WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Non-tariff barriers, market access, and trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the effects of non-tariff barriers, in terms of both variable and fixed export costs, on trade structure. The relationship between fixed and variable trade costs determines whether international trade emerges. If trade emerges, only variable, but not fixed export costs, influence the trade structure. The empirical results suggest that non-tariff barriers act, in particular, as fixed export costs, as the trade and intra-industry trade emerge in a larger number of industries...

2001-01-01

2

Non-Tariff Barriers and Trade Liberalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows that governments have no incentive to introduce non-tariff barriers when they are free to set tariffs but they do when tariffs are determined cooperatively. We then show three results. First, with trade liberalization, there is a progression from u sing tariffs only to quotas, and to antidumping constraints (when quotas are jointly eliminated). Second, there is a narrowing of the range of industries in which each instrument is used. Third, the degree of tariff liberalization ...

Anderson, Simon P.; Schmitt, Nicolas

2000-01-01

3

Non-tariff measures and the WTO  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper I sketch out the rough contours of the challenge faced by the WTO in dealing with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as seen from the economic theories of trade agreements. The key questions for the WTO - the answers to which largely dictate the choice between shallow and deep approaches to integration - appear to be two: (1) Is it the terms-of-trade problem or the commitment problem that WTO member governments seek to solve with their WTO membership?; and (2) Is it market clearing or o...

Staiger, Robert W.

2012-01-01

4

European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...

Gilberto Sarfati

1998-01-01

5

78 FR 14770 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

2013-03-07

6

75 FR 8300 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Survey of Non-Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Request; Survey of Non- Tariff Trade Barriers to the U.S. Environmental Industry...increasing exports is to reduce trade barriers and non-tariff measures. OEEI...non-tariff measures that create trade barriers for U.S. exports of...

2010-02-24

7

European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

Gilberto Sarfati

1998-05-01

8

The regulation and impact of non-tariff barriers to trade in SADC free trade area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper critically evaluate the effectiveness of the non -tariff barriers legal framework under the SADC Protocol on Trade. In the same vein it identifies and discus a list of non-tariff barriers to trade that are still prevalent in the SADC region despite the prohibition for their use under the Protocol. The list of these NTBs is made up of quantitative restrictions, customs procedures and administrative requirements, technical standards, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government pa...

2012-01-01

9

The regulation and impact of non-tariff barriers to trade in SADC free trade area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper critically evaluate the effectiveness of the non -tariff barriers legal framework under the SADC Protocol on Trade. In the same vein it identifies and discus a list of non-tariff barriers to trade that are still prevalent in the SADC region despite the prohibition for their use under the Protocol. The list of these NTBs is made up of quantitative restrictions, customs procedures and administrative requirements, technical standards, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, government pa...

2013-01-01

10

Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap and estimate trade and economic impacts of non-tariff barriers and compare them to the impacts of tariffs. Ad-valorem equivalent estimates for a set of well-defined non-tariff trade restrictions are ...

Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, G. C.

2010-01-01

11

Effect of the non-tariff barriers in the trade of Colombian mining goods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to identify and to provide information on the non tariff barriers NTB to a group of mining products on the excellent international markets for the Colombian case, and to analyze its magnitude and incidence on the external sales of this products, to advance toward this objective is defined which measures they can be considered as non tariff restrictions, its different mensuration methodologies are analyzed and finally a qualitative and quantitative approach of the NTB is made that face the exports of Colombian mining products in their main markets, by means of a survey carried out the managers of the sector in the country. Among the main discoveries, they were evidences of the application of NTB, although they turned out to be not very significant for the sector exporter of mining products; the most frequent are the technical obstacles to the trade, but of relatively moderate incidence

2007-02-01

12

The impacts of non-tariff barriers on the export price of Vietnamese catfish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of this study to identify the impacts of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on Vietnamese catfish export price in the international market. The time-series monthly data from 1999 to 2011 was used in our paper. Base on the demand and supply equilibrium theory, we constructed the function of Vietnamese catfish export price. The unit toot test results showed that our data was stationary at differenced level. Therefore, the econometric models, such as first-differenced model, Error correction mo...

Khuu, Thi Phuong Dong

2012-01-01

13

Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

Bohdan Tustanivskyy

2013-11-01

14

Two Sides of Economic Openness : non-Tariff Barriers to Trade and Capital Controls in Transition Countries, 1993-2000  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents new measures of foreign economic openness in the transition countries that allow us to distinguish between non-tariff barriers to trade and capital controls. We argue that this distinction is important for the analysis of foreign economic relations in the postcommunist world. While most states lowered barriers to trade since 1993, they increased the number of capital controls, which had been low at the beginning of the transition process. The ELITE (Economic Liberalizati...

Bodenstein, Thilo; Plu?mper, Thomas; Schneider, Gerald

2002-01-01

15

Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

Z. Ardakani

2009-01-01

16

The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have arisen that may threaten the future of the Chinese textile and clothing industry.World trade liberalization doesn’t necessarily mean free markets. The industry is still facing great challenges and difficulties from non-tariff barriers which are playing an ever-greater role in the ability of governments to regulate imports from other countries.  Known as “green trade barriers”, new non-tariff barriers to trade, such as technical trade barriers and environmental trade barriers, have taken the place of traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas. By analyzing the background and current situation of China's textile and clothing industry, as well as the great impact on both sides of these new barriers, this paper puts forward an effective way to clarify what efforts should be made not only by trade companies, but also by the government to alleviate the effects of NTBs.  Only through a well-coordinated joint-effort can manufacturers break through such non-tariff trade barriers and enhance the overall quantity and quality of clothing exports, so that China can maintain its current growth in the textile and clothing trade and also regain its reputation as the “kingdom of textiles”.

Tingqin Zhang

2007-12-01

17

Market Access through Bound Tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2009-01-01

18

Market access through bound tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2010-01-01

19

On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

2008-12-01

20

The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have ar...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Multilateral approaches to market access negotiations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Market access negotiations in merchandise trade at the multilateral level cover tariffs and non-tariff measures (NTMs). While tariffs have been substantially reduced in earlier rounds, they remain high in certain areas and further reductions involve a number of complex technical issues. Some formulae approaches, not used in the Uruguay Round, seem more favourable to developing countries. Elimination or phased reductions of NTMs in agriculture is one of the main areas for further market access...

Laird, Sam

1997-01-01

22

Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs are the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies.

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

2006-01-01

23

Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules : The Case of Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007â??2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality.

Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

2012-01-01

24

Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports  

Science.gov (United States)

Released on Tuesday May 8, 2001, Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports is a 61-page report that strives to show that developing countries are also benefiting from multilateral, unilateral, and regional trade liberalization. The report is divided into three main sections. Protection in Merchandise Trade offers information on tariffs, agricultural subsidies and non-tariff measures, and trade preferences. The second section, Trade in Services, provides background, current research, and forecasts in two categories: barriers to trade in services and measuring barriers to trade in services. Finally, the last section explores the benefits of liberalizations in several different factions.

25

Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels of protection.

Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

2003-01-01

26

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...control of a Commission-approved ISO or RTO may satisfy its obligation under paragraph...transmission tariff filed by the ISO or RTO. (v) If a public utility obtains a...section, every Commission-approved ISO or RTO must have on file with the Commission...

2009-04-01

27

Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing various transport/transit tariff methodologies (i.e. cost-plus, incentive tariff regulation, negotiated tariffs as well as distance-related, stamp, exit/entry model) that are used in the countries examined. Chapter 6 compares available information on transit tariffs by country and by methodology used. It also compares these tariffs with domestic transport tariffs, where appropriate and possible. Finally, chapter 7 attempts to evaluate the consistency of transit tariffs with the obligations of the Energy Charter framework and highlights the areas requiring further analysis

2006-01-01

28

Application of additive tariffs in the electricity sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents and discusses a methodology for the calculation and application of tariffs in the electricity sector based on the principle of tariff additivity. It shows how such tariffs can reflect costs and assure the absence of cross subsidies between clients. The methodology presented was adopted in the Portuguese Tariff Code for electricity by the Portuguese Energy Regulator (ERSE). The work presented in this article reflects the experience acquired by ERSE during the preparation, discussion and implementation of that Code. Allowed revenues are determined separately for every regulated activity, assuring that there are no cross subsidies between activities. Additionally, the application of the tariff additivity principle assures the nonexistence of cross subsidies between consumers. Regulated tariffs applicable to end users of electricity are determined by summation, variable by variable, of the different activity tariffs in accordance with the services the costumer uses and in the proportion of that use. The corollary is that if the different activity tariffs are cost reflective and promote efficiency in resource allocation, the tariffs applicable to consumers (access tariffs or integral tariffs) will also reflect costs in the same manner. Therefore, besides economic efficiency, equity between non binding system consumers and binding system consumers is promoted. The examples presented in the article intend to show how additive tariffs reflect costs giving adequate economic price signals for the rational use of the networks and electric energy consumption

2004-06-13

29

Preferential tariff formation: The case of the European Union  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we address the impact of multilateral trade liberalisation (MTL) on the preferential tariffs granted by the EU, which is one of the largest traders and one of the biggest contributors to MTL. We empirically address two important questions. First, if the MFN tariff for a product is higher, does it lead to a higher or lower preferential tariff? Second, the EU being a large trading partner in such agreements, does reciprocity matter for giving meaningful preferential access? For a...

2010-01-01

30

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

2007-01-01

31

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations.

NONE

2007-01-15

32

Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

2012-11-15

33

Pricing and tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

1992-09-14

34

Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paperâ??s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs. In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct an index to measure the relative welfare effectiveness of any given tariff reform, determine conditions under whichproportional and concertina reforms are locally optimal and provide illustrative examples.

Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

2014-01-01

35

Ontario feed-in-tariff programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: ? Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. ? Most projects are either solar or wind. ? Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

2011-07-01

36

Oil gluts and oil tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The free market does not provide the level of oil imports that is in the best interest of oil-importing nations. Common sense tells us that the best time to combat the economic power of a cartel is when it is weak, such as during a period of oil glut. The glut conditions still leave us with a large gap between the true cost of oil and the market price. The authors could justify an oil import tariff of 30-40% of the price of oil, or more. Nearly every other consideration, especially the positive effect on the federal budget, reinforces the recommendation for a large import tariff. An analysis in the appendix showing the otpimal tariff at 65-100% suggests that we should impose the largest tariff we can get through the political system. 9 references, 10 tables.

Hogan, W.W.

1982-01-01

37

Who gains from tariff escalation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the help of a simple model of production and trade, we examine the differential impact of tariff escalation on skilled and unskilled wages in an economy. Our findings provide a lobbying-based explanation of the prevalence of tariff escalation in developed countries. It also predicts the possible response of a developing country and shows how similar lobbying activity in that country can slow the pace of liberalization of service sector trade.

Guha-khasnobis, Basudeb

2003-01-01

38

Chinese networks and tariff evasion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we combine the tariff evasion analysis of Fisman and Wei (2004) with Rauch and Trindade's (2002) study of Chinese trade networks. Chinese networks are known to act as trade catalysts by enforcing contracts and providing market information. As tariff evasion occurs outside the law, market information is scant and formal institutions inexistent, rendering networks the more important. We find robust evidence that Chinese networks, proxied by ethnic Chinese migrant populations, incr...

2010-01-01

39

Accessibility  

…disabilities and will undergo a thorough technical audit. The accessibility standards that we aim to reach are level Double-A of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. In the meantime should you experience any difficulty in accessing the Environment Agency website…

40

Optimal tariff and ownership structure for a natural gas transportation network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses how the government can set transportation tariffs to induce socially optimal transportation of natural gas in a network owned by a syndicate of gas producers. In a setting where the gas is exported to end-user markets and a foreign third party has access to the gas grid, it would be optimal to differentiate the tariff. However, if the tariff scheme has to be based on the principles of open access on nondiscriminatory conditions, organizing the transportation network as a ...

Sannarnes, Jan Gaute

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Accessibility  

…accreditation. This means that the site will be tested by users with a variety of disabilities and will undergo a thorough technical audit. The accessibility standards that we aim to reach are level Double-A of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. In the meantime…

42

Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare.

Schröder, Philipp; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

43

Accessibility  

... Where possible, we follow the guidelines developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) under the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) and the Royal National Institute for the Blind (RNIB). Browser compatibility You can view this website on a wide range of browsers and we have tested the pages of the site with the following browsers: Internet Explorer 5.5 (and upwards) (Windows) Safari 1.2 (and upwards) Firefox 1.5 (and upwards) (Windows) Opera 8 (and upwards)...

44

Transmission tariffs in competitive electricity markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In context of electricity market, the transmission price is an important tool to an efficient development of the electricity system. The electricity market is influenced by several factors; however the transmission network management is one of the most important aspects, because the network is a natural monopoly. The transmission tariffs can help to regulate the market, for that reason evaluate tariff must have strict criterions. This paper explains several methodologies to tariff the use ...

Ferreira, Judite; Vale, Zita; Morais, H.

2009-01-01

45

Race-to-the-bottom tariff cutting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

2010-01-01

46

Individual Tariffs for Mobile Communication Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper introduces a conceptual framework and a computational model for individual tariffs for mobile communication services. The purpose is to provide guidance for implementation by communication service suppliers or user groups alike. The paper first examines the sociological and economic incentives for personalized services and individual tariffs. Then it introduces a framework for individual tariffs which is centered on user and supplier behaviours. The user, instead of being fully rat...

2007-01-01

47

Commercial and tariff issues under conditions of competitiveness and private sector participation: access to network. Brazil; Questoes comerciais e tarifarias sob condicoes de competitividade e de participacao do setor privado: acesso a rede. Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses issues such as regulation models for the power sector, competition, transmission access and wheeling transactions, impact of wheeling on planning and operation process, marginal cost calculation. 7 figs.

Vieira Filho, Xisto [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

1994-12-31

48

Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

Yu, Wang; Sheble, Gerald B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Lopes, Joao A. Pecas; Matos, Manuel Antonio [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

2006-03-15

49

Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

2006-03-01

50

Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

1995-01-01

51

Proposition of the CRE for the tariffs concerning the use of natural gas transportation networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The national transportation network involves: the main network constituted by the transportation works binding the access and exit points of the national territory and the underground storages; the regional network for the regional distribution upstream of the main network. The chosen tariff model is a in-out type. Each tariff includes the access terms on the main network, the exit terms of the main network, sometimes the binding terms between the equilibrium zones, the transportation terms on the regional network and the delivery terms. (A.L.B.)

2003-01-01

52

Automotive parts/accessories/supplies-automotive service equipment set (Chile). Catalytic convertors, July 1992. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the catalytic converter market in Chile. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chilean consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

1992-07-01

53

Industry sector analysis Mexico: Renewable energy equipment. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the renewable energy equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

Gayou, A.

1992-04-01

54

The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1997-12-31

55

On the electrical two-part tariff—The Brazilian perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses, in terms of Brazil's situation, the use of a nonlinear pricing approach in the application of a two-part tariff to electricity distribution networks. The principles that uphold charging access and usage are to optimize energy systems that are based on a generation technology mix. Such a pricing approach is used in Brazil, where the generation mix is mainly hydro-generation. This study shows that, in a case like Brazil's, a two-part tariff may be used as a tool for network optimization. The paper presents a design for a two-part tariff for a distribution system with varying consumer behavior. To validate the discussion, we offer a numerical example. Finally, remarks are given concerning pricing access and usage for low voltage level consumers.

2012-01-01

56

Tariff Jumping Foreign Investment and Capital Taxation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reconsiders the welfare effects of tariff jumping direct investment if mobile capital is subjected to taxation. In contrast to the conventional wisdom, the receiving country may in this case gain from the incremental inflow of capital, as this diverts tax revenues from the rest of the world. In the case of perfect capital mobility, this possibility becomes a certainty. Our argument provides one rationale for a small country to levy a distorting tariff in a second best world in whic...

Dehejia, Vivek; Weichenrieder, Alfons

2000-01-01

57

Tariff Policy, Increasing Returns and Endogenous Fluctuations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the effects of government tariff policy in a one-sector small open economy RBC model with a productive externality that generates social increasing returns to scale. Various forms of endogenous fluctuations, including stable 2-, 4-, 8-, and 15-cycles, quasiperiodic orbits and chaos can be identified in this model if we introduce a constant tariff or subsidy (applied to the imported production factor) into the laissez-faire economy that exhibits local indeterminacy. In a somewhat diff...

2008-01-01

58

Simultaneous reform of tariffs and quotas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a general result for simultaneous reform of tariffs and quotas in a small open economy, where some of the quota rents do not accrue to domestic residents. Absent highly perverse income effects, welfare must rise following a uniform proportionate reduction in tariffs and a uniform proportionate relaxation of quotas, weighted by their rent-retention parameters. Previous results are shown to be special cases of this one, and its implications for practical policy advice and it...

Neary, J. Peter

2005-01-01

59

Regulation and Internet Access in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explain the recent events in the German market for online access using a model of a regulated monopoly renting phone lines to retailers. Retailers offer either a linear or a flat tariff to consumers. Consumer heterogeneity leads to adverse selectiion. We show why market entry for flatrate firms is difficult under a linear wholesale tariff. With both a linear and a flat wholesale tariff the consumer market shows a mixture of tariffs as well. When marginal costs are zero it is optimal to hav...

Reutter, Michael

2001-01-01

60

Tariff System and Electricity Price in the Republic if Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the origin and development of Electricity Tariff System in Croatia with special emphasis on the tariff system established in 1991. The analyzed period of the application of the tariff system in force and all other tariff rates from 1991 to 1995 are the basis for the assessment of required and possible alternations of tariff rates till the year 2000. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 plan

1995-12-15

 
 
 
 
61

Cost-oriented power tariffs. Does pricing for marginal cost lead to time-zone tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The optimum rate structure for electricity has been discussed for some time already; an amendment to the federal tariff order for electricity is expected to be submitted to the Bundestag still in the current session. In the framework of a number of field experiments, the demands and success of different alternatives are being explored. With reference to the principle of pricing for marginal cost, this paper demonstrates that pricing to meet cost incurred must always differentiate for demand and work, whereas purely time-variable tariffs, i.e. also time-zone tariffs, are not cost-oriented.

Meier, H.

1988-12-01

62

76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission's rules, which require specific formatting and composition of tariffs, will now...of our rules, which require specific formatting and composition of tariffs, apply only...carriers be required to comply with the formatting and composition requirements of...

2011-07-20

63

Tariffs by marginal cost are the real economic values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of the electric power tariffs by marginal cost in Brazilian sectors is presented with some considerations bout the economy, politics and a forecasting for 1995. Two tables with tariffs and costs are also shown. (author)

1989-06-01

64

General tariffs - finally pro-customers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1938 up to now, all electric utilities of the Federal Republic of Germany fix the allocation price for tariff costumers with an agricultural demand or a commercial, professional or other demand more or less according to non-electric criteria. The Weser Ems AG (EWE)-electric utility and the Wilhelmshaven GmbH (GEW)-electric utility will replace this unique tariff structure - compared with foreign countries (exception: Austria) by a far more simple price structure, which leads to the lowest costs for the groups of customers concerned and the electric utility. This is a basic price structure, which contains quantity-dependent uniform allocation prices, and which mathematically corresponds to the district price described in paragraph 16 BTO electricity.

Cramer, G.; Grom, G.J.; Niebuhr, A.

1983-11-01

65

Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed

2008-05-01

66

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment avai...

2007-01-01

67

Tariffs and the Great Depression revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drawing on recent business cycle research on the Great Depression, we return to an argument we advanced in a 1996 article in the Journal of Monetary Economics—the argument that features of the Hawley-Smoot tariffs could have done more to decrease economic activity than is customarily believed, though not enough to account for the severe decline of the early 1930s. Here we reformulate our argument in a business cycle accounting framework that apportions fluctuations between three types of we...

Crucini, Mario J.; Kahn, James

2003-01-01

68

Two part tariffs with partial product bundling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When a firm operates in an industry with very large differences in consumers' willingness to pay for the service it offers, it faces a challenge in the pricing decision. It wants to engage in price discrimination, but cannot identify a given consumer's market segment ex ante. When consumers' willingness to pay is private information, a widely used sorting mechanism is to offer a menu of two part tariffs, letting high demand and low demand consumers self-select into distinct market segments by...

Jensen, Sissel

2001-01-01

69

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically, CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describes a method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to a light industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1 the added benefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2 the price elasticity of the system, and 3 the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, all under three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristic controls are adequate under the current tariff structure and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of the value of the distributed generation system. Even more value could be captured by simply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high natural gas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity, heuristic controls would capture only 70% of the value of distributed generation.

Ryan Firestone

2007-09-01

70

Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

1996-01-01

71

Electric power tariff composition: introduction and methodology; Composicao tarifaria de energia eletrica: introducao e metodologia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses the following issues of electric power tariff composition: Brazilian electric power tariff system; tariff based in the marginal cost and tariffs calculation; tariffs in natural monopoly ambient and public services; electric power tariffs application; methodology for tariffs determination; load characterization; algorithm for the annual energy passage to the demands; script to esteem the marginal costs; and methodology for the marginal cost calculation.

Katagiri, Mari; Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira; Nishida, Nelson Norio; Gouveia, Marcos; Nakagomi, Roberto Toshihide; Correia, James

1995-07-01

72

CHANGES EFFECT OF SUGAR IMPORT TARIFF IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of sugar import tariffs changes since the tariff import is the only policy to increase the sugar domestic production. This analysis is performed using a CGE (computable general equilibrium model of Indonesian economy in 2008. Results showed that the increases of sugar import tariff have some different conclusions. If sugar tariff import will rise to 41.6% and to 50%, the domestic output of sugar will increase about 1.89% and 3.77%; and household welfare would increase about 0.52 and 0.76%, respectively. But when the sugar import tariff is removed, domestic output of sugar and sugarcane have not changed, but the agricultural sector would reduce and income of all agents would decrease. Thus, the relevant tariff depends on the purpose of the government whether to increase domestic output and import or export of certain sectors, and the welfare of producers or consumers.

Agnes Q. Pudjiastuti

2013-03-01

73

The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions : a global and Danish perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely re-emerge in some form in the near future. We used the GTAP computable general-equilibrium model and database to simulate trade shock scenarios that mimic WTO's "August 2004 NAMA Framework", which proposed a series of tariff reductions based on using the Swiss formula and flexibility rules for specific groups of countries. We illuminate the economic impacts of the proposed NAMA tariff reductions, with and without the developing country flexibility rule. Our results suggest modest NAMA-induced effects: relatively small average tariff reductions that in turn increase global trade by about 1 percent and global welfare by just over 9 billion US$. Trade would expand for most observed sectors, but vary across the sectors, with particularly high gains realised for the textile and clothing sectors. A number of Asian countries would particularly benefit from the NAMA tariff reductions. The NAMA tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase global welfare by 26 percent, with the largest gains occurring in the Asian countries. The removal of the flexibility rule has virtually no impact on Danish welfare.

Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth

2007-01-01

74

The role of green tariffs in environmental harmonization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on the location of firms, innovation and environmental policy. Besides the standard effect of reducing trade and production of dirty goods, green tariffs discourage firms from relocating to pollution havens and induce them to engage in pollution abatement R&D instead. With no concern about pollution among Southern residents, green tariffs can block

Naghavi, Alireza

2004-01-01

75

Preferential tariff formation: The case of the United States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the impact of Multilateral Trade Liberalisation (MTL) on the preferential tariffs granted by the United States. For a given MFN tariff, we model the preferential tariff with a simple linear functional form. We take MTL of the US as known to the world by the end of Uruguay Round in 1994 and estimate its impact on preferential tariff negotiations during 1995 to 2007. We use a three dimensional panel data, which takes into account the partner, product and time variation of t...

2010-01-01

76

Tariff based value of wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

1995-09-05

77

The new tariffs for photovoltaic power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new tariffs for the purchase of photovoltaic electricity were published by French authorities in January 2010. This new framework is more constraining and the tariffs are lower. For installations integrated to the building: 0.580 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for buildings dedicated to accommodation and buildings over 2 years of age dedicated to teaching and health; 0.500 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for other old buildings with 4 walls and a roof; 0.420 euros/kWh (instead of 0.602 euros/kWh) for installations over 3 kWc on new buildings with a roof (but not necessarily with 4 walls) dedicated to any use except accommodation. For other installations: -)in the country: 0.314 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations below 250 kWc and from 0.310 to 0.377 euros/kWh (instead of 0.328 euros/kWh) for installations over 250 kWc; -) in Corsica and DOM-COM: 0.400 euros/kWh (instead of 0.438 euros/kWh). (A.C.)

2010-01-01

78

The world trading system: Recent trends  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tariffs no longer represent the most serious impediment to international trade. As the importance of tariffs in restricting free trade has been declining, non-tariff barriers are becoming increasingly important. The use of selected non-tariff barriers is analyzed, focusing on anti-dumping measures, voluntary export restraints, trade related investment measures, and trade related intellectual property rights. Coming multilateral negotiations will have to concentrate on non-tariff barriers. A f...

Funke, Norbert

1994-01-01

79

47 CFR 61.22 - Composition of tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for non-contract tariff filing. Numbers must appear on the face of the transmittal and be in the form of âCTT No. ___â, using CTT as an abbreviation for contract-based tariff transmittals, or some similar form that indicates that...

2009-10-01

80

Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01

82

Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

2011-01-01

83

Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Regional Integration - The Politics of Regional Economic Communities in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Usin...

Nyirabikali, Gaudence

2005-01-01

84

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power generating systems and equipment. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the electric power generating systems and equipment market in Mexico. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Mexican consumers to US products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

Gonzales, O.; Gayou, A.

1992-01-01

85

Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation. (author)

2007-07-01

86

Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation. (author)

Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Sagar, Ambuj D. [Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 John F. Kennedy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit; Sreekumar, N. [Prayas Energy Group, Athawale Corner, Karve Road, Deccan Gymkhana Corner, Pune 411004 (India)

2007-07-15

87

Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs. Udgivelsesdato: OCT

Schröder, Philipp

2004-01-01

88

Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs.

Schröder, Philipp

2004-01-01

89

Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

Marislei Nishijima

2010-06-01

90

Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

2008-03-28

91

47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...symbols used in tariffs are reserved for the purposes indicated below: Rto signify reduction. Ito signify increase. Cto signify changed regulation. Tto signify a change in text but no change in rate or regulation. Sto signify reissued...

2010-10-01

92

Tariff barriers in the international market of forest products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil is a great participant in the international market of forest products, occupying the fifth position in terms of value.In spite of having exported more than eight billion dollars in 2007, the country still faces significant tariffary barriers. This studypresented and discussed the tariffs that are in force at the international market, to the forest products exported by Brazil. The analysisof tariffs for 180 countries showed average values of 11% for wood and wood products and of 3.76% for wood pulp and fibrouscellulosic material. The applied tariffs to the forest products are not very high, if compared to tariffs of other sections of the economy,but if reduced they could increase exporting forest sector income significantly, since they are applied exactly on those products of largerexport demand.

Orlando Monteiro da Silva

2009-03-01

93

On the redistributive effects of Germany's feed-in tariff  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article assesses the redistributive effects of a key element of German climate change policy, the promotion of renewables in the electricity mix through the provision of a feed-in tariff. The tariff shapes the distribution of households' disposable incomes by charging a levy that is proportional to household electricity consumption, and by financial transfers channeled to households feeding green electricity into the grid. Our study builds on representative household survey data, ...

2011-01-01

94

Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger...

2005-01-01

95

Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why...

Hagen, Ka?re Petter; Kind, Hans Jarle; Sannarnes, Jan Gaute

2004-01-01

96

PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a componen...

Caba Stefan; Caus Vasile-Aurel

2011-01-01

97

Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using...

Marislei Nishijima; Maria Sylvia Macchione Saes

2010-01-01

98

77 FR 66601 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes  

Science.gov (United States)

...November 18, 2012, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC) will be modified to include a new TOFC for the Federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs): TOFC 1220: ``Rate Extensions''. This code will permit PMAs to...

2012-11-06

99

The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of electricity received from the transmission network, between 1.64 and 2.37 USD/MWh (31%); The locational signal provided by the tariff is mitigated in certain respects by the average cost component related to the fixed costs, which represent 70% of the total costs of the transmission system operator

2004-06-13

100
 
 
 
 
101

Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design

2000-01-01

102

Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

2008-03-01

103

Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

2008-03-15

104

Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern Eur [...] opean countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

Marislei, Nishijima; Maria Sylvia Macchione, Saes.

105

Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(1) We estimate CO2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find ?15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ? Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ? Net carbon exports: industrialized region ?15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ? CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ? The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ? They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

2012-11-01

106

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general / Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos) para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de [...] operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos) para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1). Abstract in english Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon?s fee) to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investm [...] ent by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon?s fee) was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

García Echeverri, Pablo.

107

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1.Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon’s fee to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investment by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon’s fee was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

Pablo García Echeverri

2006-06-01

108

Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV usersâ?? driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2011-01-01

109

Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

1988-01-01

110

Icebergs versus tariffs: A quantitative perspective on the gains from trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent quantitative trade models treat import tariffs as pure cost shifters so that their effects are similar to iceberg trade costs. We introduce revenue-generating import tariffs, which act as demand shifters, into the framework of Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (2012), and generalize their gains from trade equation. Our formula permits easy quantification based on countries' observed degrees of openness, tariff revenues, and on the gravity elasticities of tariffs and icebergs. Exp...

Felbermayr, Gabriel; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario

2013-01-01

111

Icebergs versus Tariffs: A Quantitative Perspective on the Gains from Trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent quantitative trade models treat import tariffs as pure cost shifters so that their effects are similar to iceberg trade costs. We introduce revenue-generating import tariffs, which act as demand shifters, into the framework of Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (2012), and generalize their gains from trade equation. Our formula permits easy quantification based on countries observed degrees of openness, tariff revenues, and on the gravity elasticities of tariffs and icebergs. Expo...

Felbermayr, Gabriel J.; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario

2013-01-01

112

Icebergs versus Tariffs: A Quantitative Perspective on the Gains from Trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent quantitative trade models treat import tariffs as pure cost shifters so that their effects are similar to iceberg trade costs. We introduce revenue-generating import tariffs, which act as demand shifters, into the framework of Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (2012), and generalize their gains from trade equation. Our formula permits easy quantification based on countries? observed degrees of openness, tariff revenues, and on the gravity elasticities of tariffs and icebergs...

Felbermayr, Gabriel; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario

2013-01-01

113

Wright tariffs in the spanish electricity industry: The case of residential consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a capacity price model for the Spanish electricity industry and presents utilization level tariffs as an example of duration tariffs (Wright tariffs) when duration is aproximated by the ratio of consumption to power used. With this model and with the data on residential consumption of electricity several optimal t\\\\'o part tariffs for the residential level of utilization considering several hypothesis on the configuration of the generating equipment are computed. This allo...

Castro Rodri?guez, Fidel

1997-01-01

114

Technical Aspects of Electricity Tariff System's Development and Changes in the Transition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents technical aspects of electricity tariff system's development in Croatia through analysis of previously established tariffs in the period between 1947-1991 compared with the positive foreign experiences and results, new demands and needs. Redefinition and new decisions on the technical aspects of electricity tariffs have been suggested during the realization of present electricity tariff system's reform in the conditions of transitions. (author). 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

1995-12-15

115

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

2010-08-01

116

76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar for entry through November 30, 2011...tariff-rate quota for imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2011-10-04

117

Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

2011-03-01

118

Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

2003-07-01

119

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

2007-11-01

120

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

2007-11-15

 
 
 
 
121

Topical tariff aspects. Pricing of general tariffs in 1992, comparative evaluations, development and outlook. Aktuelle Fragen der Stromtarife. Ueberblick ueber die Gestaltung der Allgemeinen Tarife 1992, zweckmaessiger Vergleich, weitere Entwicklung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German rate structure has diversified since the Federal Electricity Tariff System (Bundestarifordnung Elektrizitaet) which was adopted on December 18, 1989 came into effect. A survey informs about the new tariffs valid in the Federal Republic of Germany. The results of a large-scale study provide suitable end-use reference data which are necessary for comparative evaluations of the new tariffs in practice. The official Federal Electricity Tariff System responsible delegated by the Federal Ministry of Economics discusses tariff acceptance and energy conservation aspects. An overview is presented on electricity tariff pricing in the future with emphasis on demand-oriented differentiations and time-of-day tariffs. (orig.).

1993-01-01

122

No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-05-15

123

The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed

1998-02-24

124

Tariff-induced transfer pricing and the CCCTB  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The common consolidated corporate tax base has been suggested as a way to curb tax avoidance by allocating profits across borders via a formula. This paper demonstrates that when transfer pricing occurs both for tariff and tax minimization, that moving from separate accounting to formula apportionment can actually increase transfer pricing. This, combined with arm's length pricing regulations, can result in lower revenues for high-tax countries and lower overall revenues. This casts additi...

Davies, Ronald B.

2013-01-01

125

Gender dimensions to the incidence of tariff liberalization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper evaluates a topic in the globalization and poverty debate that is often difficult to measure, namely the transmission of price changes associated with tariff liberalization to households. Furthermore, it raises the question of whether there are discernible differences between male- and female-headed households that affect this consumption-trade link. It is a partial analysis as a consequence, but one that demonstrates the importance of such a focus for continued research and policy...

Daniels, Reza C.

2007-01-01

126

The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed.

Fournier, P.L.

1998-06-01

127

Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are hete...

Guldager Jørgensen, Jan; Schro?der, Philipp J. H.

2005-01-01

128

Irrationality rings! - Experimental evidence on mobile tariff choices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates why consumers choose calling plans that are not always cost-minimizing. Our approach is twofold: we account for general difficulties facing a tariff choice, as well as for biased preferences. We provide evidence from an experiment among German university students and staff, finding that participants are often not aware of their actual consumption. In line with the findings on at-rate biases, respondents systematically overestimate their consumption. On the other hand, ...

Barth, Anne-kathrin; Graf, Julia

2011-01-01

129

Irrationality rings!: Experimental evidence on mobile tariff choices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates why consumers choose calling plans that are not always cost-minimizing. Our approach is twofold: we account for general difficultiesfacing a tariff choice, as well as for biased preferences. We provide evidence froman experiment among German university students and staff, finding that participants are often not aware of their actual consumption. In line with the findings on at-rate biases, respondents systematically overestimate their consumption. On the other hand, th...

Barth, Anne-kathrin; Graf, Julia

2012-01-01

130

Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

Abhyankar, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Electrical Engineering, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Khaparde, S.A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Electrical Engineering, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 076 (India)

2009-01-15

131

Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)

2009-01-01

132

On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: ? Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. ? Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. ? Further market-oriented reforms are needed. ? Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

2011-05-01

133

Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

Porter, K.

1996-09-01

134

Contracts, biases and consumption of access services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a consumption model that takes into account the valuation and demand uncertainties that consumers face while using access services. Typical examples of such services include telecommunication services, extended warranties for consumer electronics, and club memberships. We demonstrate that consumption is affected by contract structure (pay-peruse vs. three part tariffs) even if the optimal consumption plans are identical. We find that a majority of individuals correctly use a thres...

Leider, Stephen G.; Sahin, O?zge

2012-01-01

135

Can R&D-Inducing Green Tariffs Replace International Environmental Regulations?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on the location of firms, innovation and the environment. It shows that tariffs levied on polluting goods could result in less global pollution than harmonization of environmental standards by inducing more pollution abatement R&D, generating lower unit emissions from production, and reducing competition. Green tariffs reduce pollution by (1) shifting production to the region where environ...

Naghavi, Alireza

2006-01-01

136

Comparison of feed-in tariffs and tenders to remunerate solar power generation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the trade-offs for using feed-in tariffs or tenders to remunerate different scales of solar photovoltaics (PV) projects. In recent years, European countries increasingly combined feed-in tariffs for small renewables systems with tenders for large installations. This study develops an analytic framework to quantify deployment effectiveness of responsive feed-in tariff adjustment mechanisms across project scales and to compare specific cost effectiveness factors of feed-in t...

Grau, Thilo

2014-01-01

137

LV tariff system in France - present situation and possible future developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting from the principles of tariff structure in the low voltage range, its anticipated development is described. It will bring an improved adaptation to limit costs, fully utilizing the advantages of the modern counting and remote control techniques. Taking into consideration peak-load days and the investigations concerning the seasonal variations of the tariff system are of special importance to the future development of the tariff system.

Penz, P.

138

Alternative designs for tariffs on embodied carbon. A global cost-effectiveness analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the absence of effective world-wide cooperation to curb global warming, import tariffs on embodied carbon have been proposed as a potential supplement to unilateral emissions pricing. We consider alternative designs for such tariffs, and analyze their effects on global welfare within a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of global trade and energy. Our analysis suggests that the most cost-efficient policy could be region-specific tariffs on all products, b...

Bo?hringer, Christoph; Bye, Brita; Fæhn, Taran; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

2012-01-01

139

Icebergs versus Tariffs: A Quantitative Perspective on the Gains from Trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We derive a simple equation for the welfare gains from trade when tariffs are liberalized or iceberg trade costs fall. Covering various one-sector trade models that may or may not feature extensive margins and imperfect competition, we generalize the analysis of Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (2012) to encompass revenue-generating import tariffs. Our formula permits easy quantification based on countries' observed degrees of openness, their tariff revenues, and gravity elasticities. ...

Jung, Benjamin; Felbermayr, Gabriel; Larch, Mario

2013-01-01

140

Optimisation algorithms for the charge dispatch of plug-in vehicles based on variable tariffs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plug-in vehicles powered by renewable energies are a viable way to reduce local and total emissions and could also support a highly efficient grid operation. Indirect control by variable tariffs is one option to link charging or even discharging time with the grid load and the renewable energy production. Algorithms are required to develop tariffs and evaluate grid impacts of variable tariffs for electric vehicles (BEV) as well as to schedule the charging process optimisation. Therefore a com...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The optimal tariff in the presence of trade-induced productivity gains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We scrutinize the impact of international productivity gains (spillovers) induced by imports and exports on optimal tariffs. First, we solve a stylized 2x2 trade model of a large open economy and show that (a) productivity gains via exports and imports both reduce the strategically optimal tariff, (b) there exists a certain strength of productivity gains such that the incentive to manipulate the terms of trade strategically vanishes, (c) the welfare gain that can be achieved via a tariff is l...

2013-01-01

142

Are two-part tariffs efficient when consumers plan ahead?: An empirical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last two decades there has been an increase in using dynamic tariffs for billing household electricity consumption. This has questioned the suitability of traditional pricing schemes, such as two-part tariffs, since they contribute to create marked peak and offpeak demands. The aim of this paper is to assess if two-part tariffs are an efficient pricing scheme using Spanish household electricity microdata. An ordered probit model with instrumental variables on the determinants of po...

Ferna?ndez Villadangos, Laura

2006-01-01

143

Optimisation algorithms for the charge dispatch of plug-in vehicles based on variable tariffs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plug-in vehicles powered by renewable energies are a viable way to reduce local and total emissions and could also support a highly efficient grid operation. Indirect control by variable tariffs is one option to link charging or even discharg-ing time with the grid load and the renewable energy production. Algorithms are required to develop tariffs and evaluate grid impacts of variable tariffs for electric vehicles (BEV) as well as to schedule the charging process optimisation. Therefore a co...

Link, L.; Bu?ttner, M.; Dallinger, D.; Richter, J.

2010-01-01

144

PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility transfer toward new fields which do not represent traditional activities.

Caba Stefan

2011-12-01

145

Design of Zone Tariff Systems in Public Transportation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given a public transportation system represented by its stops and direct connections between stops, we consider two problems dealing with the prices for the customers: The fare problem in which subsets of stops are already aggregated to zones and "good" tariffs have to be found in the existing zone system. Closed form solutions for the fare problem are presented for three objective functions. In the zone problem the design of the zones is part of the problem. This problem is NP hard and we th...

Hamacher, H. W.; Scho?bel, A.

2000-01-01

146

Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

1996-03-19

147

Rollercoaster year ends in feed-in tariff turmoil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By the end of 2011, Great Britain's PV market had increased from 60 MW to almost 700 MW within 12 months. This development was enabled by a powerfull feed-in tariff scheme introduced in April 2010. However, yet at the beginning of 2012 the success ended in turmoil as the UK government tried to reduce the rates abruptly. This did not give the industry enough time to adapt. It appeared as if the government snatched a defeat from the jaws of a solar energy victory. (orig.)

Laughton, Chris

2012-07-01

148

Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2013-10-01

149

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...reserves, reactive power and voltage control, or regulation and frequency response...not permitted by the laws or regulations of the relevant electric retailregulatory...markets, unless the laws and regulations of therelevant electric...

2009-04-01

150

Possibilities and limits of tariff-assimilation of the electric power energy supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The regional tariff disparities and the economic measures which have to be taken are still discussed. First of all the Bavarian Government vigorously tries to diminish these disparities which can be noted between Bavaria and the rest of the FRG, for example the western regions of the FRG and some Bavarian regions too, here the tariffs are very low.

Groener, H.

1981-01-01

151

76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078...INFORMATION: A quantity of 22,000 MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses...

2011-10-03

152

On Trade Barriers to China’s Textiles Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of China’s textile industry from international tradeperspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barrierswhich consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriersto China’s textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of theindustry.

Jing Ma

2010-08-01

153

On Trade Barriers to China’s Textiles Industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of China’s textile industry from international trade
perspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barriers
which consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriers
to China’s textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of the

2010-01-01

154

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

1990-01-01

155

Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

1991-01-01

156

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

1988-01-01

157

Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.

Munk, Knud Jørgen

2006-01-01

158

Intelligent remuneration and tariffs for virtual power players  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Power systems have been through deep changes in recent years, namely due to the operation of competitive electricity markets in the scope the increasingly intensive use of renewable energy sources and distributed generation. This requires new business models able to cope with the new opportunities that have emerged. Virtual Power Players (VPPs) are a new type of player that allows aggregating a diversity of players (Distributed Generation (DG), Storage Agents (SA), Electrical Vehicles (V2G) and consumers) to facilitate their participation in the electricity markets and to provide a set of new services promoting generation and consumption efficiency, while improving players' benefits. A major task of VPPs is the remuneration of generation and services (maintenance, market operation costs and energy reserves), as well as charging energy consumption. This paper proposes a model to implement fair and strategic remuneration and tariff methodologies, able to allow efficient VPP operation and VPP goals accomplishment in the scope of electricity markets.

Ribeiro, Catarina; Pinto, Tiago

2013-01-01

159

76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2011-04-15

160

77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of country-by-country...

2012-04-26

 
 
 
 
161

Short term use of the system tariffs : the substitution method revisited  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In some countries, electricity network losses are evaluated using a substitution method in order to apply Use of the System Tariffs against generators and loads. Although the substitution method is widely used for loss pricing in real distribution systems with distributed generation, this method can produce inconsistent results, particularly when all users are included in the analysis. This paper demonstrated how all agents are responsible for some of the network loss reduction and no single user is responsible for the actual loss. For these reasons, a new and more complex procedure based on a cost-causality approach was introduced. In this study, the substitution method was revisited and reformulated with a new performance index in order to produce an equitable sharing of the benefits or added costs introduced by distributed generators. Under certain operating scenarios, the newly proposed method can emulate the solution provided by a marginal or incremental approach fulfilling some requirements for an effective loss allocation policy to ensure recovery of losses and send economic signals to agents. It was concluded that the reformulated method is a practical alternative for access pricing in distribution networks. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs., 1 appendix.

De Oliveira-De Jesus, P.M.; Ponce de Leao, M.T. [Porto Univ., Porto (Portugal). Faculty of Engineering

2007-07-01

162

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

2010-09-08

163

Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)

2011-11-18

164

Structure of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat for bound customers in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the new Dutch Electricity Law and the Natural Gas Law energy consumers in the Netherlands are or will be free to choose an energy supplier. The freedom of choice for small-scale consumers (e.g. households, small businesses) will be realized in a few years. For them, this booklet gives insight into the structure which forms the basis of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat in the Netherlands. How final consumption tariffs are determined is explained on the basis of the related starting points, tariffs for buying and selling, taxes and surcharges on the markets for the fore-mentioned energy carriers

2000-01-01

165

Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs. The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms and a lower concentration.

Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

2003-01-01

166

76 FR 27657 - Notice of Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Domestic Interested Party Petitioner's Desire To Contest the Tariff Classification Determination...Security. ACTION: Notice of petitioner's desire to contest classification determination...notice of the receipt of petitioner's desire to contest this decision in court....

2011-05-12

167

75 FR 30017 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Posting Regarding Filing Procedures for Electronically Filed...  

Science.gov (United States)

...effective date either as part of the transmittal letter or as a separate attachment. FASTR Requirements for Natural Gas Pipelines. FASTR will be retired after the baseline tariff filings have been made and the current FASTR configuration...

2010-05-28

168

Can R and D-inducing green tariffs replace international environmental regulations?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on innovation, location of production and the environment. It shows that tariffs levied on polluting goods could result in less world pollution than global harmonization of environmental standards by inducing more pollution-abatement R and D effort and generating lower unit emissions from production. Specifically, green tariffs reduce pollution by (1) shifting production to the region where environmental standards are respected, (2) inducing the firm in the clean country to engage in more abatement R and D by granting it a higher market power/share in its home market, (3) instigating green R and D investment by deterring delocation. When these outweigh the R and D-creating effect of environmental harmonization in the dirty country, green tariffs bring about a cleaner environment. (author)

Naghavi, Alireza [Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Viale Berengario 51, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

2007-11-15

169

Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.

Ernest Ernest Aryeetey

2012-05-01

170

Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting : Evidence from German Mobile Telecommunications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.

Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg

2013-01-01

171

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

172

Per month or per kWh? Assessment of the effects of a different tariff system for small-scale consumers of electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different types of capacity tariffs for small-scale consumers of electricity are assessed with respect to the effects of the implementation on those tariffs: impact on the administration costs of electric utilities, the extent to which a tariff is based on the cost-inducing principle, environmental impact, impact on the competitive strength of electric power companies, impacts on taxes and income. Three capacity tariffs are assessed: a uniform capacity tariff for households, a differentiated capacity tariff for households and a tariff which is based on the reference year consumption

2006-01-01

173

Tariff System in General and Its Impact on New Possibilities of Natural Gas Use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural gas tariff system in the Republic of Croatia was completed in 1993. This system has not yet been operational, because of some practical problems. Since 1993, many new possibilities of using natural gas have emerged, such as cooling, traffic, cogeneration (still in preparation). This paper analyzes these new possibilities of natural gas usage and considers their position in natural gas tariff system. Further analyses should leave enough space for possible amendments. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs

1995-12-15

174

Tariffs estimation model by marginal cost; Modelo de calculo de tarifas por custo marginal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of Argentina`s privatization process in the electricity sector has been the assure of the electrical supply, the quality of the service, reasonable tariffs and returns of the electrical business similar to activities of the same risks. In this context, this model calculates the end users tariffs for different consumption level. (author) 8 refs.; e-mail: mposit at hotmail.com; egonza at mevosp.mecon.ar

Positino, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Enrique [Secretaria de Energia y Puertos, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Direccion Nacional de Prospectiva

1997-12-31

175

Vote expectations and pre-electoral tariff cuts in Flemish municipalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data covering 3 election moments (1988-2000) for 294 Flemish municipalities we examine whether the decision to cut tariffs before elections depends on the government’s expectations of staying into office. Election moments are central to both the political budget cycle literature and the strategic debt models. The combination of both theories could suggest that, at least in theory, both winning and loosing governments seem to benefit from preelectoral tariff reductions and as such we e...

Goeminne, Stijn; Smolders, Carine

2007-01-01

176

Vote expectations and pre-electoral tariff cuts in Flemish municipalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data covering 3 election moments (1988-2000) for 294 Flemish municipalities we examine whether the decision to cut tariffs before elections depends on the government’s expectations of staying into office. Election moments are central to both the political budget cycle literature and the strategic debt models. The combination of both theories could suggest that, at least in theory, both winning and loosing governments seem to benefit from pre-electoral tariff reductions and as such we ...

Goeminne, Stijn; Smolders, Carine

2007-01-01

177

Vote expectations and pre-electoral tariff cuts in Flemish municipalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data covering 3 election moments (1988-2000) for 294 Flemish municipalities we examine whether the decision to cut tariffs before elections depends on the government’s expectations of staying into office. Election moments are central to both the political budget cycle literature and the strategic debt models. The combination of both theories could suggest that, at least in theory, both winning and loosing governments seem to benefit from preelectoral tariff reductions and as such we e...

Goeminne, Stijn; Smolders, Carine

2008-01-01

178

How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs, netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1 How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2 How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.

Simon Jonathon L.

2002-01-01

179

Fair and efficient tariffs for wind energy : principles, method, proposal, data and potential consequences in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

2001-10-29

180

International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

1996-06-12

 
 
 
 
181

Improving of the Validity Tariffs Level Control for Housing and Communal Services Based on Economic and Mathematical Modeling ????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????-??????????????? ?????????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article analyzes the current state of the tariffs for housing and communal services regulation. Topicality of the control validity level in tariffs were reasoned in view of coordinating the interests of all stakeholders of housing and communal services: the state, producers and customers. The concept of modeling, evaluation and removal uncertainty based on forming a quasi-homogeneous statistical aggregates regulated organizations, modeling, and assessment of variance in declared tariff le...

Bublik Nikolay D.; Lukina Irina I.; Shashkova Tatyana N.; Chuvilin Denis V.; Sharipova Lidiya K.

2012-01-01

182

Renewables without limits : moving Ontario to advanced renewable tariffs by updating Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) promotes the development of community-owned renewable energy generation. It was emphasized that in order to achieve OSEA's original objectives of developing as much renewable energy as quickly as possible through community participation, changes are needed to Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer contract (SOC) program. This report examined the status of Ontario's SOC program and proposed changes to the program as part of the program's first two-year review. The report provided a summary of the program and discussed each of the program's goals, notably to encourage broad participation; eliminate barriers to distributed renewable generation; provide a stable market for renewable generation; stimulate new investment in renewable generation; provide a rigorous pricing model for setting the tariffs; create a program applicable to all renewable technologies; provide a simple, streamlined, and cost-effective application process; and provide a dispute resolution process. The program goals as developed by the Ontario Power Authority and Ontario Energy Board were discussed with reference to mixed results to date; simplicity; removing barriers; balancing targets with value to ratepayers; and building on the efforts of OSEA. Advanced renewable tariffs (ART) and tariff determination was also discussed along with ART's in Germany, France, Spain and Ontario. Inflation indexing; tariff degression; proposed new tariffs by technology; and other costs and factors affecting profitability were also reviewed. ref., tabs

2007-01-01

183

Comparing the feed-in tariff incentives for renewable electricity in Ontario and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of feed-in tariff (FIT) programs to support green electricity in Ontario (the Green Energy and Green Economy Act of 2009) and Germany (the Erneuerbare Energien-Gesetz of 2000) is compared. The two policies are highly comparable, offering similar rates for most renewable electricity technologies. Major differences between the policies include the level of differentiation found in the German policy, as well as the use of a price degression strategy for FIT rates in Germany compared to an escalation strategy in Ontario. The German renewable electricity portfolio is relatively balanced, compared to Ontario where wind power dominates the portfolio. At the federal level, Canada does not yet have a policy similar to the European Directive on Renewable Energy, and this lack may impact decisions taken by manufacturers of renewable technologies who consider establishing operations in the province. Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act could be benefit from lessons in the German system, especially with regard to degression of feed-in tariff rates over time, which could significantly reduce payments to producers over the course of a contract, and in turn encourage greater competitiveness among renewable power providers in the future. - Highlights: ? We compare two jurisdictions that utilize feed-in tariffs to support renewable electricity. ? Complementary policy such as mandated renewable energy use in conjunction with tariffs increases certainty for investors. ? Targeted incentives in the form of adders can deliver more diversity in renewable generation capacity. ? Degression of tariff rates delivers renewable generation capacity at lower cost.

2012-01-01

184

Tariffs of use of the transmission system; Tarifacao de uso do sistema de transmissao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The changes that has happened in the structure of the Brazilian electrical sector, as well as the emergence of independent consumers and producers, have been highlighting the matters related to tariffs of use of power transmission systems. This has became one of the priority subjects in this sector due to the decrease in the regulation of commercialization and generation of electrical energy. Due to the scale economy, based tariffs on marginal costs are not able to recover the fixed costs referring to the expansion of a real transmission system.Finally, this article describes a related calculation methodology to the adjustments of these tariffs, which were obtained starting from derived methodology from embedded costs, with the goal of recovering a certain expected remuneration using minimization algorithms.

Jesus, Valdson Simoes de [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil); Mota, Wellington Santos [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

2001-07-01

185

Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them

1999-01-01

186

Influence of the existing tariff system and regional tariff systems to the operation of HPP St. Petka and HPP Matka  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reservoir of HPP Sveta Petka and HPP Matka is much smaller then the reservoir of HPP Kozjak. In order to achieve as efficient as possible operation of their available water, the levels of their reservoirs might have wide range oscillations. These oscillations of the reservoir levels, in some cases, may have negative influence on the environment. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the range of the daily oscillations of the reservoirs' levels in case of HPP Sveta Petka and HPP Matka, depending on the operation modes of all three HPP on the river Treska. For the purposes of achieving the aforementioned objective, wide range of calculations is performed, according two methods: one which is based on non-linear programming and the other on dynamic programming. It should be noted that the purpose of the study is not to provide results which could be directly used as they are presented (part of the input data is estimated for the purpose of the study), but mainly to illustrate the effectiveness of the above mentioned methods for performing calculations of this nature. The results based on real input data could be used as a base for ecological analyses and studies, in order to estimate the influence of these oscillations on the environment, as well as to identify the possible needs of adjustment of the power plants' operation mode with the environmental requirements. The conclusion is that the frequency of occurrence of operational levels below the elevation of 313.5 m.a.S.L in the 'Matka' reservoir, i.e. below the threshold elevation of the water tail of HPP 'Sveta Petka', is the lowest when HPP 'Sveta Petlka' and HPP 'Matka' are in operation according to the maximum income criterion (Variant A). In this particular case, HPP 'Matka' follows up the operation of HPP 'Sveta Petka' and there is a reduced necessity for re-regulation of the waters and for decreasing its reservoir elevation. In the Variants C and D, the reservoir elevation in HPP 'Matka' would have to be decreased more frequently below the elevation of 313.5 m.a.S.L, due to the fact that in these cases there is an increased requirement for re-regulation of the outflows from HPP ,Sveta Petka, namely because of the production increase in the more expensive daily tariff, as well as for securing balanced flows, as much as it is possible. (Author)

2004-10-07

187

Open Access  

...February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: In October, 2010, a protocol on access and benefit-sharing (ABS) of genetic resources was adopted, the so-called ...on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity. ...by the recent social and environmental conflict surrounding the development of the Lynas Advanced Materials Plant (LAMP) in Kuantan, Malaysia which ...

188

Open Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work “open access”: digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But...

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

189

Walking the tightrope: balancing effectiveness against cost in the Netherlands' feed-in tariffs. Commentary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feed-in electricity tariff is a policy mechanism used in many countries to support renewable energy technologies until they can compete with other methods of generating electricity. But, as experience in the Netherlands shows, it is a challenging policy task to support renewables without wasting government money or creating perverse incentives. The Dutch government has implemented two feed-in tariff schemes since 2003, the first being the Environmental Quality of Electricity program ('Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie' or MEP). This was followed in 2008 by the Promoting Renewable Energy scheme ('Stimulering Duurzame Energie' or SDE)

2009-01-01

190

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

191

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: The case of Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

192

Impacts of a rise in electricity tariff on prices of other products in Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the impacts of increasing electricity tariff to the long run marginal cost on prices of other products using a static input-output approach. It is found that such an increase would drive up the prices of all other products. Although the aggregate price impact from such an increase is not large, it would be socially difficult to implement this increase at one time, particularly given that Vietnam is facing high inflation rate. A roadmap for electricity tariff increase is thus discussed

2008-08-01

193

Prices and tariffs in a liberalized electricity market; Prijzen en tarieven in een geliberaliseerde elektriciteitsmarkt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First, it is described how prices and tariffs were determined before the introduction of the liberalization. Next, a brief overview is given of the transfer to the liberalized market and how the situation is on this market at present. Special attention is paid to the pricing of electricity in a free market, which is determined by competition between electricity producers in the Netherlands and abroad. Finally, a comparison is made between the expected prices and tariffs in a liberalized market and the prices before the liberalization.

Rijkers, F.; Wals, A.; Battjes, C.; Scheepers, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

2000-07-01

194

Impacts of a rise in electricity tariff on prices of other products in Vietnam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the impacts of increasing electricity tariff to the long run marginal cost on prices of other products using a static input-output approach. It is found that such an increase would drive up the prices of all other products. Although the aggregate price impact from such an increase is not large, it would be socially difficult to implement this increase at one time, particularly given that Vietnam is facing high inflation rate. A roadmap for electricity tariff increase is thus discussed. (author)

Nguyen, Khanh Q. [Institute of Energy, 6 Ton That Tung, Dong da, Hanoi (Viet Nam); GreenTech Ltd, 31/43 Chua Boc, Dong da, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

2008-08-15

195

Establishing the Optimal Tariff in Rural Electricity Distribution Networksy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access to electricity is a key factor of improving the living standard in a country, as it enhances the quality of services such as education, health care and productivity. The rural population of Uganda is however only supplied with electricity to a degree less than three percent. There are large financial issues in extending the national electricity grid why small stand alone systems are sometimes a more valuable option. Even then, there are large investment costs that need to be covered by...

Guler, Hazal; Tedgren, Camilla

2009-01-01

196

Tar?m D??? Ürünlerde Pazara Giri? (NAMA Müzakereleri ve Türkiye (Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations and Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse Turkey’s position and constraints in the WTO Nonagricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA especially vis-à-vis developing countries.It basically, underlines Turkey’s unique negotiating position; de jure developing, de facto an advanced economy status in the WTO Doha NAMA negotiations.At Doha Ministerial Meeting in 2001, WTO members agreed to initiate negotiations to further liberalize trade, among other areas, on non-agricultural goods. For this purpose, the Negotiating Group on Market Access (NGMA was created at the first meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee of the WTO, in early 2002. Turkey has been quite active since then in NAMA negotiations in calibrating its position between offensive and defensive negotiation interests although its offensive market access interests largely outweigh defensive one.Turkey has also been propagating an offensive non-linear tariff cutting Swiss Formula approach at the WTO to curb the international high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations. Having a strong offensive market access interests, Turkey mainly aims at large developing country markets diversifying its trade portfolio away from traditional markets towards large developing economies.From the perspective of governance, Turkey has serious constraints on its trade and industry policy space stemming from the Turkey-EU Customs Union (CU. Although Turkey is a de jure developing country in the WTO and will have all legal rights and mobligations stemming from the outcome of the DOHA, in practice, Turkey will have to implement the same applied common external tariffs of the EU. Despite the constraints and dilemmas stemming from the EU-Turkey customs union, it can be strongly argued that, it is in Turkey’s industrial interests to be actively involved in the WTO to tackle the high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations which hinders Turkey’s exports to the world markets.

?ahin YAMAN

2010-04-01

197

75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

2010-03-25

198

Pricing and tariffs as energetic resource: an application study; Precificacao e tarifacao como recurso energetico: um estudo de aplicacao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article introduces an electric power tariffs structure applied in a specific Brazilian region, located in Sao Paulo State and discusses the following issues: Brazilian energetic system historical aspects, tariffs composition, supply and demand, peak and off-peak load, electricity consumption, load factor and integrated resource planning. In consequence, electric power expansion short term investments can be postponed.

Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Amaro, Renato Citrini; Silva, Rodrigo Carlana da [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas]. E-mail: xiko@amcham.com.br; udaeta@pea.usp.br

1999-07-01

199

Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences  

Science.gov (United States)

Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

200

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: A Comparison of Internet Protocol (IPv6) Security Guidelines by Steffen Hermann and Benjamin Fabian Future Internet 2014, 6(1)... However, its security features are still a very novel area of expertise for many practitioners. This study evaluates guidelines for secure deployment ... Our results could also support strategic management decisions on security priorities as well as for the choice of security guidelines for IPv6 roll-outs.... Open Access Article: Framework for Analyzing Android I/O Stack Behavior: From Generating the Workload to Analyzing the Trace by Sooman Jeong,...

 
 
 
 
201

Access French  

CERN Document Server

Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

Grosz, Bernard

2014-01-01

202

Open Access  

...3390/microarrays3010039 - published online 14 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: To gain biological insights, investigators sometimes compare sequences of gene expression ... Software written in Mathematica is freely available. Open Access Review Review: Copy Number Variation in Chickens: A Review and Future ...3390/microarrays3010024 - published online 5 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: DNA sequence variations include nucleotide substitution, deletion, insertion, translocation ... Open Access Article: Pigeons: A Novel GUI Software for Analysing and Parsing High Density Heterologous Oligonucleotide Microarray Probe Level Data by Hung-Ming Lai,...

203

Cost and optimal feed-in tariff for small scale photovoltaic systems in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

China has recently become a dominant player in the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry, producing more than one-third of the global supply of solar cells in 2008. However, as of 2008, less than 1% of global installations were based in China. Recently, the government has stated its grand ambitions of expanding the share of electricity derived from solar power. As part of this initiative, policy makers are currently in the process of drafting a feed-in tariff policy to support the development of the solar energy market. In this paper, we aim to calculate what the level of such a tariff should be. We develop a closed form equation for the cost of PV, and use forecasts on prices of solar systems to derive an optimal feed-in tariff, including a digression rate. The focus is on the potential of residential and small scale commercial solar PV installations. We show that the cost of small scale PV in China has decreased rapidly during the period 2005-2009. Our analysis also shows that optimal feed-in tariffs vary widely between regions within China, and that grid parity could be reached in large parts of the country depending on the expected escalation in electricity prices. (author)

Rigter, Jasper; Vidican, Georgeta [Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 54224, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

2010-11-15

204

Northern States Power Company's open transmission tariff from a customer's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In October of 1990, Northern States Power Company (NSP or Company), filed a unique open transmission tariff for both captive customers and through-system transactions. This is an important step towards expanding transmission services in the United States. Many individuals in the utility industry, who may be considering Imposing generation costs on transmission services, have been closely monitoring NSP's case which is currently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). NSP's innovative generation costs include charges for reactive power production, frequency control, load dispatching, and load following. The results of this case may also have an important impact on the future of open transmission tariffs. Rates for these services depend on the customer's classification as either a captive or through-system consumer. The proposed tariff raises critical issues related to the costing of these transmission services. NSP's methodology has caused serious concern because the proposed tariff would increase transmission costs by an average of 53%. This paper will discuss the benefits of transmission, proposed rates, contract terms, and costing methodologies of NSP's plan

1992-10-13

205

Maximum and minimum tariffs for transport concessions: a statistic study [paper in Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that leased public services prices can be calculated endogenously from the rate of return regulation model. In particular, this research extends the work by Rocha, Cavalcante and Oliveira (2009 where a method to price minimum and maximum leased fares to be charged from the users was presented. Moreover, these fares must be published on the public document bidding. Therefore, the value of the leased tariff must be between the minimum and the maximum ones, including the extreme values. The model is grounded upon the rate of return regulation method and, to establish the minimum tariff, it is resorted to the so-called certainty equivalent concept. The Brazilian transport regulatory agencies apply such method of regulation. This paper advances the described method assuming that the needed variables (demand and costs used to determine the minimum and the maximum tariffs of the leased public services have stochastic properties. To show its feasibility, the proposed model is implemented to the leasing of an inter-state bus service, where the values of the minimum and maximum tariffs are obtained, besides making a sensitivity analysis study.

Reinaldo Crispiniano Garcia

2011-10-01

206

Royal Decree 441/1986 of 28 February 1986 on the establishment of new electricity tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Decree raises electricity tariffs and prescribes the use to be made of the funds obtained from the sale of electricity: electrical/technical R and D, constitution of uranium stocks and work on the terminal part of the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA)

1986-02-28

207

76 FR 70448 - Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause  

Science.gov (United States)

...active vessel-operating common carriers (VOCCs) on...engaged in providing ocean common carrier service in the...1\\ Journal of Commerce (JOC) Sailings...found that maintenance of common carrier tariffs absent...fact and memoranda of law; It is further...

2011-11-14

208

Cost and optimal feed-in tariff for small scale photovoltaic systems in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

China has recently become a dominant player in the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry, producing more than one-third of the global supply of solar cells in 2008. However, as of 2008, less than 1% of global installations were based in China. Recently, the government has stated its grand ambitions of expanding the share of electricity derived from solar power. As part of this initiative, policy makers are currently in the process of drafting a feed-in tariff policy to support the development of the solar energy market. In this paper, we aim to calculate what the level of such a tariff should be. We develop a closed form equation for the cost of PV, and use forecasts on prices of solar systems to derive an optimal feed-in tariff, including a digression rate. The focus is on the potential of residential and small scale commercial solar PV installations. We show that the cost of small scale PV in China has decreased rapidly during the period 2005-2009. Our analysis also shows that optimal feed-in tariffs vary widely between regions within China, and that grid parity could be reached in large parts of the country depending on the expected escalation in electricity prices.

2010-11-01

209

Access Manager  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Das Access Manager Framework erlaubt die modulare Erweiterung eines herkömmlichen Datenbank Management Systems (DBMS). Zu diesem Zweck wird ein voll einsatzfähiges DBMS mittels einer kompakten Schnittstelle geöffnet, die Zugriff auf interne Komponenten des Systems gewährt. Das DBMS fungiert dabei als Wirtssystems für Erweiterungen in Form von alternativen primären oder sekundären Zugriffsmethoden, die durch entsprechende Algorithmen für relationale Transformationen ergänzt werden kö...

2011-01-01

210

Access Denied  

Science.gov (United States)

As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

211

Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it is approved

1996-03-19

212

Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

2010-04-01

213

Open Access  

... Open Access Short Note: 2-{(E)-2-[(3E)-2-Chloro-3-{(2E)-2-[1,1-dimethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzo[e]indol-2-ylidene]-ethylidene} cyclohex-1-en-1-yl]ethenyl}-1,1-dimethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)-1H-benzo[e]... Open Access Short Note: Ethyl 2-(3-Methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-3H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2-ylamino)benzoate by Naim H. Al-Said and Ayat M. ...Hide Abstract Abstract: A simple route for synthesis of ethyl 2-(3-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-3H- benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-2-ylamino)benzoate is developed. The present ...

214

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Effect of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors Clustering with or without Arterial Hypertension on Arterial Stiffness: A Narrative Review by Vasilios G. Athyros, Andromachi Reklou, Antonis Lazarides, Eudoxia Mitsiou and Asterios Karagiannis Diseases 2013, 1(1), 51-72;... Arterial hypertension was connected to AS long ago; however, other MetS components (obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia) or MetS associated abnormalities not included in MetS diagnostic criteria (renal dysfunction, hyperuricaemia, hypercoaglutability, menopause, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, ...in an effort to reduce CVD risk and identify features that should be taken into consideration when treating MetS patients with or without arterial hypertension. Open Access Feature Paper Review Review: The Nervous System Cytoskeleton under Oxidative Stress by John Gardiner, Robyn Overall and Jan ...

215

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Geospatial Narratives and Their Spatio-Temporal Dynamics: Commonsense Reasoning for High-Level Analyses in Geographic Information Systems by Mehul Bhatt and Jan ... Building on formal methods in theareas of commonsense reasoning, qualitative reasoning, spatial and temporal representationand reasoning, reasoning about actions and change and ...identify concrete theoretical and practical challenges that accrue in the context offormal reasoning about space, events, actions and change. With this ...

216

Open Access  

... The article explores various aspects of Anselm’s charismatic authority including his performance of charisma, the charisma derived from his fame as a scholar, and his reputation as a miracle-working holy man. Open Access Article: Are Spiritual Experiences through Music Seen as Intrinsic or Extrinsic? by Peter Atkins and Emery Schubert Religions 2014, 5(1), 76-89; doi:10.3390/rel5010076 - published online ...

217

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats’ Socialization Level in the Cat’s Normal Environment by ... The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity.... In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and ...

218

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Preferences for Prenatal Tests for Cystic Fibrosis: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Compare the Views of Adult Patients, ...Carriers of Cystic Fibrosis and Health Professionals by Melissa Hill, Ranjan Suri, Edward F. Nash, Stephen Morris and Lyn S....As new technologies enable the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis ( NIPD) for cystic fibrosis (CF), research examining stakeholder views is essential ...

219

Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

220

Todays electric power tariffs in France. Prices table; Tarifs actuels de l`electricite en France. Bareme des prix  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a series of tables which explain the reorganization of the electric power tariffs in France for the selling to consumers and the purchase from independent producers (hydro and wind power) according to the contract of Electricite de France (EdF) established for the four years period of 1997-2000. During this period, the tariffs of electric power selling will be reduced of 14% when explained in constant French Francs. The tariffs of 1997 correspond to a 6% reduction when explained in constant Francs which represents a 4.6% reduction when explained in current Francs according to the 1.4% estimated inflation rate. (J.S.).

Pinta, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

1998-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

2011 Report on Technical Barriers to Trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report was created to respond to the concerns of U.S. companies, farmers, ranchers and manufacturers, which increasingly encounter non-tariff trade barriers in the form of product standards, testing requirements, and other technical requirements as t...

R. Kirk

2011-01-01

222

Open Access  

...Open Access Article: Conceptual Site Model for Newark Bay—Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport by Parmeshwar L. Shrestha, Steave H. Su, ... This paper describes the hydrodynamic and sediment transport components of the CSM for the NBSA. Hydrodynamic processes are influenced by freshwater inflows,... Sediment dynamics are driven by hydrodynamics, waves, sediment loading from freshwater sources and the tidal straits, sediment size gradation, ...a Kelp-Type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology by Taiping Wang, Tarang ...

223

Open Access  

... Powder X-ray diffraction was also employed to characterize the bulk materials and those phases which did not yield single-crystals. These compounds are ... Namely, ITO additive initiates an early breakdown of the doped LC samples exposed to high electric fields. A model is proposed in ... Open Access Review Review: High Performance Negative Dielectric Anisotropy Liquid Crystals for Display Applications by Yuan Chen, Fenglin Peng, Takashi Yamaguchi,...Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: We review recent progress in the development of high birefringence (?n = 0.12) negative dielectric ...

224

Open Access  

...evaluation data (positive, negative, or none) before providing ratings of attractiveness and dating interest for a series of targets. In both samples, ...positive information was associated with greater levels of attraction and dating interest than negative information, regardless of target race. Within the conservative ...sample, participants reported greater attraction toward and more dating interest in White targets relative to Black targets, while in the liberal sample, ... Open Access Project Report: Intercorrelations of Intimacy and Identity Dating Goals with Relationship Behaviors and Satisfaction among Young Heterosexual Couples by Melanie J....

225

Open Access  

...The absorption and chemisorption of small bubbles with N2 or CO2 were investigated experimentally in aqueous and alkaline solutions. Different bubble sizes were ... A correlation was developed for the drag force coefficient, CD, including wall effects based on the force equilibrium. A linear ...and without chemical reaction, which is referred to as a rigid bubble surface area. Measured Sherwood numbers agree well with the literature values ...for the investigated Reynolds number range. Open Access Article: Analysis of Multi-Loop Control Structures of Dividing-Wall Distillation Columns Using a Fundamental Model ...

226

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries by Naveen Kumar and Rashmi Tyagi Cosmetics 2014, 1(1), 3-13; doi:10.3390/cosmetics1010003 - published online 21 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc....

227

Open Access  

...Open Access Article: Design and Simulation of Two Robotic Systems for Automatic Artichoke Harvesting by Domenico Longo and Giovanni Muscato Robotics 2013, 2(...feasibility study for the development of a robot for automatic or semi-automatic artichoke harvesting. During this project, different solutions for the mechanical ...DISPA of University of Catania, different field structures with different kinds of artichoke cultivars were studied and tested. The results of this research ...could improve artichoke production for preserves industries. As a first step, an investigation on existing machines has been done. From this ...

228

Open Access  

... Open Access Comment: Intelligence: Pre-Theory and Post-Theory by James R. Flynn J. Intell. 2014, 2(1), ...exemplifies a mistake that has historical precedent: confusing the role of pre-theory and post-theory definitions. In every area, pre-theory concepts give ... Post-theory concepts add precision and predictability. The mistake occurs when a successful theory like Newton’s demands that its peculiar and precise ... theory- imbedded concept forbids competing theories: Einstein was impossible (warping of space) so long as it was assumed that all theories ...

229

Open Access  

...Open Access Article: Design of Processors with Reconfigurable Microarchitecture by Andrey Mokhov, Maxim Rykunov, Danil Sokolov and Alex Yakovlev J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2014, 4(1), 26-43; doi:10.3390/jlpea4010026 - published online 20 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Energy becomes a dominating factor for a wide spectrum of computations: from intensive data processing in “big data” companies resulting in large electricity bills, to infrastructure monitoring with wireless sensors relying on energy harvesting. In this context it is essential for ...

230

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: On the Distribution of the spt-Crank by George E. Andrews, Freeman J. Dyson and Robert C. ...online 28 June 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Andrews, Garvan and Liang introduced the spt-crank for vector partitions. We conjecture that for any n the ...number of S-partitions of size n with crank m weight by the spt-crank. We relate this conjecture to a distributional result concerning the ... Additionally, we give an asymptotic study for the distribution of the spt-crank statistic. Finally, we give some speculations about a definition ...

231

Open Access  

... Possible areas of application for local audio include information and advertisement audio feed in commercial facilities, guiding and narration in museums and ... Open Access Article: Analysis of North American Newspaper Coverage of Bionics Using the Disability Studies Framework by Sonum Panesar and Gregor Wolbring Technologies ...on how bionic technologies and its users are portrayed in North American newspapers. Data was obtained from 1977 to 2013 from the Canadian ...Newsstand complete database which covers over 300 English language Canadian newspapers and two Canadian newspapers, one with national focus (The Globe and Mail)...

232

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: A Bourdieusian Perspective on Acculturation: Mexican Immigrants in the United States by Leonel Prieto, Tagi Sagafi- nejad and Balaji Janamanchi Adm. Sci. 2013, 3(4), 290-305; doi:10.3390/admsci3040290 - published online 13 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: This article uses Bourdieu’s theory of practice (BTOP) to understand immigrants’ acculturation. It synthesizes research findings by discussing acculturation as: (1) equalization of immigrants’ and natives’ development (convergence); (2) language and social practices related ...

233

Open Access  

... Four compounds, anthothecol, garcinol, piplartine, and rottlerin, were further characterized, and the ability of these compounds to inhibit the refolding of luciferase, and reduce the rate of growth of MCF7 breast cancer cells, correlated with their ability to suppress the Hsp90-dependent maturation of the heme-regulated eIF2a kinase, and deplete cultured cells of Hsp90-dependent client proteins. Thus, this screen has identified an additional 44 compounds with known beneficial pharmacological properties, but with unknown mechanisms of action as possible new inhibitors of the Hsp90 chaperone machine. Open Access Review Review: ...

234

Open Access  

...Open Access Article: Double-Acting Sleeve Muscle Actuator for Bio-Robotic Systems by Hao Zheng and Xiangrong Shen Actuators 2013, 2(4), 129-144; doi:10.3390/act2040129 - published online 25 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: This paper presents a new type of muscle-like ...actuator, namely double-acting (DA) sleeve muscle actuator, which is suitable for the actuation of biologically-inspired and biomedical robotic systems, especially those serving human-assistance purposes (prostheses, orthoses, etc.). Developed based on the traditional pneumatic muscle actuator, the new DA sleeve ...

235

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Elements of an Integrated Phenotyping System for Monitoring Crop Status at Canopy Level by Donald Rundquist, Anatoly Gitelson, Bryan Leavitt, Arthur Zygielbaum, Richard Perk and Galina Keydan Agronomy 2014, 4(1), 108-123; doi:10.3390/agronomy4010108 - published online 17 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Great care is needed to obtain spectral data appropriate for phenotyping in a scientifically rigorous manner. This paper discusses the procedures and considerations necessary and also suggests important pre-processing and analytical steps leading to real-time, non- destructive assessment of ...

236

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Label-Free LC-MS Profiling of Skeletal Muscle Reveals Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein as a Candidate Biomarker of Aerobic Capacity by ...Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis provides robust comparative analysis of skeletal muscle, but this technique is laborious and limited by its ..., 3 h per sample) proteome profiling of skeletal muscle by 1-dimensional RPLC electrospray ionisation tandem MS. Solei were analysed from rats (n ...analysed, which encompassed almost all enzymes of the major metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle. The most abundant protein detected was type I myosin ...

237

Open Access  

...At a given SiO2 content, lavas erupted with increasing distance from the arc front display systematically higher K2O, Rb, Th, Y,... We suggest that silicic magmas along the arc front reflect melting of relatively young, mafic composition amphibolitic source rocks and that the ...Collectively, these data suggest the continental crust becomes strongly hybridized beneath frontal arc localities due to protracted intrusion of primary, mantle-derived basaltic magmas ...with a diminishing effect behind the arc front because of smaller degrees of mantle partial melting and primary melt generation . Open Access ...

238

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Cigarette Smoke Alters the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche by Robert W. Siggins, Fokhrul Hossain, Tayyab Rehman, ... This study employed a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure to explore the effects on bone marrow niche function. While lung cancer ... Animals received cigarette smoke exposure for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 9 months. Results reveal that the hematopoietic stem ...and progenitor cell (HSPC) pool size is reduced by cigarette smoke exposure. We next examined the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on one ...

239

Open Access  

... The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed. Open Access Article: On the Interactions of Additives in Metalworking Fluids with Metal Surfaces by Joachim Schulz, Ekkard Brinksmeier ...

240

Open Access  

...against the aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin A with the aim of constructing a robust and functional assay that can be used for water analysis. ... Open Access Article: Wavelet-Based Watermarking and Compression for ECG Signals with Verification Evaluation by Kuo-Kun Tseng, Xialong He, Woon-Man Kung, ... In this study, we propose a new idea of integrating electrocardiogram watermarking and compression approach, which has never been researched before. ...ECG watermarking can ensure the confidentiality and reliability of a user’s data while reducing the amount of data. In the evaluation, we ...

 
 
 
 
241

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review by Zhao Chen and Xiuping Jiang ...3390/agriculture4010001 - published online 28 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve ... As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans ...have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a ...

242

Open Access  

...Access Article: Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Genomic Counseling for Patients with Chronic Disease by Kevin Sweet, Erynn S....implementation of a randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of genomic counseling on a cohort of patients with heart failure (HF) ... Participants are randomized to either the in-person post-test genomic counseling— active arm, versus web-based only return of results—control arm. Study-specific surveys ...health behavior change; and, for the active arm (5), overall satisfaction with genomic counseling. This ongoing partnership has spurred creation of both infrastructure and ...

243

Open Access  

...Open Access Article: Second-Row Transition-Metal Doping of (ZniSi), i = 12, 16 Nanoclusters: Structural and Magnetic Properties by Elisa ...3390/computation1030031 - published online 14 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: TM@ZniSi nanoclusters have been characterized by means of the Density Functional Theory, in ... The open-shell electronic structure of Ag provides magnetic properties to Ag@ZniSi clusters. Therefore, we have further characterized (Ag@Zn12S12)...and (Ag@Zn16S16)2 dimers both in the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic state, in order to calculate the corresponding magnetic exchange coupling constant, ...

244

Open Access  

... The interface between the polymer and the clay nanoparticles was studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques by selectively addressing spin ... CW EPR studies of PCNC showed that completely exfoliated nanoparticles coexist with agglomerates. HYSCORE spectroscopy in PCNCs showed couplings within the probe ...of AO7 in the presence of CoTCPcNa-AN-CNFs and H2O2 was investigated by UV-Vis absorption spectra. The results showed that AO7 was oxidized efficiently ...Open Access Article: Plant-Mediated Fabrication and Surface Enhanced Raman Property of Flower-Like Au@Pd Nanoparticles by Daohua Sun, Genlei Zhang, Jiale Huang,...

245

Open Access  

... Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, displacement, air flow, pressure, liquid-level, magnetic field, and the determination of methadone, hydrocarbons, ethanol, and sucrose are briefly described. Open Access Article: The Development of Advanced Optical Fibers for Long-Wave Infrared Transmission by Pierre Lucas, Catherine Boussard-Pledel, Allison Wilhelm, Sylvain Danto, Xiang-Hua Zhang, Patrick Houizot, Sebastien Maurugeon, Clément Conseil and Bruno Bureau Fibers 2013, 1(3), 110-118; doi:10.3390/fib1030110 - published online 17 December 2013 ...

246

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: A Review of Vitamin D Deficiency in the Critical Care Population by Kelly Massey, Roland N. Dickerson ...well documented that a large percentage of the general population is either vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Vitamin D deficiency adversely affects bone ... More recently, it has been reported that vitamin D is an important component in immune function and glycemic control Substantial data exist that ...demonstrate an association between vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency and mortality/clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. The larger clinical trials addressing this association ...

247

Informal Wage, Informal Price and Extortion under Migration and Tariff Reform*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a theoretical model where formal and informal sectors co-exist in tandem. Trade union segregates some labor from being formal. Capital is not allowed to freely move between formal and informal sectors. Using this sort of framework it has been shown that immigration of unskilled workers re-duces the return to informal labor and makes the informal good relatively cheap. A tariff slash also impinges on similar kind of results. In both the cases informal capitalists gain. Moreover, what is more striking is that both migration and tariff reform are equally bad for the economy as a whole since these policies enhance the ‘unproductive’ element or labor in the society which is really costly as these laborers could have been used to produce some more consumable commodities.

Biswajit Mandal

2011-02-01

248

Different tariff power meters in Dutch households. Use of low-priced electricity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An attempt has been made to identify the factors that determine which households use an electricity meter based on two different tariffs. The results show that the presence and use of an electric boiler and the number of hours of low-priced electricity offered by the electric utility distinguish the households that make use of the low tariff from those who do not. The magnitude of the difference between the normal (high) and low priced electricity is not an important factor. Next the factors that determine the differences in the relative use of the low-priced electricity are analysed. The results show that the number of hours of low-priced electricity offered and the presence of an electric boiler determine the use of low-priced electricity. 15 refs., 11 tabs.

Van Oortmarssen, G.

1989-08-01

249

Electricity tariffs based on long-run marginal costs for central grid system of Oman  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity tariffs in Oman are subsidized and are based on a cost accounting approach and do not reflect the true cost incurred in generating, transmitting and distributing a kilowatt-hour of electricity at the consumer end. This paper presents the electricity tariff based on the estimation of long-run marginal cost at generation, 33kV, and 415 voltage level for Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water (MHEW) interconnected power system of Oman. The result shows that at the generation level a marginal kW costs US$ 75per year and a marginal kWh costs 2.07|/kWh. These costs increase as we move downstream from generation to consumer end. The average cost of electricity at the consumer end connected at 415V is 6.52|/kWh or 25.17Bz/kWh. (author)

2006-09-01

250

Prospect of domestic grid connected PV systems under existing tariff conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abundance of natural fossil fuel resources in Australia adds a new dimension to the obstacles to be overcome when introducing photovoltaics (PV) into the electric utility market. Regulations are being considered to enforce a form of penalty unto non-environmentally friendly energy producers. Electric utilities are required to offer a purchase tariff and structure to private producers of electricity. Under the current conditions, it is technically feasible to introduce small-scale roof-top PV generation systems with or without battery storage. Economic analysis have shown that the electricity tariff structure for PV and other renewables needed a major change to allow a reasonable and acceptable pay-back period if PV is to become an attractive economic investment to private owners

1997-10-03

251

MDPI | Open Access Information  

...of open access might find the following websites or 'Open Access 101' video informative: Wikipedia article on 'Open Access' Peter Suber's 'Open Access Overview' Information Platform Open Access [in English, in German] SHERPA's 'Authors and Open Access' SPARC Open Access 101 Video Meaning of Open Access In accordance with major definitions of open access in scientific literature (namely the Budapest, Berlin, and Bethesda declarations), MDPI defines open access ...

252

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-04-27

253

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

254

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Science.gov (United States)

...UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2013-09-18

255

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2011-04-12

256

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-07-06

257

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

258

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

259

76 FR 72696 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to Etariff Refund Report Type of Filing Codes  

Science.gov (United States)

...available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC) will be modified as follows: (1) The addition of a new TOFC 1190: ``Refund Report''. This code...2) The addition of a new TOFC 1200: ``Refund Report''. This...

2011-11-25

260

Trade adjustment and human capital investments: evidence from Indian tariff reform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Do the short and medium term adjustment costs associated with trade liberalization influence schooling and child labor decisions? We examine this question in the context of India's 1991 tariff reforms. Overall, in the 1990s, rural India experienced a dramatic increase in schooling and decline in child labor. However, communities that relied heavily on employment in protected industries before liberalization do not experience as large an increase in schooling or decline in child labor. The dat...

Edmonds, Eric V.; Pavcnik, Nina; Topalova, Petia

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a gene...

Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

2012-01-01

262

Feed-in tariff for energy saving: thinking of the design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Financial incentives are important for the adoption of energy efficient technologies and overcoming certain market barriers to improved energy efficiency. Such incentives are broadly used in various environmental and energy fields and are usually associated with specific technology support, rather than a general sustainable behavioural change. While the declared goal of financial support schemes is to save energy or reduce harmful emissions rather than to foster new technologies per se, it is very often encountered that such financial support for energy efficient technologies does not ensure real energy savings due to the rebound effect and remaining barriers. It is common for financial support to be given to power producers for the verified production of renewable electricity, in the form of a guaranteed financial incentive (feed-in tariff). In the energy efficiency policy research little attention has been paid to the possible use of a feed-in tariff, in the form of a fixed financial incentive based on the kWh saved by the end-user. This paper discusses the possible setup of a feed-in tariff for energy savings. The paper first explores the rationale behind and the possible functionality of a feed-in for energy savings, giving examples of similar policy tools implemented or planned. The paper looks into additionality and persistency of energy savings and explores core interactions between the feed-in and existing tools for energy efficiency. Finally, key advantages and complexities related to a feed-in tariff scheme for energy savings are discussed, intending to open a discussion and foster further research on the topic.

Bertoldi, Paolo; Rezessy, Silvia; Boza-Kiss, Benigna (European Commission, DG JRC, Ispra (Italy)); Oikonomou, Vlasis (SOM Research Inst., Univ. of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands))

2009-07-01

263

The potential of Using EQUIVALENT COMPARISON STANDARDS to judge EFFECTIBLE COSTS in Electrical Distribution tariff regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sweden will implement a new tariff regulation from 2012. This paper presents results from a project initiated by the Swedish regulator, performed by the RCAM (Reliability Centered Asset Management) research group aimed to review the potential of using equivalent comparison standards to judge effectible costs. The study includes interviews and surveys distributed to every Swedish distribution system operator (DSO). However, no sharp proposal on units appropriate to use in the first regulatory ...

Wallnerstro?m, Carl Johan; Isenberg, Anna; Setreus, Johan; Hilber, Patrik

2011-01-01

264

Ninth international conference on metering and tariffs for energy supply. Proceedings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contributions to the ninth international conference on Metering and Tariffs for Energy Supply are presented. Topics reviewed include legal metrology, regulation and the commercial framework (3 papers); metering in a competitive supply (7 papers); interactive papers (13 papers); standardisation (5 papers); equipment design (5 papers); equipment manufacture and testing (5 papers); data collection and processing (6 papers); securing and enhancing revenue (5 papers); prepayment systems (5 papers); and metering as a business (4 papers). (UK)

1999-05-25

265

More trade for better health? International trade and tariffs on health products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main objective of this paper is to analyse trade flows and tariff policies of health products. Compared to previous studies, we not only focus on medicines, but on a large set of products that enter the public health space and can be identified in the common trade classification. The first contribution is thus to construct three groups of health products based on the 2007 Harmonized System classification of international trade. Using these commodity groups, we analyse trade flows between ...

Helble, Matthias

2012-01-01

266

Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.)

1991-01-01

267

Vote expectations and pre-electoral tariff cuts in Flemish municipalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using data covering 5 election moments (1976-2000) for 308 Flemish municipalities we look for evidence whether local governments reduce the tariffs of the two main local taxes before elections. Election moments are central to both the political budget cycle literature and the strategic debt models. Next to partisan motives, the political budget cycle theory refers to incumbents’ opportunistic motives: governments manipulate fiscal policy facing elections to attract voters. According to stra...

Goeminne, Stijn; Smolders, Carine

2007-01-01

268

Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import ta...

2013-01-01

269

Reconciling WTP to actual adoption of green energy tariffs: A diffusion model of an induced environmental market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a formal model that links the willingness to pay (WTP) literature with the established innovation diffusion literature. This concern arises from an attempt to reconcile the large disparities that have been observed between actual adoption of green energy tariffs and WTP for such tariffs. These disparities have often been attributed to upward response bias and the free rider problem. However, empirical research indicates that other factors have hindered the development of g...

Diaz-rainey, Ivan; Tzavara, Dionisia

2009-01-01

270

A tariff policy to the aluminium Brazilian industry; Uma politica tarifaria para a industria brasileira de aluminio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An tariff policy to the aluminium industry, mainly out of Amazon region are explained. These policy, giving emphasis to the variable taxes according the metal prices variations, presents a solution without subsides to satisfy both (energy enterprises and aluminium industry). Some formulations to link electric tariffs and metal prices, making a simulation between operational conditions on the industry, and its results on these proposal association are also discussed. 2 figs., 6 tabs., 2 refs.

Mello, J.C.P. de; Silva, I.A. [ALCOA Alumino S.A., Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Lello Filho, H. di

1991-12-31

271

How do solar photovoltaic feed-in tariffs interact with solar panel and silicon prices? An empirical study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Preferential feed-in tariffs (FITs) for solar generated electricity increases the demand for solar photovoltaic systems. They can thus induce price to increase, creating the potential for PV systems producers to collect rents. This paper analyses the interactions between feed-in tariffs, silicon prices and module prices, using weekly price data and FIT values in Germany, Italy, Spain, and France from January 2005 to May 2012. Relying methodologically on the Granger causality tests applied to ...

La Tour, Arnaud; Glachant, Matthieu

2013-01-01

272

High-efficiency electric motors: An analysis of a feasible tariff policy for Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to calculate an average value for an electricity tariff which will facilitate the introduction of high-efficiency electric motors in the production sector. Two computational models will be developed for technical-economic evaluation to assess economic attractiveness by calculating feasible average electricity tariffs in order to create a market for substitution of standard motors by new high-efficiency models (Purchase Decision Model) as well as to determine if retrofitting of standard installed motors by others with high-efficiency characteristics is viable, and, if so, to specify the optimum timing for such substitution (Substitution Decision Model). It should be noted that the Purchase Decision Model takes into account power factor adjustment and the Substitution Decision Model incorporates considerations as to reduction in the electromechanical performance of operating motors. Results indicate that even where average electricity tariffs are low, as in Brazil, high-efficiency motors are economically attractive compared to standard motors. There is an obvious need for complementary instruments to assist massive market penetration

1997-07-08

273

Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

2009-10-09

274

Reducing US oil-import dependence: A tariff, subsidy, or gasoline tax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low oil prices and rising oil imports have caused growing concern about U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply shocks. The authors devise a measure of vulnerability and use it to compare three policies that have been proposed to reduce U.S. vulnerability to oil-supply disruptions: a 25% oil-import tariff, a $5-per-barrel subsidy to domestic oil producers, and an increase in the gasoline tax from 9 cents to 25 cents per gallon. They find that the tariff would make the United States less vulnerable to disruptions. By increasing both consumer and producer prices, the tariff lowers consumption while encouraging domestic production. The increased gasoline tax could either lower or raise vulnerability. If domestic supply is not very responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax increases vulnerability. If domestic supply is responsive to price changes, the gasoline tax reduces vulnerability. The subsidy encourages increased consumption and production, leading to a faster depletion of the resource base. Hence, the subsidy would make the United States more vulnerable to oil-supply shocks. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Yuecel, M.K. (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, TX (USA)); Dahl, C. (Louisiana State Univ. (USA))

1990-05-01

275

Revised feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic in the United Kingdom: A cloudy future ahead?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom (UK) started implementing a national Feed-In Tariff (FiT) mechanism on the 1 April 2010, which included specific payment tariffs for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, a revised FiT rate has been put in place starting from 1 April 2012, applicable to any installations with an eligibility date of on or after 3 March 2012. This paper presents, first, an overview of solar PV installation in the UK. This followed by a general concept of the FiT in the UK before analyzing the financial impact of the new FiT rate on the consumers. Similar financial analysis is conducted with selected countries in Europe. The financial analysis investigates the total profit, the average rate of return and the payback period. It is found that the new FiT rate generates very low profit, minimum rate of return and a longer payback period, suggesting a downward trend of solar PV uptake in the future. - Highlight: ? Overview of solar PV installation in the UK until present time is discussed. ? Financial analysis is presented using previous, new and degression FiT tariff. ? Comparative analysis with other European countries is evaluated. ? The new FiT rate in the UK generates very low return than other countries. ? This could suggest a downward trend of UK's solar PV uptake in the future

2013-01-01

276

Open Access  

... Zinc oxide (ZnO), magnetite (Fe3O4), as well as brushite (CaHPO4&1832H2O), particles with a small particle size distribution can be obtained continuously by using the rapid mixing of two precursor solutions and the fast removal of the nuclei from the reaction environment. The final particles were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, DLS, XRD and SEM techniques. Systematic studies on the influence ... The obtained magnetite particles have particle sizes in the range of 46 nm to 132 nm. Brushite behaves differently; the obtained particles were shaped like small plates with edge lengths between 100 nm and 500 nm. Open Access Article: Synthesis of Diazonium Tetrachloroaurate(III) Precursors for Surface Grafting by Sabine N. Neal, Samuel A. Orefuwa, Atiya T. Overton, Richard J....

277

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Tanjungides A and B: New Antitumoral Bromoindole Derived Compounds from Diazona cf formosa. Isolation and Total Synthesis by Carmen Murcia, Laura Coello, Rogelio Fernández, María Jesús Martín, Fernando Reyes, Andrés Francesch, Simon Munt and Carmen Cuevas Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(2), 1116-1130; doi:10.3390/md12021116 - published online 21 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract:...Tanjungides A (1) (Z isomer) and B (2) (E isomer), two novel dibrominated indole enamides, have been isolated from the tunicate Diazona cf formosa. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including HRMS, and extensive 1D and 2D NMR. The stereochemistry of the cyclised cystine present in both compounds was determined by Marfey’s analysis after chemical degradation and hydrolysis. We also report the first total synthesis of these compounds using ...

278

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Breakdown of Phosphatidylserine Asymmetry Following Treatment of Erythrocytes with Lumefantrine by Kousi Alzoubi, Bassel Alktifan, Gergely Oswald, Myriam Fezai, Majed Abed and Florian Lang Toxins 2014, 6(2), 650-664; doi:10.3390/toxins6020650 - published online ... Eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([ Ca2+]i), formation of ceramide, oxidative stress and/or activation of p38 ... Methods: Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species from 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate fluorescence, content of reduced glutathione (GSH) from mercury orange fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding ...

279

Open Access  

... This is due to the reduced shear forces in sliding on low-friction DLC coatings on the soft epoxy-based CFC, decreasing the total ... Microstructural investigation (field-emission scanning electron microscope FESEM and X-Ray diffractometry XRD) reveals a high density and low oxide content for HVOF Fe-based ... Open Access Article: Spray-on PEDOT:PSS and P3HT:PCBM Thin Films for Polymer Solar Cells by Morteza Eslamian and Joshua E. Newton ...January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: PEDOT:PSS electron-blocking layer, and PEDOT:PSS + P3HT:PCBM stacked layers are fabricated by ultrasonic atomization and characterized by ...

280

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Characteristics, Composition and Oxidative Stability of Lannea microcarpa Seed and Seed Oil by Patrice Bazongo, Imaël Henri Nestor Bassolé, Søren Nielsen, Adama Hilou, Mamoudou Hama Dicko and Vijai K. S. Shukla Molecules 2014, 19(2), 2684-2693; doi:10.3390/molecules19022684 (doi registration under processing) - published online 24 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The ...proximate composition of seeds and main physicochemical properties and thermal stability of oil extracted from Lannea microcarpa seeds were evaluated. The percentage composition of the seeds was: ash (3.11%), crude oil (64.90%), protein (21.14%), total carbohydrate (10.85%) and moisture (3.24%). Physicochemical properties of the oil were:...

 
 
 
 
281

Pressure in the natural gas pipe. Coherence between tariffs for natural gas transport, and congestion in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using GASTALE (Gas mArket System for Trade Analysis in a Liberalizing Europe), a comprehensive computational game theoretic model of the European gas market, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) conducted at the request of Gas Transportation Services (GTS) a study on the relationship between gas transport tariffs, the demand for gas transport and possible re-routing of gas flows in Northwestern Europe. We find that lowering the average Dutch transport tariff compared to the average German transport tariff induces a re-routing of gas flows from the German network to the Dutch network. In periods of high gas demand, such as the peak winter season, the lower transport tariffs lead to a high potential demand for gas transport which cannot be fulfilled by the limited capacity of the Dutch gas transport network. This will probably even lead to congestion in the Dutch network as a 'first-come first-served' regime is currently applied in the Netherlands. So Dutch gas transport tariffs being out of line with the gas transport tariffs neighbouring countries, implies that there is a real chance that transit flows are crowding-out gas flows destined for Dutch final consumers of gas. Hence, the security of gas supply for the Netherlands is seriously threatened. These findings are robust for variations in the model assumptions as shown by a number of sensitivity analyses

2005-01-01

282

Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: > Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. > Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. > Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. > Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. > Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

Bartusch, Cajsa, E-mail: cajsa.bartusch@mdh.se [School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-721 23 Vaesteras (Sweden); Wallin, Fredrik; Odlare, Monica; Vassileva, Iana; Wester, Lars [School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Maelardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-721 23 Vaesteras (Sweden)

2011-09-15

283

Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

2010-01-01

284

Review of European regulatory and tariff experience with the sale of heat and electricity from combined heat and power plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation, Edmonton Power, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and the Canadian Electrical Association commissioned a study to understand how electrical power and district heat from combined heat and power (CHP) plants is priced in Europe. Four northern European countries were investigated, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Finland. These countries produce 45.8 TWh of power from combined heat and power plants, 7.1% of their annual consumption. In the case of Denmark, CHP accounts for 37.5% of its total power production. The energy situation in each country is reviewed using published statistics, and in particular the rapidly changing situation with regard to environmental and fuel taxes is examined. In order to obtain practical insights with regard to tariffs used by the various utilities, a series of generic examples were examined, supported by specific case studies. Technologies reviewed included: CHP from coal-fuelled extraction plant, CHP from coal-fuelled back pressure plant, waste heat from a municipal waste plant, and gas turbine with waste heat recovery. The benefits and risks associated with different tariff designs are discussed in detail including tariff formulae. This should enable interested parties to develop appropriate tariffs for combined heat and power plants in the context of current electrical utility policies. As a complement to the tariffs for combined heat and power plants, the design of district heating tariffs is also addressed. The typical concepts used in different countries are presented and discussed. 23 tabs

1991-01-01

285

When Is Open Access Not Open Access?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As open access grows in prominence, so too has confusion about what open access means; such confusion arises from a genuine misunderstanding of open access by funders, authors, editors, and publishers alike.

Maccallum, Catriona J.

2007-01-01

286

EFFECT OF SUBSIDIZING EXPORT OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AFTER THE ACCESSION OF POLAND TO THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together with the accession of Poland to the European Union, the conditions of commodity exchange with the abroad have been considerably changed. Trade of Poland with the European Member State has been covered with the regulations of the Common European Market. Pursuant to the Accession Treaty, Poland has adopted acquiscommunautaire of the Community concerning trade policy, including all instruments and rules of common commercial policy, including external customs tariff and out-tariff measures as well as system of agreements with the commercial partners outside the European Union. Accession to the European Union meant the extension of greater protective barriers over Poland in the field of import of agricultural products from third countries and the possibility of taking an advantage of export subsidies to agro-food products exported to third countries on equal rights as other European Union entrepreneurs.

Daniela POPA

2012-01-01

287

Governmental intervention approaches to promote renewable energies—Special emphasis on Japanese feed-in tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost all countries have issued laws and regulations to promote renewable energy (RE). However, the applications and motivations of such laws as well as achievements have been different. Currently, the Japanese government has announced its targets to expand the electricity feed-in tariff scheme for solar power, along with other energy sources, within two years to meet the goal set by the Japanese Prime Minister who, in the 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) held in September 2009, proclaimed to cut 25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the 1990 levels by 2020. In this paper, the current Japanese energy policies and measures for promoting RE in comparison to popular methods followed worldwide are explored. Furthermore, a Least Cost Feed-in Tariff (LCFIT) Simulation Model for Japanese case was developed to calculate the optimal mix of technologies to reach certain targets. The LCFIT also calculates the tariff that should be proposed for each technology and the total cost for the program with and without a carbon tax and estimates the premium added to the bill of the customer every month. - Highlights: ? RE governmental interventions vary with country's economical, social and topological condition. ? LCFIT Model showed that Japan can apply the FiT system with reasonable burdens on the customers. ? Applying 20% of carbon tax can lead to declining the burdens on the customer by about 32%–45%. ? The R and D expenditures on RE is almost one-fourth that of nuclear power in some countries. ? Japanese scenarios seem very satisfying compared to that of Germany and other European countries.

2012-04-01

288

Time dependent tariff modell in the electricity sector; Tageszeitabhaengige Tarifmodelle im Sektor Strom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution under consideration reports on the mechanism of price formation on the German power supply market. From the standpoint of progressive liberalization of this market in particular possibilities for the design of dynamic tariff models are discussed. Theoretical foundations form the design of incentive systems linked to the economic model of price formation. Existing concepts are discussed, and a concept for implementing in the project Low Energy Living is outlined. Thus, an incentive shall be supplied for consumers in order to break their previous habits and to help that the utilities can smooth out their load profile. Power customers benefit from this form of significant energy savings.

Franke, Susan [Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)

2010-07-01

289

Australian Residential Solar Feed-in Tariffs: Industry Stimulus or Regressive Form of Taxation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Feed-in Tariffs (FiT) for residential photovoltaic solar technologies are available inmost Australian jurisdictions. Financial incentives under FiT are in addition to those provided by the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme which forms part of the national 20% Renewable Energy Target. Little attention has been paid to the welfare impacts of FiT on retail electricity prices and social policy objectives. Our analysis indicates that current FiT are a regressive form of taxation. By providing e...

2011-01-01

290

Two-Part Tariff Lottery: A Means to Provide Public Good at the Social Optimum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pure public goods provided by charitable organizations may be provided at the first-best level when the provision is financed by an appropriately designed lottery. If lottery tickets are sold using a two-part tariff, the level of provision of the public good is greater than when fees are not charged to participate in the lottery. Unlike [13] who asymptotically approach the first-best level of provision with an arbitrarily large prize, a Pareto efficient level of the public good is produced when participation fees for the lottery are set appropriately.

Vicky Barham

2012-02-01

291

Two-Part Tariff Lottery: A Means to Provide Public Good at the Social Optimum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pure public goods provided by charitable organizations may be provided at the first-best level when the provision is financed by an appropriately designed lottery. If lottery tickets are sold using a two-part tariff, the level of provision of the public good is greater than when fees are not charged to participate in the lottery. Unlike [13] who asymptotically approach the first-best level of provision with an arbitrarily large prize, a Pareto efficient level of the public good is produced wh...

Amornrat Apinunmahakul; Vicky Barham

2012-01-01

292

The comparison between ad valorem and specific taxation under two-part tariffs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we compare ad valorem and specific taxation under heterogeneous demand when a monopolist offers a menu of two-part tariffs. An increase in either tax rate leads to a higher usage fee for all consumers, whereas the fixed fee under reasonable assumptions will fall. If the government changes the mix of taxes in such a way that the firm’s behavior is unchanged, a system of wholly ad valorem taxation generates higher tax revenue than does a system of wholly specific taxes. Tax ref...

Schjelderup, Guttorm; Jensen, Sissel

2009-01-01

293

Renewables without limits : moving Ontario to advanced renewable tariffs by updating Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) promotes the development of community-owned renewable energy generation. It was emphasized that in order to achieve OSEA's original objectives of developing as much renewable energy as quickly as possible through community participation, changes are needed to Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer contract (SOC) program. This report examined the status of Ontario's SOC program and proposed changes to the program as part of the program's first two-year review. The report provided a summary of the program and discussed each of the program's goals, notably to encourage broad participation; eliminate barriers to distributed renewable generation; provide a stable market for renewable generation; stimulate new investment in renewable generation; provide a rigorous pricing model for setting the tariffs; create a program applicable to all renewable technologies; provide a simple, streamlined, and cost-effective application process; and provide a dispute resolution process. The program goals as developed by the Ontario Power Authority and Ontario Energy Board were discussed with reference to mixed results to date; simplicity; removing barriers; balancing targets with value to ratepayers; and building on the efforts of OSEA. Advanced renewable tariffs (ART) and tariff determination was also discussed along with ART's in Germany, France, Spain and Ontario. Inflation indexing; tariff degression; proposed new tariffs by technology; and other costs and factors affecting profitability were also reviewed. ref., tabs.

Gipe, P. [Wind-works, Tehachapi, CA (United States)

2007-11-15

294

DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN TARIFF BILL-BASED THEORIES OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 USING EVENT STUDY DATA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jude Wanniski (1978 argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005, on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated higher revenues and profits from the anticipated increase in sales and revenues. The Stock Market Crash, he argued, came on the heels of the defeat of the Thomas Recommittal Plan which foretold of lower, not higher as Wanniski contended, tariffs on manufactures. Using Event Study data from January 14, 1929 to October 29, 1929, this paper attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses. The results show that “good” tariff bill news as reported in the New York Times contributed to stock price appreciation, and vice-versa, supporting the latter theory.

Bernard C. Beaudreau

2014-07-01

295

Tariff Modelling  

standing charge that depends on the Council Tax band of the property. ..... The \\modelling takes account of real changes (i.e. after inflation) in average water .... \\have the largest pool of households who could potentially gain from opting for.

296

ARCHIVE: Defra UK; Public Access - Access Review  

Nov 24, 2003 ... What other incentives might be offered to support educational access? ... The \\balance was generally thought to be about right with sound reasons on both ... of \\agreement holders with this type of access, as part of the Review.

297

Tariffs and subsidies in Zimbabwe's reforming electricity industry: steering a utility through turbulent times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1991, the Government of Zimbabwe adopted a public enterprise reform strategy as part of a World Bank driven Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP). For the electricity sector, the Government adopted a two-pronged programme of reform - a performance improvement programme (PIP) for the national utility, the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), and a legal and regulatory reform programme for the electricity sector in general. Ten years later, significant success has been achieved in improving the utility's performance in technical operations and customer service. However, there has been very little progress on the legal and regulatory front. This has adversely affected the utility's financial performance, as well as frustrating the Government's efforts in attracting private sector investment. The centrality of the tariff question reflects the importance of the customer or end-user to the power sector reform process. This article outlines the power sector reform experiences in Zimbabwe with special focus on the tariff question. The paper suggests, from the perspective of a utility executive, reasons for the mixed results at ZESA, and lessons for other countries in the region undertaking similar reforms. (Author)

2002-09-01

298

Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

2010-07-01

299

Electric power tariffs and prices in the course of one century. Stromtarfife und Strompreise im Wandel des Jahrhunderts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For more than a century the vendors of electric power have been in search of optimum pricing strategies in accordance with the respective prevailing conditions. The tariffs of electric power - once a product, then a service - developed and became sophisticated over the years. The present return to a less complex tariff system reveals some important criteria of electric power pricing. The technical and economic developments brought periods of booming and receding electric power prices over the decades. Electricity is low-priced measured by today's purchasing power. (orig.).

Zybell, G. (VDEW-Hauptgeschaeftsstelle, Abt. Stromwirtschaft, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

1992-05-15

300

The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ? We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ? Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ? High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ? Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
301

Open Access workshop  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presentations at an Open Access workshop with the following themes: - What is Open access? An African perspective; - Implementation and advocacy at the University of Pretoria; 3 and Copyright and Open access.

Olivier, Elsabe

2012-01-01

302

The WTO Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations and developing countries: In pursuit of the ‘development agenda’  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA) are being undertaken as part of the Doha Round of negotiations. NAMA negotiations are aimed at the trade liberalisation of industrial goods. Pursuant to the ‘development agenda’ adopted for the Doha Round, the NAMA negotiations also emphasise the development component. Particular emphasis is be made on tariff reductions in products of export interest to developing countries and the negotiations are to take special account of the needs...

2010-01-01

303

The WTO Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations and developing countries: In pursuit of the development agenda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA) are being undertaken as part of the Doha Round of negotiations. NAMA negotiations are aimed at the trade liberalisation of industrial goods. Pursuant to the development agenda adopted for the Doha Round, the NAMA negotiations also emphasise the development component. Particular emphasis is be made on tariff reductions in products of export interest to developing countries and the negotiations are to take special account of the needs an...

2010-01-01

304

Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ? This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ? Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ? Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ? The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ? Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

2012-03-01

305

Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados / Water tariffs in irrigation districts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigaç [...] ão é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica. Abstract in english In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, si [...] nce the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

Marcos C., Ribeiro; Delly, Oliveira Filho; Antônio A., Soares; José H., Martins; Everardo C., Mantovani.

306

Proposal of October 26, 2005 from the Commission of energy regulation about the tariff of use of methane terminals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document defines the tariff of use of the methane gas terminals of Fos Tonkin and Montoir, managed by Gaz de France company: re-gasification services, tariffing principle, penalties, LNG trade point, secondary market of re-gasification capacities. (J.S.)

307

Australian Residential Solar Feed-in Tariffs: Industry Stimulus or Regressive Form of Taxation?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Feed-in Tariffs (FiT for residential photovoltaic solar technologies are available inmost Australian jurisdictions. Financial incentives under FiT are in addition to those provided by the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme which forms part of the national 20% Renewable Energy Target. Little attention has been paid to the welfare impacts of FiT on retail electricity prices and social policy objectives. Our analysis indicates that current FiT are a regressive form of taxation. By providing estimates of household impact by income groupings, we conclude that wealthier households are beneficiaries and the effective taxation rate for low income households is three times higher than that paid by the wealthiest households.

Tim Nelson

2011-09-01

308

Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

NONE

2006-12-20

309

Progressive electricity tariffs for consumers in Germany?; Progressive Stromtarife fuer Verbraucher in Deutschland?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than a quarter of electricity use in Germany is accounted for by private households. This market segment holds vast saving potentials which are not sufficiently made use of to date. If efficiency of electricity use is to serve as a bridge to an era of a nuclear-free power supply, the political realm must find ways of addressing the existing saving potentials more effectively. One possible instrument for creating incentives to save electricity on the demand side is seen in a system of progressive tariffs. How such a system would need to be designed in order to be compatible with the regime of a liberalised electricity market has yet to be investigated however.

Tews, Kerstin [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Forschungszentrum fuer Umweltpolitik

2011-10-15

310

Defining electricity tariffs using the knowledge about the consumers profiles in ELECON project  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The increasing importance of the integration of distributed generation and demand response in the power systems operation and planning, namely at lower voltage levels of distribution networks and in the competitive environment of electricity markets, leads us to the concept of smart grids. In both traditional and smart grid operation, non-technical losses are a great economic concern, which can be addressed. In this context, the ELECON project addresses the use of demand response contributions to the identification of non-technical losses. The present paper proposes a methodology to be used by Virtual Power Players (VPPs), which are entities able to aggregate distributed small-size resources, aiming to define the best electricity tariffs for several, clusters of consumers. A case study based on real consumption data demonstrates the application of the proposed methodology. © 2013 IEEE.

Morais, Hugo; Vale, Zita

2013-01-01

311

Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

None

1979-08-01

312

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned

2007-02-01

313

Juridification patterns for social regulation and the WTO: A theoretical framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Free Trade has always been highly contested, but both the arguments about it and the treaties that regulate it have changed dramatically since the Second World War. Under the 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) regime, objections to free trade were essentially economic, and tariffs were a nation state's primary means of protecting its interests. However, by the early 1970s, tariffs had been substantially reduced, and the imposition and removal of non-tariff barriers that reflec...

Joerges, Christian

2005-01-01

314

Access Nets: Modeling Access to Physical Spaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic, software-managed mechanisms using, for example, radio-frequency identification (RFID) cards, enable great flexibility in specifying access control policies to physical spaces. For example, access rights may vary based on time of day or could differ in normal versus emergency situations. With such fine-grained control, understanding and reasoning about what a policy permits becomes surprisingly difficult requiring knowledge of permission levels, spatial layout, and time. In this paper, we present a formal modeling framework, called AccessNets, suitable for describing a combination of access permissions, physical spaces, and temporal constraints. Furthermore, we provide evidence that model checking techniques are effective in reasoning about physical access control policies. We describe our results from a tool that uses reachability analysis to validate security policies.

Frohardt, Robert; Chang, Bor-Yuh Evan; Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

315

Access 2010 bible  

CERN Document Server

The expert guidance you need to get the most out of Access 2010 Get the Access 2010 information you need to succeed with this comprehensive reference. If this is your first encounter with Access, you'll appreciate the thorough attention to database fundamentals and terminology. If you're familiar with earlier versions, you can jump right into Access 2010 enhancements such as the new Access user interface and wider use of XML and Web services.Takes you under the hood of Microsoft Access 2010, the database application included with Microsoft Office 2010Explores the latest en

Groh, Michael R

2010-01-01

316

Access 2010 Programmer's Reference  

CERN Document Server

A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

2010-01-01

317

Professional Access 2013 programming  

CERN Multimedia

Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

2013-01-01

318

Secondary spectrum access networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Some of the latest advancements made in the field of secondary spectrum access networks and spatial models are discussed. Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) has been proposed as a potential approach to improve spectrum utilization by allowing new wireless systems to dynamically access or share the licensed band on a negotiated or an opportunistic basis. DSA strategies can be broadly categorized into three models, such as dynamic exclusive use model, open sharing model, and hierarchical access model. The open sharing model allows peer users to have equal spectrum access rights and use a common spectrum without interfering with others, while the hierarchical access model adopts a hierarchical access structure with primary and secondary users. It allows the secondary users to access the licensed spectrum under the condition that no harmful interference is caused to the primary users.

Hong, X.; Wang, Xiongfei

2009-01-01

319

Open Access for researchers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation provides an overview of Open access and showcases the implementation of Open access at the University of Pretoria and the possible benefits for researchers. It also addresses some of the concerns that researchers might have.

Olivier, Elsabe

2013-01-01

320

Accessibility (Section 508)  

Science.gov (United States)

All NCI websites must be accessible to users, as described in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. Section 508 requires federal agencies to make their electronic and information technologies, including websites, conform to certain accessibility standards. The following are the standards that NCI Web developers must follow to comply with Section 508 requirements. These standards are based on the Access Board's Web Accessibility Standards, which should also be read by NCI Web developers.

 
 
 
 
321

Access Control Enforcement Testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A policy-based access control architecture com- prises Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs), which are modules that intercept subjects access requests and enforce the access decision reached by a Policy Decision Point (PDP), the module implementing the access decision logic. In applications, PEPs are generally implemented manually, which can introduce errors in policy enforcement and lead to security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose an approach to systematically test and validate the co...

El Kateb, Donia; Elrakaiby, Yehia; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Le Traon, Yves

2012-01-01

322

Transmission access issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is based on the material presented at the IEEE 1994 Winter Power Meeting Panel on Transmission Access Issues, sponsored by IEEE Task Force on Transmission Access. The paper contains Short Notes by four panelists on transmission access (1) institutional issues, (2) planning and operation issues; (3) analytical issues, and (4) economic issues.

Vojdani, A.F.; Imparato, C.F.; Saini, N.K.; Wollenberg, B.F.; Happ, H.H.

1996-02-01

323

Returns on investment in electricity producing photovoltaic systems under de-escalating feed-in tariffs. The case of Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the threat of ballooning energy bills, the Greek legal framework supporting the electricity producing photovoltaic systems (PVS) changed in January 2009 from a fixed to a de-escalating feed-in tariff schedule. In this paper we investigate the internal rate of return (IRR) on investing in PVS under the new regulatory environment. We find that the new scheme favours strongly the early entry in the market. Unless there is a significant decrease in the equipment cost over the next decade, entering the market from 2015 onwards will be prohibitive. The bias of the current policy design towards early entry in a rapidly developing set of technologies entails the risk of a lock-up with sub-optimal technological option. This outlines the importance for policy design of linking the rate of feed-in-tariff de-escalation to more realistic expectations regarding the technology learning curve. (author)

Danchev, Svetoslav; Maniatis, George [Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research (IOBE), 11 Tsami Karatassou Str., Athens 117 42 (Greece); National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Tsakanikas, Aggelos [Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research (IOBE), 11 Tsami Karatassou Str., Athens 117 42 (Greece)

2010-01-15

324

Returns on investment in electricity producing photovoltaic systems under de-escalating feed-in tariffs. The case of Greece  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under the threat of ballooning energy bills, the Greek legal framework supporting the electricity producing photovoltaic systems (PVS) changed in January 2009 from a fixed to a de-escalating feed-in tariff schedule. In this paper we investigate the internal rate of return (IRR) on investing in PVS under the new regulatory environment. We find that the new scheme favours strongly the early entry in the market. Unless there is a significant decrease in the equipment cost over the next decade, entering the market from 2015 onwards will be prohibitive. The bias of the current policy design towards early entry in a rapidly developing set of technologies entails the risk of a lock-up with sub-optimal technological option. This outlines the importance for policy design of linking the rate of feed-in-tariff de-escalation to more realistic expectations regarding the technology learning curve. (author)

2010-01-01

325

Impacts of the transition of the purchase tax for passenger cars into a tariff per driven kilometre [in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of 2007, the Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing scheme in the Netherlands, called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit' (Paying differently for mobility). Major goal is to start with a full operational system in 2016 in which every car user will pay a tariff per driven kilometre. Starting point is that for the average car user, the car mobility will not be more or less expensive. In order to accomplish this, the fixed car and road taxes will be abolished. Point of departure is to convert the road tax (MRB) into a tariff per kilometre. In this report it is examined what the impacts are in case the purchase tax for private cars (BPM) will be incorporated into a price per kilometre as well.

2008-01-01

326

The influence of an increase in electricity tariffs on the viability of heat pumps against direct heating for large consumers of hot water in South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of an increase in electricity tariffs on the viability of heat pumps against direct heating for large consumers of hot water in the main centres of South Africa is investigated. The energy consumption for heating water with an electrical resistance heater is calculated. This consumption is compared with the electrical consumption of a heat pump. Based on the savings in energy and the cost of the heat pump, economic parameters are determined with current electricity tariffs as well as with an increased tariff. It is concluded that if an increase in electricity tariffs occurs, heat pumps in general become more viable, but in certain cases resistance heaters will still be cheaper to use. (author).

Meyer, J.P.; Greyvenstein, G.P. (Potchefstroom Univ. for C.H.E. (ZA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1991-10-01

327

Decentralized licensing of complementary patents: Comparing the royalty, fixed-fee and two-part tariff regimes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the decentralized licensing of complementary patents reading on a technology standard. We develop a model in which manufacturers must buy licenses from different patent owners in order to enter the market for differentiated standard-compliant products. We consider three different types of licensing, namely, the fixed-fee, per-unit royalty and two-part tariff regimes, and compare their performances in terms of licensing revenue, price, product variety and welfare. We show t...

Me?nie?re, Yann; Parlane, Sarah

2010-01-01

328

Pro Access 2010 Development  

CERN Document Server

Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

Collins, Mark

2011-01-01

329

Access 2013 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2013-01-01

330

Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâ??s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

Ho Wai Shin

2012-01-01

331

Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

2009-03-01

332

Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison: The case of cogeneration units in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price

2009-03-01

333

Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.

2010-01-01

334

Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.

Mulder, M.

2010-12-15

335

Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2012-01-01

336

Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

2010-07-01

337

Vietnamâ??s Accession to the WTO : Lessons from Past Trade Agreements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines Vietnamâ??s experience with bilateral trade agreements and compares subsequent outcomes with predictions from existing computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Those model based assessments have greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements. Tariff reform is not the main factor driving economic adjustments, and market imperfections mean there is potential for greater output and trade expansion. The key questions to ask in future research are what critical new institutional reforms WTO accession will bring, and what incentives will be put in place to determine the evolution of investment by sector

Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet

2007-01-01

338

Features of Formation of Tariff Policy in the Sphere of Housing and Communal Services at the Present Stage on an Example of the Kharkiv Region ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article describes the features of formation of tariff policy in the sphere of housing and communal services of Ukraine. The main directions of state regulation of functioning of housing sector were highlighted. It was theoretically grounded and developed recommendations of the market environment in the reform of the tariff policy in the housing and communal services. The current state of security settlements of Ukraine centralized water supply and the basic problems of development in this...

Filatov Vladimir M.; Pivavar Irina V.

2013-01-01

339

Access Data Analysis Cookbook  

CERN Document Server

This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.

Bluttman, Ken

2008-01-01

340

Access control Tutorial 5  

CERN Document Server

This tutorial will review current access management technologies and invite participants to discuss use cases and requirements for access management, particularly with respect to scholarly archives and their users. The presenters will describe the concepts and architecture of Federated Access Management (FAM) with reference to some large-scale federation implementations, and discuss the challenges faced particularly in Identity Management by academic institutions. The tutorial will include a practical demonstration of how FAM can be applied to an Open Archive repository.

CERN. Geneva; Oberknapp, Bernd

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Mobile Web Accessibility Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work presents an approach to mobile Web accessibility evaluation allowing for Web content accessibility and mobile adequacy assessment, regarding different selectable disability profiles. We propose an extension to existing methodologies in order to fully encompass a thorough integration of mobile and accessibility guidelines within specific impairments perspectives and a prototype that serves as a proof of concept tool for that methodology. The integrated guidelines include MWBP and WCA...

Bandeira, Anto?nio Roge?rio Criso?stomo Campos

2010-01-01

342

Web Accessibility and Guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

343

Access eLearning  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial is comprised of 10 modules that offer information, instructional techniques, and practice labs on how to make the most common needs in distance education accessible for individuals with disabilities, and enhance the usability of online materials for all students. The modules center around topics such as making video, flash, word , PDF and many other documents accessible for students with disabilities.

2008-11-07

344

REQUEST FOR ACCESS AUTHORIZATION  

CERN Multimedia

From Monday 5th November 2001 the new EDH Access Request Document 'http://edh.cern.ch/Document/ACRQ' will be operational and will replace the paper 'Request for Access Authorisation' form. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop as well as the on-line help on how to use it.

2001-01-01

345

Comparing Information Access Approaches.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

Chalmers, Matthew

1999-01-01

346

Broadband access networks  

CERN Document Server

Considering the key evolutions within the access network technologies as well as the unprecedented levels of bandwidth demands by end users, this book presents the research, design, and deployment experience of these networks. It provides a comprehensive overview of the major broadband access technologies and deployments.

Shami, Abdallah

2010-01-01

347

The Open Access Divide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

Jingfeng Xia

2013-10-01

348

High-level group to give green light for EU-US trade deal | EurActiv  

... Europe's Industry : Halting the Decline Plastics and PVC Energising Tomorrow's World Agriculture Resource Efficiency Eye on Active Ageing SME's Access to Finance Free Trade for Growth Future of European Healthcare Industrial Policy Electric Vehicles Industrial revival Access to Energy Broadband: driving recovery? EU budget 2014-2020 ... Blockages in trade remain, primarily in the form of non-tariff barriers and disparities in somersquo; regulations, such as pharmaceuticals, medical services and advanced electronics, but also differing standards on genetically modified crops and food safety. Business communities on both sides of ... Horatiu Ferchiu Blood on the European flag feps Common Foreign and Security Policy - Sovereignty must be shared! Advertising EurActors & Content partners AMCHAM EU - American Chamber of Commerce to the European Union Videos 00:02:20 EUnited President: Manufacturers are the backbone ...

349

The effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina: a game theoretic analysis Efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina: uma análise com teoria dos jogos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we analyzed the effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina from 1990 to 2004. The methodology included estimation of whole milk powder demands for Brazil and Argentina as monopolists, members of Mercosul, and world exporters; and simulation of Cournot games considering the trade of this product under alternative tariff policies. The results show that although the tariff impositions create trade distortions, this kind of policy was important to...

Gabriel Leão Oliveira; Wilson da Cruz Vieira

2008-01-01

350

A probabilistic concept of accessibility for access structures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we introduce the concept of weighted accessibility for access structures. In some sense, it represents a measure of how difficult or how easy is to recover the secret. We give also a numerical measure of accessibility for each participant depending on his position in the access structure. Both concepts, the accessibility of the access structure and the accessibility of the participants are closely related. We also provide an axiomatic characterization of the weighted accessibili...

Amer Ramon, Rafael; Gime?nez Pradales, Jose? Miguel; Magan?a Nieto, Antonio

2008-01-01

351

A public policy review of technical regulatory reform : the case for the African continent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade are measures that are put in place in a country to which an exporter wants to export to. These barriers make it difficult for a new manufacturer to export their products. These measures may be considered undesirable in the context of world trade, because they restrict the flow of goods and are detrimental to the consumer because they drive prices up. The Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations significantly reduced tariff barriers to trade. Dur...

2010-01-01

352

AFTA : INDONESIAN INDUSTRIALIST AND CUSTOMS PERSPECTIVE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AFTA is the concept of eliminating tariff barriers among ASEAN countries with a view to integrating the ASEAN economies into a single production base and regional market. The main objective of AFTA is to increase ASEAN's competitive edge as a production base geared for the world market. The critical step in this direction is the liberalization of trade in the region through the elimination of intra-regional tariffs and elimination of non-tariff barriers. In Indonesian industrialists view, th...

2003-01-01

353

Open auctioning of nuclear drawing rights: a fair way out from regulated tariffs on the mass market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents a tariff approach which will consider the nuclear assets of the French operator as a property belonging to the French citizens who accepted the development of these equipment and who, as consumers, have already largely paid these assets. He describes this market mechanism which would assign drawing rights to all competitors. This mechanism is inspired by the VVP Spanish instrument, bidding or auctioning instruments implemented in different countries, and the EDF's drawing right assignment mechanism. He highlights and discusses the benefits and drawbacks of such an instrument

2008-01-01

354

Natural monopolies regulation: the electric power transmission tariffs case; Regulacao dos monopolios naturais: o caso das tarifas de transmissao  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy transmission tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.

Santos, Ricardo Henrique dos; Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Sauer, Ildo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: rosana2@uol.com.br

1999-07-01

355

Pediatric vascular access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

2006-05-15

356

Pediatric vascular access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

2006-05-01

357

A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States. (author)

2009-12-01

358

Demystifying Open Access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.

Mele, Salvatore

2007-05-14

359

Access 2010 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2010-01-01

360

Corporate Remote Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this thesis was to find a suitable, cost efficient and easy-to-use secure remote access solution for the Andritz Group. Currently these secure re-mote connections are provided using Check Point IPsec VPN connections. How-ever, there is a need for more precise access restriction and a cut in management costs. Because of these reasons Andritz Group piloted products of the Juniper Networks Secure Access series. Secondary reasons for choosing Juniper SSL VPN were the market leadi...

Eronen, Erpo

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Optical Access Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 Background With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. Scope of Contributions This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

2005-01-01

362

United States Access Board  

Science.gov (United States)

... Communications & IT Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is addressed by Board standards and guidelines issued ... Performance En Espanol No Fear Act Data Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Partner Sites disability.gov usa. ...

363

Access road reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

1997-11-06

364

Children's access to medicines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

2013-01-01

365

I support Open Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prof Brenda Wingfield, Professor in Genetics and Deputy-Dean of Reseach and Postgraduate Studies of the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences discusses the importance of access to research journals. As developing world countries have smaller budgets, Open Access has become increasingly important for research, as it provides greater visibility for researchers and also assists in keeping researchers up to date with information all the time. The University of Pretoria Senate approved a ma...

Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

366

Accessibility - Climate Action Programme  

... This website endeavours to conform to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0. These guidelines explain how to make web content more accessible for people with disabilities. Conformance with these guidelines will help make the web more user friendly for all people. This site has been built using code compliant with W3C standards for HTML and CSS. The site displays correctly ...

367

Sustainable water use in cities: water tariff as tool for consumption control; El uso sostenible del agua en nucleos urbanos: las tarifas como herramienta de control del consumo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)

Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.

2012-07-01

368

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

2005-11-14

369

Role of availability based tariff and its reliability in the distribution of generated power under emerging electric power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In India, power generation and distribution began towards the end of nineteenth century, although the power sector did not gather momentum until the post-independence era. The electricity industry in India has faced many challenges over the past few years including poor maintenance, financial constraints, and inadequate capacities and outdated technologies in generation, transmission and distribution. According to the Regulatory Commissions Act of 1998, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) is authorized to regulate bulk electric power tariffs for the generation and transmission of power in order to promote competition, increase operational efficiency, and encourage investment in the industry and safeguard consumer interests. In almost all regional grids of India, the Availability Based Tariff (ABT) has been implemented to bring responsibility and accountability in power generation as well as schemes of incentives and disincentives for consumption by using frequency dependent pricing. This paper proposed the use of distributed generation (DG) viability under intra-state ABT with the help of frequency-based price signals. In addition, distribution system reliability indices are evaluated in the case of sustained interruptions on the utility system. The paper discussed viability of DG under ABT along with distribution system reliability. It was concluded that with the ever increasing demand of electricity in the Indian power sector, it is essential to have a viable alternative with which the generated power can be distributed efficiently and to have a constant check on the overall performance and reliability of the system. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

Prasad, N.K.; Karthikeyan, R. [Sri Chandrasekherendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidhyalaya, Enathur, Tamilnadu (India)

2006-07-01

370

An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

2009-10-01

371

Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

2002-06-06

372

Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: > Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. > Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. > Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. > Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. > Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

Walters, Ryan [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Walsh, Philip R., E-mail: prwalsh@ryerson.ca [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

2011-09-15

373

Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: ? Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. ? Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. ? Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. ? Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. ? Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

2011-09-01

374

Access control system operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

1981-07-13

375

Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

2001-01-01

376

Accessible Digital Media Guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Wide Web is a tool that has a myriad of uses for any type of person, so it should be accessible to everyone. In order to help Web designers and software authors accommodate people with disabilities, this site offers a series of guidelines that explains how to effectively serve these types of users. Following a discussion of different disabilities, assistive technologies, and general accessibility tips, ten main guideline topics are addressed in depth. Techniques for using images, multimedia applications, and mathematics illustrations, among others, are given to create a more universally useable online experience.

Freed, Geoff; Rothberg, Madeleine

2007-07-18

377

Open access videos  

...Open access videos Newton, Lectures Open access lecture videos. Includes recent lectures, including our annual Newton lectures This site uses cookies.... Includes recent lectures, including our annual Newton lectures. Open lecture series Professor Sir Konstantin Novoselov: Graphene: Materials in the Flatland28 ... Newton lectures Newton Lecture 2013 - Sir John PendryNewton lecture 2013: A lecture given by the 2013 winner of the Isaac Newton ... Newton Lecture 2012 - Martin ReesNewton lecture 2012: A lecture given by the 2012 winner of the Isaac Newton medal, Professor ...

378

Sprawl and Accessibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay argues that many of the assumptions that have been made about sprawl are misleading or just wrong. Nowhere has this been more the case than in debates about transportation and access. Because of this, it is not surprising that a good many of the policies advocated by proponents of Smart Growth would almost certainly lead to reduced mobility and impaired accessibility for a large part of the population. At very least, the debates over sprawl have pitted private vs. public transportation in a way that has contributed to serious underfunding of transportation infrastructure of all kinds.

Robert Bruegmann

2008-07-01

379

The too expensive invoice of the wind energy. The electric power regulation commission criticizes the State tariff; La facture trop lourde des eoliennes. La commission de regulation de l'electricite critique le tarif fixe par l'Etat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the order of the 12 june, fixing the purchase tariffs of the wind energy, the CRE (electric power regulation commission) contested this tariff: this wind energy development policy is too expensive for the collectivity. (A.L.B.)

Nathan, E.; Delbecq, D.; Coroller, C.; Cori, N.; Bernard, C.

2001-07-01

380

Funding scientific open access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Efficient Distributed Medium Access  

CERN Multimedia

Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

2011-01-01

382

Open access publishing demystified  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This presentation was presented during the 2009 international Open Access Day celebrations on Wednesday 21 October from 12:30-14:00 in the Conference Hall 100, Conference Centre, Hatfield campus in partnership with the Department of Research and Innovation Support.

2009-01-01

383

Access with flexible cannulae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flexible access cannulae maintain a readily accessible tract for the efficient introduction and withdrawal of both straight and curved endoscopic instruments from skin to the parietes. Their main advantage is their capacity to deform, allowing the passage of curved instruments. Several designs of flexible access cannulae are currently available. The most practical design makes use of tightly coiled springs as tubes with or without silicone coating. A modification of this design uses wire woven into a tubular form and coated with silicone. Gas seal valves for these cannulae are currently primitive. The capacity of flexible access cannulae for deformation along the longitudinal and transverse axes could potentially be exploited for retrieval of small organs. Clinically, flexible cannulae have been used whenever curved instruments were needed. Coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been used extensively in both thoracoscopic and laparoscopic operations. These instruments will allow an additional degree of freedom, that of the pre-formed curve of the instrument. In clinical terms this will facilitate the dissection, retraction and encirclement of tubular structures. In addition, the creation of intra-corporeal surgical knots is more efficient using curved needle holders. PMID:7757440

Shimi, S M

1995-02-01

384

The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

1991-01-01

385

78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary...2014) in-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV)....

2013-09-13

386

Considerations on the energy efficient use effects on the electric energy tariffs; Consideracoes sobre a utilizacao eficiente da energia nas tarifas de energia eletrica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is important that the energy systems be designed in such way that the quality of energy of a given end-use matched, as much as possible, with the natural resource, avoiding situations where high quality energy be used by a given end-use of low quality. At the electric energy tariffs elaboration some parameters are considers, including social, politic, strategic and engineer parameters. At the electric energy tariffs elaboration some parameters are considers, including social, politic, strategic and engineer parameters. At the electric energy tariffs elaboration some parameters are considers, including social, politic, strategic and engineer parameters. At the engineers criteria, the system efficiency can be considerate one of the most important. Rational utilization of the energy in illumination, heating and traction, for example, can be stimulated or not efficiency adopted criteria. The efficiency in a system can be measured by two ways: energetic efficiency and exergetic efficiency. The efficiency in a system can be measured by two ways: energetic efficiency and exergetic efficiency. The exergetic efficiency haven`t been considerate as parameter at the elaboration on the electric energy tariffs, for to society, customers and for electric energy company. (author) 18 refs., 5 tabs.

Tanabe, C.S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica; Oliveira Filho, D. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

1998-12-31

387

Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

Reichenbach, Johanna

2011-07-19

388

Double-rate tariffs for electric power and their impact on the financial results of NPP operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific features of the system of double-rate tariffs (DRT) acting on the federal wholesale market of electric energy (power) including NPPs as the subjects are analyzed. It is shown that counting order in the DRT case is sufficiently flexible and thus it is economically profitable for electric power producers. Basing on operational experience with DRT system for two and a half it is shown that the discussed features of its application for NPPs are undoubtedly justified from the corporative viewpoint. The conclusion is made that the DRT system provides for NPP the guarantees of the more total compensation of the expenditures on the electric power generation and contributes to NPP economic surviving in complex conditions of transition to the market economics

2000-03-01

389

Ten years of renewable electricity policies in Spain: An analysis of successive feed-in tariff reforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spain has been one of the most successful countries in the public promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), particularly wind electricity. This support has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme. Although the basic structure of the system was implemented in 1998, it has been modified in 2004 and 2007. This paper provides an overview of the last 10 years of RES-E promotion in Spain, focusing on the FIT system and analysing the main differences and improvements of the three FIT systems. A political economy approach, which considers the interactions between key stakeholders in RES-E promotion, is used to interpret the actual outcomes of successive FIT reforms and their main design elements

2008-08-01

390

Advanced access control system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prototype voice verification system has been installed which provides the required positive identification at the main site access control point. This system compares an individual's file voice print with a sample voice print obtained from the individual when an attempt is made to enter the site. The voice system transmits the individual's identity to a central processor. The central processor associates that individual's authorization file with a card-key obtained at the access point. The system generates a record of personnel movement, provides a personnel inventory on a real-time basis, and it can retrieve a record of all prior events. The system installed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described

1980-07-02

391

[Complex vascular access].  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability of a proper vascular access is a basic condition for a proper extracorporeal replacement in end-stage chronic renal failure. However, biological factors, management and other problems, may variously condition their middle-long term survival. Therefore, personal experience of over 25 years has been critically reviewed in order to obtain useful information. In particular "hard" situations necessitating complex procedures have been examined but, if possible, preserving the peripherical vascular features. PMID:9578652

Mangiarotti, G; Cesano, G; Thea, A; Hamido, D; Pacitti, A; Segoloni, G P

1998-03-01

392

Single access laparoscopic nephrectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laparoscopic nephrectomy has assumed a central role in the management of benign and malignant kidney diseases. While laparoscopy is less morbid than open surgery, it still requires several incisions each at least 1-2 cm in length. Each incision carries morbidity risks of bleeding, hernia and/or internal organ damage, and incrementally decreases cosmesis. An alternative to conventional laparoscopy is single access or keyhole surgery, which utilizes magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS)...

Raman, Jay D.; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

393

Telecommunication access to INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding from the features of on-line retrieval from the INIS data base, a description is given of the technical and organizational conditions established by the national INIS Centre of the GDR in using the INIS direct access service. Data are presented on the structure of search queries, retrieval precision, and connect time to the computer. Experience has shown that efficient dialogue searching necessitates the searcher's skill and familiarity with the system. (author)

1983-01-01

394

Accessibility in Layout Optimization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Component and facility layout plays an important role in the design and usability of many engineering products and systems as mechanical design, facility layout, process plan, management and architecture including ship compartment layout. In real-world applications, all designer's requirements can not be formulated as simple mathematical expressions. The accessibility to components is one of these requirements which can not easily be taken into account in the layout optimization process. Firs...

2010-01-01

395

Editorial: Accessibility (July 2008)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much has changed since the term "open source" was coined ten years ago. The idea of sharing code, once relegated to research institutions and hobbyists, is starting to reach ubiquity in the consciousness of both government and business. More recently, this concept has extended beyond software. Everything from hardware to data to knowledge is becoming "open". Despite this trend towards openness--or perhaps due to the stark contrast openness provides--accessibility remains a dif...

Dru Lavigne

2008-01-01

396

Direct access to INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

1981-01-01

397

Marine and Coastal Access Act Part 9 - Coastal Access  

The Marine and Coastal Access Act aims to improve public access to and ... land \\such as beaches, cliffs, rocks and dunes, for open-air recreation on foot. ..... On \\27 September 2007 at the Labour Party Conference in Bournemouth, Secretary.

398

Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

NONE

2008-07-01

399

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002 Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Budapest Open Access Initiative data al 2002 e rappresenta una pietra miliare nella storia del movimento per l'accesso aperto all'informazione scientifica.The Budapest Open Access Initiative was issued in 2002 and represents a milestone in the history of the Open Access movement, since it gives the first definition of what OA is.

Redazione JLIS.it

2012-12-01

400

Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002) Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La Budapest Open Access Initiative data al 2002 e rappresenta una pietra miliare nella storia del movimento per l'accesso aperto all'informazione scientifica.The Budapest Open Access Initiative was issued in 2002 and represents a milestone in the history of the Open Access movement, since it gives the first definition of what OA is.

Jlis, Redazione It

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deciding whether a given quantum state is entangled or not is a difficult task. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses are used in order to prove presence of entanglement. Entanglement witnesses can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography). We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve linear entanglement witnesses and as a result detect more entangled states with high statistical significance. Second, we can go from evaluating linear entanglement witnesses to their nonlinear counterpart without additional experimental effort, which makes them attractive for implementations in current experiments.

2012-03-12

402

?????????????? Access Conference Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?Conference proceedings are becoming increasingly important for Sci-Tech communication especially in highly dynamic and mult-disciplinary fields of knowledge. How to access to conference proceedings becoming more important for Libraries. Collects and analyzes data about conference literature in the field of library from Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library Literature. Describing them in year division. This study presented describing the state of conference literature situation in the very diverse conditions that govern information dissemination in the libraries. This analysis shows the history, influence and value of conference papers and proceedings source for librarians.

Sheue-fang Song

1998-06-01

403

Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Deciding whether a given quantum state is entangled or not is a difficult task. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses are used in order to prove presence of entanglement. Entanglement witnesses can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography). We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve linear entanglement witnesses and as a result detect more entangled states with high statistical significance. Second, we can go from evaluating linear entanglement witnesses to their nonlinear counterpart without additional experimental effort, which makes them attractive for implementations in current experiments.

Gittsovich, Oleg; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Luetkenhaus, Norbert [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

2012-07-01

404

A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

Domiciano, Jose Antonio

2002-07-01

405

Computing links and accessing arcs  

CERN Multimedia

Sufficient conditions are given for the computation of accessing arcs and arcs that links boundary components of multiply connected domains. The existence of a not-computably-accessible but computable point on a computably compact arc is also demonstrated.

McNicholl, Timothy H

2011-01-01

406

ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient ? = 1). Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid) have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (?<1), and with increasing diameter of the organic ...

2009-01-01

407

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

Shuiming Ye

2009-01-01

408

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the -Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

Ye Shuiming

2009-01-01

409

Analysing Access Control Specifications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker's actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions---if they are logged at all. Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also non-technical applications such as identifying possible suspects, or, beyond cyber crimes, picking the "best" actor for a certain task. We also sketch an online analysis that identifies where an actor can be located based on observed actions.

Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

2009-01-01

410

AccessSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Washington's award-winning DO-IT Center (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology) collaborates with AccessSTEM, which has been funded by the National Science Foundation since 2002. AccessSTEM, aims to "broaden participation in STEM fields and improve those fields with the perspectives and expertise of people with disabilities." Visitors to the site who are disabled students, faculty, employees, or just the interested public will find much to peruse or read in-depth. There is the longitudinal transition study link in the "For Faculty and Employees" section that tracks the college and career paths of students with disabilities who used the DO-IT program. Visitors will find the "Promising Practices" section, also in the Faculty and Employees section, to be filled with useful articles and innovations. There is "A Smart Board in the Classroom: A Promising Practice for Engaging Students", which addresses how the use of a Smart Board can aid students with attention deficits, visual impairments, and other disabling conditions without bringing the whole class' attention to them.

411

EPICS: Channel Access security design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

1994-01-01

412

Open Access: an institutional perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview of Open access and its two routes is given. It highlights South African achievements in creating Open access to scholarly output and discusses practical implementation strategies that the Open scholarship office at the University of Pretoria follows in making their research article outputs available in open access mode.

Olivier, Elsabe

2012-01-01

413

EPICS: Channel Access security design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

1994-05-01

414

Free-Access Higher Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe the degree of accessibility of all higher education institutions in the country and to estimate the proportion of various populations living within commuting distance of those colleges judged easily accessible or free-access institutions. The main idea was to put together an analysis of educational…

Willingham, Warren W.

415

Unlocking the Euro 53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU: How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be Euro 51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between Euro 26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of Euro 10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as Euro 67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only Euro 14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs.

2010-10-01

416

Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

2010-10-01

417

Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes.

Kitzing, Lena

2014-01-01

418

Role-Based Access Controls  

CERN Multimedia

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based access control (RBAC) - that is more central to the secure processing needs of non-military systems then DAC.

Ferraiolo, David F

2009-01-01

419

Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

420

Ad*Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

 
 
 
 
421

Accessing SDO Data  

Science.gov (United States)

As the data from SDO are useful for a variety of purposes, including solar physics, helioseismology, atmospheric science, space weather forecasting, education and public outreach, a wide variety of tools have been development to cater to the different needs of the various groups. Systems have been developed for pipeline processing, searching, browsing, subsetting, or simply just moving around large volumes of data. We present a quick overview of the different systems that can be used to access SDO data including (J)Helioviewer, the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA), the Data Record Management System (DRMS), and various websites. We cover web-based applications, application programming interfaces (APIs), and IDL command line tools.

Hourcle, Joseph; solar physics data community, The

2011-05-01

422

Random Access Transport Capacity  

CERN Document Server

We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.

Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin

2009-01-01

423

Green Barrier Promotes SustainableDevelopment of Our Foreign Trade  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Green barrier is a kind of new non-tariff barrier in the current international trade. This paper based on the meaning of green barrier, analyzed green barrier can promote Sustainable Development of our foreign trade, and proposed counter strategies to green barrier.

2009-01-01

424

Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL  

Science.gov (United States)

TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

Jambor, Paul Z.

2012-01-01

425

The temporal limits of validity of regulation authority decisions on grid use tariffs; Der zeitliche Geltungsanspruch regulierungsbehoerdlicher Entscheidungen ueber die Hoehe der Netznutzungsentgelte  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The contribution discusses the temporal limits of decisions of the regulation authority concerning the tariffs for grid use. The pertinent legal regulations are outlined, and the possible consequences are gone into. Possible feedback effects, both formal and economic, are discussed. Finally, specific aspects are gone into which will be of high relevance for the electric power industry from 1 May 2006 and for the gas industry from 1 August 2006. (orig.)

Buedenbender, U. [Inst. fuer Wirtschaftsrecht, Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany)

2006-08-15

426

The new Swedish Regulation of Power Distribution System Tariffs : A Description and an Initial Evaluation on its Risk and Asset Management Incentives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 2012, a new tariff regulation has been introduced in Sweden. A reasonable revenue framework for the distribution system operators (DSOs) is determined before the regulatory period of four years. The aim of this paper is to overall describe the new regulation, especially reliability aspects, including an approach to superficially perform an initial investigation/evaluation on its incentives of risk and asset management. A recently performed M.Sc. thesis by one of the authors shows that th...

Stenberg, Sabina; Wallnerstro?m, Carl Johan; Hilber, Patrik; Hansson, Olle

2012-01-01

427

Sandia Access Delay Technology Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been involved in security systems development and application for approximately twenty years. This involvement has included the development of physical security system elements such as detection, assessment, access delay, and response. SNL has continued to be very active in access delay design, development, and application including fixed barriers, deployable barriers, and activated dispensables. Access delay is becoming increasingly important in physical security systems designs as threat capabilities increase and security personnel operational costs escalate. SNL is presently developing two access delay systems incorporating multiple access delay features. The first is the Intra- site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) which is being developed to address security and safety vulnerabilities during transportation. The second is a Rapid Deployment Access Delay System (RAPADS) that provides enhanced security for temporary storage or contingency operations. This paper includes a brief history of SNL involvement in access delay hardware development and the basic design features and capabilities of the ISTV and RAPADS

1993-06-21

428

The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

2012-02-01

429

Grassroots action for renewable energy. How did Ontario succeed in the implementation of a feed-in tariff system?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the policymaking process of Ontario's Green Energy Act (GEA) which enabled the introduction of the first comprehensive feed-in tariff (FIT) in North America. The FIT, which is a payback system for renewable energy (RE) producers, was implemented in order to make Ontario a Green Leader in North America. This article analyzes this process through a consideration of the role played by grassroots action. The Green Energy Act Alliance (GEAA) succeeded in the implementation of the GEA. Using Lober's collaborative window, this article explores factors that led to the realization of the FIT. The conclusion will show that the GEAA succeeded in opening the collaborative window, even though the model's prerequisites were not completely fulfilled, namely there was a lack of public awareness. The diffusion of innovation theory helps us to understand this, with regard to the GEAA's strategy. The policymakers had recognized the importance of RE but had not yet been motivated to develop RE generating capacity in the region. The GEAA changed their opinion by showing the success of the FIT in Europe in boosting the economy. After the European study tour, the Minister of Energy, George Smitherman, as one of the important policymakers, started to support the GEA, and this was the key factor leading to the introduction of the FIT, despite a lack of public awareness. (orig.)

Nishimura, Kensuke [Free Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Environmental Policy Research Centre

2012-12-15

430

Interface for determination of nodal tariffs of transmission system using in multi annual horizons; Interface para determinacao de tarifas nodais de uso do sistema de transmissao em horizontes plurianuais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the model presently used by the electric sector for calculation of the tariffs applied to the basic transmission network, presenting a graphic interface developed in Windows environment for the treating of the files generated by the NODAL program of the ANEEL. Complementing the work results of the studies performed by the Brazilian electric system are presented for estimation of nodal tariffs for the period of 2000-2003, using the proposed interface.

Araujo, Marcelo Silva; Azevedo, Alice Helena Franca de; Rodrigues, Guilherme Camargo [Operador Nacional do Sistema Eletrico (ONS), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Sebastiao Ercules Melo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Programa de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia -COPPE; Lima, Jose Wanderley Marangon [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba (EFEI), MG (Brazil)

2001-07-01

431

Evaluation of the energy component in the main grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates; Evaluering av energileddet i sentralnettstariffen og bruk av marginaltapssatser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, we make an evaluation of the energy component of the central grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates. We will first review the theory of optimum transmission tariffs and describes how the marginal loss rates are calculated and how these are used in combination with the system price in the current transmission costs. We describe the trend in the Swedish marginal loss schedule, and we refer the very short development in the PJM area (U.S. east coast). As the Swedish and the Norwegian system is apparently based on the same principles, we problematize the lack of harmonization, since the systems actually are now very different. There is little doubt that Statnett has refined and improved methods for calculating the marginal loss rates, while ensuring that bottlenecks are still handled fairly easy by a few large price areas on Nord Pool Spot. We discuss the relationship between loss-tariff and congestion management, and we recommend that Statnett considering using the area price as the settlement price. This will make it much easier for operators to take account of losses. (Author)

Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette

2010-11-15

432

Completing the EU Customs Union. The Effects of Trade Procedure Harmonization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A main component of customs unions is a common trade policy on imports from non-member countries. Trade policy covers both tariff and non-tariff barriers like trade procedures. We argue that since trade procedures vary markedly across EU countries, the EU is not, strictly speaking, a customs union. To illustrate this, we estimate the impact of trade procedures on exports from non-EU countries and find a highly statistically significant and negative effect. Simulating what the effects would be...

2010-01-01

433

Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countri...

2012-01-01

434

MERCOSUR-European Union Trade: How important is EU Trade Liberalisation for MERCOSUR's Exports?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, MERCOSUR's past exports to the EU under the protectionist environment of the period between 1988 and 1996 are examined and an attempt is made to determine MERCOSUR's exports' growth potential in a liberalised EU market. A sectoral study is considered indispensable since tariff and non-tariff trade barriers vary strongly among sectors. The influence of the macroeconomic environment on MERCOSUR's exports is examined in a dynamic panel analysis. A simulation study based on a quite...

Marti?nez-zarzoso, Inmaculada; Nowak-lehmann D, Felicitas

2004-01-01

435

The WTO and the millennium round : between standstill and leapfrog  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Third WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle in November 1999 is expected to pave the way to the ninth multilateral round of trade negotiations, labelled Millennium Round (MR). Like the preceding Uruguay Round (UR), it will have the twin targets of preventing domestic measures from discriminating against foreign supply and of dismantling border measures such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers. The core challenge of the MR will be to defend the WTO framework against efforts to sacrifice its...

Langhammer, Rolf J.

1999-01-01

436

Welfare effects of trade liberalisation in distorted economies :a dynamic general equilibrium assessment for Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A disaggregated intertemporal CGE model is used to simulate the welfare effects in Norway of the recently implemented trade reforms including the WTO agreement, the EEA treaty, the EFTA fishery agreement and an anticipated EEA resolution on shipbuilding. These reforms affect the Norwegian economy through changes in tariffs, Non Tariff Barriers (NTBs), government procurement and subsidy policy as well as shifts in world prices and demand. Reduction of such import barriers that represent real c...

Fæhn, Taran; Holmøy, Erling

1999-01-01

437

Making Astronomy Accessible  

Science.gov (United States)

A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

Grice, Noreen A.

2011-05-01

438

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

... Open Access Article: Study of Pea Accessions for Development of an Oilseed Pea by Ehsan Khodapanahi, Mark Lefsrud, Valerie Orsat, ... In this study, pea (Pisum sativum L.) accessions were screened for lipid content using a rapid extraction method. This ...method quantifies lipid concentration in pea seeds and was developed by assessing and comparing the results of existing extraction methods used for canola and ... Seeds of 151 field pea accessions were grown to maturity in 2009 and 2010 at McGill University (Quebec, Canada). Overall,...

439

IV access in dental practice.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

Fitzpatrick, J J

2009-04-01

440

NCI Web 508 Accessibility Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Web sites at the National Cancer Institute have been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users with disabilities may encounter problems accessing some pages.

 
 
 
 
441

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

Swain Chris

2007-01-01

442

Accessibility on the Hudson River  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes how Beverly and Martin Ryfa, working with an architect who specializes in accessible design, were able to build a house that is handicap accessible for their 9-year-old daughter, Danielle, who suffered an intraventricular hemorrhage when she was three days old. The article describes the features of their house that make…

Exceptional Parent, 2010

2010-01-01

443

Editorial ~ Open Access in Action!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mid 2006 finds the academic research community engaged in an ideological and fiscal war related to Open Access publishing. Open Access requires that the full text of publications be made available at no cost to anyone on the open Internet. Recent position and discussion papers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries, have called for dialogue amongst academics and strongly hinted that research supported by public funds should be made available freely to the general public. The resulting discussion has clearly split the academic community with both support and rejection of the notion from all sides of the politic and discipline spectra.IRRODL’s position is, as expected, to be solidly behind all moves to insure Open Access publication. We are proudly listed with the 2,256 other journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals and our publisher, Athabasca University, is a signature to the Budapest Open Access Initiative.

Terry Anderson, Canada Research Chair in Distance Education

2006-06-01

444

OPEN ACCESS MOVEMENT IN PAKISTAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open Access iS a vital trend for developing countries like Pakistan. OpenAccess (OA has made its place in 1r formation world like a blessing for scholarly community to learn, search, write and share freely and timely. In this paper an effort has been made to explore the Open Access efforts in Pakistan on existing OA sources and to make recommendations for further developments in this regard. Open Access movements have been started in Pakistan on personal or institutional levels. There is no single source in Pakistan which shed light on the mailability of open access sources, which results ignorance of their presence. If Government plays its due role, then OA in Pakistan would be able to bridge digital divide

Saima Qutab

2008-06-01

445

Optimal accessing and non-accessing structures for graph protocols  

CERN Document Server

An accessing set in a graph is a subset B of vertices such that \\existsD \\subseteq B, \\forallv \\in V \\B,|N(v)\\capD| = 0 mod2. In this paper, we introduce new bounds on the minimal size {\\kappa}'(G) of an accessing set, and on the maximal size {\\kappa}(G) of a non-accessing set of a graph G. We show strong connections with perfect codes and give explicitly {\\kappa}(G) and {\\kappa}'(G) for several families of graphs. Finally, we show that the corresponding decision problems are NP-Complete.

Gravier, Sylvain; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

2011-01-01

446

Database Access Integration Services (DAIS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Database Access Integration Services (DAIS) is a collection of services that facilitate access to data among diverse data systems in an electric utility communications network. DAIS provides access to data in distributed, heterogeneous data systems that include relational database management systems, other database management systems, control systems, file systems, and application systems. It also provides a common method for describing data, common data access operations and essential support services including a data dictionary, a data directory and distributed data access management capabilities. The DAIS project has developed specifications intended for vendor and third-party implementation. The software developed is only to implement a data access integration demonstration. These specifications can serve as a basis for influencing industry standards development. One important consequence of this strategy is that most actual software development will be performed by vendors, not utilities. DAIS is a tool to support data access. It is policy neutral regarding issues such as local or central administration of data or standardization of information model contents (e.g., EPRI Plant Information Network). As a tool, it can be used to help realize such policies. The DAIS does not provide data storage facilities, schema integration, distributed query processing, distributed applications or cooperative processing. Rather, DAIS is complementary to these functions and can be used with other software that does provide these functions. This project documented the requirements for the DAIS. These requirements are the basis for design of the DAIS specifications. The key requirements for a DAIS are: Uniform access to heterogeneous utility data systems, remote update; coexistence with local data systems; local autonomy ; Security and access restriction enforcement; OSI compatibility; open architecture and extensibility; and operating platform independence.

Mitchell, P. (Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Sensor and System Development Center); Nordell, D. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States))

1992-12-01

447

Channel access unfairness of wireless LAN access methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present an evaluation of chosen wireless LAN access methods involving stations with different bit error rates: n - 1 stations in ideal transmission conditions (BER = 0) and 1 station with a given bit error rate (BER ¿ 0). The simulation results show that the IEEE 802.11 DCF and its modifications (Slow Decrease, AOB) are very sensitive to transmission errors, whereas Idle Sense provides good channel access fairness: the value of the contention window is almost the same reg...

Lo?pez Aguilera, M. Elena; Heusse, Martin; Rousseau, Franck; Duda, Andrzej; Casademont Serra, Jordi

2007-01-01

448

The Accessibility Quotient: A New Measure of Open Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The Accessibility Quotient (AQ, a new measure for assisting authors and librarians in assessing and characterizing the degree of accessibility for a group of papers, is proposed and described. The AQ offers a concise measure that assesses the accessibility of peer-reviewed research produced by an individual or group, by incorporating data on open availability to readers worldwide, the degree of financial barrier to access, and journal quality. The paper reports on the context for developing this measure, how the AQ is calculated, how it can be used in faculty outreach, and why it is a useful lens to use in assessing progress towards more open access to research. METHODS Journal articles published in 2009 and 2010 by faculty members from one department in each of MIT’s five schools were examined. The AQ was calculated using economist Ted Bergstrom’s Relative Price Index to assess affordability and quality, and data from SHERPA/RoMEO to assess the right to share the peer-reviewed version of an article. RESULTS The results show that 2009 and 2010 publications by the Media Lab and Physics have the potential to be more open than those of Sloan (Management, Mechanical Engineering, and Linguistics & Philosophy. DISCUSSION Appropriate interpretation and applications of the AQ are discussed and some limitations of the measure are examined, with suggestions for future studies which may improve the accuracy and relevance of the AQ. CONCLUSION The AQ offers a concise assessment of accessibility for authors, departments, disciplines, or universities who wish to characterize or understand the degree of access to their research output, capturing additional dimensions of accessibility that matter to faculty.

Mathew A. Willmott

2012-05-01

449

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

...MDPI is a publisher of peer-reviewed, open access journals since its establishment in 1996. MDPI Open Access Journals Platform Submit My Manuscript Login ...Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors For Librarians About Open Access Policy Title / Keyword Journal all Actuators Administrative Sciences Aerospace ...Cells Challenges Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings Computation Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments ...and Factory Building” classes by means of domain ontology and machine learning techniques. The buildings objects are classified using exclusively the information computed ...

450

SM18 Visits and Access  

CERN Multimedia

  VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

2012-01-01

451

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

...Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Progress) Open Access Review Review: STAT3 Activation in Glioblastoma: Biochemical and Therapeutic Implications by Jennifer E. Kim, ...the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinases in Cancer Progress) Open Access Review Review: Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Look Inside Its Heterogeneous Nature by Maria-del-Mar Inda,... In this review we will focus on the intra-tumor heterogeneity of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common brain tumor in ... (This article belongs to the Special Issue Glioblastoma) Open Access Article: Combined Effects of Circulating Levels of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Th1 ...

452

Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam, em média, 33 vezes mais entre si do que com o resto do mundo. A introdução explícita da tarifa no modelo indicou um efeito redutor nas exportações, mais que proporcional ao aumento tarifário. Isolando a influência das tarifas do efeito-fronteira, os estados brasileiros ainda comercializariam 26 vezes mais entre si. O cálculo do equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias mostrou que as BNTs correspondiam à uma tarifa ad valorem de aproximadamente 29%.The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest model, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.

Orlando Monteiro da Silva

2009-09-01

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