WorldWideScience
1

Non-tariff barriers, market access, and trade  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the effects of non-tariff barriers, in terms of both variable and fixed export costs, on trade structure. The relationship between fixed and variable trade costs determines whether international trade emerges. If trade emerges, only variable, but not fixed export costs, influence the trade structure. The empirical results suggest that non-tariff barriers act, in particular, as fixed export costs, as the trade and intra-industry trade emerge in a larger number of industries...

Matha?, Thomas

2001-01-01

2

Non-tariff Protectionism in EU Countries and Ukraine  

OpenAIRE

The article assesses positions of the European Union as an integration association in international trade, studies the system of non-tariff regulation in EU countries and identifies key problems of harmonisation of the Ukrainian legislation to the European one in the sphere of non-tariff regulation of international trade. In order to assess scales of application of non-tariff measures in foreign trade, the article analyses the index of coverage and frequency of use of non-tariff restrictions,...

Melnyk Tetyana M.; Pugachevska Kateryna S.

2014-01-01

3

Effect of the non-tariff barriers in the trade of Colombian mining goods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study is to identify and to provide information on the non tariff barriers NTB to a group of mining products on the excellent international markets for the Colombian case, and to analyze its magnitude and incidence on the external sales of this products, to advance toward this objective is defined which measures they can be considered as non tariff restrictions, its different mensuration methodologies are analyzed and finally a qualitative and quantitative approach of the NTB is made that face the exports of Colombian mining products in their main markets, by means of a survey carried out the managers of the sector in the country. Among the main discoveries, they were evidences of the application of NTB, although they turned out to be not very significant for the sector exporter of mining products; the most frequent are the technical obstacles to the trade, but of relatively moderate incidence

4

Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

Bohdan Tustanivskyy

2013-11-01

5

Domestic support and tariff reductions in the presence of non-tariff barriers: A gravity model for primary and processed agricultural products  

OpenAIRE

Agricultural trade liberalization negotiations are currently at a crossroads. Progress was made to eliminate export subsidies, but small open economies’ demand for lower domestic support and tariffs on agricultural goods do not find much support among large policy active countries. Many non-tariff barriers still also impede agricultural trade. This paper presents the theoretical foundations of a gravity model to explain trade flows of both primary agricultural commodities and processed food...

Tamini, Lota; Ghazalian, Pascal; Gervais, Jean-philippe; Larue, Bruno

2006-01-01

6

Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

Z. Ardakani

2009-01-01

7

The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.? We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have arisen that may threaten the future of the Chinese textile and clothing industry.World trade liberalization doesn’t necessarily mean free markets. The industry is still facing great challenges and difficulties from non-tariff barriers which are playing an ever-greater role in the ability of governments to regulate imports from other countries.  Known as “green trade barriers”, new non-tariff barriers to trade, such as technical trade barriers and environmental trade barriers, have taken the place of traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas. By analyzing the background and current situation of China's textile and clothing industry, as well as the great impact on both sides of these new barriers, this paper puts forward an effective way to clarify what efforts should be made not only by trade companies, but also by the government to alleviate the effects of NTBs.  Only through a well-coordinated joint-effort can manufacturers break through such non-tariff trade barriers and enhance the overall quantity and quality of clothing exports, so that China can maintain its current growth in the textile and clothing trade and also regain its reputation as the kingdom of textiles .

Tingqin Zhang

2007-12-01

8

A Gravity approach to evaluate the significance of trade liberalization in vertically-related goods in the presence of non-tariff barriers  

OpenAIRE

A gravity-based model is developed to explain bilateral trade flows in primary and processed agri-food commodities. It innovates by explicitly accounting for the vertical production linkages between primary and processed agri-food products, tariffs, and subsidies and by estimating the restrictiveness of non-tariff barriers in the upstream sector. Our application focuses on cattle/beef trade flows between forty-two countries. The structural parameters of the model are used to simulate trade fl...

Ghazalian, Pascal; Tamini, Lota; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-philippe

2007-01-01

9

Market Access through Bound Tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2009-01-01

10

Market access through bound tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2010-01-01

11

The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies  

OpenAIRE

The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have ar...

Tingqin Zhang; Lihong Han

2007-01-01

12

Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform.

Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

2006-01-01

13

Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs are the preferred means of protection. Within the model, reductions in technical barriers and tariffs, the removal of licensing schemes, and a harmonization of stan- dards are all welfare-improving policies.

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2006-01-01

14

46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...conferences shall ensure that their Internet service providers provide static Internet addresses. (d) Commission...PSTNs or a connection over the Internet. Connectivity will...publication systems shall provide user instructions for access...

2010-10-01

15

Import tariff led export under-invoicing: a paradox  

OpenAIRE

Prolonged worldwide economic depression forces some economists and policy makers to demand for a tougher regulation to protect their domestic economy. If implemented, this may lead to a high tariff and non-tariff regime that ruled the pre-globalised world economy. This paper examines the consequences of a tariff protected trade regime. It takes up the case of trade misreporting phenomena under the framework of protected regime. It builds up a basic trade mis-invoicing model and then develops ...

Biswas, Amit K.

2009-01-01

16

Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1999-06-16

17

The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quotas - A case study applied to the import of an agricultural product in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents one methodology of calculating the tariff equivalent of the tariff-rate quota as a particular case of a non-tariff barrier for an agricultural product imported in Romania based on recommendations in international literature. The tariff equivalent of tariff-rate quota of imports from the EU is approximately 35%, lower than the tariff outside the quota. Nonetheless this is considerable higher when compared with the Common External Tariff (CET. Elimination of the nominal protection level as consequence of the adoption the CET is expected to stimulate imports pressure especially from price competitive import partners both from EU (such as Slovakia, Belgium, Austria, Czech Republic and Italy and non EU countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Croatia. A basic model forecasts that, with the lowered protection, annual imports will rise with at least 13.5 thousand tonnes, thus an increase of 23% compared with the average annual imports during 1990-2005.

Petru Catalin Bodea

2008-05-01

18

Chile Frente a la Regulación sobre Medidas no Arancelarias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio / Chile and OMC's Law on Non Tariff Provisions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.

Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.

2014-05-01

19

Trade reforms, market access and poverty in Argentina  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the impact of national and foreign trade reforms on poverty in Argentina. National reforms include the removal of Argentine import tariffs. Foreign reforms include the elimination of agricultural subsidies, and tariffs and non-tariff barriers in developed countries (i.e. the United States and the European Union). From a head count ratio of 25.7 percent in 1999, a combination of domestic and global trade liberalization would cause a decline of between 1.6 and 4.6 percentage...

Porto, Guido

2003-01-01

20

From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-onsistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

21

Growth, expectations, and tariffs  

OpenAIRE

We study a many country endogenous growth model in which decisions about innovation and new investment are influenced by growth expectations. Adaptive learning dynamics determine country-specific short run transition paths. Countries differ in basic structural parameters and may impose tariffs on imports of capital goods. Numerical experiments illustrate adjustment dynamics that follow the use of tariffs. We show that countries that limit trade in capital goods can experience dynamic gains bo...

Honkapohja, Seppo; Turunen-red, Arja H.; Woodland, Alan D.

2011-01-01

22

Pricing and tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentie buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

23

Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

2012-11-15

24

The impact of tariff diversity on broadband diffusion: An empirical analysis  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides an empirical analysis how tariff diversity affects broadband uptake, utilizing a new data set with 1497 fixed-line and 2158 mobile broadband tariffs from 91 countries across the globe. An instrumental variable approach is applied to estimate the demand for fixed broadband internet access, controlling for various industry and socio-economic factors. The empirical results indicate that, first, in addition to lower prices and higher income, more tariff diversity additionally ...

Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Lange, Mirjam R. J.

2014-01-01

25

Chinese networks and tariff evasion  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we combine the tariff evasion analysis of Fisman and Wei (2004) with Rauch and Trindade's (2002) study of Chinese trade networks. Chinese networks are known to act as trade catalysts by enforcing contracts and providing market information. As tariff evasion occurs outside the law, market information is scant and formal institutions inexistent, rendering networks the more important. We find robust evidence that Chinese networks, proxied by ethnic Chinese migrant populations, incr...

Rotunno, Lorenzo; Ve?zina, Pierre-louis

2010-01-01

26

International Stackelberg model with tariffs  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyses the effects of tariffs on an international economy with a monopolistic sector with two firms, located in two countries, each one producing a homogeneous good for both home consumption and export to the other identical country. We consider a game among governments and firms. First, the government imposes a tariff on imports and then we consider the two types of moving: simultaneous (Cournot-type model) and sequential (Stackelberg-type model) decisions by the firms. We also compare the results obtained in each model.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.

2012-09-01

27

Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula. No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff.

Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2005-01-01

28

Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare.

Schröder, Philipp; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

29

The Economic Analysis of Tariff Reform in Egypt  

OpenAIRE

The study examines key trade policy and customs reform issues that need to be addressed as part of the Government of Egypt's comprehensive Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program. The initial findings of this study point to the need for additional reforms in areas related to the tariff structure, customs regulations and procedures, export promotion, competitiveness, adjustments to the new WTO agreement, and working capital access. The internal consistency of these trade policy and c...

Lord, Montague J.

2000-01-01

30

The Strategic Value of Carbon Tariffs  

OpenAIRE

Unilateral carbon policies are inefficient due to the fact that they generally involve emission reductions in countries with high marginal abatement costs and because they are subject to carbon leakage. In this paper, we ask whether the use of carbon tariffs?tariffs on the carbon embodied in imported goods?might lower the cost of achieving a given reduction in world emissions. Specifically, we explore the role tariffs might play as an inducement to unregulated countries adopting emission co...

Bo?hringer, Christoph; Carbone, Jared C.; Rutherford, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

31

New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

32

Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

33

Electricity tariffs in France: price list  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On April 20, 1997, Electricite de France (EdF) started the first step of its tariffs change as planned in the 1997-2000 company contractual agreement. A second step followed on May 1, 1998. The 1997 tariffs represent an average decay of 6% explained in constant currency while the 1998 average decay is of 3.5%. The average decay over the whole 1997-2000 period will be of 14%. These decays are followed by changes in the tariffs structure which are summarized in this paper as a series of tables: tariff of sales (domestic customers and farmers, professionals, public, communal and inter-communal organizations, overseas departments and Corsica) and tariffs of purchase (hydraulic and wind producers in mother country and overseas departments). (J.S.)

34

Tariffication Strategy in Telecommunication Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tariff policy of a telecommunication operator has a strategic importance on achieving of optimal revenues and a fundamental impact on its position in the competition with another operators on the liberalised telecommunication market. The payment for a connection through a telecommunication network is determined by a rate for one call unit, by the duration of the call unit and their count during a call. An operator derives the rate and the duration of the call unit from a detailed analysis of large databases that contain statistical data on counts and duration of particular calls depending on the call type. Only the operator knows these data files and it keeps them confidential. It will be shown in the paper how it is possible to come to an estimation of revenues from telecommunication traffic only knowing a pair of basic parameters. The first considerations handling with this topic can be found in [1], [2],[3].

Gustav Cepciansky

2004-01-01

35

Residential dual energy programs: Tariffs and incentives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of efficiently pricing electricity has been of concern to economists and policy makers for some time. A natural solution to variable demand is tariffs to smooth demand and reduce the need for excessive reserve margins. An alternative approach is dual energy programs whereby electric space heating systems are equipped with a secondary system (usually oil) which is used during periods of peak demand. Comments are presented on two previous papers (Bergeron and Bernard, 1991; Sollows et al., 1991) published in Energy Studies Review, applying them to Hydro Quebec tariff structure and dual energy programs. The role of tariffs in demand-side management needs to be considered more fully. Hydro-Quebec's bi-energy tariff structure could be modified by using positive incentives to make use of bi-energy attractive below -12 C to give the following benefits. The modified tariff would be easier for consumers to understand, corrects the misallocation problem due to differential pricing in the current tariff, transfers the risk related to price fluctuations of the alternative energy source from the consumer to the utility, and corrects the potential avoidance problem due to the negative incentive of the current tariff. 21 refs

36

Low grid tariffs endanger security of supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the results of a study made at the Johannes Kepler University in Linz, Austria, on electricity-grid tariffs and electricity prices in Austria. The study reviews the situation and presents comparisons with other, international tariffs and prices. The purpose of the study was to review direct correlation between prices and security of supply. The results of the study are presented and discussed, whereby both short and long-term considerations are looked at. The influence of the share of the market covered by a particular supplier on the tariffs and the investments made for assuring continuity of supply are, amongst other factors, examined from a statistical point of view

37

The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

38

Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a two-country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties increases for small tariffs. Firm profits are falling in both tariff and fixed export cost barriers. Tariff revenue falls when fixed export costs increase whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Welfare falls when fixed export costs increase and increases for small tariffs and falls for large tariffs, i.e. there exists a welfare maximizing tariff.

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2006-01-01

39

Approaching a feed-in tariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New incentive programmes could mean that the Italian solar thermal market will see renewed growth. But instead of the planned feed-in tariff, the incentives will first come in the form of a grant scheme.

Roepcke, Ina

2013-05-01

40

Carbon tariffs for financing clean development  

OpenAIRE

In order to address carbon leakage and preserve the competitiveness of domestic industries, some industrialized Annex I countries have proposed to implement carbon tariffs. These tariffs would be levied on energy-intensive imports from developing non-Annex I countries that have not agreed to binding emissions reductions. This action could have detrimental welfare impacts, especially on those developing countries, and may not lead to significant reductions in leakage. A recent proposal is to u...

Springmann, M.

2013-01-01

41

Tariff System and Electricity Price in the Republic if Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the origin and development of Electricity Tariff System in Croatia with special emphasis on the tariff system established in 1991. The analyzed period of the application of the tariff system in force and all other tariff rates from 1991 to 1995 are the basis for the assessment of required and possible alternations of tariff rates till the year 2000. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 plan

42

14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Filing...tariff. (b) Appropriate Economic data and/or information in...value of service so that the level of the fares or charges and...substantially similar to the level of fares or charges and...

2010-01-01

43

The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

2006-05-12

44

Industrial labor productivities and tariffs in South Africa :identification based on multilateral liberalization reform  

OpenAIRE

The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. We seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage of multilateral tariff liberalization using reductions in industrial sector tariffs in other world regions as instruments for sectoral tariff reductions in South Afri...

Harding, Torfinn; Rattsø, Jørn

2009-01-01

45

Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

46

Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author).

Manea, D.; Indre, G.; Gugu, F.; Vilceanu, M. [Romanian Electricity Authority, Bucharest (Romania)

1996-12-31

47

76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...10-141; FCC 11-92] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS...over the Internet, using the Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS...sought; (3) A showing of good cause; and (4) The appropriate...Washington, DC 20554.'' The Electronic Tariff Filing System...

2011-07-20

48

Regulation and Internet Access in Germany  

OpenAIRE

We explain the recent events in the German market for online access using a model of a regulated monopoly renting phone lines to retailers. Retailers offer either a linear or a flat tariff to consumers. Consumer heterogeneity leads to adverse selectiion. We show why market entry for flatrate firms is difficult under a linear wholesale tariff. With both a linear and a flat wholesale tariff the consumer market shows a mixture of tariffs as well. When marginal costs are zero it is optimal to hav...

Reutter, Michael

2001-01-01

49

Market Access and Welfare : Is There a Conflict?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objectives at the same time.

Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

2015-01-01

50

Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed

51

Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed. (author)

Rodriguez Ortega, Maria Pia; Perez-Arriaga, J. Ignacio; Abbad, Juan Rivier; Gonzalez, Jesus Peco [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, c/ Alberto Aguilera 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

2008-05-15

52

Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

53

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically, CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describes a method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to a light industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1 the added benefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2 the price elasticity of the system, and 3 the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, all under three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristic controls are adequate under the current tariff structure and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of the value of the distributed generation system. Even more value could be captured by simply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high natural gas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity, heuristic controls would capture only 70% of the value of distributed generation.

Ryan Firestone

2007-09-01

54

The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.

Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

2006-05-31

55

The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions : a global and Danish perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely re-emerge in some form in the near future. We used the GTAP computable general-equilibrium model and database to simulate trade shock scenarios that mimic WTO's "August 2004 NAMA Framework", which proposed a series of tariff reductions based on using the Swiss formula and flexibility rules for specific groups of countries. We illuminate the economic impacts of the proposed NAMA tariff reductions, with and without the developing country flexibility rule. Our results suggest modest NAMA-induced effects: relatively small average tariff reductions that in turn increase global trade by about 1 percent and global welfare by just over 9 billion US$. Trade would expand for most observed sectors, but vary across the sectors, with particularly high gains realised for the textile and clothing sectors. A number of Asian countries would particularly benefit from the NAMA tariff reductions. The NAMA tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase global welfare by 26 percent, with the largest gains occurring in the Asian countries. The removal of the flexibility rule has virtually no impact on Danish welfare.

Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth

2007-01-01

56

Deeper Integration and Voting on the Common European External Tariff  

OpenAIRE

Since the 1987 Single European Act, the European Union has deepened its integration process. In the case of the determination of the common external tariff, deeper integration implies that the tariff reflected union-wide preferences. If integration is still shallow, though, the observed tariff will reflect the preferences of a pivotal national government. How governments voted, however, was not public information. This paper uses a unique dataset to test the deep vs. shallow integration hypot...

Tavares, Samia

2006-01-01

57

Welfare-Ranking Ad Valorem and Specific Tariffs under Monopolistic Competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Actual trade and tariff policy prefers ad valorem tariffs to specific tariffs. Yet in this paper we show that, in a setting of monopolistic competition, realizing a given restriction on imports via a specific tariff would generate more consumer utility than obtaining the same restriction via an ad valorem tariff. Udgivelsesdato: FEB

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2005-01-01

58

The world trading system: Recent trends  

OpenAIRE

Tariffs no longer represent the most serious impediment to international trade. As the importance of tariffs in restricting free trade has been declining, non-tariff barriers are becoming increasingly important. The use of selected non-tariff barriers is analyzed, focusing on anti-dumping measures, voluntary export restraints, trade related investment measures, and trade related intellectual property rights. Coming multilateral negotiations will have to concentrate on non-tariff barriers. A f...

Funke, Norbert

1994-01-01

59

Tariff based value of wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

60

Tariff based value of wind energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

1995-12-31

61

19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.420 Section 10.420 Customs...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber...

2010-04-01

62

19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.606 Section 10.606 Customs...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber...

2010-04-01

63

19 CFR 10.607 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. 10.607 Section 10.607 ...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.607 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL...

2010-04-01

64

19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778 Customs...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric or apparel good...

2010-04-01

65

19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.818 Section 10.818 Customs...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric, apparel, or...

2010-04-01

66

19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.520 Section 10.520 Customs...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or man-made fiber...

2010-04-01

67

19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. 10.521 Section 10.521 ...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. Goods eligible for a TPL...

2010-04-01

68

75 FR 48629 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...10-141; FCC 10-127] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS...the initiation of mandatory electronic filing. * * * * * 7. Section...sought; (3) A showing of good cause; and (4) The appropriate...Washington, DC 20554.'' The Electronic Tariff Filing System...

2010-08-11

69

Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Regional Integration - The Politics of Regional Economic Communities in Africa  

OpenAIRE

Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Usin...

Nyirabikali, Gaudence

2005-01-01

70

The new liberalism: Trade policy developments in emerging markets  

OpenAIRE

In the last ten years, there has been a sea change in trade and related policies in emerging markets. This results from autonomous reforms undertaken in conjunction with macro-economic stabilization programmes. Many non-tariff measures have been eliminated and tariffs, now the principal trade instrument, have been rationalized and reduced. Considerable increases in security of market access result from increased membership of the GATT/WTO system, which itself underwent important changes as a ...

Drabek, Zdenek; Laird, Sam

1997-01-01

71

Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Goh, Wei Wei [Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

2011-01-15

72

Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

73

Affordability of residential water tariffs: alternative measurement and explanatory factors in southern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using information on a basic or "lifeline" level of domestic water use obtained from a water demand function based on a Stone-Geary utility function, a minimum water threshold of 128 m(3) per household per year was estimated in a sample of municipalities in Southern Spain. As a second objective, water affordability indexes were then calculated that relate the cost of such lifeline to average municipal income levels. The analysis of the factors behind the differences in that ratio across Andalusian municipalities shows that the relative cost of purchasing the lifeline appears inversely related to average income levels, revealing an element of regressivity in the component of water tariffs affecting the least superfluous part of the household's consumption. The main policy recommendation would involve redesigning water tariffs in order to improve access for lower income households to an amount of water sufficient to cover their basic needs. The proposed methodology could be applied to other geographical areas, both from developed and from developing countries, in order to analyze the degree of progressivity of the water tariffs currently in effect and in order to guide the design of more equitable regulatory policies. PMID:20709443

García-Valiñas, Maria A; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; González-Gómez, Francisco

2010-12-01

74

Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

Marislei Nishijima

2010-06-01

75

46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Standard Terminology Appendix contains codes for rate bases, container sizes, service, etc., and units for weight, measure and distance. They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate retriever...

2010-10-01

76

Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

Evans, Meredydd

2007-04-01

77

Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region  

OpenAIRE

Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of fresh...

Abu-madi, M.; Al-sa Ed, R.; Braadbaart, O. D.; Alaerts, G.

2008-01-01

78

Maximum-revenue tariff under Bertrand duopoly with unknown costs  

OpenAIRE

This paper considers an international trade under Bertrand model with differentiated products and with unknown production costs. The home government imposes a speci?c import tariff per unit of imports from the foreign ?rm. We prove that this tariff is decreasing in the expected production costs of the foreign ?rm and increasing in the production costs of the home ?rm. Furthermore, it is increasing in the degree of product substitutability. We also show that an increase in the tarif...

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Fla?vio

2009-01-01

79

Tariffs and imports mis-invoicing under oligopoly  

OpenAIRE

Mis-match of trade statistics between developed and developing countries indicate a substantial mis-invoicing of trade figures, primarily by developing country traders. This is due to the inflexible exchange rate regimes, severe import restrictions and export subsidies prevailing in LDCs. In this paper we focus on the import under-invoicing due to high tariff barriers in a market where domestic producers compete with importers. Specifically, we examine how tariff levels, market structure and ...

Biswas, Amit K.; Sengupta, Sarbajit

2010-01-01

80

Households' self-selection of a dynamic electricity tariff  

OpenAIRE

Abstract:Offering electricity consumers time-differentiated tariffs may increase demand responsiveness,thereby reducing peak consumption. However, one concern is that time-differentiated tariffs may alsoattract consumers who benefit because of their consumption pattern, even without a correspondingdemand response. A discrete choice model applied to data from a residential dynamic pricingexperiment indicates that higher demand flexibility increases the propensity of a household to selectdynami...

Ericson, Torgeir

2006-01-01

81

EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

82

Agricultural market access proposals in the Doha round : Dutch agro-food interests  

OpenAIRE

This report analyses the impact of market access proposals tabled in the current WTO Doha round. The first part of the study assesses the 'bite' of tariff reductions by comparing border prices of Dutch products with those of imports before and after implementing tariff reductions. The second part of the study analyses the impact of proposals for sensitive products in terms of tariff rate quota (TRQ) expansion and highlights complexities surrounding the implementation of the proposals.

Kuiper, M. H.; Banse, M. A. H.

2007-01-01

83

Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumpt increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design

84

Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

85

Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(1) We estimate CO2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find ?15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ? Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ? Net carbon exports: industrialized region ?15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ? CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ? The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ? They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

86

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1.Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon’s fee to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investment by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon’s fee was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

Pablo García Echeverri

2006-06-01

87

Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2011-01-01

88

29 CFR 4.118 - Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates...Exclusions § 4.118 Contracts for carriage subject to published tariff rates...its provisions “any contract for the carriage of freight or personnel by...

2010-07-01

89

14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...agent shall file an electronic tariff unless...mutually acceptable electronic medium. (8) The...tariff database is secure against destruction...mutually acceptable electronic medium, contemporaneously...electronic medium, all transactions made to its...

2010-01-01

90

18 CFR 35.13 - Filing of changes in rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...in rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements. 35.13 Section 35.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...TARIFFS Documents To Be Submitted With a Filing § 35.13 Filing of changes in rate schedules,...

2010-04-01

91

Icebergs versus Tariffs: A Quantitative Perspective on the Gains from Trade  

OpenAIRE

Recent quantitative trade models treat import tariffs as pure cost shifters so that their effects are similar to iceberg trade costs. We introduce revenue-generating import tariffs, which act as demand shifters, into the framework of Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (2012), and generalize their gains from trade equation. Our formula permits easy quantification based on countries' observed degrees of openness, tariff revenues, and on the gravity elasticities of tariffs and icebergs. Exp...

Felbermayr, Gabriel J.; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario

2013-01-01

92

Carbon Tariffs: An Analysis of the Trade, Welfare and Emission Effects  

OpenAIRE

Carbon tariffs are one prominently discussed environmental policy. The proponents stress the carbon tariffs? ability to mitigate the potential negative effect of environmental-friendly production on competitiveness, to avoid carbon leakage and to reduce world carbon emissions. We analyze the effects of carbon tariffs on trade, welfare and carbon emissions in a multi-sector, two-factor gravity model. The introduction of carbon tariffs reduces welfare in most countries, but the effect tends to...

Larch, Mario; Wanner, Joschka

2014-01-01

93

7 CFR Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to... - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing 1, Appendices 1, 2 and 3 to Subpart...FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Supersedure of Import Regulation 1...Subpart—Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Articles Subject to: Appendix...

2010-01-01

94

14 CFR 221.112 - Rejected tariff is void and must not be used.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Rejected tariff is void and must not be used. 221.112 Section...Publications § 221.112 Rejected tariff is void and must not be used. A tariff rejected by the Department is void and is without any force or effect...

2010-01-01

95

Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

96

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

97

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

98

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters. (author)

Tamas, Meszaros Matyas; Zhou, Huizhong [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

2010-08-15

99

Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

Matyas Tamas, Meszaros [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Bade Shrestha, S.O. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Zhou Huizhong, E-mail: zhou@wmich.ed [Department of Economics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

2010-08-15

100

Software for industrial consumers electrical energy tariff optimal selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.

Simona Ardelean

2008-05-01

101

Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

2003-07-01

102

A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. Ad valorem tariff cuts switch from the least to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs.

Schröder, Philipp; SØrensen, Allan

2011-01-01

103

Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs  

Science.gov (United States)

Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristics, IBT cannot usually be recommended. In this paper, we consider whether the explicit inclusion of scarcity considerations can strengthen the appeal of IBT. Results show that when both demand and costs react to climate factors, increasing marginal prices may come about as a response to a combination of water scarcity and customer heterogeneity. We derive testable conditions and then illustrate their application through an estimation of Portuguese residential water demand. We show that the recommended tariff schedule hinges crucially on the choice of functional form for demand.

Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

2011-06-01

104

Tariffs and export subsidies in a spatial economic model  

OpenAIRE

In the recent years there are many researchs discussing the effects of trade policy (tariffs, subsidies etc.) in international trade. The results are manifold. Some authors show that trade policy has negative effects on welfare, some spatial economists demonstrate that trade policy can have positive effects on welfare. This paper considers the effects of the trade policy made by both countries participating in international trade in a spatial economic model. It can be showed that trade policy...

Giang, Do Truong

2004-01-01

105

Innovation and the Elasticity of Trade Volumes to Tariff Reductions  

OpenAIRE

I study the implications of endogenous productivity choices ("innovation") on the effects of trade liberalization. I find that a model with innovation generates an elasticity of trade volumes to tariff reductions that is fifty percent larger than models without innovation, and consistent in magnitude to empirical estimates. To show this, I develop a new model of international trade with innovation, and calibrate it to data on Canada and the United States before the Free Trade Agreement. Fee...

Rubini, Loris

2009-01-01

106

Pricing for scarcity? An efficiency analysis of increasing block tariffs  

OpenAIRE

Water pricing schedules often contain significant nonlinearities, such as the increasing block tariff (IBT) structure that is abundantly applied for residential users. The IBT is frequently supported as a good tool for achieving the goals of equity, water conservation, and revenue neutrality but seldom has been grounded on efficiency justifications. In particular, existing literature on water pricing establishes that although efficient schedules will depend on demand and supply characteristic...

Monteiro, Henrique; Roseta-palma, Catarina

2011-01-01

107

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2007-05-01

108

Proposal Of A Spanish CPV Feed-in Tariff  

Science.gov (United States)

The recent research and field experiences in CPV systems have proved that this technology has present and potential advantages when compared with other sources of energy. Despite of that, if this technology wants to initiate its learning curve with the increment of the production and the consequent price reduction, it is necessary an institutional support that allows this technology to compete against other sources of energy through the creation of a favourable and attractive economic environment for potential investors to get interested in this new technology. Nowadays, Spain is a world CPV referent. The research developed by some of its organism and the industrial experience obtained in the past years through the installation of thousands of MW, is a guarantee of its scientific and industrial potential. The intention of this report is to justify the reasons to set aside a power cap of 10 MW in the Spanish PV regulatory framework dedicated exclusively to CPV systems, and the increment of the feed-in tariff in 10.2 c€/kWh over the present tariff and to reduce progressively this support in a 13% annual until it reaches the flat PV tariff.

Pérez-Higueras, P.; Muñoz, E.; Almonacid, G.; Vidal, P. G.; Banda, P.; Luque-Heredia, I.; Valera, P.; Cabrerizo, M.

2010-10-01

109

Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ? We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ? Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ? Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billionissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ? Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.

110

Moving towards a Common External Tariff Regime in ASEAN  

OpenAIRE

This study provides an analysis on a range of common external tariff (CET) options that could be adopted by ASEAN. It quantitatively assess their implications for each ASEAN member state and the region as a whole. The results of the study are intended to assist the ASEAN Secretariat and the ASEAN member states in considering options under deliberations by the CCCA, which was presented to the Senior Economic Officials Meeting (SEOM) for its deliberation on the application of a CET as a long te...

Lord, Montague J.

2008-01-01

111

Are imports in Africa responsive to tariff reductions?  

OpenAIRE

In the 1980's and 1990's many African countries liberalised their trade policy, although since the mid 1990s there are countries that did not alter tariffs. This allows us to analyse the effects of trade liberalisation on the change in imports using Difference-in-Differences techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact on imports of trade liberalisation at the general and sector-specific level. During the period of study (1996-2004), Algeria (in 1997), Ethiopia (2001), Egypt (1998), Tanzan...

Jones, Chris; Morrissey, Oliver

2008-01-01

112

Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

113

76 FR 68271 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

...Proclamation 8742--To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...Proclamation 8742 of October 31, 2011 To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...United States and Chile have agreed to modify certain rules of origin and to add...

2011-11-03

114

Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

115

Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead to misleading policy implications concerning expanding preferences for the LDCs. *

Yu, Wusheng

2007-01-01

116

77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of...

2012-04-26

117

76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of...

2011-04-15

118

Waste waters tariffs in Italy; La tariffazione delle acque reflue  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wastewaters tariffs in Italy are ruled by the Labor Ministry in according to the Decree August 1st 1996. The law was before ruled in force of the DPR May 24th 1977. In this item is proposed to analyze and to make a comparison between the two italian decrees in order to illustrate the difference with other countries law. [Italian] La tariffazione delle acque reflue rientra tra le definizioni del Decreto 1 agosto 1996 Ministero dei Lavori Pubblici (G.U. ser. gen. n. 243 del 16-10-1996). Precedentemente a questo decreto la materia era regolata dal DPR 24 maggio 1977 (G.U. n. 232 del 26-08-1977). Il presente articolo si propone di analizzare e confrontare i due decreti ed a loro volta confrontarli con quanto vigente in altri Paesi.

Oddo, N. [comp. (Italy)

2001-12-01

119

Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.

Munk, Knud JØrgen

2006-01-01

120

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

121

The Optimum Discriminatory Tariffs under the Cournot-Nash Strategy in International Trade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimum ad valorem tariffs under the Cournot competition. There are three situations that exceptions to most-favored-nation (MFN principle are made within the GATT framework: free trade agreement, ‘safeguard’ actions and escape clause. Hence, the issue of discriminatory tariffs has important policy implications. Most of the literature concerning the discriminatory tariffs assumes that the objective of the government is to maximize their country’s welfare by choosing the appropriate trade policy. We expand welfare-maximizing to loss-minimization model in order to comparing two types of optimum discriminatory tariff ratios. In the loss-minimization model, we assume that the objective of the government is to minimize loss in consumers’ surplus while subject to a minimum target level of tariff revenue. The aim of this paper is to show that the optimum ad valorem tariff ratio between two exporting countries can be unambiguously derived with a linear demand curve and constant marginal costs. We conclude that the welfare-maximizing tariff ratio differs from that of the loss-minimization model or a quasi-Ramsey rule. The Ramsey-like tariff ratio does not depend on the size of the intercept of market demand since its objective function is to minimize the loss in consumers’ surplus. On the contrary, the welfare-maximizing tariff ratio is dependent on the intercept since it is used to measure the total consumers’ surplus. Only when the two foreign producers have the identical marginal cost will they coincide.

Hui Wen Cheng

2012-12-01

122

The tariff policy in Romania - strategic elements for developing electricity supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the guiding lines of the Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs. The main constraints and difficulties of the electricity rates and tariffs designing activity in a transitional economy are analysed, focusing on: financial and economic aspects, such as the dramatic decrease of economic activity, high inflation, scarcity of financial resources...; technical aspects related to the existing metering equipment and obsolete electricity generation, transmission and distribution facilities; social aspects regarding the impact of using energy tariffs designed taking into account the real costs of the electricity company; regulatory policy, legal and administrative aspects

123

Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)

124

Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

Porter, K.

1996-09-01

125

Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.

Ernest Ernest Aryeetey

2012-05-01

126

Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparison of support schemes for market-based deployment of renewable energy in the UK and Germany shows that the feed-in tariff reduces costs to consumers and results in larger deployment. A survey among project developers suggests two explanations: (1) Site selection presents the biggest obstacle under the feed-in tariff. Uncertain financing of other schemes reduces efforts at initial project stages and planning permits become a major obstacle. (2) Project developers do not compete in price but for good sites under the feed-in tariff. Most importantly, turbine producers and construction services contribute to most of the costs, and face at least equal levels of competition under the feed-in tariff. (author)

Butler, Lucy; Neuhoff, Karsten [Faculty of Economics, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB3 9DE (United Kingdom)

2008-08-15

127

Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of support schemes for market-based deployment of renewable energy in the UK and Germany shows that the feed-in tariff reduces costs to consumers and results in larger deployment. A survey among project developers suggests two explanations: (1) Site selection presents the biggest obstacle under the feed-in tariff. Uncertain financing of other schemes reduces efforts at initial project stages and planning permits become a major obstacle. (2) Project developers do not compete in price but for good sites under the feed-in tariff. Most importantly, turbine producers and construction services contribute to most of the costs, and face at least equal levels of competition under the feed-in tariff. (author)

128

18 CFR 35.13 - Filing of changes in rate schedules, tariffs or service agreements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...tariffs or service agreements. 35.13 Section 35.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... cogeneration, small power production, heightened...transmission plant or increased purchases of power, and an...

2010-04-01

129

Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting : Evidence from German Mobile Telecommunications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.

Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg

2013-01-01

130

An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.

131

On the relationship between tariff levels and the nature of mergers  

OpenAIRE

This paper employs an endogenous merger formation approach in a two-country oligopoly model of trade to examine the international linkages between the nature of mergers and tariff levels. Firms sell differentiated products and compete in a Bertrand fashion in product markets. We find two effects playing key roles in determining equilibrium market structure: the tariff saving effect and the protection gain effect. The balance between these two effects implies that, when foreign country practic...

Yildiz, Halis Murat; Ulus, Aysegul

2011-01-01

132

The Common External Tariff in a Customs Union: Voting, Logrolling, and National Government Interests  

OpenAIRE

Missing from the analysis of customs unions has been a consideration of collective decisionmaking by countries regarding the union’s common trade policy. In the case of the common European external tariff, how governments voted was not public information. This paper uses a unique dataset to derive member states’ tariff preferences, which are then used to establish the decision rule before 1987, when individual governments had veto power. Results indicate a principle of unanimity, as well ...

Tavares, Samia

2006-01-01

133

An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months January, February and December, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their network and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analysed with a fixed eff...

Stokke, Andreas V.; Doorman, Gerard L.; Ericson, Torgeir

2009-01-01

134

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...that distributed more than 4 million megawatt-hours in the previous fiscal year...utilities that distributed 4 million megawatt-hours or less in the previous fiscal...that distributed more than 4 million megawatt-hours in the previous fiscal...

2010-04-01

135

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...reactive power and voltage control, or regulation and frequency...kept within the exclusive control of the Market Monitoring Unit...a mission statement in the introduction to the Market Monitoring...well as mechanisms to provide feedback to stakeholders to...

2010-04-01

136

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...that provides for trading of electric energy...Commission-approved order, rule or regulation...other multi-lateral trading arrangement or agreement...31,037 (Final Rule on Open...

2010-04-01

137

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sales and/or purchases of electric...sales and/or purchases under the open...requirements service agreement executed on...a member of a power pool, public...arrangement or agreement. (ii) For any power pool,...

2010-04-01

138

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for any additional information in connection with...to, the following information. (1 ) The name...if possible, the contact information for, the entity...Monitoring Unit believes is relevant and may be...

2010-04-01

139

International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

140

Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ? We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ? We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? Weer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ? Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ? Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

141

The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demand side management (DSM has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and without the support of intelligent smart appliances. Sixty-seven households in Germany within an experimental design with fictive tariff model (August 11 to July 12 driven by RWE Effizienz GmbH, as the energy utility, and Miele & Cie.KG, as the appliance manufacturer, were equipped with intelligent smart meters and 41 of them also with smart appliances (washing-machine and tumble-dryer. As a first part of the experiment, the energy tariff changed per hour and day by day, depending on the forecast of the availability of renewable energy in Germany between 10 €-Cent and 40 €-Cent per kWh. Consumers could respond to this change by adjusting the operation of their energyconsuming appliances either by themselves or—with the smart appliances—by a programmed start at low tariffs. The behaviour of the 41 consumers with smart appliances and their motivation are intensively investigated and analysed during this running two year project including several questionnaires. The consumers had to fill out daily a diary about the usage of their washing-machine, tumble-dryer, dishwasher and ironing devices. These data were matched with the actual tariff. This did allow identifying if and to which extend the consumers adjust their household activities depending on availability of solar and wind energy. These data were also used to calculate the cost savings by using the flexible tariff. In comparison to the costs of the fixed tariff of 25 €-Cent per kWh savings of 25% were realised on average. The results of a first phase already show that flexible tariffs are able to influence the operation of household appliances towards a flexible demand.

Rainer Stamminger

2013-07-01

142

Encouraging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) participation through premium tariff rates  

Science.gov (United States)

The provision of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to an electric grid by electric vehicles (EVs) can potentially reduce the cost of vehicle ownership through revenue generation. Recent studies indicate that yearly vehicle profit from V2G may not be sufficient to induce widespread participation. This paper investigates the feasibility of a premium tariff rate for V2G power, similar to current feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs for renewable energy. Using Ontario, Canada as a case study, an hourly time-series model for a fleet of commuter EVs is created. Tariff rates for V2G peak power are calculated based on the same return on investment as the current FIT for renewable energy in Ontario. The tariff rates are competitive with the renewable energy tariffs, especially when EVs are allowed to provide ancillary services to the grid in addition to peak power. Despite the guaranteed rate of return, yearly vehicle profit is low. Two variations are considered to increase vehicle profit, thereby enhancing the attractiveness of V2G. A higher return on investment is favored over direct benefits offered to EV owners. A higher return on investment may be justifiable based on the higher level of risk inherent in V2G when compared to renewable energy.

Richardson, David B.

2013-12-01

143

Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

2006-06-01

144

Tariff advice for the supply of heat to small-scale consumers in 2011  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The title advice is based on the principle of 'not more than otherwise' (nmda, abbreviated in Dutch), which principle is applied for the calculation of the contribution for connection to the energy supply system, the reduced rate for those paying standing charges, and the price of heat. The principle implies that the determined tariff for the supply of heat is such that, on average, the consumer of heat does not pay more than in case natural gas is used for an individual central heating system. From the year 2000 on the tariff advice includes a so-called cost-effectiveness contribution. In this advice attention is paid to the cost-effectiveness contribution, the connection contribution, the reduced rate, and the heat price. In the final chapter the indexing and updating of the different tariff elements of the advice are discussed.

145

Comparing the feed-in tariff incentives for renewable electricity in Ontario and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of feed-in tariff (FIT) programs to support green electricity in Ontario (the Green Energy and Green Economy Act of 2009) and Germany (the Erneuerbare Energien-Gesetz of 2000) is compared. The two policies are highly comparable, offering similar rates for most renewable electricity technologies. Major differences between the policies include the level of differentiation found in the German policy, as well as the use of a price degression strategy for FIT rates in Germany compared to an escalation strategy in Ontario. The German renewable electricity portfolio is relatively balanced, compared to Ontario where wind power dominates the portfolio. At the federal level, Canada does not yet have a policy similar to the European Directive on Renewable Energy, and this lack may impact decisions taken by manufacturers of renewable technologies who consider establishing operations in the province. Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act could be benefit from lessons in the German system, especially with regard to degression of feed-in tariff rates over time, which could significantly reduce payments to producers over the course of a contract, and in turn encourage greater competitiveness among renewable power providers in the future. - Highlights: ? We compare two jurisdictions that utilize feed-in tariffs to support renewable electricity. ? Complementary policy such as mandated renewable energy use in conjunction with tariffs increases certainty for inith tariffs increases certainty for investors. ? Targeted incentives in the form of adders can deliver more diversity in renewable generation capacity. ? Degression of tariff rates delivers renewable generation capacity at lower cost.

146

The tariff for fire and theft car insurance: analysis with a Cox model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle typical problems in data available to the companies, like the presence of franchises, which are treated as censored data.

Bruno Scarpa

2013-05-01

147

STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage, formation of the reserve fund and achieve the insurer has a specific benefit, get the first tariff or first gross.

Vaduva Maria

2012-03-01

148

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office...sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

2010-07-06

149

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office...sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

2011-04-12

150

75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

...Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March...United States maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section...

2010-03-25

151

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office...sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

2010-04-27

152

77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and...2013) in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at...

2012-09-10

153

Queensland solar feed-in tariffs and the merit-order effect: economic benefit, or regressive taxation and wealth transfers?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Premium residential solar feed-in tariffs have come under considerable scrutiny in Australia over the past 12 months following a sharp rise in the uptake of subsidised PV units and subsidy cost blow-outs. Using New South Wales data, Nelson, Simshauser and Kelley (2011 demonstrated that the inherent design of premium ‘gross’ feed-in tariffs are regressive in nature and required reform. Since the publication of that article in Economic Analysis & Policy (September 2011 edition, feed-in tariff policies have been substantially wound back in all Australian jurisdictions except Queensland. In this article, we examine the ‘net’ feed-in tariff in Queensland and similarly find it to be a regressive form of taxation. We also examine the so-called ‘merit order effect’ – a purported ‘economic benefit’ arising from premium feed-in tariffs. However, the evidence is clear that merit order effects must, by definition, be transient and above all, are not welfare enhancing.

Paul Simshauser

2012-12-01

154

Estimating the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff commonly used by a local distribution company (LDC) in its electricity demand response program. This option value captures the benefit that a LDC enjoys from not serving an end-use load during high-price hours in a wholesale electricity market. It is conservative in that it does not include the cost savings in meeting the LDC's resource adequacy requirement or deferring transmission and distribution (T and D) investments necessary for delivering reliable service. Illustrated by a Northern California example, our two-pronged approach entails (a) a set of summer monthly market price regressions to forecast daily spot price distributions that incorporate uncertainty in natural gas price and weather; and (b) a simulation exercise to quantify the tariff's value under a specific design. The results indicate that a non-firm service tariff can have varying option value estimates that are highly sensitive to the tariff's design, and that an incentive payment based on the option value alone is likely insufficient to attract customer participation in a non-firm service program. (author)

155

Maximum and minimum tariffs for transport concessions: a statistic study [paper in Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that leased public services prices can be calculated endogenously from the rate of return regulation model. In particular, this research extends the work by Rocha, Cavalcante and Oliveira (2009 where a method to price minimum and maximum leased fares to be charged from the users was presented. Moreover, these fares must be published on the public document bidding. Therefore, the value of the leased tariff must be between the minimum and the maximum ones, including the extreme values. The model is grounded upon the rate of return regulation method and, to establish the minimum tariff, it is resorted to the so-called certainty equivalent concept. The Brazilian transport regulatory agencies apply such method of regulation. This paper advances the described method assuming that the needed variables (demand and costs used to determine the minimum and the maximum tariffs of the leased public services have stochastic properties. To show its feasibility, the proposed model is implemented to the leasing of an inter-state bus service, where the values of the minimum and maximum tariffs are obtained, besides making a sensitivity analysis study.

Reinaldo Crispiniano Garcia

2011-10-01

156

Assessment of the feed-in tariff mechanism for renewable energies in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on imported energy, and pursuit of sustainable development, renewable energies are extremely important for Taiwan's future energy supply. Since Taiwan's feed-in tariff (FIT) is still in its initial stage, one must examine whether the current system is compatible with a well-designed FIT scheme. This study examines the main features of Taiwan's FIT system and assesses design options using several criteria. Additionally, one of the most important elements of a FIT scheme, namely, a tariff system, is discussed. Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs, and the guaranteed-return tariff system coincides with the spirit underlying leading global FITs; however, many issues, such as setting goals by stages, refinement of the tariff calculation methodology, and elimination of other non-economic barriers, must be addressed to achieve future developmental goals and green industry growth. - Highlights: ? No in-depth study has focused exclusively on Taiwan's FIT design options. ? This study fills this gap in the literature by examining Taiwan's FIT system. ? Assessments demonstrate that Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs. ? Four issues are identified that Taiwan's policy makers should address to achieve future developmental goals and expand green industries.

157

Royal Decree 441/1986 of 28 February 1986 on the establishment of new electricity tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Decree raises electricity tariffs and prescribes the use to be made of the funds obtained from the sale of electricity: electrical/technical R and D, constitution of uranium stocks and work on the terminal part of the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA)

158

Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of freshwater in such a way that does not jeopardize feasibility of agriculture would promote irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even at increased prices. On one hand, it increases the gap between the price of freshwater and that of reclaimed wastewater, making the later more attractive. On the other hand, it would be used as a financial resource for funding the investment costs of the infrastructure needed for conveyance and distribution of reclaimed wastewater. This paper studies the viability of increasing the prices of freshwater and reclaimed wastewater. The results show that irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even for restricted irrigation can be as profitable as, and sometimes better than, freshwater irrigation. Some of the permitted crops such as fruit trees can be more profitable than vegetables. Thus, it appears that the level of knowledge farmers and others on the benefits of reclaimed wastewater is still limited. PMID:18496015

Abu-Madi, M; Al-Sa'ed, R; Braadbaart, O; Alaerts, G

2008-01-01

159

Tar?m D??? Ürünlerde Pazara Giri? (NAMA Müzakereleri ve Türkiye (Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations and Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse Turkey’s position and constraints in the WTO Nonagricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA especially vis-à-vis developing countries.It basically, underlines Turkey’s unique negotiating position; de jure developing, de facto an advanced economy status in the WTO Doha NAMA negotiations.At Doha Ministerial Meeting in 2001, WTO members agreed to initiate negotiations to further liberalize trade, among other areas, on non-agricultural goods. For this purpose, the Negotiating Group on Market Access (NGMA was created at the first meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee of the WTO, in early 2002. Turkey has been quite active since then in NAMA negotiations in calibrating its position between offensive and defensive negotiation interests although its offensive market access interests largely outweigh defensive one.Turkey has also been propagating an offensive non-linear tariff cutting Swiss Formula approach at the WTO to curb the international high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations. Having a strong offensive market access interests, Turkey mainly aims at large developing country markets diversifying its trade portfolio away from traditional markets towards large developing economies.From the perspective of governance, Turkey has serious constraints on its trade and industry policy space stemming from the Turkey-EU Customs Union (CU. Although Turkey is a de jure developing country in the WTO and will have all legal rights and mobligations stemming from the outcome of the DOHA, in practice, Turkey will have to implement the same applied common external tariffs of the EU. Despite the constraints and dilemmas stemming from the EU-Turkey customs union, it can be strongly argued that, it is in Turkey’s industrial interests to be actively involved in the WTO to tackle the high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations which hinders Turkey’s exports to the world markets.

?ahin YAMAN

2010-04-01

160

Informal Wage, Informal Price and Extortion under Migration and Tariff Reform*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a theoretical model where formal and informal sectors co-exist in tandem. Trade union segregates some labor from being formal. Capital is not allowed to freely move between formal and informal sectors. Using this sort of framework it has been shown that immigration of unskilled workers re-duces the return to informal labor and makes the informal good relatively cheap. A tariff slash also impinges on similar kind of results. In both the cases informal capitalists gain. Moreover, what is more striking is that both migration and tariff reform are equally bad for the economy as a whole since these policies enhance the ‘unproductive’ element or labor in the society which is really costly as these laborers could have been used to produce some more consumable commodities.

Biswajit Mandal

2011-02-01

161

Electricity tariffs based on long-run marginal costs for central grid system of Oman  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electricity tariffs in Oman are subsidized and are based on a cost accounting approach and do not reflect the true cost incurred in generating, transmitting and distributing a kilowatt-hour of electricity at the consumer end. This paper presents the electricity tariff based on the estimation of long-run marginal cost at generation, 33kV, and 415 voltage level for Ministry of Housing, Electricity and Water (MHEW) interconnected power system of Oman. The result shows that at the generation level a marginal kW costs US$ 75per year and a marginal kWh costs 2.07|/kWh. These costs increase as we move downstream from generation to consumer end. The average cost of electricity at the consumer end connected at 415V is 6.52|/kWh or 25.17Bz/kWh. (author)

162

A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) forms part of integrated water resource management and can be used as an economically viable alternative to the upgrade of infrastructure to balance supply and demand. In order to enable effective decision-making, a model was developed in this [...] study to estimate expected water savings and the financial impact of a change in water tariff as a WC/WDM measure. This paper describes a model that was developed for municipalities to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example.

JJ, Hoffman; JA, du Plessis.

163

Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a dairy farm. Helping dairy farmers to make informed business decisions when confronted with future options in the sphere of electricity tariffs and energy efficient cooling systems will contribute t...

Upton, J. R.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P. W. G.; Boer, I. J. M.

2014-01-01

164

A Practical Method For Determining Transmission Usage-based Tariff In Electricity Markets With Trading Modes  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, a practical approach is presented for determining transmission usage-based tariff, based on the well-known generation shift distribution factor (GSDF) based method and the recently developed power flow tracing method. First, the GSDF based method is employed for allocating the transmission usage-based charges among various transactions, and then the power flow tracing technique used for further distributing the charge such obtained among the participants of each transaction con...

Jing, Z.; Duan, X.; Wen, F.; Ni, Y.; Wu, Ff

2003-01-01

165

A Classroom Experiment on Import Tariffs and Quotas Under Perfect and Imperfect Competition  

OpenAIRE

This manuscript develops a classroom experiment on international trade that is suitable for undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics, international trade, and international finance courses. Students representing buyers, in a small home country and foreign country, and sellers, both home and foreign, participate in a double-oral-auction to determine the price and level of international trade. By imposing tariffs and quotas and altering the structure of the home market from one of perfect comp...

Mulholland, Sean

2010-01-01

166

Willingness to Pay and Inclusive Tariff Designs for Improved Water Supply Services in Urban Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates willingness to pay for improved water supply services in urban Bangladesh, using a contingent valuation survey of 3000 households in Khulna city. Since the large connection cost is regarded as one of the major obstacles to expand the piped network among the poor, the study explicitly incorporates the connection cost in addition to monthly charge. The construct validity tests show that the respondents have understood the elicitation questions and answered truthfully. Policy simulations show that poor households are less likely to be connected under fixed charge tariff, and introduction of volumetric tariff will increase the acceptance of the improved water service by poor households. Increasing block tariff shows the highest uptake rate of the improved service by the poor. The large connection cost is found to be a critical bottleneck to expanding the coverage for the poor. Easy payments systems for connection charge such as installment payments, or including the connection costs under the capital investment of the project, will significantly improve the inclusion of the poor in the proposed water supply scheme.

Herath Gunatilake

2014-09-01

167

Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic ned heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

168

High-efficiency electric motors: An analysis of a feasible tariff policy for Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to calculate an average value for an electricity tariff which will facilitate the introduction of high-efficiency electric motors in the production sector. Two computational models will be developed for technical-economic evaluation to assess economic attractiveness by calculating feasible average electricity tariffs in order to create a market for substitution of standard motors by new high-efficiency models (Purchase Decision Model) as well as to determine if retrofitting of standard installed motors by others with high-efficiency characteristics is viable, and, if so, to specify the optimum timing for such substitution (Substitution Decision Model). It should be noted that the Purchase Decision Model takes into account power factor adjustment and the Substitution Decision Model incorporates considerations as to reduction in the electromechanical performance of operating motors. Results indicate that even where average electricity tariffs are low, as in Brazil, high-efficiency motors are economically attractive compared to standard motors. There is an obvious need for complementary instruments to assist massive market penetration

169

Revised feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic in the United Kingdom: A cloudy future ahead?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom (UK) started implementing a national Feed-In Tariff (FiT) mechanism on the 1 April 2010, which included specific payment tariffs for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, a revised FiT rate has been put in place starting from 1 April 2012, applicable to any installations with an eligibility date of on or after 3 March 2012. This paper presents, first, an overview of solar PV installation in the UK. This followed by a general concept of the FiT in the UK before analyzing the financial impact of the new FiT rate on the consumers. Similar financial analysis is conducted with selected countries in Europe. The financial analysis investigates the total profit, the average rate of return and the payback period. It is found that the new FiT rate generates very low profit, minimum rate of return and a longer payback period, suggesting a downward trend of solar PV uptake in the future. - Highlight: ? Overview of solar PV installation in the UK until present time is discussed. ? Financial analysis is presented using previous, new and degression FiT tariff. ? Comparative analysis with other European countries is evaluated. ? The new FiT rate in the UK generates very low return than other countries. ? This could suggest a downward trend of UK's solar PV uptake in the future

170

On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection with the tariffs of domestic contracts; - Proposals for tariffing the international transports. The sixth section presents the efficiency of the short and medium term access. The following issues are tackled: - Regulation of access and transmission; - Short term treating of the bottlenecks; - De-congestion investments; - Tariffs for lead-in and reinforcement operations; - the case of proximity production, direct lines and self-production. Finally, the last section titled 'Inciting the GRT internal efficiency and tariffing evolution, displays the subject matters: - The GRT behaviour guide; - Evolution of tariffing; - Benchmarking possibilities. In the concluding section the basic ideas of the report i.e., improving the market functioning, developing the network management and inciting the grow in the internal efficiency of GRT are elaborated and entailing recommendations are set down.

NONE

1999-08-17

171

Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992–2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. - Highlights: ? This is the first econometric study of feed-in tariff (FIT) efficacy in Europe. ? We test the impact of FIT's on p. ? We test the impact of FIT's on photovoltaic (PV) and wind power from 1992 to 2008. ? We calculate country- and year-specific return on investment provided by each FIT. ? FIT policies increased PV installations by ?0.5% per ROI percentage point. ? Policy design, market traits, and ROI are more important factors than policy alone.

172

Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import tariff in China has been an urgent topic in the field. This study reviews the existing research on luxury consumption as well as relative background home and abroad, especially focusing on the situation on Chinese consumers. Then it briefly introduces the current status of Chinese luxury consumption as well as luxury market, illustrating that expensive food and luxury goods consumption import tariff cut has a great contribution to the Chinese economy. Based on the conclusions, the proposing measures will be put forward when cutting luxury import tariff.

Qishen Zhou

2013-10-01

173

Analysis of the cogeneration tariff by-law; Analyse de l'arrete tarifaire cogeneration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This series of transparencies presents the new cogeneration tariffs as defined by the French by-law from July 31, 2001 which fixes the conditions of purchase of the electricity produced by cogeneration plants: the decree from December 6, 2000; the electricity law from February 10, 2000; the conditions of purchase decree from May 10, 2001; the by-law from July 3, 2001 about the technical characteristics of cogeneration plants (efficiency, losses, reference boiler, certification); the details of the new tariffing system (subsidies, warranted power, winter availability, remuneration of the energy supplied, examples, pegging of prices, contract renewal, gas price ceiling, dispatch operation). (J.S.)

NONE

2000-07-01

174

Do Optimal Non-Renewable Resource Tariffs Suffer From Dynamic Inconsistency?  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we have examined optimal tariffs for non-renewable natural resources in the setting of imperfect competition. We do this because Larry Karp (1984, p. 74) states that, "If the buyer attempts to exert market power, he is constrained by the dynamic optimization behavior of the seller and does not face a standard control problem." We show that when extraction costs are a function of the remaining stock of the resource, the costate variable can be separated into a scarcity effect and...

Lyon, Kenneth S.; Lee, Dug Man

2000-01-01

175

STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE  

OpenAIRE

In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage,...

Vaduva Maria

2012-01-01

176

Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

2010-07-01

177

Willingness to pay for renewable energy: implications for UK green tariff offerings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although financial support for renewable electricity sources has existed via the non-fossil fuel obligation since 1990, the UK 'green power' market is still in its infancy. This paper looks at attitudes to tariffs for 'green power' in light of the proposed phase-out of the non-fossil fuel obligation. The hypothesis tested was the consumer's willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources and to see if this was related to income and attitude. Data for analysis were taken from replies to a questionnaire sent to an energy-aware subpopulation of Leicester which were analysed by a variety of statistical tests. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that whether someone was willing to pay more was significantly correlated with attitude, experience (whether they had visited an environmental centre) and the purchasing power placed on GBP 5.00. This finding has implications for the methods by which support for green tariffs can be increased. Education and raising people's awareness through experience should be able to change attitudes and so increase their willingness to pay. (author)

178

Willingness to pay for renewable energy: implications for UK green tariff offerings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although financial support for renewable electricity sources has existed via the non-fossil fuel obligation since 1990, the UK 'green power' market is still in its infancy. This paper looks at attitudes to tariffs for 'green power' in light of the proposed phase-out of the non-fossil fuel obligation. The hypothesis tested was the consumer's willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources and to see if this was related to income and attitude. Data for analysis were taken from replies to a questionnaire sent to an energy-aware subpopulation of Leicester which were analysed by a variety of statistical tests. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that whether someone was willing to pay more was significantly correlated with attitude, experience (whether they had visited an environmental centre) and the purchasing power placed on GBP 5.00. This finding has implications for the methods by which support for green tariffs can be increased. Education and raising people's awareness through experience should be able to change attitudes and so increase their willingness to pay. (author)

Batley, S.L.; Fleming, P.D. [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Urwin, P. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, De Montfort University, Leicester, (United Kingdom)

2000-07-01

179

Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

2009-01-01

180

Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ? This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ? Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ? Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ? The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ? Financing and dynamics bet? Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

181

EFFECT OF SUBSIDIZING EXPORT OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AFTER THE ACCESSION OF POLAND TO THE EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together with the accession of Poland to the European Union, the conditions of commodity exchange with the abroad have been considerably changed. Trade of Poland with the European Member State has been covered with the regulations of the Common European Market. Pursuant to the Accession Treaty, Poland has adopted acquiscommunautaire of the Community concerning trade policy, including all instruments and rules of common commercial policy, including external customs tariff and out-tariff measures as well as system of agreements with the commercial partners outside the European Union. Accession to the European Union meant the extension of greater protective barriers over Poland in the field of import of agricultural products from third countries and the possibility of taking an advantage of export subsidies to agro-food products exported to third countries on equal rights as other European Union entrepreneurs.

Daniela POPA

2012-01-01

182

Trade in the Triad: how easy is the access to large markets?  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we measure market access between the United States, the EU, and Japan (the Triad), using the effect of national borders on trade patterns. We investigate overall and industry-level trends of bilateral trade openness and provide explanations for those using proxies for bilateral observed protection (tariffs and NTBs), home bias of consumers, product differentiation, and levels of FDI. The explanations related to actual protection, home bias and substitutability of goods put toge...

Fontagne?, Lionel; Mayer, Thierry; Zignago, Soledad

2005-01-01

183

Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados / Water tariffs in irrigation districts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigaç [...] ão é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica. Abstract in english In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, si [...] nce the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

Marcos C., Ribeiro; Delly, Oliveira Filho; Antônio A., Soares; José H., Martins; Everardo C., Mantovani.

2010-08-01

184

Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados Water tariffs in irrigation districts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigação é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica.In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, since the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

Marcos C. Ribeiro

2010-08-01

185

Effects of the introduction of producers' tariffs; Effecten invoering producententarief  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the title study is to provide insights in the effects of introducing a producer tariff for electricity producers. A producer tariff will increase the variable costs of electricity production in the Netherlands. As a result, production in the Netherlands will slightly decrease and net imports will increase. The effects, however, are limited compared to developments in the reference scenario. Consequently, it is not to be expected that the introduction of a producer tariff of at most 1,00 euro per MWh will have a significant effect on possible future investments in new generation capacity. The commodity price for power shows a slight increase, however the effects on end user prices are very small [Dutch] In het huidige tarievensysteem worden de kosten van elektriciteitsnetten betaald door de afnemers van elektriciteit via de netwerktarieven (aansluit-, transport- en systeemtarieven). Er is momenteel geen producententarief. Dit betekent dat afnemers in Nederland ook de kosten dragen wanneer er elektriciteit zou worden geexporteerd en daarvoor netwerkaanpassingen plaats zouden moeten vinden. Een ander probleem is decentrale invoeding op regionale netten. Bij het bepalen van de toegestane kosten van beheerders van decentrale netwerken wordt in de huidige systematiek geen rekening gehouden met de hoeveelheid ingevoede elektriciteit door decentrale opwekking op distributienetwerken, welke sterk verschilt per regio. In deze studie is onderzocht wat de effecten zijn op investeringen van vier verschillende varianten voor producententarieven, van alleen een centraal tarief van 0,50 euro per MWh tot een combinatie van een centraal en decentraal tarief van 1,00 euro per MWh en een kolenbelasting van 13,73 euro/1000 kg (zoals opgenomen in het Lente-akkoord). De effecten zijn gekwantificeerd met behulp van een energiemarktmodel, POWERS, een model voor energieverbruik en decentrale opwekking in de industrie, SAVE-productie, een tarievenmodel en met business cases voor nieuwe opwekkingscapaciteit. De effecten zijn berekend ten opzichte van een referentiescenario waarin recente ontwikkelingen rond economische groei, energieprijzen en ontwikkeling van het netwerk en de opwekkingscapaciteit in Nederland en omliggende landen zijn meegenomen.

Koutstaal, P.R.; Gerdes, J.; Volkers, C.H.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

2012-06-15

186

78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...  

Science.gov (United States)

...pursuant to the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-343...of 2006, and the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, creates two tariff rate...diameter of 18.5 microns or less. The amendment further provides that HTS...

2013-01-28

187

76 FR 1402 - Notice of allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...  

Science.gov (United States)

...pursuant to the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Pub. L. 110-343...of 2006, and the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 creates two tariff rate...diameter of 18.5 microns or less. The amendment further provides that HTS...

2011-01-10

188

75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and...2011 in-quota aggregate quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar...Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at...

2010-08-05

189

Indication of tariffs and conditions for transport of natural gas and related services for the year 2005  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following Article 12 of the Dutch Natural Gas Law Gastransport Services provided the Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) and the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) with an indication of tariffs and conditions for the transport of natural gas in the year 2005

190

Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy

191

Electricity tariffs in India: an assessment of consumers' ability and willingness to pay in Gujarat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sample of electricity consumers covering agricultural, residential and industrial consumers, in the Indian State of Gujarat was surveyed in 1997 to investigate the consumers' ability and willingness to pay for electricity supplied from the grid. The ability to pay was estimated using the weight of the cost of electricity to meet at least the basic household needs in relation to the overall income or expenditure. The willingness to pay was estimated using the costs of meeting the needs by alternative sources of energy, namely diesel in the case of farmers to pump water for irrigation and captive power generation using diesel generators in the case of industrial users. Survey results reveal the proportion of consumers in different categories, which do not have the ability to pay more or are even not willing to pay more for electricity. The survey findings have been used as a guideline in the proposed adjustment of tariffs charged by the Gujarat Electricity Board. (author)

192

Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

NONE

2006-12-20

193

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01

194

Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments-Some observations and suggestions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint.

195

The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost. LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply analyzed and discussed. A modified test system (RBTS) illustrates the proposed method.

Ding, Yi; Li, Yang

2012-01-01

196

Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity

Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro

2014-01-01

197

Compliance with technical codes becomes obligatory for receipt of feed-in tariff and ancillary services bonus for wind power plants in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German government aims at a share of electricity generation based on renewable sources (RES-E) of more than 30% by 2020. A major part of this share will be reached by the use of wind power plants (WPP). Therefore, when amending the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in June 2008, the German government acknowledged the importance of enhanced technical requirements for WPP and announced the development of a respective technical ordinance. For all WPP that go into operation after June 2010, full grid code-compliance becomes a precondition for privileged network access, receipt of feed-in tariff, and extra payments (''ancillary services bonus''). The basis for the technical requirements in the EEG has been laid down by Medium-Voltage (MV)-Directive 2008 and the TransmissionCode 2007. However, the work of the authors - consulting the German government during the development of the technical ordinance - showed that the TransmissionCode 2007 needed careful review and some clarifying specifications were proposed. Eventually, the so called ''Ancillary Services Ordinance'' for wind power plants went into power in July 2009. The interrelation between all three grid codes as well as their specifications and implications for renewable energy sources generators, with special regard to wind power plants, are presented in this paper. (orig.)

Boemer, Jens. C. [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Electrical Power Systems Group; Burges, Karsten [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Kumm, Thomas [VDE, Network Technology and Operation Forum (FNN), Berlin (Germany); Poeller, Markus [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

2009-07-01

198

Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

199

The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ? We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ? Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ? High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ? Optimal tariff is a rnal costs. ? Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

200

Features of Formation of Tariff Policy in the Sphere of Housing and Communal Services at the Present Stage on an Example of the Kharkiv Region ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article describes the features of formation of tariff policy in the sphere of housing and communal services of Ukraine. The main directions of state regulation of functioning of housing sector were highlighted. It was theoretically grounded and developed recommendations of the market environment in the reform of the tariff policy in the housing and communal services. The current state of security settlements of Ukraine centralized water supply and the basic problems of development in this field was analysed. The methodical approach to the formation of tariffs for public utilities example of Kharkiv region was offered.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ???. ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????-???????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.

Filatov Vladimir M.

2013-03-01

201

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

Fujita, K. Sydny

2011-06-23

202

Web accessibility  

OpenAIRE

Workshop Mensch-Computer-Vernetzung Web Accessibility Gestaltung von Webseiten um eine Nutzung mit vielen verschiedenen Zugangsmgeräten (Scrennreader, Bildschirmlupe) und unter verschiedenen technischen Bedingungen (langsame Anbindung, veraltete Software, keine Farbe) weitestgehend uneingeschränkt zu ermöglichen.

Strobel, Cornelia

2003-01-01

203

Forbidden Access  

CERN Multimedia

TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM

C. Colloca TS/FM

2004-01-01

204

Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (?2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not predict any outcome of interest on its own. Keywords: hip fractures, best practice tariff, mortality

Khan SK

2014-12-01

205

Impacts of the transition of the purchase tax for passenger cars into a tariff per driven kilometre [in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of 2007, the Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing scheme in the Netherlands, called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit' (Paying differently for mobility). Major goal is to start with a full operational system in 2016 in which every car user will pay a tariff per driven kilometre. Starting point is that for the average car user, the car mobility will not be more or less expensive. In order to accomplish this, the fixed car and road taxes will be abolished. Point of departure is to convert the road tax (MRB) into a tariff per kilometre. In this report it is examined what the impacts are in case the purchase tax for private cars (BPM) will be incorporated into a price per kilometre as well.

206

Supply chain coordination via a two-part tariff contract with price and sales effort dependent demand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the channel coordination between a supplier and a retailer with price and sales effort dependent demand. By means of game theory, we analyze price and sales effort decisions of the centralized supply chain. Then we consider three different contracts under decentralized model, i.e., wholesale price contract, cost-sharing contract and a two-part tariff contract, in which the supplier offers a contract comprising a wholesale price and a lump-sum fee to the retailer to coordinate the supply chain. Finally, we analyze the results to compare the equilibrium decisions under different contract scenarios. Our results show that both the wholesale price contract and the cost-sharing contract cannot coordinate the supply chain while the two-part tariff contract can effectively coordinate the supply chain.

Qinqin Li

2015-01-01

207

Returns on investment in electricity producing photovoltaic systems under de-escalating feed-in tariffs. The case of Greece  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Under the threat of ballooning energy bills, the Greek legal framework supporting the electricity producing photovoltaic systems (PVS) changed in January 2009 from a fixed to a de-escalating feed-in tariff schedule. In this paper we investigate the internal rate of return (IRR) on investing in PVS under the new regulatory environment. We find that the new scheme favours strongly the early entry in the market. Unless there is a significant decrease in the equipment cost over the next decade, entering the market from 2015 onwards will be prohibitive. The bias of the current policy design towards early entry in a rapidly developing set of technologies entails the risk of a lock-up with sub-optimal technological option. This outlines the importance for policy design of linking the rate of feed-in-tariff de-escalation to more realistic expectations regarding the technology learning curve. (author)

Danchev, Svetoslav; Maniatis, George [Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research (IOBE), 11 Tsami Karatassou Str., Athens 117 42 (Greece); National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Tsakanikas, Aggelos [Foundation for Economic and Industrial Research (IOBE), 11 Tsami Karatassou Str., Athens 117 42 (Greece)

2010-01-15

208

Managing tariff risks in cogeneration: the example of La Doua; La maitrise des risques tarifaires en cogeneration: exemple de la Doua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combined to a district heating system based on a coal burning plant, a cogeneration unit has been installed in Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France, with a gas engine using natural gas for power production and complementary heat production. Electric power surplus is sold back to the national grid, EDF. Costs and tariffs for power, heat and natural gas have been evaluated and the tariff evolutions are considered for price indexing and adapted financial coverings. Results after one year of operation are discussed

Lartigue, D. [SLEC / Prodith (Country unknown/Code not available)

1996-12-31

209

Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

None

1977-12-01

210

Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)

1977-06-30

211

Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâ??s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

Ho Wai Shin

2012-01-01

212

Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

2014-01-01

213

Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

214

Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison: The case of cogeneration units in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price

215

Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57?m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313?€/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.

2014-01-01

216

Evaluation of feed-in tariff-schemes in African countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Almost all African countries are planning to increase their power supply capacities and to diversify the resource base of the electricity sector. In sharp contrast to the ambitious objectives, grid connected power plants, based on renewable energies, are very rare except large scale hydropower in Af [...] rican countries. The small number of renewable energy (RE)-plants in Africa shows that a quick diffusion of these technologies cannot be expected from the dynamic of market forces alone. Political support is necessary. By now, feed-in tariffs (FIT) is the most prominent economic instrument promoting renewable energy technologies in the power sector. They are applied in more than 50 countries, among them several African countries like Algeria, Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania. The objective of the paper is to investigate the outcome and effectiveness of African FIT-schemes. It is assumed that most of the FIT-schemes in Africa are poorly working because of unfavourable institutional design, insufficient level of FIT rates or obstacles in the process of implementation. Deficiencies in the design of FIT-schemes and the implementation process can be explained by conflicting policy targets like affordable power prices and grid stability but also with an unclear allocation of property rights that can lead to time-consuming negotiations of Power Purchase Agreements.

M, Meyer-Renschhausen.

217

Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

2010-07-01

218

Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2012-01-01

219

Development of food safety capability in Ghana to enhance access to the Global Food Manufacturing Value Chain (GFMVC)  

OpenAIRE

Demonstrating compliance with food safety requirements of the global economy is a prerequisite for access. As tariff barriers diminish, developing countries are exposed to greater opportunities for repositioning their food manufacturing sectors in global value chains (GVCs). At the same time, the measures for the protection of public health and safety are becoming more stringent because of the series of food safety crises that characterised the global food value chain in the 19...

Mensah, L. D.

2011-01-01

220

Access French  

CERN Document Server

Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

Grosz, Bernard

2014-01-01

221

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: A Novel Rubric for Rating the Quality of Retraction Notices by Emma Bilbrey, Natalie O'Dell and Jonathan Creamer Publications ... This study developed a novel rubric for rating and standardizing the quality of retraction notices, and used it to assess the retraction ... Results suggest the rubric to be a robust, if preliminary, tool. Analysis of the retraction notices suggest that their quality ... The rubric presented in this study could be adopted by journals to help standardize the writing of retraction notices. Open Access Case ...

222

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

...the development of highly evolved blood glucose meters, non-invasive glucose monitoring (NGM) devices and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS). Glucose monitoring ... Open Access Review Review: Functional Imaging in Diagnostic of Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infections by Inga Potapova Diagnostics 2013, 3(4), 356-371;... However, up to 10% of orthopedic devices still fail due to infections. An implant infection generates a high socio-economic burden. An early ... This review focuses on orthopedic implant-associated infections, their pathogenicity, diagnosis and functional imaging. Open Access Article: Induction of Anti-Tumor ...

223

Expanding Access  

Science.gov (United States)

There is no question that the United States lags behind most industrialized nations in consumer access to broadband Internet service. For many policy makers and activists, this shortfall marks the latest phase in the struggle to overcome the digital divide. To remedy this lack of broadband affordability and availability, one start-up firm--with…

Roach, Ronald

2007-01-01

224

Access Denied  

Science.gov (United States)

As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

Raths, David

2012-01-01

225

AFTA : INDONESIAN INDUSTRIALIST AND CUSTOMS PERSPECTIVE  

OpenAIRE

AFTA is the concept of eliminating tariff barriers among ASEAN countries with a view to integrating the ASEAN economies into a single production base and regional market. The main objective of AFTA is to increase ASEAN's competitive edge as a production base geared for the world market. The critical step in this direction is the liberalization of trade in the region through the elimination of intra-regional tariffs and elimination of non-tariff barriers. In Indonesian industrialists view, th...

Thomas Stefanus Kaihatu

2003-01-01

226

Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.re than one hundred million Euros.

227

Do distribution companies loose money with an electricity flexible tariff?: A review of the Chilean case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We can get an (energy efficiency) EE improvement if we produce a flatter daily load curve, leading to a higher efficiency of the power system, making better use of the generation and transport electricity chain, thus avoiding over-investment in equipment used just few hours a year. Tariff flexibility of the (Time of Use) TOU type is one of these measures. Generally, TOU systems are designed to minimize total system cost, which may cause losses in distribution companies (DISCOs), generating opposition. On the contrary, the present paper proposes a TOU system for electricity consumption in Chile where optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of DISCOs. In this manner, the proposed TOU system is, by definition, beneficial for DISCOs and it may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. In particular, we show that such a system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of 811.7 millions of dollars for the 3-year study period (2005–2007), considering initiatives that promote a 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours, obtained by the spread or difference between the proposed and the current systems. - Highlights: • We propose a TOU (Time of Use) system for electricity consumption in Chile. • In this system the optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of (distribution companies) DISCOs. • The proposed TOU system may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. • This system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of M$811.7. • Benefit obtained for 3-year study period with initiatives that promote 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours

228

The effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina: a game theoretic analysis Efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina: uma análise com teoria dos jogos  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we analyzed the effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina from 1990 to 2004. The methodology included estimation of whole milk powder demands for Brazil and Argentina as monopolists, members of Mercosul, and world exporters; and simulation of Cournot games considering the trade of this product under alternative tariff policies. The results show that although the tariff impositions create trade distortions, this kind of policy was important to...

Gabriel Leão Oliveira; Wilson da Cruz Vieira

2008-01-01

229

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Influence of Gold on Hydrotalcite-like Compound Catalysts for Toluene and CO Total Oxidation by Eric Genty, Renaud Cousin, Sylvie Capelle and Stéphane Siffert Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 966-977; doi:10.3390/catal3040966 - published online 12 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: X6Al2HT500 hydrotalcites, where X represents Mg, Fe, Cu or Zn were synthetized and investigated before and ...

230

The evaluation of feed-in tariff regulation of Turkey for onshore wind energy based on the economic analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Renewable energy sources have become popular with the technological developments, the increase in the price of fossil fuels and the environmental concerns. These factors have also prompted Turkey to utilize her rich renewable energy sources to meet her increasing electricity demand which is around 7% annually. Therefore, the Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 to incentivize the utilization of domestic renewable sources with feed-in tariffs. In this study, onshore wind energy potential of Turkey is analyzed to find out whether these regulations and incentives will help the utilization of onshore wind energy potential. To that end, some background information about technology and cost of onshore wind power plants, the wind energy potential of Turkey and the current regulatory framework related to wind energy are explained. Then, a model is set up to conduct economic analysis by calculating NPV for the base case scenario and under the uncertain environment. The results show that an onshore wind energy potential of about 13 GW having a wind speed of 7.5 m/s or higher can be utilized profitably with the current feed-in tariff as the wind capacity of more than 100 GW cannot be utilized economically. - Highlights: ? Economic analysis of onshore wind energy potential of Turkey is done. ? NPV and LCE are calculated for different wind speeds. ? Only onshore wind projects having a wind speed of 7.5 m/s and over are feasible. ? The potential of wind energy of the sipotential of wind energy of the sites returning positive NPV is 13,260 MW. ? To utilize the remaining potential of more than 100 GW the feed-in tariff should be increased.

231

When Is Open Access Not Open Access?  

OpenAIRE

As open access grows in prominence, so too has confusion about what open access means; such confusion arises from a genuine misunderstanding of open access by funders, authors, editors, and publishers alike.

Maccallum, Catriona J.

2007-01-01

232

Supply chain coordination via a two-part tariff contract with price and sales effort dependent demand  

OpenAIRE

This paper studies the channel coordination between a supplier and a retailer with price and sales effort dependent demand. By means of game theory, we analyze price and sales effort decisions of the centralized supply chain. Then we consider three different contracts under decentralized model, i.e., wholesale price contract, cost-sharing contract and a two-part tariff contract, in which the supplier offers a contract comprising a wholesale price and a lump-sum fee to the retailer to coordina...

Qinqin Li; Zhiying Liu

2015-01-01

233

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Clinical Documentation and Data Transfer from Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease Wards in Outbreak Settings: Health Care Workers’ Experiences and Preferences by Silja Bühler, Paul Roddy, Ellen Nolte and Matthias Borchert Viruses 2014, 6(2), 927-937; doi:10.3390/v6020927 - published online 19 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Understanding human filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) clinical manifestations and evaluating treatment strategies require the collection of clinical data in outbreak settings, where clinical documentation has been limited. Currently, no ...

234

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Wavelet-Based Watermarking and Compression for ECG Signals with Verification Evaluation by Kuo-Kun Tseng, Xialong He, Woon-Man Kung, Shuo-Tsung Chen, Minghong Liao and Huang-Nan Huang Sensors 2014, 14(2), 3721-3736; doi:10.3390/s140203721 - published online ... In this study, we propose a new idea of integrating electrocardiogram watermarking and compression approach, which has never been researched before. ECG watermarking can ensure the confidentiality and reliability of a user’s data while reducing the amount of data. In the evaluation, we ...

235

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Aerosol Optical Properties and Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution in Wuhan, China by Wei Gong, Shanshan Zhang ...3390/atmos5010081 - published online 23 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Columnar aerosol volume size distributions from March 2012 to February 2013 in Wuhan, China,...were investigated with a focus on monthly and seasonal variations in the aerosol optical depths (AODs) and Ångström exponents. AOD is ... The Ångström exponent suggested that the aerosol sizes in summer (~1.22), winter (~1.14), ...

236

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries by Ann T. Skinner, Dario Bacchini,...mothers’, fathers’, and children’s perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh ... Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in ...did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries ...

237

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Powder X-ray diffraction was also employed to characterize the bulk materials and those phases which did not yield single-crystals. These compounds are ... Namely, ITO additive initiates an early breakdown of the doped LC samples exposed to high electric fields. A model is proposed in ... Open Access Review Review: High Performance Negative Dielectric Anisotropy Liquid Crystals for Display Applications by Yuan Chen, Fenglin Peng, Takashi Yamaguchi,...Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: We review recent progress in the development of high birefringence (?n = 0.12) negative dielectric ...

238

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Examples of recent optical fiber sensors for the measurement of strain, temperature, displacement, air flow, pressure, liquid-level, magnetic field, and the determination of methadone, hydrocarbons, ethanol, and sucrose are briefly described. Open Access Article: The Development of Advanced Optical Fibers for Long-Wave Infrared Transmission by Pierre Lucas, Catherine Boussard-Pledel, Allison Wilhelm, Sylvain Danto, Xiang-Hua Zhang, Patrick Houizot, Sebastien Maurugeon, Clément Conseil and Bruno Bureau Fibers 2013, 1(3), 110-118; doi:10.3390/fib1030110 - published online 17 December 2013 ...

239

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Biological Control of the Weed Hemp Sesbania (Sesbania exaltata) in Rice (Oryza sativa) by the Fungus Myrothecium verrucaria ...20% Silwet L-77 surfactant exhibited high bioherbicidal efficacy against the problematic weed hemp sesbania. Infection and mortality levels of 100% of hemp ... sesbania seedlings occurred within 48 h after fungal application in the greenhouse. In rice field tests conducted over a three year period, ...inoculum concentration of 50 g L-1 (dry mycelium equivalent) controlled 95% of =20 cm tall hemp sesbania plants. M. verrucaria also controlled larger plants (...

240

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Evaluating the Ability of NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data to Estimate the Gross Domestic Product and the Electric Power Consumption ... In early 2013, the first global NPP-VIIRS nighttime light data were released by the Earth Observation Group of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s ... As new-generation data, NPP-VIIRS data have a higher spatial resolution and a wider radiometric detection range than the traditional DMSP-OLS nighttime light ... This study aims to investigate the potential of NPP-VIIRS data in modeling GDP and EPC at multiple scales through a case study ...

241

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases. Open Access Review Review: Pathological Mutations of the Mitochondrial Human Genome: the Instrumental Role of the Yeast S. cerevisiae by Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara Diseases 2014, 2(1), 24-44; doi:10.3390/diseases2010024 - published online ...

242

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.... Open Access Article: Detrital Zircon Fission-Track Thermochronology of the Present-Day Isère River Drainage System in the Western Alps: No Evidence for Increasing ... Zircon fission-track data of the Isère River and its tributaries show a range of apparent cooling ages from about 7 to 150 Ma.... Zircons with Jurassic to early Tertiary cooling ages are derived from partially reset or non-reset sedimentary cover units of the internal and external ...

243

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

...Open Access Concept Paper: Giving “Best Advice”: Proposing a Framework of Community Pharmacist Professional Judgement Formation by Cicely Roche and Felicity Kelliher Pharmacy 2014,...3390/pharmacy2010074 - published online 19 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Community pharmacy is often portrayed as a marriage of professional and business roles in a ...value in, pursuing the development of professional competencies for use in the community pharmacy business. In context, professional judgement is the application ...of knowledge, skills and attitudes (competencies) which, when applied to situations where there is no one or obvious right or wrong ...

244

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Global Halal: Meat, Money, and Religion by S. Romi Mukherjee Religions 2014, 5(1),...online 29 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The following article deconstructs (and demystifies) Halal with a view to unraveling how the religious, racial, ... Halal emerges as a terrain replete with paradigmatic juridical and political questions about the impasses of social and culinary conviviality and cosmopolitanism. ...is certainly nothing new about religious taboos on food on the body, Halal is far from being a personal or strictly communal set of ...

245

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Analysis of Guanine Oxidation Products in Double-Stranded DNA and Proposed Guanine Oxidation Pathways in Single-Stranded, Double-Stranded or Quadruplex DNA ...the shortest oligomer capable of forming quadruplex structures, we demonstrated that guanine oxidation products of quadruplex DNA differ from those of single-stranded DNA. ...with the difference likely explaining the influence of DNA structures on guanine oxidation pathways. In this study, the guanine oxidation products of ... As a result, the oxidation products in this dsDNA were identified as 2,5-diamino-4H- imidazol-4-one (Iz), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8oxoG)...

246

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

...Open Access Article: eLearning and eMaking: 3D Printing Blurring the Digital and the Physical by Jennifer Loy Educ. Sci. 2014, ...Abstract Abstract: This article considers the potential of 3D printing as an eLearning tool for design education and the role of eMaking in bringing ...together the virtual and the physical in the design studio. eLearning has matured from the basics of lecture capture into sophisticated, interactive ...be an empowering learning tool for students, changing their relationship with the virtual and the physical, allowing them to take ideas and thinking ...

247

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Molecular Typing of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats by MLST and PFGE by Aneesa Noormohamed ...3390/foods3010082 - published online 8 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Campylobacter species are one of the leading causes of foodborne disease in the United States.... Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the two main species of concern to human health and cause approximately 95% of human infections.... A total of 47 Campylobacter isolates (28 C. jejuni and 19 C. coli) isolated from various retail meat samples (...

248

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Software written in Mathematica is freely available. Open Access Review Review: Copy Number Variation in Chickens: A Review and Future Prospects by Xiaofei Wang and Shannon Byers Microarrays 2014, 3(1), 24-38; doi:10.3390/microarrays3010024 - published online 5 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: DNA sequence variations include nucleotide substitution, deletion, insertion, translocation and inversion. Deletion or insertion of a large DNA segment in the genome, referred to as copy number variation (CNV), has caught the attention ...

249

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... For this purpose, a four-inlet microfluidic chamber with controlled introduction of two different cell strains within the same experimental setting and a subsequent ...Hog1-GFP localization was impaired for treated cells, providing evidence of a congenial microfluidic setup, where the control cells within the experiments validated its ... Open Access Article: Dynamics of Microvalve Operations in Integrated Microfluidics by Alan T. H. Lau, Hon Ming Yip, Kathy ...widely used key components for automating liquid manipulation and flow control in microfluidics for more than one decade. Due to their robust operations ...

250

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... In addition, transcripts of genes involved in starch metabolism such as SEX1 (glucan water dikinase) and SEX4 (phosphoglucan phosphatase), DBE (debranching enzyme), MEX1 (maltose transporter), APL3 (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and glucose-6-phosphate transporter (Glc6PT) were up-regulated in the HsPIPKIa plants. Our results reveal that increasing the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway affects chloroplast carbon metabolism and suggest that InsP3 is one component of an inter-organelle signaling network regulating chloroplast metabolism. Open Access Article: Identification of a Bioactive Compound against Adult T-cell Leukaemia from Bitter Gourd Seeds by Hisahiro ...

251

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Review Review: The Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicle Persistent Surveillance Problem: A Review by Nikhil Nigam Machines 2014, 2(1)...3390/machines2010013 - published online 2 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Control of autonomous vehicles for applications such as surveillance, search, and exploration has ...In particular, there has been a rising interest in control of multiple vehicles for reasons such as increase in system reliability, robustness, ... The exploration problem is NP hard even for a single vehicle/agent, and the use of multiple vehicles brings forth a whole ...

252

Sustainable water use in cities: water tariff as tool for consumption control; El uso sostenible del agua en nucleos urbanos: las tarifas como herramienta de control del consumo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)

Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.

2012-07-01

253

Vascular Access for Hemodialysis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Kidney Failure Series : Vascular Access for Hemodialysis Vascular Access for Hemodialysis On this page: What is a ... the Kidney Failure Series What is a vascular access? A vascular access is a hemodialysis patient’s lifeline. ...

254

Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: ? Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. ? Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. ? Application of performance data from Warwiction of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. ? Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. ? Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

255

Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: > Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. > Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. > Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. > Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. > Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

Walters, Ryan [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Walsh, Philip R., E-mail: prwalsh@ryerson.ca [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

2011-09-15

256

Open Access  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Adaptations to “Thermal Time” Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change by J. Mark Scriber, Ben Elliot, Emily Maher, Molly McGuire and Marjie Niblack Insects 2014, 5(1), 199-226; doi:10.3390/insects5010199 - published online 21 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Adaptations to “thermal time” (=Degree-day)... Results of fine-scale analyses of these “cold pockets” are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal transect for P. glaucus and P. canadensis in general, highlighting the importance of scale in adaptations to climate change. Furthermore, we also show that rapid size increases in cold pocket P. canadensis females with recent summer warming are more likely to result from ...

257

Role of availability based tariff and its reliability in the distribution of generated power under emerging electric power systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In India, power generation and distribution began towards the end of nineteenth century, although the power sector did not gather momentum until the post-independence era. The electricity industry in India has faced many challenges over the past few years including poor maintenance, financial constraints, and inadequate capacities and outdated technologies in generation, transmission and distribution. According to the Regulatory Commissions Act of 1998, the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) is authorized to regulate bulk electric power tariffs for the generation and transmission of power in order to promote competition, increase operational efficiency, and encourage investment in the industry and safeguard consumer interests. In almost all regional grids of India, the Availability Based Tariff (ABT) has been implemented to bring responsibility and accountability in power generation as well as schemes of incentives and disincentives for consumption by using frequency dependent pricing. This paper proposed the use of distributed generation (DG) viability under intra-state ABT with the help of frequency-based price signals. In addition, distribution system reliability indices are evaluated in the case of sustained interruptions on the utility system. The paper discussed viability of DG under ABT along with distribution system reliability. It was concluded that with the ever increasing demand of electricity in the Indian power sector, it is essential to have a viable alternative with which the generated power can be distributed efficiently and to have a constant check on the overall performance and reliability of the system. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

Prasad, N.K.; Karthikeyan, R. [Sri Chandrasekherendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidhyalaya, Enathur, Tamilnadu (India)

2006-07-01

258

An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

Plater, Steve

2009-10-01

259

Time-of-use rates vs. Hopkinson tariffs redux: an analysis of the choice of rate structures in a regulated electricity distribution company  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent proposals to restructure the electricity industry in North America may effect the disintegration of a vertically integrated company into several smaller entities, including distribution companies (DISCOs) We explore whether time-of-use (TOU) pricing or a Hopkinson tariff would be more suitable for a regulated DISCO. Focusing on the economic efficiency of these alternative rate structures, we argue that a Hopkinson tariff with demand subscription is superior to TOU rates, as it can better handle the limited load diversity of local transmission and distribution (TD) demands made on the contemporary DISCO, while finessing the problem of endogenous marginal costs of local TD capacity. (Author)

260

Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs; Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, sur les tarifs de l'electricite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

261

Tariffs, central engineering for customers and operation strategies of district heating systems. A study concentrated on Scandinavian practice. Taxor, abonnentcentralteknik och koerstrategier foer fjaerrvaermesystem. En studie med inriktning paa nordisk praksis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report deals with tariffs, users' centrals and operations of district heating. The examples are taken from Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Five particular problems are discussed, namely the choice of tariffs, the type of customer connections, the type of water heaters, low temperature district heating and operating strategies for district systems. 65 references.

Frederiksen, S.

1983-01-01

262

Policy Fiasco: The Sabotage of Cabotage Policy Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper argues that Cabotage policy as a non-tariff barrier has harmed the domestic economy and is inconsistent with the premise of trade liberalisation agenda. The effect of Cabotage policy limits market access and has formed monopoly in the shipping industry. The policy might increase efficiency in term of technology and consolidating resources in one participant of the industry but does not improve the overall welfare the industry. This paper proposes a mid-way-out approach by taking incremental steps towards change and requires a committee system to review and streamline the Cabotage policy. We named the committee as logistic committee that envisioned working on towards liberalizing the transportation and logistics industry. It is proposed that the committee decision as binding and as primary source of policy making input.

Firdausi Suffian

2013-11-01

263

Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

264

The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

265

Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

Reichenbach, Johanna

2011-07-19

266

Hemodialysis access - self care  

Science.gov (United States)

An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. Using the access, blood is removed from your body, cleaned by ... dialyzer, then returned to your body. Usually the access is put in a person's arm. But it ...

267

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of underinvestment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com

2010-07-01

268

Accommodative mandatory access control  

OpenAIRE

In operating system access control, there is a traditional divide between discretionary access control (DAC), on one side, and mandatory access control (MAC), on the other side. Compositions of MAC and DAC have been modeled and implemented as operating system access control mechanisms. With composition, two access control decisions (one for DAC and one for MAC) have to concur for an access request to be allowed. DAC is typically supported by coarse grained mechanisms, and it vulnerable to Tro...

Thomas, Jacques D.

2011-01-01

269

Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

NONE

2008-07-01

270

Tariff design for communication-capable metering systems in conjunction with time-variant electricity consumption rates; Gestaltung von Tarifen fuer kommunikationsfaehige Messsysteme im Verbund mit zeitvariablen Stromtarifen. Eine empirische Analyse von Praeferenzen privater Stromkunden in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)

Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft

2013-06-15

271

The stakes of gas and electricity transport: the fixing of access charges; Les enjeux du transport pour le gaz et l'electricite: la fixation des charges d'acces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of opening of network industries to competition is the lowering of the tariffs paid by the end-user. This opening is accompanied by a bookkeeping separation and sometimes a legal un-bundling between the different segments of activities (production, transport, distribution, commercialization). When natural monopolies exist, a system of access to the network by third parties must be implemented and controlled by an independent regulation authority. The main question remains the fixing of a just, efficient, transparent and non-discriminatory tariff of access which allows a long-term viability of this network activity. This paper presents first, the lessons of the economical theory and then, the practical experience in France, UK and the USA and the difficult arbitrations with their perverse side effects. (J.S.)

Percebois, J.; David, L.

2001-05-01

272

Localization and web accessibility  

OpenAIRE

Web content accessibility for people with functional diversity is essential for building and integrating society. Thus, it is important to take into account accessibility when localizing accessible web content. This paper describes the key web content accessibility requirements from the localization viewpoint.

Gutie?rrez Y Restrepo, Emmanuelle; Marti?nez Normand, Loi?c

2010-01-01

273

CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations  

CERN Multimedia

From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

2003-01-01

274

Cost orientation instead of political electricity tariffs - transition from the planned economy to the market economy in East Germany. Kostenorientierung statt politischer Stromtarife - Uebergang von der Plan- zur Marktwirtschaft in Ostdeutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to the reunification of Germany in 1990, there have been basic changes for the electricity economy in the new German Laender. Whereas the electricity supply in the former DDR was organised rigidly centrally, quick restructuring has been occurring since the summer of 1990 with the aid of West German electricity supply undertakings. The transition from a centrally controlled planned economy to the social market economy has been very noticeable in the sector of electricity tariffs, particularly for private households, and in our view with negative effect. The article uses examples of the domestic electricity tariffs to show some aspects of the change from the previous 'electricity tariffs' of the former DDR created exclusively from a political point of view to the cost-orientated tariff prices of the Federal German Republic. (orig.).

Deparade, K. (Ostthueringer Energieversorgung AG (Otev), Jena (Germany))

1993-01-25

275

International trade and investment law reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten reports provide the latest information on the legal and policy framework renewable energy companies will need to understand to enter foreign markets. Information includes the national policy toward renewable energy, relevant tariff and non-tariff regulations, as well as controls on licensing arrangements. The reports also describe the government's general policies and controls on foreign investors, and list incentives the government has enacted specifically to encourage renewable energy investments.

1986-01-01

276

The effects of trade liberalisation on imports in selected developing countries  

OpenAIRE

This paper analyses the impact of the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers on the imports of selected developing countries, utilising dynamic panel data techniques. Domestic income and relative prices are found to be significant determinants of import growth. Additionally, the results indicate that import duties reduce import growth, but the effect varies according to the region and the type of trade policy regime existing in the country. The results also show that the elimination of t...

Santos-paulino, Amelia U.

2001-01-01

277

The WTO and the millennium round : between standstill and leapfrog  

OpenAIRE

The Third WTO Ministerial Conference in Seattle in November 1999 is expected to pave the way to the ninth multilateral round of trade negotiations, labelled Millennium Round (MR). Like the preceding Uruguay Round (UR), it will have the twin targets of preventing domestic measures from discriminating against foreign supply and of dismantling border measures such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers. The core challenge of the MR will be to defend the WTO framework against efforts to sacrifice its...

Langhammer, Rolf J.

1999-01-01

278

Trade facilitation: a conceptual review  

OpenAIRE

With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...

Grainger, Andrew

2011-01-01

279

“Tropicalisation” of Feed-in Tariffs: a custom-made support scheme for hybrid PV/diesel systems in isolated regions  

OpenAIRE

The interest and actions towards introducing renewables for off-grid regions has increased due to their ostensible cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness and quality services provided. Nevertheless, in many isolated areas diesel generators appear as a common option, confirming that there is a need for financial support mechanisms that aid the introduction of renewables due to their higher initial investment costs. This paper proposes a so-called ‘tropicalisation’ of the Feed-in Tariff s...

Solano-peralta, M.; Moner-girona, M.; Sark, W. G. J. H. M.; Vallve?, X.

2009-01-01

280

Renewable energies in the EU-Accession States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this article is to discuss obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources in the EU-Accession States and to compare them with the framework in the EU-15. Besides the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. Most of these countries have had a century-long tradition in the utilisation of RES, primarily in biomass and hydropower. However, the communist regimes were convinced of the superiority of large-scale systems and converted the energy sectors into centralised units. Due to this dominating belief system more decentralised applications such as installations using renewable energies had to close. One crucial driving force for future renewable energy development in the Accession States comes from the stipulations set by the EU. The EU-Directive on the promotion of electricity produced from RES gives the new EU-members targets for their RES-development until 2010. Due to the Directive many Accession States have already begun to pay more attention to the topic and to introduce more systematic policies. Six of the Accession States have introduced minimum tariffs which were one of the main success conditions (besides a stable and sound investment programme as well as favourable background conditions) in the leading wind energy countries Germany and Spain. Beside the external pressure by the EU and other international obligations other driving forces such as theligations other driving forces such as the path dependencies in the national energy policies (degree of coal, oil and gas exploitation, nuclear power use, import dependency), the political support schemes for renewable energies, possibilities of obtaining external financial support and the cognitive environment are discussed. Finally similarities and differences between EU-15 and Accession States are worked out

281

Professional Access 2013 programming  

CERN Document Server

Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

2013-01-01

282

Access 2010 bible  

CERN Document Server

The expert guidance you need to get the most out of Access 2010 Get the Access 2010 information you need to succeed with this comprehensive reference. If this is your first encounter with Access, you'll appreciate the thorough attention to database fundamentals and terminology. If you're familiar with earlier versions, you can jump right into Access 2010 enhancements such as the new Access user interface and wider use of XML and Web services.Takes you under the hood of Microsoft Access 2010, the database application included with Microsoft Office 2010Explores the latest en

Groh, Michael R

2010-01-01

283

Fostering the use of renewable energies in the European Union: the race between feed-in tariffs and green certificates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fostering the use of renewable energies for power generation is at the heart of the EU's long term energy policy. Accordingly, the European Commission and literally all member states have set up ambitious installation targets for alternative energy sources. These aims can only be reached by recurring to support systems that help covering the cost disadvantages faced on liberalised electricity markets. Currently, a dichotomy of support models exists: Feed-in tariffs on the one side and green certificates on the other side seem promising tools to foster renewable energies. In this contribution we look closely at the concepts of both models as well as their advantages and disadvantages in terms of ecological effectiveness and economic efficiency. It becomes obvious that in the context of the liberalised power markets and the rush for the harmonisation of the instruments it will depend very much on in-detail regulations whether the installation targets will be met-regardless of the basic choice of model. (author)

284

Open access and beyond  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature.

Das Chhaya; Schmidt Christian; Mathur Shawn; Tucker Philip W

2006-01-01

285

77 FR 76300 - Recommendations To Modify Chapters 29, 30, 37, and 85 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...video game console controllers, and chemical compounds...assistance in gaining access to the Commission should...writing. See further instructions below relating to the...cordless video game console controllers which use infrared transmissions to operate or access the various...

2012-12-27

286

Pro Access 2010 Development  

CERN Document Server

Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

Collins, Mark

2011-01-01

287

Access 2013 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2013-01-01

288

Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control  

CERN Document Server

Cryptographic access control (CAC) is an approach to securing data by encrypting it with a key, so that only the users in possession of the correct key are able to decrypt the data and/or perform further encryptions. Applications of cryptographic access control will benefit companies, governments and the military where structured access to information is essential. The purpose of this book is to highlight the need for adaptability in cryptographic access control schemes that are geared for dynamic environments, such as the Internet. "Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control" presents th

Kayem, Anne V D M; Martin, Patrick

2010-01-01

289

Open Access @ DTU  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc.

EkstrØm, Jeannette

290

A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

291

Hybrid modeling to support energy-climate policy: Effects of feed-in tariffs to promote renewable energy in Portugal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Feed-in tariffs have been the main policy instrument applied in Portugal for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources under the EU Directives on energy and climate regulation. In this paper, we provide an empirical impact assessment of the economic and environmental effects of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. Impact assessment of policy instruments plays a crucial role on decision-making process. For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium modeling approach, which represents a reliable tool to analyze the complex interactions between economic, energy, and environmental issues related to energy policies. Numerical simulations confirm the empirical evidence that the FITs policy implemented by Portugal was both an effective and a cost-efficient way to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and thus to achieve the national RES-E target of 45% in 2010. Results show relatively modest macroeconomic impacts indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. From an environmental perspective, the deployment of renewable energy source results in significant carbon emissions reductions. - Highlights: ? We provide an impact assessment of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. ? For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium model. ? Portugal's FITs policy proved to be a cost-efficient way to increase generation of renewable electricity. ? Results show relatively modest macroeconomic effects indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. ? The deployment of renewable energy sources results in significant carbon emission reductions

292

The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Mimately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

293

Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs) nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tari [...] fárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam, em média, 33 vezes mais entre si do que com o resto do mundo. A introdução explícita da tarifa no modelo indicou um efeito redutor nas exportações, mais que proporcional ao aumento tarifário. Isolando a influência das tarifas do efeito-fronteira, os estados brasileiros ainda comercializariam 26 vezes mais entre si. O cálculo do equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias mostrou que as BNTs correspondiam à uma tarifa ad valorem de aproximadamente 29%. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest mod [...] el, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.

Orlando Monteiro da, Silva; Fernanda Maria de, Almeida.

2009-09-01

294

The suitability of a feed-in tariff for wind energy in New Zealand—A study based on stakeholders' perspectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

New Zealand (NZ) aims to expand the deployment of wind energy as one means to achieve 90% of electricity generation from renewables by 2025 and in addition to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Due to electricity market regulations that inhibit market entry for independent developers, New Zealand's wind energy development has been limited to primarily large wind farms developed by a handful of electricity utilities. In contrast to many other countries, NZ lacks policy support for entry of smaller investors into the wind generation sector. In order to gage the acceptability of a feed in tariff (FIT) for wind energy in New Zealand, a survey questionnaire (366 respondents) with land owning farmers and semi structured interviews with wind energy stakeholders was conducted. Although international literature suggests that a FIT would be the most suitable policy support scheme to accelerate wind energy deployment, this conclusion was not reached by many influential stakeholders in NZ. However, a majority of the surveyed farmers supported the introduction of a FIT for wind energy. The study also revealed that farmers' acceptance of wind energy in their local area increases with their awareness about climate change issues. - Highlights: ? Of countries in the world with a good wind regime, NZ has a low level of policy support for wind energy. ? A survey of landowning farmers in NZ (366 respondents) indicated support for a feed in tariff for wind energy. ? The major eariff for wind energy. ? The major electricity generators, however, did not indicate support for a feed in tariff. ? A low level of recognition of climate change being anthropogenic was found among landowning farmers.

295

Web Accessibility Checking Tool  

OpenAIRE

Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater) entered. Then it reads ...

Tripti Singh; Nitish Sharma

2013-01-01

296

Broadband access technologies  

OpenAIRE

Broadband technologies have view great growth over the past decade. But, the main part of this development and growth has been in the core networks, and the capacity of the access network to delivery broadband services remains as a challenge ("last mile problem"). The access network remains a bottleneck in terms of the bandwidth and service quality it affords the end user. By other side, the access network is much more spread geographically and covers larger areas. The...

Pereira, Joa?o Paulo; Pires, Jose? Adriano

2007-01-01

297

Access 2003 bible  

CERN Document Server

The most comprehensive reference on this popular database management tool, fully updated with the new features of Access ""X"" including increased use of XML and Web servicesExplores the new, tighter integration with SharePoint and BizTalk in Office ""X"" that enables greater flexibility for gathering and manipulating dataWritten by an international bestselling author team with several books to their credit, including previous editions of Access BibleGets Access beginners started with hundreds of examples, tips, and techniques for getting the most from AccessOffers adva

Prague, Cary N; Reardon, Jennifer

2003-01-01

298

Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs; Tuntinen tilaustehon ja -vesivirran maeaeritys ja tariffien vaatimukset  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is the final report of the research project 'Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs', which was carried out by the Helsinki University of Technology and Komartek Oy. The report consists of two parts. Part A presents the study of the Helsinki University of Technology, in which the consumption of domestic hot water in different size houses were clarified. Part B presents the tariff calculations carried out by Komartek Oy. In the part of the Helsinki University of Technology, the consumption of hot household water has been measured in different sized houses in order to determine their real demand of district heat and heat exhanger capacity. Including earlier measurements, measurements were carried out in 35 buildings. The size of the houses varied from a two-family house to a house of 204 flats. The domestic hot water flows and water temperatures to and from the heat exchanger were measured continuously during periods of a day and a week. To find out the congruence between reality and the dimensioning standards, the measurement results have been compared with the current dimensioning standards. It became evident in the study, that the current dimensioning standards are considerably oversized. Measured maximum heat consumptions were in general less than half of the dimensioned maximums. Operation times for the maximum loads were very short timed, ranging from some tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. The maximum peak loads were either in the mornings or in the evenings. However, no special week-days with clear maximum loads were found during week measurements. In second part was studied how the domestic hot water consumption will influence on the incomes of a DH company and payments of different kinds of customers. Domestic hot water was calculated as a one hour maximum. It was found out that there were outstanding differences in payments of different sizes of customers between different tariffs when the total heat load was calculated as a combination of heating and ventilation load and one hour domestic hot water demand. Also demands for new tariff systems was studied both because of domestic hot water demand and also because of changes in market situations and demands of different kinds of services of DH customers. (orig.)

Hippinen, I.; Pirhonen, J.; Ahtila, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Maekelae, V.M. [Komartek Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

2000-07-01

299

Impacts of time variable electricity tariffs in the accounting for grid billing of household customers; Auswirkungen zeitvariabler Stromtarife in der Bilanzkreisabrechnung von Haushaltskunden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the research project RESIDENS (moRe Efficient energy utiliSation through system oriented Integration of DomEstic eNd customerS), representing this work's basis, the consequences of private customer's Indirect Demand Side Management have been investigated. The work at hand comments on problems which were being raised due to different load shapes for system operators and retailers regarding accounting and balancing of shortages or excesses in yearly quantities and presents possible approaches to a successful roll out of variable tariffs.

Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST); Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht; Ifland, Mike; Westermann, Dirk [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)

2012-07-01

300

State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

Couture, T.; Cory, K.

2009-06-01

301

Access eLearning  

Science.gov (United States)

This tutorial is comprised of 10 modules that offer information, instructional techniques, and practice labs on how to make the most common needs in distance education accessible for individuals with disabilities, and enhance the usability of online materials for all students. The modules center around topics such as making video, flash, word , PDF and many other documents accessible for students with disabilities.

302

Standards and Access.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that easy claims about the relationship between language mastery and academic or economic access (made by both conservative commentators on education and mainstream writing teachers) are false and obscure real social and political boundaries, such as racism, sexism, elitism, and homophobia, that really do prevent access. (SR)

Fox, Tom

1993-01-01

303

''Electrical tariffs are useless''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article is an exchange between Bjoern Karlsson, Professor at the Institute of Energy at Linkoeping Technical Institute, Berndt-Olof Helzen, Marketing Director, Vattenfall, and Folke Jaeghem, Chairman of the Swedish Electrical Supply Undertakings. The discussion centres on the advent of a new electronic electricity meter which allows a dialogue between consumer and supplier, the pricing policy of the Swedish supply undertakings and the advantages/disadvantages of district heating as opposed to individual heating by electricity. It is stated that without nuclear power the price of electricity will rise by two oere/kWh. (H.J.P./G.T.H.)

304

Efecto de los aranceles en la competitividad de la porcicultura mexicana / Effect of the tariffs in the competitiveness of the mexican pork industry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los porcicultores nacionales demandan la aplicación de aranceles a las importaciones de carne cerdo provenientes de los EUA argumentando un daño grave a la industria en tanto que las autoridades gubernamentales desechan esta opción, por lo que se justifica la evaluación del impacto de su implantació [...] n como una alternativa que propicie mejorar la competitividad de la porcicultura nacional. Para analizar este efecto se utilizó un modelo de equilibrio parcial tipo Armington, utilizando datos de 2006 del comercio internacional de carne de cerdo. Los resultados indican que si se hubiera aplicado un arancel del 20.0 % a la carne proveniente de Estados Unidos de América y Canadá en 2008 la demanda por México de su carne habría bajado 9.6 y 27.5 %, mientras que la demanda de carne nacional habría aumentado 6.4 %. Además, la producción se habría elevado en 4.5 % y el precio interno subido 12.5 %. Por otra parte, si el arancel solamente se hubiera aplicado a los Estados Unidos, la demanda en México de carne proveniente de este país habría bajado 23.4 %, la de Canadá y la nacional habrían aumentado 5.4 y 3.4 %, mientras que la producción se habría incrementado 2.4 % y el precio 6.6 %. Se espera que el arancel de 5.0 % impuesto por México en 2010 a las compras de carne de cerdo de Estados Unidos de América genere cambios poco significativos al mercado nacional. Por lo que, si se aplican aranceles a la carne de cerdo de EUA y Canadá cuando su precio es menor a los costos de producción nacionales, el incremento en el precio interno ayudaría a la porcicultura nacional a ser competitiva. Abstract in english The national pork producers demand the application of tariffs to the imports of originating meat pig of the EUA arguing a serious damage to the industry whereas, on the other hand, the governmental authorities reject this option, reason why the evaluation of the impact of its implantation like an al [...] ternative is justified that it causes to improve the competitiveness of the national pork industry. In order to analyze this effect a model of partial balance was used Armington type, using the data of 2006 of the international trade of pig meat. The results indicate that if a tariff of 20 % to the originating meat of the United States of America and Canada in the 2008 had been applied the demand by Mexico of its meat would have lowered 9.6 and 27.5 %, whereas the demand of national meat would have increased 6.4%. In addition, the production would have risen in 4.5 % and the internal price raised 12.5 %. By another part, if the tariff had been only applied to the United States, the demand in Mexico of originating meat of this country would have lowered 23.4 %, the one of Canada and the national would have increased 5.4 and 3.4 % respectively, whereas the 2.4 % production would have been increased and price 6.6 %. It is expected that the 5.0% tariff imposed by Mexico in 2010 to purchases of pork from the United States of America generate changes few significant to the domestic market. Reason why, if tariffs are applied to the meat of EUA pig and Canada when its price is smaller to the national production costs the increase in the internal price would help the national pork industry to be competitive.

G., Gómez-Tenorio; S., Rebollar-Rebollar; J., Hernández-Martínez; E, Guzmán-Soria.

2011-08-01

305

Irradiation from a phytosanitary treatment perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recognizing that with the advent of globalisation and initiatives towards liberalization of trade through the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers, the challenge towards gaining international market access will hinge primarily on quality of agricultural commodities. Besides aiming for efficiency in production it is crucial to emphasise on quality so that it not only provide a competitive edge but also enables them to penetrate markets that have stringent phytosanitary requirements. The need for an alternative quarantine treatment against agricultural pests has been pressing as according to the Montreal Protocol, fumigation with methyl bromide, the most widely used fumigant, will be globally phased out due to environment reasons. Irradiation is a relatively new technology and lately it has been accepted as one of the phytosanitary measures by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). It provides one of the alternative technologies available to the food industries to control organisms that cause food borne diseases, to reduce food losses due to spoilage and deterioration, and to overcome barriers in food trade. Taking cognizance that irradiation has potential as a treatment technology for the disinfestation of pests of agricultural commodities, efforts have been stepped up to ensure the pre-requisites are in place for its implementation. (Author)

306

Pediatric vascular access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)rig.)

307

Demystifying Open Access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.ook for its implementation.

308

Web Accessibility Checking Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater entered. Then it reads the page line by line, compare it with WCAG standard and report the corresponding error.

Tripti Singh

2013-04-01

309

Access 2010 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2010-01-01

310

Live Access Server  

Science.gov (United States)

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

Hankin, Steve

2002-09-09

311

Limited-Access Heart Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

... heart surgery techniques (also referred to as limited-access surgery) to help even more patients with cardiovascular ... surgery. You may have heard the words "limited access," "keyhole," or "port access" to describe these minimally ...

312

Children's access to medicines  

OpenAIRE

Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

2013-01-01

313

I support Open Access  

OpenAIRE

Prof Brenda Wingfield, Professor in Genetics and Deputy-Dean of Reseach and Postgraduate Studies of the Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences discusses the importance of access to research journals. As developing world countries have smaller budgets, Open Access has become increasingly important for research, as it provides greater visibility for researchers and also assists in keeping researchers up to date with information all the time. The University of Pretoria Senate approved a ma...

Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

314

CERN access cards  

CERN Multimedia

Holders of CERN access cards are reminded that the card is an official document. It is important to carry it with you at all times when you are on the site. This applies also to those on standby duty who are called out for emergency interventions. As announced in Weekly Bulletin 13/2006, any loss or theft of access cards must be declared to the competent external authorities.

HR Department

2007-01-01

315

Access to physiotherapy services  

OpenAIRE

A survey of community physiotherapy services operating within the National Health Service throughout England and Wales in 1980 showed a considerable increase in the availability of physiotherapy outside hospital, with 159 health districts (75 per cent) having some form of community physiotherapy. Additional information obtained about access by general practitioners to hospital physiotherapy departments showed that in 140 districts (66 per cent), some direct access was available.

Partridge, C. J.

1982-01-01

316

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

OpenAIRE

Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC) system to protect user anonymity....

Ye Shuiming; Luo Ying; Zhao Jian; Cheung Sen-ChingS

2009-01-01

317

Web Accessibility for All  

Science.gov (United States)

Web developers may find this website from the Center on Education and Work (CEW) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison helpful. In collaboration with the university's McBurney Disability Resource Center, the Center has created this website to provide "an array of resources, links, and tutorials designed to help individuals and organizations create and maintain accessible web content." Among the resources are a free accessibility checker, a slide show tutorial on the HiSoftware Web accessibility suite (available for purchase separately), and a video presentation and related information on Web Standards techniques used to make Web pages more accessible, faster, smaller, easier to maintain, ranked higher in search engines, and compatible with other devices such as PDAs. The Center has also developed the Aquatic Arts Learn by Example website, which addresses "the most prevalent problems that commonly inhibit access" and provides examples of both inaccessible and accessible pages, along with explanations of the problems exemplified. Note that some services and support offered on the website are available only for employees of the University of Wisconsin system.

318

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations.

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15

319

The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

NONE

2005-07-01

320

"DEEP AND COMPREHENSIVE FREE TRADE ZONE" EU-UKRAINE: QUALITY EVALUATION OF ITS TERMS AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF CUSTOMS TARIFF ON BILATERAL TRADE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  The paper considers the content and substantive provisions of  "deep and comprehensive" free trade area between Ukraine and the EU and presents the evolution of negotiations on its design. The qualitative assessment of proposed free trade area format by identifying its strengths and weaknesses for Ukraine and the EU is conducted. A quantitative analysis of bilateral trade flows of goods between the EU and Ukraine is made and the nature of their international merchandise trade specialization in bilateral cooperation, as well as specific bilateral defense imports by commodity groups are identified. On the basis of correlation-regression analysis the relationship of tariffs on exports, imports and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA in stationary (steady state model is evaluated.  The quantitative effects on trade between Ukraine and EU after implementing the  free trade area are shown, abstracting from the effects of the planned regulatory harmonization in the framework of the acquis communautaire on the basis of a selective principle.

?.?. ??????

2011-12-01

321

Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs; Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien mit Schwerpunkt auf kostenbasierter Einspeiseverguetung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.

Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

2006-07-01

322

Quantitative Effectiveness Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Policies, Introduction of Socio-Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) and its Implementation in Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the main energy issues in developing countries are high dependence on non-renewable energy sources, low energy efficiency levels and as a result of this high amount of CO2 emissions. Besides, a common problem of many countries including developing countries is economic inequality problem. In the study, solar photovoltaic policies of Germany, Japan and the USA is analyzed through a quantitative analysis and a new renewable energy support mechanism called Socio Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) is formed based on the analysis results to address the mentioned issues of developing countries as well as economic inequality problem by using energy savings as a funding source for renewable energy systems. The applicability of the mechanism is solidified by the calculations in case of an implementation of the mechanism in Turkey.

Mustafaoglu, Mustafa Sinan

323

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectivel

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15

324

Access control system operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

325

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

326

Just the Facts: Vascular Access  

Science.gov (United States)

Why is a vascular access important to me? Your access is your dialysis lifeline. You have only a few sites for vascular access. It is ... last as long as possible . What happens in access surgery? A fistula or graft is most often ...

327

A Panorama of Web Accessibility?  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents the myth and reality of web accessibility. The survey considers the feature analysis of a few websites which support accessibility. The paper explores the existing ICT facilities for various impairments (VI, HI, CI --- etc.) of differently abled persons particular to web accessibility. The work gives the results of analytical study of the existing web accessibility approaches.

Ramesh Babu J.; Chandra Sekharaiah K.?

2014-01-01

328

A Panorama of Web Accessibility?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the myth and reality of web accessibility. The survey considers the feature analysis of a few websites which support accessibility. The paper explores the existing ICT facilities for various impairments (VI, HI, CI --- etc. of differently abled persons particular to web accessibility. The work gives the results of analytical study of the existing web accessibility approaches.

Ramesh Babu J.

2014-08-01

329

Cost effective access control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Access control systems provide the tools necessary to use on-site dosimetry as a cost effective solution to many problems in recording exposure estimates in real time. Included in this discussion is a description of the many options that are available for access control system configurations; the procedures which can be used to evaluate their cost effectiveness; and the instruments that are available for their implementation. Cost savings equal to the cost of the system are normally achieved within a three year time period

330

Quantum random access memory  

OpenAIRE

A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement amo...

Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

2007-01-01

331

Central Venous Access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article

332

Access to space studies  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

Martin, James A.

1993-11-01

333

Disruption - Access cards service  

CERN Multimedia

We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

2014-01-01

334

Migrants' access to healthcare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare.

Norredam, Marie

2011-01-01

335

Open access / accesso aperto  

OpenAIRE

Sto collaborando, per la voce Open access, a un e-book a più mani dal titolo Le parole dell’innovazione. Ricorro all’archivio Marini per mettere a disposizione di tutti una versione estesa del mio lemma. Non dice nulla di nuovo rispetto al già noto; può però essere utile a chi sia completamente disinformato sul tema.

Maria Chiara Pievatolo

2012-01-01

336

Access with flexible cannulae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flexible access cannulae maintain a readily accessible tract for the efficient introduction and withdrawal of both straight and curved endoscopic instruments from skin to the parietes. Their main advantage is their capacity to deform, allowing the passage of curved instruments. Several designs of flexible access cannulae are currently available. The most practical design makes use of tightly coiled springs as tubes with or without silicone coating. A modification of this design uses wire woven into a tubular form and coated with silicone. Gas seal valves for these cannulae are currently primitive. The capacity of flexible access cannulae for deformation along the longitudinal and transverse axes could potentially be exploited for retrieval of small organs. Clinically, flexible cannulae have been used whenever curved instruments were needed. Coaxial curved and bayonet instruments have been used extensively in both thoracoscopic and laparoscopic operations. These instruments will allow an additional degree of freedom, that of the pre-formed curve of the instrument. In clinical terms this will facilitate the dissection, retraction and encirclement of tubular structures. In addition, the creation of intra-corporeal surgical knots is more efficient using curved needle holders. PMID:7757440

Shimi, S M

1995-02-01

337

Funding scientific open access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

338

Access Solutions Tips, Tricks, and Secrets from Microsoft Access MVPs  

CERN Document Server

Two Microsoft Access MVPs show how you can become an Access power user: Microsoft Access is the world’s leading database system, with millions of users and hundreds of thousands of developers. The best practices, tips, and techniques in this book can turn users into power users.; Millions of eager users make Access the most popular database system in the world. These Microsoft MVPs exploit key features in Access, providing advice on techniques for capturing, sharing and reporting Access data.; Each tip provides detailed solutions with clear instructions for implementation, and samples of all

Meyer, Arvin

2010-01-01

339

2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States  

CERN Multimedia

13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

Françoise Benz

2003-01-01

340

Single access laparoscopic nephrectomy  

OpenAIRE

Laparoscopic nephrectomy has assumed a central role in the management of benign and malignant kidney diseases. While laparoscopy is less morbid than open surgery, it still requires several incisions each at least 1-2 cm in length. Each incision carries morbidity risks of bleeding, hernia and/or internal organ damage, and incrementally decreases cosmesis. An alternative to conventional laparoscopy is single access or keyhole surgery, which utilizes magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS)...

Raman, Jay D.; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.

2008-01-01

341

Accessibility: long term perspectives  

OpenAIRE

Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost) network citie...

Kay Axhausen

2008-01-01

342

Network access rules  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper illustrates the main aspects of network access rules issued by 'Autorita' per l'energia elettrica e il gas', related, in particular, to rights and obligations of operators using transmission and distribution electrical networks. The paper describes the rules which are now in operation and the regulation, based on merit order dispatching, which will be applied together with market rules both for operators buying and selling energy from the pool or through bilateral contracting

343

Counterpoint: Accessibility and Sprawl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay provides a counterpoint to Robert Bruegmann's perspective on accessibility and sprawl in this journal volume. Bruegmann's recent work on the history of urban form situates contemporary discussions of sprawl in a well-researched historical context; however, this essay takes a different perspective on several key points in Bruegmann's analysis, particularly in relation to cost-benefit analysis for transportation-disadvantaged populations.

Randall Crane

2008-07-01

344

Open access citation index  

OpenAIRE

Conclusions of the breakout session "Open access citation index". What’s wrong with the Science Citation Index? Because of it’s power it has some pernicious side effects: A relatively small group of people decides which journals are to be included. There are somewhere between 24.000 (Harnad) and 40.000 (Garfield) journals. 7.000 or 8.000 are included in SCI.

Gue?don, Jean-claude

2004-01-01

345

Telecommunication access to INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding from the features of on-line retrieval from the INIS data base, a description is given of the technical and organizational conditions established by the national INIS Centre of the GDR in using the INIS direct access service. Data are presented on the structure of search queries, retrieval precision, and connect time to the computer. Experience has shown that efficient dialogue searching necessitates the searcher's skill and familiarity with the system. (author)

346

Access to insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

George Washington University's Center for Health Policy Research has published results of a study that examines how access to private insurance for people with HIV may be expanding. The report discusses, among other things, individual market reforms and insurance risk pools that are in place across the nation. The authors are Jeffrey Levi, Kristina Sogocio, Alan E. Gambrell, and Paula M. Jones. Contact information is provided. PMID:11366599

1999-07-23

347

Counterpoint: Accessibility and Sprawl  

OpenAIRE

This essay provides a counterpoint to Robert Bruegmann's perspective on accessibility and sprawl in this journal volume. Bruegmann's recent work on the history of urban form situates contemporary discussions of sprawl in a well-researched historical context; however, this essay takes a different perspective on several key points in Bruegmann's analysis, particularly in relation to cost-benefit analysis for transportation-disadvantaged populations.

Randall Crane

2008-01-01

348

?????????????? Access Conference Literature  

OpenAIRE

?Conference proceedings are becoming increasingly important for Sci-Tech communication especially in highly dynamic and mult-disciplinary fields of knowledge. How to access to conference proceedings becoming more important for Libraries. Collects and analyzes data about conference literature in the field of library from Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library Literature. Describing them in year division. This study presented describing the state of conference literature situa...

Sheue-fang Song

1998-01-01

349

ADOPT Open Access  

CERN Multimedia

Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

2007-01-01

350

Quantum random access memory  

CERN Document Server

Random access memory, or RAM, is a device that allows one to address at will one cell out of an array of memory cells: one n-bit address selects one out of 2^n memory cells. In a quantum random access memory, or qRAM, an n-qubit address register allows one to access a coherent quantum superposition of 2^n memory cells. RAMs, both classical and quantum, represent a relatively slow and inefficient part of computers: in conventional designs, O(2^n) switches must be thrown in order to make a single memory call. This paper presents an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: only O(n) switches need be thrown during a memory call. This architecture could result in significant energy savings for classical computers, and in large qRAMs that can operate efficiently without the use of quantum error correction. A quantum optical model of such a qRAM architecture is presented.

Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo

2007-01-01

351

Intelligent card access keys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed access control technology allows information about users to be stored on key-like EEPROM devices. The keys store encrypted information about the user and his or her authorized access activity. Specially developed key readers scan, decrypt, and process the key data, and make the decision whether entry should be granted or denied. The key readers can function as complete, stand-alone facility management systems, incorporating access control, security monitoring, and remote control. In this configuration, the key readers provide anti-passback protection and other special features without requiring any data lines between readers. The key readers also feature sophisticated algorithmic processing for performing complex operations such as two-man control or cross zoned security annunciation. Key readers can also be interconnected with an MCM-1000 Multiples Monitoring System to form a distributed processing local area network. In such a configuration, changes in key reader status can be uploaded to the MCM-1000, and programming changes and operator commands can be downloaded to the key readers

352

Electrification of the Galapagos island, Floreana, using a PV hybrid system and innovative tariff model; Elektrifizierung der Galapagosinsel Floreana mit einem PV Hybridsystem und innovativem Tarifmodell  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Galapagos islands in Ecuador are Natural Park since 1959. Four of these are inhabited and about 5 million litres of diesel per year are shipped 1000km from the mainland to generate electricity. This could be representative of other parts of the world. Floreana, the smallest inhabited island has 173km2 and about 200 inhabitants; a diesel genset microgrid was operating in the only village of the island (Puerto Velasco Ibarra), 13h per day. The operating scheme for the electric service is representative of a situation where the users pay a standard grid tariff, and the electric utility (EEPG) is sustained through a cross-subsidy of 25.000 US$ per year. Some users in the island are far from the grid and not connected. Small businesses have to operate their own gensets to complement the existing schedule. With funding mainly from the Parque Nacional Galapagos of Ecuador and support to the European NGO SEBA from AECI and the EC, a project for the implementation of Sustainable infrastructures in Floreana has been executed with the objective to reduce substantially the operational deficit, to offer electricity service to ALL potential users 24 hours a day and to reduce substantially the dangerous fuel transports. So, in the late 2003 a MSG (Multi User Hybrid Grid) was commissioned in Puerto Velasco Ibarra which gives electricity service to 54 users by an 18 kWp PV generator backed by the existing diesel gensets. The scattered houses are supplied with individual stand-alone PV systems with a total of 5,9 kWp. This new service approach with PV hybrid technology is supposed to create yearly savings of nearly 20.000 US$ based on a life-cycle analysis compared with the previous generation scheme by genset. The most important aspects of project implementation are that all users are contractually linked to the energy operator in a unified tariff scheme with segmented flat rated monthly fees (whether connected to the MSG or supplied by individual systems), standard grid-equivalent electricity service for everybody 24 hrs/day and that energy dispenser/meters assure demand side management. (orig.)

Vosseler, I.; Vallve, X.; Ramirez, E.; Gavalda, O. [TRAMA TECNOAMBIENTAL, Barcelona (Spain)

2005-07-01

353

'Tropicalisation' of feed-in tariffs. A custom-made support scheme for hybrid PV/diesel systems in isolated regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interest and actions towards introducing renewables for off-grid regions has increased due to their ostensible cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness and quality services provided. Nevertheless, in many isolated areas diesel generators appear as a common option, confirming that there is a need for financial support mechanisms that aid the introduction of renewables due to their higher initial investment costs. This paper proposes a so-called 'tropicalisation' of the Feed-in Tariff scheme to promote the introduction of hybrid systems in isolated communities based on the idea of awarding for each kWh produced by renewable energies a premium value during a guaranteed period of time. The proposed Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme is an alternative mechanism to the usual initial investment donation for off-grid energy development projects by recognising the production of renewable electricity and opting for a long-term sustainability of the projects. Ecuador presents ideal conditions to study the introduction of such a 'tropicalised' scheme since a Feed-in Law including off-grid projects was established in 2002 and since there are governmental and local efforts for the introduction of renewable hybrids in isolated regions. Modelling of the introduction of photovoltaics (PVs) into diesel systems for several mini-grids located in isolated regions of Ecuador has been performed, and included a detailed financial analysis for optimisation of RPT values and a comparison with existing stand-alone diesel systems. The results show the cost-effectiveness of PV/diesel hybrids over diesel gensets, taking into account present and future diesel prices. To obtain long-term sustainability of the project, the RPT values are set at 0.70-1.20$kWh covering the operability of the whole system for 20 years, where the renewable fraction should have the largest share in the hybrid system. The proposed mechanism is expected to aid the introduction of renewable technologies to bring solutions and sustainable energy options to final users of off-grid isolated regions. (author)

Solano-Peralta, Mauricio; Van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Moner-Girona, Magda [Renewable Energies Unit, Institute for Energy, European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi 2749 - TP 450 I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Vallve, Xavier [Trama Tecnoambiental, Ripolles 46, 08026 Barcelona (Spain)

2009-12-15

354

Role-Based Access Controls  

OpenAIRE

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based...

Ferraiolo, David F.; Kuhn, D. Richard

2009-01-01

355

Modern indicators of transport accessibility  

OpenAIRE

Adequate uses of indicators of transport accessibility, as quantitative measures, allow us to move spatial interactions analysis from theoretical to practical level. Aggregate indicators of transport accessibility of places dominate in the research studies, although the indicators of individual accessibility are taking considerable place in the last few decades. The most types of indicators of transport accessibility of places are presented in this article, as well as their characteristics, p...

Ratkaj Ivan; Martinovi? Marija; Milanovi? Miško

2005-01-01

356

EPICS: Channel Access security design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

357

Some self-access principles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, I will describe how the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS was established, and discuss some of the personal philosophies of self-access centres (SACs and self-access learning that I have developed over the eight years of being associated with this centre.

Lucy Cooker

2010-06-01

358

Current Trends in Open Access  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines current (2009) trends in Open Access policy. The importance of Open Access is discussed; current trends are reviewed; and future possibilities are identified. Note: for a detailed history of the Open Access Movement prior to 2009, see Peter Suber’s timeline at: http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/timeline.htm.

Brandt, Loreli

2009-01-01

359

Online Information Source & Access Method  

OpenAIRE

Online resources play important role in research and development of the country. So, LIS professional are interested in accessing and guiding users and readers to all available information sources. This article highlighted and described the availability of online information sources, open access e-journals and its access method.

Sthapit, Dilip Man

2009-01-01

360

Risks and Countermeasures of Chinese Corporations Participation in Global Sourcing as Suppliers  

OpenAIRE

On the ground of entering into the WTO, more and more Chinese corporations participate in global sourcing. Summarize the condition of Chinese corporations’ participation as suppliers in global sourcing and analyze the potential risks, such as risk of holding inventory, receivable accounts, capital locked up, incomplete contracts and other risks such as non-tariff barriers and so on. And on the base, discuss countermeasures to them, such as giving the exte...

Du, Jing-yi

2013-01-01

361

Access to quality health services: determinants of access.  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to health care has been the focus of national health policy in recent years, but little attention has been given to local communities and their access issues. This study offers a conceptual framework and an empirical analysis to identify the independent effect of predisposing, enabling, and medical need factors on access to care in a local community. In addition, access limitations related to the health plan and individual providers are incorporated into the access model. A hierarchical logistic regression is used in which the dichotomous dependent variable-residents' overall satisfaction with access to health care is regressed on five blocks of predictor variables. The most influential variables on access are enabling and health plan variables. PMID:12148664

Sinay, Tony

2002-01-01

362

Potentials of optimized purchasing with variable tariffs. Analysis of the challenges and recommendations for action for public utilities; Potenziale aus der Beschaffungsoptimierung mit variablen Tarifen. Analyse der Herausforderungen und Handlungsempfehlungen fuer Energieversorger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study investigates the requirements on future electricity purchasing by public utilities and the possible optimization measures. The focus is on the one hand on the identification of the potentials of optimized purchasing with variable tariffs based on smart metering; on the other hand, the challenges accompanying the implementation of all relevant processes are gone into. The potentials are identified by evaluating real measured data. Recommendations for action for public utilities are derived in order to develop the potential of optimized purchasing.

NONE

2011-03-15

363

Chemists, Access, Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our IP-number access. Current subscriptions can be upgraded to IP-number access at little additional cost. We are pleased to be able to offer to institutions and libraries this convenient mode of access to subscriber only resources at JCE Online. JCE Online Usage Statistics We are continually amazed by the activity at JCE Online. So far, the year 2000 has shown a marked increase. Given the phenomenal overall growth of the Internet, perhaps our surprise is not warranted. However, during the months of January and February 2000, over 38,000 visitors requested over 275,000 pages. This is a monthly increase of over 33% from the October-December 1999 levels. It is good to know that people are visiting, but we would very much like to know what you would most like to see at JCE Online. Please send your suggestions to JCEOnline@chem.wisc.edu. For those who are interested, JCE Online year-to-date statistics are available. Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists: Mission Statement Feature Editor: Barbara Burke Chemistry Department, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, Pomona, CA 91768 phone: 909/869-3664 fax: 909/869-4616 email: baburke@csupomona.edu The primary goal of this JCE Internet column is to provide information about chemists who have made important contributions to chemistry. For each chemist, there is a short biographical "snapshot" that provides basic information about the person's chemical work, gender, ethnicity, and cultural background. Each snapshot includes links to related websites and to a biobibliographic database. The database provides references for the individual and can be searched through key words listed at the end of each snapshot. All students, not just science majors, need to understand science as it really is: an exciting, challenging, human, and creative way of learning about our natural world. Investigating the life experiences of chemists can provide a means for students to gain a more realistic view of chemistry. In addition students, especially women and minorities, need more scientist role models. When teache

Holmes, Jon L.

2000-06-01

364

The effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina: a game theoretic analysis / Efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina: uma análise com teoria dos jogos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo, analisaram-se os efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina, no período de 1990 a 2004. A metodologia utilizada inclui a estimativa da demanda de leite em pó para o Brasil e a Argentina como monopolistas, como membros do Mercosul e como exportadores mund [...] iais, e a simulação de jogos de Cournot, considerando o comércio deste produto sob diferentes políticas alternativas de tarifas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, embora a imposição de tarifas tenha criado distorções no comércio de leite em pó, este tipo de política foi importante para proteger o Brasil contra práticas ilegais de comércio e aumentar sua competitividade frente a competidores internacionais tradicionais. Abstract in english In this paper we analyzed the effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina from 1990 to 2004. The methodology included estimation of whole milk powder demands for Brazil and Argentina as monopolists, members of Mercosul, and world exporters; and simulation of Courno [...] t games considering the trade of this product under alternative tariff policies. The results show that although the tariff impositions create trade distortions, this kind of policy was important to protect Brazil against illegal practices of trade and to increase its competitiveness against traditional international competitors.

Gabriel Leão, Oliveira; Wilson da Cruz, Vieira.

2008-08-01

365

The effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina: a game theoretic analysis Efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina: uma análise com teoria dos jogos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the effects of tariffs on the whole milk powder trade between Brazil and Argentina from 1990 to 2004. The methodology included estimation of whole milk powder demands for Brazil and Argentina as monopolists, members of Mercosul, and world exporters; and simulation of Cournot games considering the trade of this product under alternative tariff policies. The results show that although the tariff impositions create trade distortions, this kind of policy was important to protect Brazil against illegal practices of trade and to increase its competitiveness against traditional international competitors.Neste artigo, analisaram-se os efeitos de tarifas no comércio de leite em pó entre o Brasil e a Argentina, no período de 1990 a 2004. A metodologia utilizada inclui a estimativa da demanda de leite em pó para o Brasil e a Argentina como monopolistas, como membros do Mercosul e como exportadores mundiais, e a simulação de jogos de Cournot, considerando o comércio deste produto sob diferentes políticas alternativas de tarifas. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, embora a imposição de tarifas tenha criado distorções no comércio de leite em pó, este tipo de política foi importante para proteger o Brasil contra práticas ilegais de comércio e aumentar sua competitividade frente a competidores internacionais tradicionais.

Gabriel Leão Oliveira

2008-08-01

366

The development of a finned phase change material (PCM) storage system to take advantage of off-peak electricity tariff for improvement in cost of heat pump operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental system consisting a longitudinally finned RT58 phase change material (PCM) in a horizontal cylinder has been conducted to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of RT58. The investigation forms part of a wider study to investigate a suitable PCM to take advantage of off-peak electricity tariff. The system consisted of a 1.2 m long copper cylinder filled with 93 kg of RT58 with an embedded finned tube at the centre to serve as a heat transfer tube. The experimental data has been reported using hourly temperature profiles, isotherm plots, overall heat transfer coefficients and energy stored. The results show a quadratic relationship between heat transfer coefficient and the inlet HTF temperature within temperature range (62-77 C) investigated. Increasing charge inlet heat transfer fluid temperature by 21.9% increased heat transfer coefficient by 45.3% during charging and 16.6% during discharge. The potential implication of integrating PCM storage system to an air source heat pump to meet 100% residential heating energy load for common buildings in UK has demonstrated that with an improvement in heat transfer, store size can be reduced by up to 30%. (author)

Agyenim, Francis; Hewitt, Neil [School of The Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Co. Antrim, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15

367

Compressed random access memory  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by applications which need to store huge amounts of data in the main memory of a computer, this paper proposes a new dynamic data-structure for compressed random access memory. Ferragina and Venturini [SODA 2007, TCS 2007] recently gave a compressed data-structure for storing a string that allows substrings to be retrieved efficiently, but it requires the string to be static. Here, we extend their results in a non-trivial way to also allow the stored compressed string to be modified during execution. Our results are as follows. A memory (or string) $T[1..n]$, where each character $T[i]$ is of $\\log\\sigma$ bits, can be stored in $n H_k(T) + O(n \\log \\sigma \\frac{(k+1) (\\log \\sigma +\\log \\log n)}{\\log n})$ bits, where $H_k(T)$ is the $k$-th order empirical entropy of $T$, such that (1) accessing $T[i..j]$ takes optimal $O(1 + (j-i) / \\log_{\\sigma} n)$ time and (2) replacing $T[i..i+\\log_{\\sigma} n - 1]$ by another string of length $\\log_{\\sigma} n$ takes $O(\\log n/\\log\\log n)$ time. We can also suppor...

Jansson, Jesper; Sung, Wing-Kin

2010-01-01

368

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the -Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

Ye Shuiming

2009-01-01

369

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

Shuiming Ye

2009-01-01

370

32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National Defense...PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information...

2010-07-01

371

Random Access Transport Capacity  

CERN Document Server

We develop a new metric for quantifying end-to-end throughput in multihop wireless networks, which we term random access transport capacity, since the interference model presumes uncoordinated transmissions. The metric quantifies the average maximum rate of successful end-to-end transmissions, multiplied by the communication distance, and normalized by the network area. We show that a simple upper bound on this quantity is computable in closed-form in terms of key network parameters when the number of retransmissions is not restricted and the hops are assumed to be equally spaced on a line between the source and destination. We also derive the optimum number of hops and optimal per hop success probability and show that our result follows the well-known square root scaling law while providing exact expressions for the preconstants as well. Numerical results demonstrate that the upper bound is accurate for the purpose of determining the optimal hop count and success (or outage) probability.

Andrews, Jeffrey G; Kountouris, Marios; Haenggi, Martin

2009-01-01

372

Accessibility Long Term Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

Kay Axhausen

2008-11-01

373

[The difficult venous access].  

Science.gov (United States)

Venipunctures in children are difficult. Some factors can hardly be influenced, for example, a well-developed subcutaneous fat tissue. Technical devices may help to identify invisible veins. With the help of ultrasound deep peripheral veins on the wrists and ankles can be presented and punctured. Stiff resistance of a child thwarts any successful puncture. Children should therefore be adequately sedated, if cannot be induced by mask. Missing practice venipuncture and inadequate knowledge of appropriate puncture sites can be met easily by practicing and reading.The possibility of intraosseous puncture today is standard of anesthesia care for children. Within in a few seconds, a secure access to the vein system can be created. PMID:23633258

Strauß, Jochen M; Denk, Andrea

2013-04-01

374

Network-Coded Multiple Access  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates a first wireless local area network (WLAN) system that jointly exploits physical-layer network coding (PNC) and multiuser decoding (MUD) to boost system throughput. We refer to this multiple access mode as Network-Coded Multiple Access (NCMA). Prior studies on PNC mostly focused on relay networks. NCMA is the first realized multiple access scheme that establishes the usefulness of PNC in a non-relay setting. NCMA allows mul...

Lu, Lu; You, Lizhao; Liew, Soung Chang

2013-01-01

375

Interactive Music Archive Access System  

OpenAIRE

The goal of the Interactive Music Archive Access System (IMAAS) project was to develop an interactive music archive access system which was capable of allowing an end-user to easily extract rhythmic, melodic and harmonic musical metadata descriptors from audio, and allow the user to interact with the archive contents in a manner not typically allowed in archive access systems. To this end, the IMAAS system incorporates a range of real-time interaction tools which allow the user to modif...

Gallagher, Martin; Fitzgerald, Derry; Barry, Dan; Cranitch, Matt; Coyle, Eugene

2010-01-01

376

Mobile Access to Oncology Knowledge  

OpenAIRE

Although considerable effort has been put into creating extensive on-line reference resources for oncology, this compiled knowledge is underutilized in clinical situations. The Mobile Access To Oncology Knowledge (MATOK) project facilitates access to a variety of knowledge sources by providing a system designed to be used at the point-of-care. The system's key characteristics are mobility, homogeneous access, concept-based searching, step-wise refinement, and integration with on-line patient ...

Acuff, Richard D.; Carlson, Robert W.; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Olson, Nels E.; Tuttle, Mark S.

1996-01-01

377

Increasing Access to Special Collections  

OpenAIRE

In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from...

Ricky Erway

2012-01-01

378

Trade agreements with side-effects? : European Union and United States to negotiate Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership  

OpenAIRE

"At the G8 summit in Northern Ireland on June 17, the European Union and the United States kicked off the negotiations for a comprehensive Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) to reduce tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers. While the expected economic benefits for both sides would be more than welcome in an era of gloomy growth forecasts, a TTIP is not entirely without risks for global trade and the multilateral trading system. The talks could tie up a considerable portion o...

Mildner, Stormy-annika; Schmucker, Claudia

2013-01-01

379

ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient ? = 1. Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (?<1, and with increasing diameter of the organic molecules their accessibility to cellulose structure decreases. Accessibility of cellulose samples to molecules of various substances is a linear function of the coefficient ? and the content of non-crystalline domains. The relationship between crystallinity (X and accessibility (A of cellulose to molecules of some liquids has been established as A = ? (1-X. The water molecules were found to have greater access to cellulose samples than the molecules of the investigated organic liquids. The obtained results permit use of accessibility data to estimate the crystallinity of cellulose, to examine the structural state of non-crystalline domains, and to predict the reactivity of cellulose samples toward some reagents.

Michael Ioelovich

2009-08-01

380

Atomic memory access hardware implementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

2015-02-17

381

Optimized operation and system design of an energy storage device for post-feed-in-tariff sales of wind energy at the spot market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The relevance of energy storages as important flexibility technology for the prospective energy supply system has been discussed in many projects and studies during the last years. In the context of the project ''Netzintegrierte Stromspeicher'' Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a deterministic optimization model for storage commitment, named GOMES - Generic Optimization Model for Energy Storage. It has the purpose to compare and evaluate different storage applications both technical and economical. Due to its generic nature GOMES is applicable to different storage technologies as well as different markets. Moreover it possesses the particularity that a simultaneous participation in different markets is feasible. Its modular design allows an easy and fast modelling of new scenarios. GOMES applies a rolling horizon to restrict the perfect foresight to a predetermined timeframe. The optimization determines the most beneficial and economical storage commitment and delivers therefore information about the maximal reachable revenue of the examined storage application. This allows to calculate break-even capital costs and to determine the optimal storage plant design. In this case study GOMES is used to evaluate the profitability and the systemic effect of a hybrid power plant consisting of a wind farm (older than 20 years {yields} post-feed-in-tariff) and an electric energy storage device. Exemplarily a redox flow battery was applied as electric energy storage. Two cases were examined: in the single-market operation mode the hybrid power plant only sells the generated wind energy at the spot market. In the multi-market operation mode the storage device is additionally allowed to trade at the spot market itself. In the single-market operation mode the optimal storage design from an economical point of view tends to be very small (storage power of 0.4 MW which equals 2% of the installed wind farm power, capacity of 6 full load hours). This has the consequence that the systemic effect is also very small. Wind energy is only shifted in 6.7% of the hours of the year. The calculated break-even capital costs for the redox-flow battery lie with 2 200 Euro/kW in the lower range of today's capital costs for redox flow batteries. The multi-market operation mode has several consequences: the storage device performs more cycles and gets a little higher annual revenue. Nevertheless the break-even capital costs slightly decrease to 2 100 Euro/kW. This results from the shorter lifetime (17.2 instead of 19.2 years because the maximum numbers of cycles of 10 000 is reached earlier) and the therefore shorter amortization period. Simultaneously even less wind energy is shifted from low load to peak load hours. To conclude, selling the generated wind energy with the support of a storage device at the spot market could be an interesting alternative for wind farms that are no longer subject to the feed-in-tariff in the near- to midterm future. A single-market operation mode is both more economic for the operator of the hybrid power plant and more advantageous for the system (however on a low level). Nevertheless future studies should compare the here described strategy to other direct market strategies.

Kanngiesser, Annedore; Doetsch, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

2011-07-01

382

The Table Access Protocol: Providing standard access to astronomical data  

Science.gov (United States)

In the upcoming era of large scale, geographically distributed, varied sources of astronomical data, a standard, simple and flexible way to access this data is necessary and useful for astronomers across the globe. Most of the modern surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are available in well organized tabular formats. The Table Access Protocol (TAP) supports a standard web interface to access this kind of tabular data. Predefined queries and results formats help different data providers to implement these services. TAP also helps various software tools to access data and perform cross-matches seamlessly across different data sources. It is then possible to access data in tools that consume TAP web services. This supports further detailed data analysis on a queried slice of data. This document describes TAP and its utility for astronomers and data scientists. It also provides information on the protocol for data providers and developers.

Nandrekar-Heinis, D.; Michel, L.; Louys, M.; Bonnarel, F.

2014-11-01

383

Contract for access to the public power transportation network for an eligible consuming site. Particular conditions at the delivery point; Contrat d'acces au reseau public de transport d'electricte pour un site consommateur eligible. Conditions particulieres au point de livraison  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 1 November 2002, the new tariffs for the utilisation of the public power transmission and distribution networks, defined by decree no 2002-1014 of 19 July 2002, will come into effect. A new contract for access to the transmission network has been drawn up in co-operation with the Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) so as to be able to include these new tariffs. This new contract also takes into account the expectations expressed by the users of the transmission network concerning the energy delivery agreement used since the coming into effect of the European Directive on the opening of the electricity market in February 1999. On 31 October 2002, RTE is publishing a new version of the contract for access to the Public Transmission Networks. On 4 August 2003, RTE updated the particular conditions of the contract for access to the public transmission networks. This update takes into account the French regulator's deliberation dated 22/05/03, on the handling of eligible sites indirectly connected to public transmission systems. This document is a model form of the particular conditions of the contract. It comprises the following parts: purpose and contractual perimeter, connection to the public transportation network, metering and deductions, subscribed power, development, exploitation and maintenance of facilities, power continuity and quality, liability, tariffing and conditions of payment, declaration of the balancing actor, general dispositions. 7 models of forms of notification, demand, authorization, agreement, declaration etc.. are given in appendixes.

NONE

2003-07-01

384

Hybrid internet access  

Science.gov (United States)

Access to the Internet is either too slow (dial-up SLIP) or too expensive (switched 56 kbps, frame relay) for the home user or small enterprise. The Center for Satellite and Hybrid Communication Networks and Hughes Network Systems have collaborated using systems integration principles to develop a prototype of a low-cost hybrid (dial-up and satellite) newtork terminal which can deliver data from the Internet to the user at rates up to 160 kbps. An asymmetric TCP/IP connection is used breaking the network link into two physical channels: a terrestrial dial-up for carrying data from the terminal into the Internet and a receive-only satellite link carrying IP packets from the Internet to the user. With a goal of supporting bandwidth hungry Internet applications such as Mosaic, Gopher, and FTP, this system has been designed to support any Intel 80386/486 PC, any commercial TCP/IP package, any unmodified host on the Internet, and any of the routers, etc., within the Internet. The design exploits the following three observations: 1) satellites are able to offer high bandwidth connections to a large geographical area, 2) a receive-only VSAT is cheap to manufacture and easier to install than one which can also transmit, and 3) most computer users, especially those in a home environment, will want to consume much more information than they generate. IP encapsulation, or tunneling, issued to manipulate the TCP/IP protocols to route packets asymmetrically.

Arora, Vivek; Baras, John S.; Dillon, Douglas; Falk, Aaron; Suphasindhu, Narin

1995-01-01

385

Remote direct memory access  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

2012-12-11

386

Nonvolatile random access memory  

Science.gov (United States)

A nonvolatile magnetic random access memory can be achieved by an array of magnet-Hall effect (M-H) elements. The storage function is realized with a rectangular thin-film ferromagnetic material having an in-plane, uniaxial anisotropy and inplane bipolar remanent magnetization states. The thin-film magnetic element is magnetized by a local applied field, whose direction is used to form either a 0 or 1 state. The element remains in the 0 or 1 state until a switching field is applied to change its state. The stored information is detcted by a Hall-effect sensor which senses the fringing field from the magnetic storage element. The circuit design for addressing each cell includes transistor switches for providing a current of selected polarity to store a binary digit through a separate conductor overlying the magnetic element of the cell. To read out a stored binary digit, transistor switches are employed to provide a current through a row of Hall-effect sensors connected in series and enabling a differential voltage amplifier connected to all Hall-effect sensors of a column in series. To avoid read-out voltage errors due to shunt currents through resistive loads of the Hall-effect sensors of other cells in the same column, at least one transistor switch is provided between every pair of adjacent cells in every row which are not turned on except in the row of the selected cell.

Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor); Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor)

1994-01-01

387

Automatically Producing Accessible Learning Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

The "Anywhere, Anytime, Anyway" slogan is frequently associated to e-learning with the aim to emphasize the wide access offered by on-line education. Otherwise, learning materials are currently created to be used with a specific technology or configuration, leaving out from the virtual classroom students who have limited access capabilities and,…

Di Iorio, Angelo; Feliziani, Antonio Angelo; Mirri, Silvia; Salomoni, Paola; Vitali, Fabio

2006-01-01

388

Access to Federal Officials' Papers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Part of a continuing series on freedom of information issues, this report reviews the handling of the papers of presidents of the United States after they have left office and alludes briefly to access to papers of other public officials. It specifically discusses the issue of access to the records of President Richard Nixon and discusses some of…

Schwaller, Robert

389

Open access and medicinal chemistry  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

Swain Chris

2007-01-01

390

Accessible Web Design. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the widespread availability of Web-based information resources, it is difficult for some people who rely on assistive technology to access and process these materials. Web designers can play an active role in facilitating access by formatting resources so that they are compatible with these technologies. This can be accomplished by…

Sprague, Carolyn Ann

391

NCI Web 508 Accessibility Comment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Web sites at the National Cancer Institute have been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users with disabilities may encounter problems accessing some pages.

392

Web Site Accessibility - Applied Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web site has been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the Section 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users may encounter problems accessing some pages.

393

IV access in dental practice.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

Fitzpatrick, J J

2009-04-01

394

Editorial ~ Open Access in Action!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mid 2006 finds the academic research community engaged in an ideological and fiscal war related to Open Access publishing. Open Access requires that the full text of publications be made available at no cost to anyone on the open Internet. Recent position and discussion papers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries, have called for dialogue amongst academics and strongly hinted that research supported by public funds should be made available freely to the general public. The resulting discussion has clearly split the academic community with both support and rejection of the notion from all sides of the politic and discipline spectra.IRRODL’s position is, as expected, to be solidly behind all moves to insure Open Access publication. We are proudly listed with the 2,256 other journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals and our publisher, Athabasca University, is a signature to the Budapest Open Access Initiative.

Terry Anderson, Canada Research Chair in Distance Education

2006-06-01

395

Accessibility in Internet services : case electronic banking  

OpenAIRE

Accessibility means easy access for all people regardless of disabilities. Accessibility in Internet services means an equal access to information and applications provided in the Internet regardless of a user terminal or assistive technology. Web accessibility is a young but important field, and is closely connected to usability. Legislation demanding equal access in Web-based services is also a possibility in Europe in the near future. This thesis investigates accessibility in electroni...

Vile?n, Jaakko

2006-01-01

396

Open Access von A bis Z  

OpenAIRE

The glossary „Open Access from A to Z“ comprises essential key terms on Open Access such as arXiv, The Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities, the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), Creative Commons (CC), the Directory of Open Access Books (DOAB), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR), the EU project Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER), the Finch Rep...

Stieg, Kerstin; Pavlovic, Karlo

2012-01-01

397

Optimal accessing and non-accessing structures for graph protocols  

OpenAIRE

An accessing set in a graph is a subset B of vertices such that there exists D subset of B, such that each vertex of V\\B has an even number of neighbors in D. In this paper, we introduce new bounds on the minimal size kappa'(G) of an accessing set, and on the maximal size kappa(G) of a non-accessing set of a graph G. We show strong connections with perfect codes and give explicitly kappa(G) and kappa'(G) for several families of graphs. Finally, we show that the corresponding...

Gravier, Sylvain; Javelle, Je?ro?me; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

2011-01-01

398

Optimal accessing and non-accessing structures for graph protocols  

CERN Document Server

An accessing set in a graph is a subset B of vertices such that \\existsD \\subseteq B, \\forallv \\in V \\B,|N(v)\\capD| = 0 mod2. In this paper, we introduce new bounds on the minimal size {\\kappa}'(G) of an accessing set, and on the maximal size {\\kappa}(G) of a non-accessing set of a graph G. We show strong connections with perfect codes and give explicitly {\\kappa}(G) and {\\kappa}'(G) for several families of graphs. Finally, we show that the corresponding decision problems are NP-Complete.

Gravier, Sylvain; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

2011-01-01

399

Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2000-06-01

400

Data Access Performance Through Parallelization and Vectored Access: Some Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High Energy Physics data processing and analysis applications typically deal with the problem of accessing and processing data at high speed. Recent studies, development and test work have shown that the latencies due to data access can often be hidden by parallelizing them with the data processing, thus giving the ability to have applications which process remote data with a high level of efficiency. Techniques and algorithms able to reach this result have been implemented in the client side of the Scalla/xrootd system, and in this contribution we describe the results of some tests done in order to compare their performance and characteristics. These techniques, if used together with multiple streams data access, can also be effective in allowing to efficiently and transparently deal with data repositories accessible via a Wide Area Network.

Furano, Fabrizio; /INFN, Padua; Hanushevsky, Andrew; /SLAC

2011-11-10

401

Opening Access to research : an African perspective  

OpenAIRE

This presentation gives an overview of the Open Access movement, the costs of the "Big deal" and explains the two roads to Open Access : Open Access repositories (green route) and Open Access journals (gold route). Other issues that are discussed are : copyright and national and international collaborative efforts towards Open Access on the African continent.

Olivier, Elsabe

2011-01-01

402

The Accessibility Quotient: A New Measure of Open Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The Accessibility Quotient (AQ, a new measure for assisting authors and librarians in assessing and characterizing the degree of accessibility for a group of papers, is proposed and described. The AQ offers a concise measure that assesses the accessibility of peer-reviewed research produced by an individual or group, by incorporating data on open availability to readers worldwide, the degree of financial barrier to access, and journal quality. The paper reports on the context for developing this measure, how the AQ is calculated, how it can be used in faculty outreach, and why it is a useful lens to use in assessing progress towards more open access to research. METHODS Journal articles published in 2009 and 2010 by faculty members from one department in each of MIT’s five schools were examined. The AQ was calculated using economist Ted Bergstrom’s Relative Price Index to assess affordability and quality, and data from SHERPA/RoMEO to assess the right to share the peer-reviewed version of an article. RESULTS The results show that 2009 and 2010 publications by the Media Lab and Physics have the potential to be more open than those of Sloan (Management, Mechanical Engineering, and Linguistics & Philosophy. DISCUSSION Appropriate interpretation and applications of the AQ are discussed and some limitations of the measure are examined, with suggestions for future studies which may improve the accuracy and relevance of the AQ. CONCLUSION The AQ offers a concise assessment of accessibility for authors, departments, disciplines, or universities who wish to characterize or understand the degree of access to their research output, capturing additional dimensions of accessibility that matter to faculty.

Mathew A. Willmott

2012-05-01

403

Increasing Access to Special Collections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

Ricky Erway

2012-01-01

404

SM18 Visits and Access  

CERN Multimedia

  VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

2012-01-01

405

Easily accessible content and linking  

OpenAIRE

Presentation in the ICSTI 2004 Public Conference titled 'Technical and Economic Challenges of Scientific Information: (STM Content Access, Linking and Archiving)'. ICSTI Public Conference was hosted by The IEE at Savoy Place in London on May 17th 2004.

Pentz, Ed

2004-01-01

406

Is open access the solution?  

OpenAIRE

Presentation in the ICSTI 2004 Public Conference titled 'Technical and Economic Challenges of Scientific Information: (STM Content Access, Linking and Archiving)'. ICSTI Public Conference was hosted by The IEE at Savoy Place in London on May 17th 2004.

Oppenheim, Charles

2004-01-01

407

Computer access security code system  

Science.gov (United States)

A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)

1990-01-01

408

Computer Security Systems Enable Access.  

Science.gov (United States)

A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

Riggen, Gary

1989-01-01

409

10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 ...UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized...

2010-01-01

410

5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606.203...AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT RULES Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing...

2010-01-01

411

10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 ...UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not...

2010-01-01

412

10 CFR 36.23 - Access control.  

Science.gov (United States)

...within the personnel access barrier of an underwater irradiator must be posted as required...shielding before operating. (i) Underwater irradiators must have a personnel access...is not attended. Only operators and facility management may have access to keys...

2010-01-01

413

Web accessibility for people with disabilities  

CERN Document Server

Key Benefits Comply with all legal mandates and standards Master HTML enhancements for accessibility Employ the best accessibility tools Make your Web site accessible to everyone! This definitive resource provides Internet and Web administrators and devel

Paciello, Mike

2000-01-01

414

Cell Phone Accessibility (for the Visually Impaired)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Vision Loss Using Technology Cell Phone Accessibility Cell Phone Accessibility Cell phones have revolutionized the way we ... Email Print Like (39 Likes) Choosing a Cell Phone Cell Phone Accessibility Expectations Assistance with Filing a ...

415

Database Access through Java Technologies  

OpenAIRE

As a high level development environment, the Java technologies offer support to the development o f distributedapplications, independent of the platform, providing a robust set of methods to access the databases, used to createsoftware components on the server side, as well as on the client side.Analyzing the evolution of Java tools to access data, we notice that these tools evolved from simple methodsthat permitted the queries, the insertion, the update and the deletion of the data to advanc...

Lungu, Ion; Mercioiu, Nicolae; Vla?ducu, Victor

2010-01-01

416

Delay Optimal Multichannel Opportunistic Access  

OpenAIRE

The problem of minimizing queueing delay of opportunistic access of multiple continuous time Markov channels is considered. A new access policy based on myopic sensing and adaptive transmission (MS-AT) is proposed. Under the framework of risk sensitive constrained Markov decision process with effective bandwidth as a measure of queueing delay, it is shown that MS-AT achieves simultaneously throughput and delay optimality. It is shown further that both the effective bandwidth...

Chen, Shiyao; Tong, Lang; Zhao, Qing

2011-01-01

417

Low Density Spreading Multiple Access  

OpenAIRE

Multiple access (MA) technique is a major building block of the cellular systems. Through the MA technique, the users can simultaneously access the physical medium and share the finite resources of the system, such as spectrum, time and power. Due to the rapid growth in demand on data applications in mobile communications, there has been extensive research to improve the efficiency of cellular systems. A significant part of this effort focuses on developing and optimizing the MA techniques. A...

Al-imari, M.; Imran, Ma; Tafazolli, R.

2012-01-01

418

Textual information access statistical models  

CERN Document Server

This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

Gaussier, Eric

2013-01-01

419

Editorial ~ Open Access in Action!  

OpenAIRE

Mid 2006 finds the academic research community engaged in an ideological and fiscal war related to Open Access publishing. Open Access requires that the full text of publications be made available at no cost to anyone on the open Internet. Recent position and discussion papers in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries, have called for dialogue amongst academics and strongly hinted that research supported by public funds should be made available freely to the genera...

Terry Anderson, Canada Research Chair In Distance Education

2006-01-01

420

Export dynamism and market access  

OpenAIRE

Market access liberalization has influenced product-specific growth of world exports and contributed to the shift in the structure of world exports of manufactures towards electrical and electronic goods (including parts and components), goods that require high R&D expenditures, and labour-intensive products such as clothing. Multilateral trade liberalization has strongly improved market access conditions for manufactures and partly explains why manufactures have experienced particularly stro...

Mayer, Jo?rg

2003-01-01

421

Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20. Here, we show the wild accessions and a list of all mutants isolated so far

Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels NØrgaard

2014-01-01

422

Lobbying: Buying and utilizing access  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops a lobbying-by-firms model that draws on a more realistic characterization of the lobbying process; influence-seeking requires both money to 'buy access' and managerial time to 'utilize access'. This, more realistically grounded, modeling approach furnishes theoretical support for why one encounters different numbers of lobbying firms of varying sizes in different industries, without casting the (unrealistic) lifeline of the 'money-buys-policies' assumption or (unrealistica...

Mayer, Wolfgang; Mujumdar, Sudesh

2014-01-01

423

A Tariff for Reactive Power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

2008-07-01

424

The relative tariff ratio index  

OpenAIRE

[...] In the final analysis the RTR is potentially a sound and useful measure for providing an indication of the relative effects of border protection. If offers interesting dynamic possibilities should the measure be updated annually, although the resource cost involved in widening the scope of the bilateral matrix provided above and updating it must be recognised notwithstanding the scope to operationalise much of work. We consider that the measure has something to offer as simple yet power...

Sandrey, Ron

2000-01-01

425

Evidence based librarianship and open access  

OpenAIRE

Evidence based practice, whether in librarianship or any other profession, depends on access to the evidence, and access to opportunities to share one’s own evidence. Open access (OA) is the perfect complement to evidence based librarianship. OA provides the optimum access to the evidence for librarians everwhere, and the optimum means of dissemination. This article compares examines access to the LIS literature in the print and electronic media, and the impact of open access.

Heather Morrison

2006-01-01

426

Open Access. Chapter 6 of Scholarly Communication for Librarians.  

OpenAIRE

In-depth overview of open access, covering definitions (open access publishing, open access archives, gratis and libre, open access works versus open access processes), major statements and declarations, types of open access, major initiatives, trends, advocacy and lobbying.

Morrison, Heather

2008-01-01

427

Access to the Internet and Web  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently revised, this page from the Blindness Resource Center is an annotated directory of Websites dealing with issues of Internet access for the blind. The categories include accessible Web design, LYNX Web browser use, Net Tamer, access resources, Unix access, Java access, Windows access, and other blindness links. The sites presented are sharply-focused and provide specific information and instructions for the blind and support staff on software designed to improve access, as well as detailed advice to Webmasters on creating sites that are accessible. The Website is sponsored and maintained by the New York Institute for Special Education.

428

The energy market in Hong Kong  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Western exporters that are looking to distribute their products and services in mainland China can do so through the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Hong Kong's proposed upgrade to their electrical power industry will result in a strong demand for specialized power equipment and services. A total of $15.9 billion will be invested from 2000 to 2005 by the China Light and Power Holding Limited and Hong Kong Electric Company. The planned projects include the construction of a liquefied natural gas pipeline, the expansion of power transmission and distribution networks, plus the installation of gas fired generators at power plants. Canadian companies have the opportunity to form strategic alliances with the above mentioned electric utilities to pursue projects in other countries. Currently, the most significant environmental issue in Hong Kong is air pollution. The HKSAR is introducing strict standards for vehicle emissions, and is promoting cleaner fuels for the automotive industry, such as electric-powered vehicles and liquefied petroleum gas as a substitute for diesel and gasoline. The increased demand for clean technology for pollution prevention and environmental control presents new opportunities in the power sector. Currently, there are no tariff and non-tariff barriers inhibiting imports of power equipment into the HKSAR. Distributors in Hong Kong are ready to promote foreign products both in the HKSAR and mainland China. The most effective method mainland China. The most effective method for foreign distributors to market technology products and services is through a local agent or through joint ventures with domestic companies. In addition to providing legal advantages, such partnerships can help sort through import regulations and provide access to local staff and facilities. refs., tabs

429

Behavior of the reference tariffs of three frequently requested laboratory test in three institutions in Colombia, 1990-2003 Comportamiento de las tarifas de referencia de los tres exámenes de laboratorio clínico más solicitados en Medellín, Colombia. 1990-2003  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the tendency of reference tariffs in recent years in three colombian institutions (Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica —SCPC—, Instituto de Seguros Sociales —ISS— and Ministry of Health, for the three laboratory tests with greater demand, namely: glucose test, urine analysis and blood count. Methodology: The tariffs for these tests in the aforementioned institutions were analyzed since first available until 2003. Tariffs of the SCPC are adjusted according to official price indexes and the minimum salary. A comparison year after year was carried out. Results: The proposed tariffs of the SCPC were very closely similar to the adjustments by economic indicators. Prices of the glucose test were on the average 61,3% lower in the ISS and 45,2% lower in the Ministry of Health as compared with the SCPC. Prices of the urine analysis were on the average 58,9% lower in the ISS and 49,4% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Prices for the blood count were on the average 36,5% lower in the ISS and 31,8% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Conclusion: Tariffs for the three evaluated tests are lower in the ISS and the Ministry of Health and the gap with those of the SCPC becomes wider every year. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento en los últimos años de las tarifas de referencia de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica (SCPC, el Instituto de Seguros Sociales (ISS y el Ministerio de Salud (MS, de los tres exámenes de mayor demanda en el laboratorio clínico: la glicemia, el citoquímico de orina y el hemograma. Metodología: Se tomó la tarifa propuesta para las tres pruebas por las tres instituciones desde su inicio hasta el 2003. Las de la SCPC fueron ajustadas también por el índice de precios al consumidor y el salario mínimo. Se realizó una comparación año a año. Resultados: Las tarifas propuestas por la SCPC fueron muy similares a los ajustes por indicadores económicos. Las tarifas de la glicemia fueron en promedio un 61,3% más bajas en el ISS y un 45,2% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas del citoquímico de orina fueron en promedio un 58,9% más bajas en el ISS y un 49,4% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas de los hemogramas fueron en promedio un 36,5% más bajas en el ISS y un 31,8% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC Conclusión: en las tres pruebas evaluadas la diferencia entre las tarifas del ISS y el MS se va haciendo mayor año a año comparadas con las de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica.

Samuel Andrés Arias Valencia

2003-02-01

430

ACCESS TO HIDDEN TERMINAL PROBLEM USING CHANNEL TONE MULTIPLE ACCESS?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Networking is one of the fastest growing areas in the network industry today. Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs are gaining special interest as they provide flexibility of location along with low infrastructural and maintenance costs. The hidden terminal problem is unique to wireless networks that decrease the performance of the network. In this paper we propose a new MAC protocol to resolve the "hidden terminal problem" wireless local area net- works. This protocol, called Channel Tone Multiple Access has been compared with CSMA through computer simulations in terms of throughput characteristics. With the Channel Tone Multiple Access protocol, the maximum throughput is sensitive to normalized propagation delay. For small propagation delays, performance with hidden terminals is better than that of CSMA without hidden terminals, making Channel Tone Multiple Access protocol at- tractive WLAN environment. Making the request packet length sufficiently short compared with the data packet length can significantly reduce wasted transmissions caused by hidden terminals.

Javed Hussain

2014-12-01

431

Utilisation of prehospital intravenous access  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of intravenous (IV) therapy in the South African (SA) prehospital setting, and to determine the proportion of prehospital IV cannulations considered unnecessary when graded against the South African Triage Score (SATS) chart. METHODS: The study was conducted in the pre [...] hospital emergency medical care setting in the Western Cape Province, SA. Using a descriptive research design, we looked at the report forms of patients treated and transported by personnel currently employed in the public sector, serving the urban and rural areas stipulated by the municipal boundaries. All medical and trauma cases in which establishment of IV access was documented for the month of April 2013 were included. Interhospital transfers, unsuccessful attempts at IV access and intraosseous cannulation were excluded. RESULTS: When graded against the SATS, prophylactic IV access was not justified in 42.3% of the total number of cases (N=149) in which it was established, and therefore added no direct benefit to the continuum of patient care. It is worth noting that 18.8% (n=39) of the IV lines were utilised for fluid administration, as opposed to 9.2% (n=19) for the administration of IV medications. CONCLUSION: In view of the paucity of studies indicating a direct benefit of out-of-hospital IV intervention, the practice of precautionary, protocol-driven prophylactic establishment of IV access should be evaluated. Current data suggest that in the absence of scientific evidence, IV access should only be initiated when it will benefit the patient immediately, and precautionary IV access, especially in non-injured patients, should be re-evaluated.

B H, Bester; S, Sobuwa.

2014-09-01

432

Utilisation of prehospital intravenous access.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To describe the use of intravenous (IV) therapy in the South African (SA) prehopsital setting, and to determine the proportion of prehopsital cannulations considered unnecessary when graded against the South African Triage Score (SATS) chart.Methods. The study was conducted in the prehospital emergency medical care setting in the Western Cape Province, SA. Using a descriptive research design, we looked at the report forms of patients treated and transported by personnel currently employed in the public sector, serving the urban and rural areas stipulated by the municipal boundaries. All medical and trauma cases in which establishment of IV access was documented for the month of April 2013 were included. Interhospital transfers, unsuccessful attempts at IV access and intraosseous cannulation were excluded.Results. When graded against the SATS, prophylactic IV access was not justified in 42.3% of the total number of cases (N=149) in which it was established, and therefore added no direct benefit to the continuum of patient care. It is worth noting that 18.8% (n=39) of the IV lines were utilised for fluid administration, as opposed to 9.2% (n=19) for the administration of IV medications.Conclusion. In view of the paucity of studies indicating a direct benefit of out-of-hospital IV intervention, the practice of precautionary, protocol-driven prophylactic establishment of IV access should be evaluated. Current data suggest that in the absence of scientific evidence, IV access should only be initiated when it will benefit the patient immediately, and precautionary IV access, especially in non-injured patients, should be re-evaluated. PMID:25212402

Bester, B H; Sobuwa, Simpiwe

2014-09-01

433

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Access Policy Title / Keyword Journal all Actuators Administrative Sciences Aerospace Agriculture Agronomy Algorithms Animals Antibiotics Antibodies Antioxidants Applied Sciences Arts Atmosphere Atoms Axioms Behavioral ...Review Review: R-Based Software for the Integration of Pathway Data into Bioinformatic Algorithms by Frank Kramer, Michaela Bayerlová and Tim Beißbarth Biology 2014,... Furthermore, prior knowledge can increase the performance and stability of bioinformatic algorithms, for example, methods for network reconstruction. In this ... (This article belongs to the Special Issue Developments in Bioinformatic Algorithms) Open Access Editorial: Polar Microbiology: Recent Advances and Future ...

434

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Search Results 3 articles matched your search query. Search Parameters: Authors =... Open Access Article: 2-(3,4-Dihydro-4-Oxothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylthio) Acetamides as a New Class of Falcipain-2 Inhibitors. 3. Design, Synthesis ... Open Access Article: 2-Amido-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-N-Substitued-Propanamides as a New Class of Falcipain-2 Inhibitors. 1. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation ...and synthesized based on three regional optimizations of the lead (R)-2-phenoxycarboxamido-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N- benzylpropanamide(1), which was identified using structure-based ...

435

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Retting followed by drying and mechanical separation leads to the production of fibers. This review article discusses the application of electro-technologies in ... Dewatered stems are transferred to a microwave chamber for further drying, thus retted stems are obtained for further processing. Open Access ...Access Article: Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices by Jamshid Rahimi, Ashutosh Singh, ...v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose ( CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments ...

436

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Access Article: Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices by Jamshid Rahimi, Ashutosh Singh, ...v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose ( CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments ... Drying kinetics of pretreated apple slices were fitted by using two drying models, Newton’s and Page’s. Page’s model showed higher R-square ...and lower root mean square error (RSME) compared to Newton’s model. Open Access Article: Soybean Hydrophobic Protein Response to External Electric ...

437

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Crystallization of Electrodeposited Germanium Thin Film on Silicon (100) by Mastura Shafinaz Zainal Abidin, Ryo Matsumura, ...We report the crystallization of electrodeposited germanium (Ge) thin films on n-silicon (Si) (100) by rapid melting process. ... Open Access Article: Preparation and Thermal Characterization of Annealed Gold Coated Porous Silicon by Kasra Behzad, Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus, Zainal ...Accepted: 24 November 2011 / Published: 16 January 2012 Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (747 KB) Abstract: Porous silicon (PSi) layers were formed on a p-type Si ...

438

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods Forests Future Internet Galaxies Games Genes Geosciences Healthcare Humanities Informatics Information Inorganics Insects IJERPH IJFS IJMS IJGI JCDD JCM ... (This article belongs to the Special Issue Bringing Personalized Medicine into Clinical Practice) Open Access Article: Design and Implementation of a ... Our study is built upon the existing Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC®). OSUWMC patient participants with chronic disease (... (This article belongs to the Special Issue Bringing Personalized Medicine into Clinical Practice) Open Access Opinion: The Need for Clinical Decision ...

439

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 | Open Access Article: Honey Bee Location- and Time-Linked Memory Use in Novel Foraging Situations: Floral Color Dependency by Marisol ... We tested these two models by offering honey bees a learning situation at one location in the morning, where nectar rewards differed ... (This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Behavior) Open Access Article: Resistance is not Futile: It Shapes Insecticide ...First Order Transfer Function in the Analysis of Agrochemical Data in Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.): Proboscis Extension Reflex (...

440

SCOAP3 and Open Access  

CERN Document Server

SCOAP3 is an innovative Open Access initiative for publishing in high-energy physics. The model is viewed by many as a potential solution to multiple issues related to the financial crisis, the peer review system, scholarly communication, and the need to support institutional repositories. This installment of “The Balance Point” presents articles written by three Open Access advocates, outlining the SCOAP3 proposal, benefits of participation, and some of the roles libraries, publishers and scientists can play in making important changes to scholarly communication. Contributors discuss scalability and transferability issues of SCOAP3, as well as other matters of concern.

Mele, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Dan; Dyas-Correia, Sharon; 10.1016/j.serrev.2009.08.015

2009-01-01

441

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Methods and Materials 2013) Open Access Article: Loss of Response to Long-Term Infliximab Therapy in Children with Crohn’s Disease by Oliver Gouldthorpe, Anthony G.... Infliximab is a durable long-term therapy for paediatric Crohn’s refractory to conventional therapy. A large-magnitude increase in the rate of loss of ... Open Access Article: Immunotherapy of B-Cell Lymphoma with an Engineered Bispecific Antibody Targeting CD19 and CD5 by Sandra Lüttgau, Dorothé e Deppe,...to target cells was verified by flow cytometry on B and T lymphoma cell lines. Binding affinities of both arms were compared with ...

442

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Chemosensors Children Chromatography Climate Coatings Computation Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods ...Pharmaceuticals Pharmaceutics Pharmacy Plants Polymers Processes Proteomes Publications Religions Remote Sensing Resources Risks Robotics Sensors Social Sciences Societies Sports Sustainability Symmetry Systems Technologies Toxics ... Open Access Article: Isolation and Identification of Fourteen Microsatellite Markers in Clivia miniata and Clivia nobilis (Amaryllidaceae) by Wei Gao, ... The polymorphic marker loci were characterized using 61 Clivia accessions. The number of alleles ranged from two to six, observed heterozygosity ...

443

Achieving Universal Access to Broadband  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

Morten FALCH

2009-01-01

444

Achieving universal access to broadband  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP), and others.

Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

2009-01-01

445

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Ranking Leading Econometrics Journals Using Citations Data from ISI and RePEc by Chia-Lin Chang and Michael McAleer Econometrics 2013, ...and research impact of 10 leading econometrics journals taken from the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (ISI) Category of Economics, using ...citations data from ISI and the highly accessible Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) database that is widely used in economics, finance ...using quantifiable static and dynamic Research Assessment Measures (RAMs), with 15 RAMs from ISI and five RAMs from RePEc. The similarities and differences in ...

446

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Selection) Open Access Article: Ranking Leading Econometrics Journals Using Citations Data from ISI and RePEc by Chia-Lin Chang and Michael McAleer Econometrics 2013, ...and research impact of 10 leading econometrics journals taken from the Thomson Reuters ISI Web of Science (ISI) Category of Economics, using ...citations data from ISI and the highly accessible Research Papers in Economics (RePEc) database that is widely used in economics, finance ...using quantifiable static and dynamic Research Assessment Measures (RAMs), with 15 RAMs from ISI and five RAMs from RePEc. The similarities and differences in ...

447

Holistic approaches to e-learning accessibility  

OpenAIRE

The importance of accessibility to digital e-learning resources is widely acknowledged. The World Wide Web Consortium Web Accessibility Initiative has played a leading role in promoting the importance of accessibility and developing guidelines that can help when developing accessible web resources. The accessibility of e-learning resources provides additional challenges. While it is important to consider the technical and resource related aspects of e-learning when designing and developing re...

Lawrie Phipps; Brian Kelly

2006-01-01

448

Selective access and editing in a database  

Science.gov (United States)

Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

449

Demystifying open access journals : pure gold  

OpenAIRE

Panel presentation of two different perspectives on open access publishing in Canada. Open access advocate Heather Morrison presents a brief overview of open access publishing (pure gold, i.e. no delayed back access) and library involvement, with a focus on the Canadian scene. Includes audience quizzes. The pragmatic perspective of Canadian scholarly journal publisher National Research Council Press on open access is presented by Jason Charron. This Canadian Library Association Pre...

Morrison, Heather; Charron, Jason

2007-01-01

450

Open Access Resources useful in LIS education  

OpenAIRE

Open Access Literature is digital, online and free of charge and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions that can be communicated through Open Access Journals, Open Access Archives or Repositories, Open CoureWare. Being ‘Open Access’ means removing the price tag and permission barriers to some extent.The main aim of the study was to identify open access resources and its actual usefulness in LIS teaching & learning process. The exhaustive list of OA resources were prepared and d...

Sawant, S. S.

2012-01-01

451

Toiminnanohjausjärjestelmän kehittäminen Access 2010 avulla  

OpenAIRE

Tämä opinnäytetyö tutkii Microsoft Access 2010-tietokantaohjelman hyödyntä-mistä Microsoft Dynamics AX-toiminnanohjausjärjestelmän aputyökaluna. Tutkimus perustuu suunnittelutieteeseen ja se toteutetaan toimeksiantona kansain-väliselle tuotantoalan organisaatiolle. Tutkimustehtävänä on luoda ERP-työkalu, jonka avulla hinnastot saadaan päivitettyä helpommin järjestelmään. Työkalun tärkeimpänä tehtävänä on parantaa ERP-järjestelmän käytettävyyttä. Työka...

Leppa?nen, Pa?ivi

2014-01-01

452

Browsing Access to Visual Information.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses browsing in the particular context of visual and multimedia (e.g., videodisc) information databases and describes a working prototype system based on a fisheye view of documents in their context. Topics discussed include selecting and presenting information, exploratory access to information, artificial intelligence, user needs, and…

Gecsei, Jan; Martin, Daniel

1989-01-01

453

Molecular random access memory cell  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronically programmable memory devices utilizing molecular self-assembled monolayers are reported. The devices exhibit electronically programmable and erasable memory bits compatible with conventional threshold levels and a memory cell applicable to a random access memory is demonstrated. Bit retention times #gt#15 min have been observed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

454

Garnet Random-Access Memory  

Science.gov (United States)

Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

Katti, Romney R.

1995-01-01

455

Plated wire random access memories  

Science.gov (United States)

A program was conducted to construct 4096-work by 18-bit random access, NDRO-plated wire memory units. The memory units were subjected to comprehensive functional and environmental tests at the end-item level to verify comformance with the specified requirements. A technical description of the unit is given, along with acceptance test data sheets.

Gouldin, L. D.

1975-01-01

456

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Access Article: Genetic Diversity of Spike, 3a, 3b and E Genes of Infectious Bronchitis Viruses and Emergence of New Recombinants in Korea by Mei-Lan ...a region including S1, S2, 3a, 3b and E genes of twenty-seven infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) isolates in Korea between 1990-2011 were ...

457

Multilingual Access for Information Systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the rapid growth of the global information society, the concept of library has evolved to embrace all kinds of information collections, on all kinds of storage media, and using many different access methods. The users of today's information networks and digital libraries, no longer restricted by geographic or spatial boundaries, want to be…

Peters, Carol; Sheridan, Paraic

458

Access and benefit sharing intro  

SCPinfonet

for access and benefit-sharing arrangements or to provide information on such \\arrangements ... Policy and International Division, Science Directorate, \\Department for the .... Certain provisions of some other international \\environmental treaties .... Benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic \\resources can be direct, such as ...

459

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Appraisal of Antiophidic Potential of Marine Sponges against Bothrops jararaca and Lachesis muta Venom by Camila Nunes Faioli, Thaisa Francielle Souza Domingos, Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira, Eládio Flores Sanchez, Suzi Ribeiro, Guilherme Muricy and Andre Lopes Fuly Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1799-1813; doi:10.3390/toxins5101799 Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 8 October 2013 /...

460

Automated Computer Access Request System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

Snook, Bryan E.

2010-01-01

461

Controlling Access to Suicide Means  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

Miriam Iosue

2011-12-01

462

The Stratified Economics of Open Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a growing recognition within the academic community that ‘open access’ to research and scholarship can increase its value and reach. A variety of open access models have developed over the last twenty years, including author self-archiving, immediate (sponsored open access, delayed open access, and article-processing-fee open access. Yet the economics of open access is being largely determined, at this point, by the interests of a stratified scholarly publishing market that can be roughly divided among independent journals, scholarly society publishers, and commercial publishers. Each of these market segments is experimenting with forms of open access that hold promise for sustaining, if not extending, the segment’s current position. This paper reviews the economics of these open access models, while drawing attention to the consequences of this market stratification for access to knowledge and the sustainability of scholarly publishing as a whole.

John Willinsky

2009-03-01

463

Random access over multiple access channels: a queuing perspective  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates a slotted random access system where packet capture is modeled using communication theoretic techniques. It is shown that the optimum rates and attempt probabilities depend on the receiver architecture, operating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and block length. High SNR analysis reveals that joint decoder asymptotically yields either a collision channel or a non-interacting channel, and single-user decoder results in a collision channel. Specific scenarios are inves...

Bodas, Shreeshankar; Vishwanath, Sriram; Subramanian, Vijay G.

2008-01-01

464

The Excel analyst's guide to Access  

CERN Document Server

The ultimate handbook for Excel analysts who need reporting solutions using Access Excel and Access are intended to work together. This book offers a comprehensive review of the extensive analytical and reporting functionality that Access provides and how it enhances Excel reporting functions. Sales managers, operations analysts, administrative assistants, office managers, and many others who rely heavily on data can benefit from learning to integrate Excel and Access, and this book shows you how. Coverage includes:Data Analysis in Access & the Basics of AccessBeyond S

Alexander, Michael

2010-01-01

465

An Access Definition and Query Language : Towards a Unified Access Control Model  

OpenAIRE

In this work we suggest a meta access control model emulating established access control models by configuration and offering enhanced features like the delegation of rights, ego-centered roles, and decentralized administration. The suggested meta access control model is named \\'\\'Access Definition and Query Language\\'\\' (ADQL). ADQL is represented by a formal, context-free grammar allowing to express the targeted access control model, policies, facts, and access queries as a formal language.

Sonnenbichler, Andreas

2013-01-01

466

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Oxide Based Nanosensors) Open Access Article: 2-(3,4-Dihydro-4-Oxothieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylthio) Acetamides as a New Class of ... 3. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation by Jin Zhu, Tong Chen, Jie Liu, Ruoqun Ma, Weiqiang Lu,... Open Access Article: 2-Amido-3-(1H-Indol-3-yl)-N-Substitued-Propanamides as a New Class of Falcipain-2 Inhibitors. 1. Design, Synthesis, Biological Evaluation ...and synthesized based on three regional optimizations of the lead (R)-2-phenoxycarboxamido-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N- benzylpropanamide(1), which was identified using structure-based ...

467

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data by Soon-Ryul Nam, Sang-Hee Kang, Joo-Ho Lee, Seon-Ju Ahn and Joon-Ho Choi Energies 2013, 6(12), 6322-6334; doi:10.3390/en6126322 Received: 3 September 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 3 December 2013 Show/...Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System) Open Access Article: EMS-Data-Based Load Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Conservation Voltage Reduction at a National Level by Soon-Ryul Nam, Sang-Hee Kang, Joo-Ho Lee, Eun-Jae Choi, Seon-Ju Ahn and Joon-Ho Choi Energies 2013, 6(8), 3692-3705; doi:10.3390/en6083692 Received: 28 May 2013; in revised form: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 ...

468

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

...Special Issue Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System) Open Access Article: Evaluation of the Effects of Nationwide Conservation Voltage Reduction on Peak-Load Shaving Using SOMAS Data by Soon-Ryul Nam, Sang-Hee Kang, Joo-Ho Lee, Seon-Ju Ahn and Joon-Ho Choi Energies 2013, 6(12), 6322-6334; doi:10.3390/en6126322 Received: 3 September 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 ...Smart Grids: The Electrical Power Network and Communication System) Open Access Article: EMS-Data-Based Load Modeling to Evaluate the Effect of Conservation Voltage Reduction at a National Level by Soon-Ryul Nam, Sang-Hee Kang, Joo-Ho Lee, Eun-Jae Choi, Seon-Ju Ahn and Joon-Ho Choi Energies 2013, 6(8), 3692-3705; doi:10.3390/en6083692 Received: 28 May 2013; in revised form: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 ...

469

Single access laparoscopic right hemicolectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Single Access Laparoscopic Colectomy (SALC were reported in several studies. The first Single Access laparoscopic right colectomy was descibed by Remzi et Al. We report our experience in SALC describing our approach for Right Colectomy. In our experience we perform as well an extracorporeal side-to-side anastomosis, in contrast wit a conventional laparoscopic right colectomy in which we perform an intra-corporeal anastomosis. We think that an important limit of this approach is represented by the difficult to perform a safe intra-corporeal anastomosis. In conclusion we think that right SALC is a safe and feasible approach. However, many issues will be established, as well as technological, economical and educational aspects, before its introduction in the daily clinical practice.

Bracale Umberto

2012-01-01

470

Accessing the VO with Python  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.

Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

2014-05-01

471

Simulation in vascular access surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years, simulation training has become widespread in different areas of medicine due to social expectations, political accountability and professional regulation. Different types of simulators allow to improve knowledge, skills, communication and team behavior. Simulation sessions have been proven to shorten the learning curve and allow education in a safe environment. Patients on dialysis are an expanding group. They often suffer from several comorbidities and need complex surgical procedures with regard to their dialysis access. Therefore, education in evidence-based algorithms is as important as teaching of practical skills. In this chapter, we are presenting an overview of available dialysis access training modalities. We are convinced that simulation will become more important in the near future and has a substantial impact on strategies to improve aspects of patient safety. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25676294

Widmer, Matthias K; Davidson, Ingemar; Widmer, Lukas W; Schmidli, Jürg; Wyss, Thomas R

2015-01-01

472

MDPI Open Access Journals Platform  

SCPinfonet

... Open Access Article: Clinical Documentation and Data Transfer from Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease Wards in Outbreak Settings: Health Care Workers’ Experiences and Preferences by Silja Bühler, Paul Roddy, Ellen Nolte and Matthias Borchert Viruses 2014, 6(2), 927-937; doi:10.3390/v6020927 Received: 13 December 2013; in revised form: 8 February 2014 / Accepted: 11 February 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract | Download PDF Full-text (510 KB) | Download XML Full-text |...

473

CRAM: Compressed Random Access Memory  

OpenAIRE

We present a new data structure called the \\emph{Compressed Random Access Memory} (CRAM) that can store a dynamic string $T$ of characters, e.g., representing the memory of a computer, in compressed form while achieving asymptotically almost-optimal bounds (in terms of empirical entropy) on the compression ratio. It allows short substrings of $T$ to be decompressed and retrieved efficiently and, significantly, characters at arbitrary positions of $T$ to be modified quickly d...

Jansson, Jesper; Sadakane, Kunihiko; Sung, Wing-kin

2010-01-01

474

Open Access Makes an Impact  

OpenAIRE

Polymers published its first issue in December 2009. At that time, the editorial board and publisher were determined to lead the journal to become another MDPI success story, proving that open access publishing and high quality publications, ensured by a rigorous peer-review procedure, followed by fast publication of accepted manuscripts can be achieved. Three and a half years later, after more than 153,000 article downloads in 2012, the journal received its first impact fa