and generates employment, which suggests that tariff cuts have a short-run stimulatory effect on economic growth. The industries that experience the greatest positive effects on their output and employment are export-oriented industries. T...
Banerjee, Sudeshna; Foster, Vivien; Ying, Yvonne; Skilling, Heather; Quentin WODON
Water and sanitation utilities in Africa operate in a high-cost environment. They also have a mandate to at least partially recover their costs of operations and maintenance (O&M). As a result, water tariffs are higher than in other regions of the world. The increasing block tariff (IBT) is the most common tariff structure in Africa. Most African utilities are able to achieve O&M cost reco...
Full Text Available This article considers the tariff policy issues serving as the focus of economic discussions, since their solution has a profound effect on the opportunities of the countrys economic development. The tariff policy problems impair the efficiency and competitiveness of national business and lower living standards. The government declares its readiness to limit the growth of tariffs, which, however, suggests manual operation and stopgap measures. The author emphasizes the need to reconsider the methodology and principles of public tariff policy.
Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ? We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ? Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ? Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ? Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... least to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....
Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility transfer toward new fields which do not represent traditional activities.
Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.
Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio
In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.
In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses
Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)
This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations
Lord, Montague J
This study provides an analysis on a range of common external tariff (CET) options that could be adopted by ASEAN. It quantitatively assess their implications for each ASEAN member state and the region as a whole. The results of the study are intended to assist the ASEAN Secretariat and the ASEAN member states in considering options under deliberations by the CCCA, which was presented to the Senior Economic Officials Meeting (SEOM) for its deliberation on the application of a CET as a long te...
Jones, Chris; Morrissey, Oliver
In the 1980âs and 1990âs many African countries liberalised their trade policy, although since the mid 1990s there are countries that did not alter tariffs. This allows us to analyse the effects of trade liberalisation on the change in imports using Difference-in-Differences techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact on imports of trade liberalisation at the general and sector-specific level. During the period of study (1996-2004), Algeria (in 1997), Ethiopia (2001), Egypt (1998), Tanzan...
... Tariff Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...
... Tariff Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Ashland LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...
... Tariff Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ReEnergy Stratton LLC's tariff revision filing, noting that such...
...false Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes. 1312.10 Section 1312...10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes. Every publication filed...clearly identify such changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in...
...Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program...SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program...Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export...
Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François
This paper introduces individual tariffs at service and content bundle level in mobile communications. It gives a theoretical framework (economic, sociological) as well as a computational game solution method. The user can be an individual or a community. Individual tariffs are decided through interactions between the user and the supplier. A numerical example from mobile music illustrates the concepts.
... Tariffs, Control Number 2140-26 (3) Agricultural Contract Summaries, Control Number 2140-0024 See 78 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Recordations, Water Carrier Tariffs, and Agricultural Contract...
... Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause This proceeding is... the Commission's regulations governing tariff requirements of ocean common carriers, 46 CFR part 520... service in the United States foreign trades must keep open to public inspection in an automated...
BOWN, Chad P.
Trade policy commitments to lower import tariffs and to maintain tariffs at low levels entail short and long-run political-economic costs and benefits. Empirical work examining the relationship between such commitments and the exercise of trade policy flexibilities is still relatively nascent, especially for emerging economies. This paper provides a rich, empirically-based assessment of wa...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejection of tariff publications and other filed materials. 341.11 Section 341.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE...
The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO2. (A.L.B.)
... Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On August 5, 2010, the Secretary of Agriculture established the FY 2011... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined...
... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. 181.52 Section 181.52 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Drawback and Duty-Deferral Programs § 181.52 Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. If...
... submitted in duplicate and accompanied by the appropriate fee (see 49 CFR part 1002). Packages containing... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to publish and file a tariff. 1312.2... THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY BY OR WITH A...
... Federal Register (75 FR 420). The notice invited written ] comments on the petition from interested... Contest the Tariff Classification Determination of Wickless Wax Objects AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... interested party petition pursuant to section 516, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and 19 CFR part...
... published in the Federal Register of December 2, 2010 (75 FR 75185)). This notice is being issued as an... COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax 202-205-2616,...
... September 20, 2010 (75 FR 57293). The period for filing written submissions closed on October 22, 2010... COMMISSION Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... CONTACT: David Beck, Director, Office of Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements (202-205-2603, fax...
... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....
... Quota Licensing Program AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program... from the Secretary of Agriculture, administers the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing...
Neary, J. Peter
This paper explores the links between international trade theory and the practice of trade and industrial policy in open economies, with special attention to three areas where theoretical lessons have been misunderstood in policy debates. It argues that the concertina rule for tariff reform justifies reductions in high tariffs, but not moves towards uniformity and particularly not increases in low tariffs. It shows that the basic principles of tariff reform are the same in unilateral, multi...
In this paper a capacity price model is developed for the Spanish electricity industry which allows the presentation of the Spanish utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is approximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. Using this model and data on the residential consumption of electricity, several optimal two-part tariffs are computed, considering different hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment. It has been found that the optimal tariff maintaining universal service increases welfare if the generating equipment and the output assignment to the different technologies are taken as given. Furthermore, if the regulator is concerned not only with efficiency, but also with distributive issues, then welfare losses associated with the existing regulatory regime are even larger
... Market-Based Rate Tariffs Docket Nos. Aleph One, Inc ER04-686-000 Alpha Domestic Power Trading, LLC... to file baseline tariffs.\\1\\ The Commission provided the utilities 60 days in which to file their baseline tariffs in accordance with Order No. 714 \\2\\ or face revocation of their market-based...
... Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to Etariff Refund Report Type of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 27, 2011, the list of available eTariff Type of... Filing of Parts 35, 154, 284, 300, and 341 Tariff Filings, found on the Commission's Web site,...
... Energy Regulatory Commission Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time...Filings and eTariff submissions are made with the Commission. This time also will be used to determine... eTariff submissions. The time a filing is made is established when the last file uploaded appears...
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota...: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama... tariff-rate quotas set forth in Appendix I to the General Notes to the Schedule of the United States...
... 2011 Tariff- Rate Import Quota Year AGENCY: Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces a fee of $150 to be charged for the 2011 tariff-rate quota (TRQ) year for each... importation of certain dairy articles, which are subject to tariff-rate quotas set forth in the...
... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...
... Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...
... Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements On October 9, 2012 Tesoro High Plains Pipeline Company, LLC (THPP) filed a Request for a Temporary Waiver of Tariff Filing and Reporting Requirements. THPP requests that the Commission grant a temporary waiver from the tariff filing and reporting requirements...
... COMMISSION Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS). The goods involved include certain sensitized... appropriate to accomplish five general objectives, including to conform the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...
... 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013 Tariff-Rate Quota Year AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate.... SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quota for sugar established by the United States... necessary in implementing the tariff-rate quotas set forth in Appendix I to the General Notes to...
... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Request for Proposals To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of... Representative. ACTION: Notice of opportunity to file proposals requesting accelerated tariff elimination and... tariff elimination under the USCFTA and describes the procedures for filing proposals. This notice...
With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: â Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. â Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. â Further market-oriented reforms are needed. â Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.
Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)
Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)
Courcoubetis, Costas; Dimakis, Antonis
We analyze the interplay between the demand for downloads, choice of congestion control mechanism, and tariff structure at a single link, when users have preferences in terms of average download delay and they are charged according to the number of ECN marked packets they receive. Our model involves a timescale separation approach, where in the fast timescales active flows compete for instantaneous bandwidth share by optimally tuning congestion control parameters in a noncooperative fashion. This is modeled by letting flows choose utility functions within the network utility maximization framework laid down by Kelly . On a slower timescale, users selfishly change their otherwise unrestricted demand for downloads based on the average experienced download delay and charges incurred. We study the equilibrium of this loop of interactions from the point of view of social welfare.
Munk, Knud JØrgen
As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.
This paper presents the guiding lines of the Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs. The main constraints and difficulties of the electricity rates and tariffs designing activity in a transitional economy are analysed, focusing on: financial and economic aspects, such as the dramatic decrease of economic activity, high inflation, scarcity of financial resources...; technical aspects related to the existing metering equipment and obsolete electricity generation, transmission and distribution facilities; social aspects regarding the impact of using energy tariffs designed taking into account the real costs of the electricity company; regulatory policy, legal and administrative aspects
As a result of the new Dutch Electricity Law and the Natural Gas Law energy consumers in the Netherlands are or will be free to choose an energy supplier. The freedom of choice for small-scale consumers (e.g. households, small businesses) will be realized in a few years. For them, this booklet gives insight into the structure which forms the basis of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat in the Netherlands. How final consumption tariffs are determined is explained on the basis of the related starting points, tariffs for buying and selling, taxes and surcharges on the markets for the fore-mentioned energy carriers
Different types of capacity tariffs for small-scale consumers of electricity are assessed with respect to the effects of the implementation on those tariffs: impact on the administration costs of electric utilities, the extent to which a tariff is based on the cost-inducing principle, environmental impact, impact on the competitive strength of electric power companies, impacts on taxes and income. Three capacity tariffs are assessed: a uniform capacity tariff for households, a differentiated capacity tariff for households and a tariff which is based on the reference year consumption
Full Text Available Conventional economic wisdom maintains that the reduction of domestic import restrictions assists in the development of less developed countries. But far from being a settled debate, the empirical research on tariffs and economic growth is much more controversial than is commonly recognized. In fact, so contentious and unsettled is this mode of inquiry that the research of some scholars directly contradicts the findings of others. In light of this difficulty encountered by researchers, the current study argues that the tariff~growth link is best analyzed by exploring the conditional effect of import restrictions on the development of low-income countries. Utilizing a panel dataset with information for 69 less developed countries, the results of this investigation show that tariff interactions with domestic investment and labor participation, respectively, augments the growth-generating impact of these variables. In addition, the constituent terms reveal that domestic investment and labor-force participation produces robust negative associations with economic growth when removing their tariff contingent effects. Taken as a whole, the evidence illustrates the value of exploring the indirect relationship between tariffs and economic growth as well as the potential usefulness of restrictive import policies for development in the periphery.
First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)
...transaction. (3) Non-economy energy coordination agreement...service agreement, except an economy energy coordination agreement...deviation is consistent with the principles of Order No. 888, FERC Stats...energy pursuant to a bilateral economy energy coordination...
Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg
Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.
In this article, the authors first outline that regulated electricity tariffs trend to crystallize oppositions between European and national political legitimacies. In this respect, they comment the obviously diverging and incompatible positions of France and of the European Union on the regulation of electricity prices: legal procedures against France exist for a defect of transposition of a European directive; another procedure concerns the control of State subsidies; France has maintained a tariff regulation. The authors outline that these oppositions will have to be solved by national and European judges, and then comment that this opposition is related to the strong attachment of France to a tariff system built as a protection against European harmonisation: tariffs are considered as the most efficient and fairest regulation system
...1\\ Journal of Commerce (JOC) Sailings, PIERS, Sea-Web, and SERVCON...tariffs to be kept on file, available for possible use it should suit the narrow purposes of the persons issuing them to quickly...
In adherence to the EU Directive on the ''Transparency of Gas and Electricity Tariffs Paid by the Industrial End Consumer'' the Statistical Office of the European Union (eurostat) since July 1991 has biannually pusblished the gas and electricity tariffs paid by industrial consumers. In order to approximate the consumers' real situation as closely as possible these surveys determine the effective tariffs for typical consumption rates in certain towns or service areas of a country rather than just giving mean values. Selection of towns depends on several criteria such as, for example, population, economic import, different tariff zones, or the intent to give a representative picture of a country's geography. In the present study, one town was chosen from every country to permit an international comparison. (orig./UA)
The economic impact of electricity tariff rates on the residential sector of Yerevan, Armenia, is examined. The effect of tariff design on revenue generation and equity measures is considered, and the combination of energy pricing and compensatory social policies which provides the best mix of efficiency and protection for poor households is examined. An equity measure is defined in terms of a cumulative distribution function which describes the percent of the population that spends x percent or less of their income on electricity consumption. An optimal (Pareto-efficient) tariff is designed based on the analysis of survey data and an econometric model, and the Armenian tariff rate effective 1 January 1997 to 15 September 1997 is shown to be non-optimal relative to this rate. 22 refs
This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.
JØrgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp
Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs. The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms and a lower concentration.
... for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL claim consist of cotton or man-made fiber... knit-to-shape) and sewn or otherwise assembled in the territory of Nicaragua, and that meet...
Liliana Winkelmann; Rainer Winkelmann
This paper reports quantitative information on the effects of tariffs and quotas on prices of individual goods. The analyses uses the natural experiment provided by a comprehensive unilateral trade policy reform in New Zealand to examine the response of foreign exporters to an incident of liberalisation that is unique in the developed world. The price effects of tariffs and quotas are estimated using a multidestination 7-digit longitudinal product-level dataset on export values and quantities...
This paper develops a model of small open economy, with a differentiated goods sector and voluntary provisioning of public good. It is shown that trade policy can alter the quantity of public good provided in the equilibrium. Interestingly, tariffs may fail to protect, leading to a Metzler Paradox like situation. This is because the income effect generated due to the imposition of tariff can lead to an increase in the contribution to the public good. An expanding public sector crowds out the ...
Chen, Hong; Pau, Louis-François
This paper presents results on mass customization of wireless communications services and tariffs. It advocates for a user-centric view of wireless service configuration and pricing as opposed to present-day service catalog options. The focus is on design methodology and tools for such individual services and tariffs, using altogether information compression, negotiation algorithms, and risk portfolio analysis. We first analyze the user and supplier needs and aspirations. We then introduce th...
Tena Junguito, Antonio
This article revisits Bairochs hypothesis that in the late nineteenth century tariffs were positively associated with growth, as recently confirmed by a new generation of quantitative studies (see ORourke 2000; Jacks 2006; Clemens and Williamson 2002, 2004). This article highlights the importance of the structure of protection in the relation between trade policy and its potential growth-promoting impact. Evidence is based on a new database on industrial tariffs for the 18...
Siddiqui, Rizwana; Iqbal, Zafar
This paper analyses impact of one of the major trade liberalisation policies of Structural Adjustment reforms, tariff rate reduction, on functional income distribution to households in Pakistan through CGE modelling, that is well known for this type of analysis. Using SAM-based CGE model, simulation exercises are undertaken to describe the impact of key adjustment policy i.e., reduction in tariff rate by 80% on industrial imports. Simulation results of CGE model simply show the direction of ...
Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz
Mobile telecommunications operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff sett...
Hübler, Michael; Pothen, Frank
We scrutinize the impact of international productivity gains (spillovers) induced by imports and exports on optimal tariffs. Our research question reads: how do trade-induced international productivity gains influence the choice of the optimal tariff? Trade-induced international technology spillovers (productivity gains) are implemented in a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model in GAMS that uses the novel global WIOD data set. The CGE implementation is backed up by a stylized theoretica...
Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan
Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. t...
Peterson, E.B.; Orden, D.
A competitive partial-equilibrium spatial model with heterogeneous goods is constructed to evaluate effects of the removal of tariffs, tariff-rate quotas, and sanitary regulations on world poultry trade. The model distinguishes between "high-value" (mostly white meat) and "low-value" (mostly dark meat) poultry products and simulates the trade flows among eight exporting and importing countries and regions. Removing all barriers simultaneously has a larger impact on trade than removing only ta...
Fernandez de CÃ³rdoba, Santiago; Laird, Sam; Vanzetti, David
Negotiations on industrial tariffs in the current WTO have turned out to be surpisingly more difficult than expected. On the one hand, developing countries, particularly in Africa, are concerned about the effect on their industrial development of developed country efforts to push them into deep cuts in applied tariffs:after the disillusion of the Urguay Round, promises of welfare gains seem like buying one of Akerloff's lemons. On the other hand, a number of the more complex formula proposals...
Rangasamy, L.; Harmse, Chris
Trade liberalization in South Africa has been a characteristic of trade policy since the early 1970s, with the reduction of quantitative restrictions being the main policy instrument as far as imports were concerned. By the early 1990s there was strong support for South Africas industrial strategy being spearheaded by comprehensive tariff reductions agreed to under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994, and implemented from 1995 onwards under the auspices o...
In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs
Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.
While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.
Simon Jonathon L.
Full Text Available One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs, netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1 How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2 How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.
Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.
Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.
Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrows challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of Smart Grid technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.
Antonio Tena Junguito
This paper shows the relevance of the strong and changing presence of the so-called fiscal products throughout European trade history, the bigger index number problems in periods and countries with higher levels and shares of manufacture tariffs in total imports and the different association between tariffs and growth according to development heterogeneity and the tariff average used. Evidence showed in this paper appear quite contrary to Bairoch traditional hypothesis on the positive role th...
The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs
China has implemented increasing-block power tariffs. It might be a breakthrough in the country's stagnant residential power tariff reform. Improving energy efficiency is the primary method adopted by the Chinese government for energy conservation in residential sector. However, negative effects brought by energy rebound would weaken the real effect of efficiency improvement. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact of residential electricity tariff adjustment on rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China. We set up an LA-AIDS Model (linear approximation of the almost ideal demand system model) to estimate the rebound effect of urban residential electricity consumption. The results show that the rebound effect is approximately 165.22%. This figure manifests the existence of âbackfire effectâ, indicating that efficiency improvement does not have energy-saving effect in practice. After the implementation of increasing-block electricity tariff policy in China, the rebound is reduced to 132.3%. In addition, we also obtain the electricity tariffs at which the rebound effect is less than 1 or even close to zero. In this regard, for Chinese electricity market, electricity tariff reform might be an effective method for mitigating rebound effect. - Highlights: â¢ LAâAIDS Model was used to estimate price elasticity for residential electricity. â¢ The rebound size of urban residential electricity in China is estimated. â¢ The size of electricity rebound is approximately 165.22%. â¢ The impact of increasing-block power tariffs on rebound is studied. â¢ Electricity pricing reform is an effective method to mitigate the rebound effect
Dynamic electricity pricing can produce efficiency gains in the electricity sector and help achieve energy policy goals such as increasing electric system reliability and supporting renewable energy deployment. Retail electric companies can offer dynamic pricing to residential electricity customers via smart meter-enabled tariffs that proxy the cost to procure electricity on the wholesale market. Current investments in the smart metering necessary to implement dynamic tariffs show policy makersâ resolve for enabling responsive demand and realizing its benefits. However, despite these benefits and the potential bill savings these tariffs can offer, adoption among residential customers remains at low levels. Using a choice experiment approach, this paper seeks to determine whether disclosing the environmental and system benefits of dynamic tariffs to residential customers can increase adoption. Although sampling and design issues preclude wide generalization, we found that our environmentally conscious respondents reduced their required discount to switch to dynamic tariffs around 10% in response to higher awareness of environmental and system benefits. The perception that shifting usage is easy to do also had a significant impact, indicating the potential importance of enabling technology. Perhaps the targeted communication strategy employed by this study is one way to increase adoption and achieve policy goals. - Highlights: â¢ We evaluate preferences for domestic dynamic electricity tariffs in the US and EU. â¢ We use an online choice experiment approach with two dynamic tariff options. â¢ People are more likely to switch if shown environmental and system benefits. â¢ People are more likely to switch if they find shifting demand easy to do. â¢ Our results imply the importance of targeted communication and enabling technology
Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.
Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.
The development of feed-in tariff (FIT) programs to support green electricity in Ontario (the Green Energy and Green Economy Act of 2009) and Germany (the Erneuerbare Energien-Gesetz of 2000) is compared. The two policies are highly comparable, offering similar rates for most renewable electricity technologies. Major differences between the policies include the level of differentiation found in the German policy, as well as the use of a price degression strategy for FIT rates in Germany compared to an escalation strategy in Ontario. The German renewable electricity portfolio is relatively balanced, compared to Ontario where wind power dominates the portfolio. At the federal level, Canada does not yet have a policy similar to the European Directive on Renewable Energy, and this lack may impact decisions taken by manufacturers of renewable technologies who consider establishing operations in the province. Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act could be benefit from lessons in the German system, especially with regard to degression of feed-in tariff rates over time, which could significantly reduce payments to producers over the course of a contract, and in turn encourage greater competitiveness among renewable power providers in the future. - Highlights: ? We compare two jurisdictions that utilize feed-in tariffs to support renewable electricity. ? Complementary policy such as mandated renewable energy use in conjunction with tariffs increases certainty for investors. ? Targeted incentives in the form of adders can deliver more diversity in renewable generation capacity. ? Degression of tariff rates delivers renewable generation capacity at lower cost.
Richardson, David B.
The provision of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to an electric grid by electric vehicles (EVs) can potentially reduce the cost of vehicle ownership through revenue generation. Recent studies indicate that yearly vehicle profit from V2G may not be sufficient to induce widespread participation. This paper investigates the feasibility of a premium tariff rate for V2G power, similar to current feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs for renewable energy. Using Ontario, Canada as a case study, an hourly time-series model for a fleet of commuter EVs is created. Tariff rates for V2G peak power are calculated based on the same return on investment as the current FIT for renewable energy in Ontario. The tariff rates are competitive with the renewable energy tariffs, especially when EVs are allowed to provide ancillary services to the grid in addition to peak power. Despite the guaranteed rate of return, yearly vehicle profit is low. Two variations are considered to increase vehicle profit, thereby enhancing the attractiveness of V2G. A higher return on investment is favored over direct benefits offered to EV owners. A higher return on investment may be justifiable based on the higher level of risk inherent in V2G when compared to renewable energy.
Using an agent-based modeling approach we study the temporal dynamics of consumer opinions regarding switching to dynamic electricity tariffs and the actual decisions to switch. We assume that the decision to switch is based on the unanimity of Ï past opinions. The resulting model offers a hypothetical, yet plausible explanation of why there is such a big discrepancy between consumer opinions, as measured by market surveys, and the actual participation in pilot programs and the adoption of dynamic tariffs. We argue that due to the high indifference level in today's retail electricity markets, customer opinions are very unstable and change frequently. The conducted simulation study shows that reducing the indifference level can result in narrowing the intentionâbehavior gap. A similar effect can be achieved by decreasing the decision time that a consumer takes to make a decision. - Highlights: â¢ We propose an agent-based model to study the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs. â¢ The decision to change the tariff is based on the unanimity of Ï past opinions. â¢ The model explains why the empirically observed intentionâbehavior gap exists. â¢ The adoption of dynamic tariffs is impossible due to the high level of indifference in today's societies. â¢ Reducing the indifference level or decreasing the decision time can result in narrowing the gap
Jensen, Jesper; Rutherford, Thomas; TARR, David
The authors use a computable general equilibrium model of the Russian economy to assess the impact of accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), which encompasses improved market access, tariff reduction, and reduction of barriers against multinational service providers. They assume that foreign direct investment in business services is necessary for multinationals to compete well wi...
Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.
The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced free water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.
SchrÃ¶der, Philipp; SÃ¸rensen, Allan
show that when openness is measured at retail prices, not border prices, the welfare rankings are sensitive to the degree of efficiency in revenue redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. As a result, multilateral tariff reductions can switch from the least......Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard...... heterogeneous-firms-trade model with Pareto distributed productivities. We derive analytical welfare rankings of all four liberalization channels for an equal effect on two openness measures, for any trade cost level and while all four barriers are simultaneously present, i.e. for any initial equilibrium. We...
The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them
The title advice is based on the principle of 'not more than otherwise' (nmda, abbreviated in Dutch), which principle is applied for the calculation of the contribution for connection to the energy supply system, the reduced rate for those paying standing charges, and the price of heat. The principle implies that the determined tariff for the supply of heat is such that, on average, the consumer of heat does not pay more than in case natural gas is used for an individual central heating system. From the year 2000 on the tariff advice includes a so-called cost-effectiveness contribution. In this advice attention is paid to the cost-effectiveness contribution, the connection contribution, the reduced rate, and the heat price. In the final chapter the indexation and updating of the different tariff elements of the advice are discussed
This work has as its main objectives to analyse the influence, to the electric energy tariff, of the introduction of the nuclear power plants to the system and to perform some suggestions of how the new accounting and encashment components shall be treated in order to decrease the impact to the final consumers. At first an introduction to legislation and present tariff calculation was done. It was also selected and described the most important costs related to nuclear generation, such as investment, operation and maintenance, fuel cycle and decommissioning taking 1978 as the base year. The calculations showed a 100% increase in the FURNAS system tariff and an 18% in the interconnected system. At last recommendations were presented to decrease this impact found. (author)
The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ? We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ? We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ? Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities risk of negative cash flow. ? Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.
... United States Trade Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 29... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar....
... Representative under Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 19, 2012, the Secretary of Agriculture... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...
... 6763 (60 FR 1007). On April 11, 2011, The Secretary of Agriculture announced an additional in-quota... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and...
King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.
Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant
... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar...
... thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-00020 Filed 1-3-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8771 of December 29, 2011 To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the... Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) under continuous review and periodically to recommend to...
Moore, John A.
Historians have long examined the causes of the American Civil War. Frequently, they identify three explanatory factors: slavery, states rights and tariffs. This paper assesses the Tariffs of 1841 and 1842, asserting that arguments attributing the tariff as a causal factor of the Civil War are exaggerated and deserve reconsideration. Upon close examination, these tariff debates represent a continuation of a long-standing discourse as to whether American foreign trade policy should embrace fr...
Erzan, Refik; Karsenty, Guy
Developing countries have an important stake in products which have relatively high post-Tokyo MFN tariff rates in developed market economy countries (DMECs). On the whole, their market share is greater in higher tariff imports and, consequently, reductions which cut high tariffs more than lower ones, e.g. by applying tariff ceilings or harmonization formulae, are in the interest of developing countries. They would benefit from such MFN reductions despite erosions in their existing preference...
Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...
Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle typical problems in data available to the companies, like the presence of franchises, which are treated as censored data.
A feed-in electricity tariff is a policy mechanism used in many countries to support renewable energy technologies until they can compete with other methods of generating electricity. But, as experience in the Netherlands shows, it is a challenging policy task to support renewables without wasting government money or creating perverse incentives. The Dutch government has implemented two feed-in tariff schemes since 2003, the first being the Environmental Quality of Electricity program ('Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie' or MEP). This was followed in 2008 by the Promoting Renewable Energy scheme ('Stimulering Duurzame Energie' or SDE)
In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle t...
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...
Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita
The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners......â behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because of...
Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti
National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed. PMID:25751543
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED...Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United States-Caribbean...
Increasing the electricity tariffs for private consumers to cost-covering levels has been a very sensitive issue for all transition countries. The likely negative social consequences are the central argument why the necessary tariff corrections have not yet been implemented in Ukraine by the political decision makers. Since official data is not available, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the electricity consumption behaviour of private households. This makes it difficult to counter the official arguments with hard evidence. A survey was carried out by the authors giving a more detailed picture. Basic data of the survey was used in evaluating the impact of possible tariff increases on the household expenditures of different income groups, using both the compensating (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV) methods. The findings confirm that an electricity tariff increase up to the level which would cover 'officially' measured costs, as defined by the Ukrainian electricity regulatory authority, would not cause severe social problems. However, further increases up to a level, which would cover the 'true' costs, i.e. up to a level comparable to the average OECD level, should only be realised in steps
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems are part of Australia's energy supply matrix. In the case of New South Wales (NSW), the state government has had to deal with a complex policy problem. In order to play its role in the federal Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, the NSW government initiated the 7 year Solar Bonus Scheme in 2010. However, in attempting to maximise community investment in small-scale solar PV systems, it relied on faulty financial modelling that applied a generous Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and underestimated the level of investor participation and installed capacity. Consequently, the scheme has resulted in very high public costs that will require policy changes that bring investors and energy retailers into conflict, and unpopular electricity retail price adjustments. This paper uses a structured case and stakeholder analysis to critically analyse the FiT policy, while also highlighting important lessons for policymakers engaging in FiT design. - highlights: â¢ Describes the design of a feed-in tariff policy for solar PV electricity exports. â¢ Exposes a A$1 billion payment overrun and weaknesses in policy controls. â¢ Identifies policy design flaws and opportunities to improve future tariff designs. â¢ Discusses the importance of developing nationally integrated feed-in tariff policies
This Decree raises electricity tariffs and prescribes the use to be made of the funds obtained from the sale of electricity: electrical/technical R and D, constitution of uranium stocks and work on the terminal part of the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA)
The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)