WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

Bohdan Tustanivskyy

2013-11-01

2

The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.  

Science.gov (United States)

International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

Lupien, John R

2002-07-01

3

Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

Z. Ardakani

2009-01-01

4

The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have arisen that may threaten the future of the Chinese textile and clothing industry.World trade liberalization doesn’t necessarily mean free markets. The industry is still facing great challenges and difficulties from non-tariff barriers which are playing an ever-greater role in the ability of governments to regulate imports from other countries.  Known as “green trade barriers”, new non-tariff barriers to trade, such as technical trade barriers and environmental trade barriers, have taken the place of traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas. By analyzing the background and current situation of China's textile and clothing industry, as well as the great impact on both sides of these new barriers, this paper puts forward an effective way to clarify what efforts should be made not only by trade companies, but also by the government to alleviate the effects of NTBs.  Only through a well-coordinated joint-effort can manufacturers break through such non-tariff trade barriers and enhance the overall quantity and quality of clothing exports, so that China can maintain its current growth in the textile and clothing trade and also regain its reputation as the “kingdom of textiles”.

Tingqin Zhang

2007-12-01

5

Market access through bound tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2010-01-01

6

Market Access through Bound Tariffs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

2009-01-01

7

On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

Toshimitsu, Tsuyoshi [School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University, 1-155, Nishinomiya, 662-8501 (Japan)

2008-12-15

8

On the effects of emission standards as a non-tariff barrier to trade in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly: A note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Employing a model of an environmentally differentiated product market, we analyze how an emission regulation as non-tariff barriers to trade affects imports, the environment, and welfare in the case of a foreign Bertrand duopoly. Related to this issue, we reconsider the result of Moraga-Gonzalez and Padron-Fumero [Moraga-Gonzalez, J.L., Padron-Fumero, N., 2002. Environmental policy in a green market. Environmental and Resource Economics 22, 419-447] that a strict emission standard on a dirtier product degrades the environment and reduces the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage, if the marginal social valuation of environmental damage is larger. On the other hand, we show that a strict emission standard on a cleaner product always improves the environment and the net social surplus associated with the valuation of environmental damage. (author)

9

Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform.

Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

2006-01-01

10

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariffs. ...applicability for transmission services, including ancillary services, over such facilities. Such tariff must be the open access pro forma tariff...

2010-04-01

11

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. 35.28...35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a) Applicability... (c) Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariffs....

2010-04-01

12

Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules : The Case of Vietnam  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality.

Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

2012-01-01

13

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...pursuant to this section for wholesale trades among the pool or system members. ...response resourcemeets the necessary technical requirements under the tariff, and...the need for further reforms to remove barriers to comparable treatment of demand...

2010-04-01

14

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...external market monitor the responsibility and the tools to monitor the...an estimate of economic impact on the market; (6 ...an estimate of economic impact on the market; (3 ...must include in its tariff ethical standards for its Market...

2010-04-01

15

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...include in its tariff ethical standards for its Market...organization must adopt business practices and procedures...transmission organization's issues are not dominated by...minority positions. The business practices and procedures...agreement on a particular issue, minority...

2010-04-01

16

Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1999-06-16

17

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...regional transmission organization must include in its tariff ethical standards for its Market Monitoring Unit and the employees of...permitted to communicate the customer's or other stakeholder's views to the independent system operator's or regional...

2010-04-01

18

Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other well known tariff reform rules, as e.g. the proportional and the concertina rules. We develop the properties of this tariff reform, characterize the sources of the potential welfare gains from tariff reform, use it to establish conditions under which some existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small open economy.

Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

2006-01-01

19

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...take transmission service under a joint pool-wide or system-wide open access transmission...section for wholesale trades among the pool or system members. (4) Consistent...monitor for any repeated instances of the activity by the same or other entities,...

2010-04-01

20

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...wholesale sales and/or purchases of electric energy...such sales and/or purchases under the open access...marketparticipants to post offers to buy or sell...including the protection of consumers and market participants...transmission organization's behavior may require...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
21

Tariff Modelling  

Replacing RV with Council Tax bands: with this option, unmetered households \\pay a ... a rising block tariff structure whereby water use in higher blocks attracts a \\...... entirely overcome the current fundamental weakness of RV as a progressive.

22

The UK House of Commons report on the influence of the pharmaceutical industry: lessons for equitable access to medicines in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the recent UK House of Commons Health Committee report on the Influence of the Pharmaceutical Industry in relation to its findings and recommendations concerning access to medicines, and in particular the continuance of cost effectiveness or reference pricing. This mechanism of bargaining down the price of drugs on social justice grounds recently has been targeted by the US Department of Commerce as an unjustifiable non-tariff barrier to trade that should be eliminated in all OECD countries. Concerns have been raised that certain provisions in the AUSFTA may have been designed to achieve this end, in defiance of norms of democratic legitimacy, moral responsibility and the international right to health. Here we examine some implications of the UK House of Commons Report for the PBS in Australia. PMID:16208881

Faunce, T S; Tomossy, G F

2005-04-01

23

Pilot experience yellow tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the search for alternatives to reduce the probability of a electric energy shortage, the National Electric Sector decided to apply Real Cost Supply Tariff. The implementation of this tariff method to consumers supplied on low tension, Group B (lower than 2300 Volts), demands a better knowledge of measurement equipment, tariff values and consumers receptivity for energy modulation and/or conservation, all objects of this Yellow Tariff Experience. (author)

24

Chile Frente a la Regulación sobre Medidas no Arancelarias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio / Chile and OMC's Law on Non Tariff Provisions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.

Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.

25

Chile Frente a la Regulación sobre Medidas no Arancelarias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio / Chile and OMC's Law on Non Tariff Provisions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.

Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.

2014-05-01

26

Application of additive tariffs in the electricity sector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents and discusses a methodology for the calculation and application of tariffs in the electricity sector based on the principle of tariff additivity. It shows how such tariffs can reflect costs and assure the absence of cross subsidies between clients. The methodology presented was adopted in the Portuguese Tariff Code for electricity by the Portuguese Energy Regulator (ERSE). The work presented in this article reflects the experience acquired by ERSE during the preparation, discussion and implementation of that Code. Allowed revenues are determined separately for every regulated activity, assuring that there are no cross subsidies between activities. Additionally, the application of the tariff additivity principle assures the nonexistence of cross subsidies between consumers. Regulated tariffs applicable to end users of electricity are determined by summation, variable by variable, of the different activity tariffs in accordance with the services the costumer uses and in the proportion of that use. The corollary is that if the different activity tariffs are cost reflective and promote efficiency in resource allocation, the tariffs applicable to consumers (access tariffs or integral tariffs) will also reflect costs in the same manner. Therefore, besides economic efficiency, equity between non binding system consumers and binding system consumers is promoted. The examples presented in the article intend to show how additive tariffs reflect costs giving adequate economic price signals for the rational use of the networks and electric energy consumption

27

Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

2012-11-15

28

Steepest Ascent Tariff Reform  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The policy reform literature is primarily concerned with the construction of reforms that yield welfare gains. By contrast, this paper’s contribution is to develop a theoretical concept for which the focus is upon the sizes of welfare gains accruing from policy reforms rather than upon their signs. In undertaking this task, and by focusing on tariff reforms, we introduce the concept of a steepest ascent policy reform, which is a locally optimal reform in the sense that it achieves the highest marginal gain in utility of any feasible local reform. We argue that this reform presents itself as a natural benchmark for the evaluation of the welfare effectiveness of other popular tariff reforms such as the proportional tariff reduction and the concertina rules, since it provides the maximal welfare gain of all possible local reforms. We derive properties of the steepest ascent tariff reform, construct an index to measure the relative welfare effectiveness of any given tariff reform, determine conditions under whichproportional and concertina reforms are locally optimal and provide illustrative examples.

Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan

2014-01-01

29

Tariffs on power trading  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For optimal use of power systems transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and paid according to a tariff system approximating the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and demand bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system. (author)

30

76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...competitive access providers, cellular carriers, mobile service carriers...considered in reaching its proposed approach, which may include the following...Commission uses a variety of tools to determine whether a dominant...tariff year in their Subscriber Plant Factor and the Dial...

2011-07-20

31

Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

32

Ontario feed-in-tariff programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: ? Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. ? Most projects are either solar or wind. ? Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

33

75 FR 4689 - Electronic Tariff Filings  

Science.gov (United States)

...1\\ Electronic Tariff Filings...The adoption of electronic tariff filing necessitates changes in the business practices used by...Standards for Electronic Filing Processes (Technical and Business Approaches),...

2010-01-29

34

The impact of a feed-in tariff on wind power development in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We estimate the impact of a feed-in tariff for renewable power on wind power investment in Germany at the county level from 1996-2010 controlling for windiness and access to the electricity transmission grid. After the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) was passed in 2000, the feed-in tariff became linked to wind power potential, such that more windy locations received a lower incentive per unit of output. We find that a 1 e-cent/kWh increase in the feed-in tariff rate would increase a...

Hitaj, Claudia; Schymura, Michael; Lo?schel, Andreas

2014-01-01

35

Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare.

Schröder, Philipp; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

36

Tariff systems in offshore Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report presents studies of the tariff systems and the effects of different ownership shares in production, processing, and transportation of petroleum on the Norwegian continental shelf (NOCS). The aim of this study is to analyse the issue of the price field owners have to pay for using the infrastructure owned by others, what is meant by efficient pricing, and compare this with NOCS experience so far. In the report it is discussed whether the provision of NOCS infrastructure services, with an eye to determining the system of joint venture development on the NOCS, is beneficial to infrastructure provision. Main topics cover as follow: NOCS infrastructure; the effect of different ownership shares in production and transportation; tariff regimes. 19 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs

37

14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Explanation and data supporting tariff changes...Publications With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and...the filing of such tariff: (a) An explanation of the new or changed matter...

2010-01-01

38

New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

39

14 CFR 221.100 - Public notice of tariff information.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Public notice of tariff information. 221.100 Section...Inspection § 221.100 Public notice of tariff information. Carriers must make tariff information available to the general public, and in so doing...

2010-01-01

40

Proposition of the CRE for the tariffs concerning the use of natural gas transportation networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The national transportation network involves: the main network constituted by the transportation works binding the access and exit points of the national territory and the underground storages; the regional network for the regional distribution upstream of the main network. The chosen tariff model is a in-out type. Each tariff includes the access terms on the main network, the exit terms of the main network, sometimes the binding terms between the equilibrium zones, the transportation terms on the regional network and the delivery terms. (A.L.B.)

 
 
 
 
41

Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

42

Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

43

77 FR 25732 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...  

Science.gov (United States)

...document concerning tariff rates for tuna in airtight containers for Calendar...tariff- rate quota is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from warehouse...and the title of the document, ``Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota; the...

2012-05-01

44

76 FR 61956 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)  

Science.gov (United States)

...FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION...11-92] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...the Federal Communications Commission...using the Electronic Tariff Filing System...

2011-10-06

45

Low grid tariffs endanger security of supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the results of a study made at the Johannes Kepler University in Linz, Austria, on electricity-grid tariffs and electricity prices in Austria. The study reviews the situation and presents comparisons with other, international tariffs and prices. The purpose of the study was to review direct correlation between prices and security of supply. The results of the study are presented and discussed, whereby both short and long-term considerations are looked at. The influence of the share of the market covered by a particular supplier on the tariffs and the investments made for assuring continuity of supply are, amongst other factors, examined from a statistical point of view

46

Regulation and Internet Access in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explain the recent events in the German market for online access using a model of a regulated monopoly renting phone lines to retailers. Retailers offer either a linear or a flat tariff to consumers. Consumer heterogeneity leads to adverse selectiion. We show why market entry for flatrate firms is difficult under a linear wholesale tariff. With both a linear and a flat wholesale tariff the consumer market shows a mixture of tariffs as well. When marginal costs are zero it is optimal to hav...

Reutter, Michael

2001-01-01

47

Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a two-country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties increases for small tariffs. Firm profits are falling in both tariff and fixed export cost barriers. Tariff revenue falls when fixed export costs increase whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Welfare falls when fixed export costs increase and increases for small tariffs and falls for large tariffs, i.e. there exists a welfare maximizing tariff.

Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

2006-01-01

48

14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.  

Science.gov (United States)

... § 221.300 Discontinuation of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or...changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior to such date...

2010-01-01

49

Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

50

77 FR 22796 - Tuna-Tariff-Rate Quota; the Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2012 Tuna Classifiable Under...  

Science.gov (United States)

...year, the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading 1604.14...apparent United States consumption of tuna in airtight containers during the preceding...tariff-rate quota is applicable to tuna fish entered, or withdrawn from...

2012-04-17

51

46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...4Kbps modem capable of receiving incoming calls; (ii) Smart terminal capability for VT-100 terminal or terminal emulation...expense of the publishers. Any recurring connection fees, hardware rental fees, usage fees or any other charges...

2010-10-01

52

Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumers and to suggest policies to end a possible discriminatory conduct.

Uros Andrejevic

2011-07-01

53

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment avai...

Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay

2007-01-01

54

Components adding: increasing of electric tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although the liberalisation of electricity market is a proceeding there are some components adding to the electricity tariff which far from diminishing keep on increasing and burden, even if in different ways, on all customers eligible and not. But what is their origin and value? Who is the collector and who are the final addresses? The present article intend contributing with more transparency on the quantity involved

55

Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically, CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describes a method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to a light industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1 the added benefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2 the price elasticity of the system, and 3 the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, all under three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristic controls are adequate under the current tariff structure and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of the value of the distributed generation system. Even more value could be captured by simply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high natural gas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity, heuristic controls would capture only 70% of the value of distributed generation.

Ryan Firestone

2007-09-01

56

Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

57

The Value of Distributed Generation under Different TariffStructures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distributed generation (DG) may play a key role in a modern energy system because it can improve energy efficiency. Reductions in the energy bill, and therefore DG attractiveness, depend on the electricity tariff structure; a system created before widespread adoption of distributed generation. Tariffs have been designed to recover costs equitably amongst customers with similar consumption patterns. Recently, electric utilities began to question the equity of this electricity pricing structure for standby service. In particular, the utilities do not feel that DG customers are paying their fair share of transmission and distribution costs - traditionally recovered through a volumetric($/kWh) mechanism - under existing tariff structures. In response, new tariff structures with higher fixed costs for DG have been implemented in New York and in California. This work analyzes the effects of different electricity tariff structures on DG adoption. First, the effects of the new standby tariffs in New York are analyzed in different regions. Next generalized tariffs are constructed, and the sensitivity to varying levels of the volumetric and the demand ($/kW, i.e. maximum rate) charge component are analyzed on New York's standard and standby tariff as well as California's standby tariff. As expected, DG profitability is reduced with standby tariffs, but often marginally. The new standby structures tend to promote smaller base load systems. The amount of time-of-day variability of volumetric pricing seems to have little effect on DG economics.

Firestone, Ryan; Magnus Maribu, Karl; Marnay, Chris

2006-05-31

58

The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions : a global and Danish perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely re-emerge in some form in the near future. We used the GTAP computable general-equilibrium model and database to simulate trade shock scenarios that mimic WTO's "August 2004 NAMA Framework", which proposed a series of tariff reductions based on using the Swiss formula and flexibility rules for specific groups of countries. We illuminate the economic impacts of the proposed NAMA tariff reductions, with and without the developing country flexibility rule. Our results suggest modest NAMA-induced effects: relatively small average tariff reductions that in turn increase global trade by about 1 percent and global welfare by just over 9 billion US$. Trade would expand for most observed sectors, but vary across the sectors, with particularly high gains realised for the textile and clothing sectors. A number of Asian countries would particularly benefit from the NAMA tariff reductions. The NAMA tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase global welfare by 26 percent, with the largest gains occurring in the Asian countries. The removal of the flexibility rule has virtually no impact on Danish welfare.

Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth

2007-01-01

59

Industry market research, China: Electrical power systems - market overview and business environment. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The market survey covers the electrical power systems market in China. This includes power transmission equipment, power generation equipment, automatic controls, coal handling equipment, pollution prevention equipment, and other auxiliary equipment. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels).

1993-01-01

60

Tariff based value of wind energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

 
 
 
 
61

Tariff based value of wind energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

1995-12-31

62

19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.818 Section 10.818 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION...Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level....

2010-04-01

63

18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related...REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS...SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1 Electronic filing of tariffs and...

2010-04-01

64

14 CFR 221.163 - Agents' and other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption.  

Science.gov (United States)

...other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption. 221.163 Section 221.163 Aeronautics... ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Adoption Publications Required To Show Change...other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption. If the former carrier is...

2010-01-01

65

19 CFR 10.819 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.819 Section 10.819...States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.819 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...

2010-04-01

66

19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.818 Section 10.818...States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric, apparel,...

2010-04-01

67

19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.420 Section 10.420...States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or...

2010-04-01

68

19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778...States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric or apparel...

2010-04-01

69

19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.520 Section 10.520...States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or...

2010-04-01

70

19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.779 Section 10.779...States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...

2010-04-01

71

19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421...States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...

2010-04-01

72

Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

73

47 CFR 61.54 - Composition of tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...arranged, and the name of the city or town in which the principal...tariff, and the name of the city or town in which the principal...engaging or participating in the communication service to which the tariff...together with the name of the city or town in which the...

2010-10-01

74

Nova Scotia's community feed in tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the increasing concern over environmental issues, many government bodies have taken an interest in renewable energy. In their 2010 Renewable Electricity Plan, the Nova Scotia Department of Energy set a goal of being 40% dependent on renewable electricity by 2020 and they have already created a number of incentives, including a community feed-in tariff program (COMFIT). For a project to qualify for the COMIFT program it must be community owned, connected to the grid, and its energy must come from an approved list of technologies. As a developer of renewable energy projects, Scotian Windfields Inc. works with Community Economic Development Investment Funds (CEDIFs) interested in investing in renewable energy projects. To maintain COMFIT eligibility, the CEDIFs must maintain voting control of the project. Over a 10 year period, CEDIF investors in Scotian Windfield Inc. projects have come to number over 800 and have raised over $3 million.

75

Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

76

A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

2008-11-01

77

Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Goh, Wei Wei [Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

2011-01-15

78

Real versus tariff liberalization : a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent tariff barrier. Based on this finding, the paper shows that integration or rather liberalization measures (generating a certain increase in world trade) that reduce real trade barriers generate a larger welfare gain than integration consisting of a reduction in tariffs.

Schröder, Philipp

2004-01-01

79

Todays electric power tariffs in France. Prices table  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is a series of tables which explain the reorganization of the electric power tariffs in France for the selling to consumers and the purchase from independent producers (hydro and wind power) according to the contract of Electricite de France (EdF) established for the four years period of 1997-2000. During this period, the tariffs of electric power selling will be reduced of 14% when explained in constant French Francs. The tariffs of 1997 correspond to a 6% reduction when explained in constant Francs which represents a 4.6% reduction when explained in current Francs according to the 1.4% estimated inflation rate. (J.S.)

80

Statistics of transport tariffs in the distribution grid 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication contains statistics of transport tariffs for electricity distribution 1996 in Norway. Transport tariff applies to tapping or feeding at a customer's connection point in the network. It covers all costs of the power transport from the feeding to the market or from market to tapping. Typically, transport tariffs have several components such as a fixed charge, which is the same for all customers, power charge, which depends on the maximum power demanded, and energy charge, which depends on total energy use. The publication gives a good picture of the prices and costs the typical customer will face upon connection to a variety of grids. 4 figs., 5 tabs

 
 
 
 
81

Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

2008-03-28

82

49 CFR 1310.2 - Requirement to maintain tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...charitable purposes without charge, carriers subject to the Board's...effect under this section. The carrier may not charge or receive...upon request, by mail or other delivery service. (c) A carrier that maintains a tariff...

2010-10-01

83

Electric power industry privatization and question of tariffs in Italy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The privatization of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) requires some pre-conditions particularly concerning the matter of tariffs. Its reform must eliminate the huge 'cross-subsidy' now existing and guarantee a fair return on equity capital

84

Tariff barriers in the international market of forest products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil is a great participant in the international market of forest products, occupying the fifth position in terms of value.In spite of having exported more than eight billion dollars in 2007, the country still faces significant tariffary barriers. This studypresented and discussed the tariffs that are in force at the international market, to the forest products exported by Brazil. The analysisof tariffs for 180 countries showed average values of 11% for wood and wood products and of 3.76% for wood pulp and fibrouscellulosic material. The applied tariffs to the forest products are not very high, if compared to tariffs of other sections of the economy,but if reduced they could increase exporting forest sector income significantly, since they are applied exactly on those products of largerexport demand.

Orlando Monteiro da Silva

2009-03-01

85

18 CFR 281.204 - Tariff filing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule § 281.204 Tariff filing...that if the interstate pipeline is in curtailment, natural gas will be delivered...

2010-04-01

86

Tariffs regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work tries to explain the tariff regulation experiences in the Italian electricity industry from the end of the second world war to now. These events, shown in the following tables, are divided into four phases: 1) the progressive standardization of electric power prices (1945-61); 2) the price control (1961-74); 3) the 'interferences' in the tariff system (1974-95); 4) the present deregulation (price-cap)

87

Households' self-selection of a dynamic electricity tariff  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract:Offering electricity consumers time-differentiated tariffs may increase demand responsiveness,thereby reducing peak consumption. However, one concern is that time-differentiated tariffs may alsoattract consumers who benefit because of their consumption pattern, even without a correspondingdemand response. A discrete choice model applied to data from a residential dynamic pricingexperiment indicates that higher demand flexibility increases the propensity of a household to selectdynami...

Ericson, Torgeir

2006-01-01

88

EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

89

Broken promise? Taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated mosquito nets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven years ago, the removal of taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets (ITNs) was considered one of the easiest resolutions for most countries to implement among the targets agreed upon at the African Summit on Roll Back Malaria in Abuja, Nigeria, on April 25, 2000. However, seven years later, 24 of the 39 Abuja signatories continue to impose taxes and tariffs on this life-saving tool. Taxes and tariffs significantly increase the price of an insecticide treated net, reduce affordability, and discourage the commercial sector from importing insecticide treated net products. Consequently, Roll Back Malaria partners are engaged in advocacy efforts to remove taxes and tariffs on insecticide treated nets in malaria-endemic countries of Africa. This viewpoint summarizes key obstacles to the removal of taxes and tariffs that have been identified through a review of country situations. To achieve the goal of producing and supplying more than 160 million insecticide treated nets needed to reach the revised Roll Back Malaria Partnership targets by 2010, tax and tariff reforms are urgently needed. Such reforms must be accompanied by country-specific systems to protect the poor (e.g., through voucher systems for vulnerable groups and other forms of targeted subsidies). PMID:18165497

Alilio, Martin; Mwenesi, Halima; Barat, Lawrence M; Payes, Roshelle M; Prysor-Jones, Suzanne; Diara, Malick; McGuire, David; Shaw, Willard

2007-12-01

90

The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of electricity received from the transmission network, between 1.64 and 2.37 USD/MWh (31%); The locational signal provided by the tariff is mitigated in certain respects by the average cost component related to the fixed costs, which represent 70% of the total costs of the transmission system operator

91

Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design

92

Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

2008-03-15

93

75 FR 22418 - The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under Subheading 1604.14.22...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Customs and Border Protection; Tuna--Tariff-Rate Quota The Tariff-Rate Quota for Calendar Year 2010 Tuna Classifiable Under...SUMMARY: Each year the tariff-rate quota for tuna described in subheading...

2010-04-28

94

Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

(1) We estimate CO2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find ?15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ? Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ? Net carbon exports: industrialized region ?15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ? CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ? The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ? They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

95

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1.Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon’s fee to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investment by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon’s fee was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

Pablo García Echeverri

2006-06-01

96

Tarifas mínimas en cirugía general / Minimal tariffs in surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: En el presente trabajo se cuestionan cuáles deben ser las tarifas mínimas (honorarios quirúrgicos) para los procedimientos en cirugía general. Materiales y métodos: Se utilizaron las tarifas actuales, calculando la inversión personal del autor en su formación y calculando los costos de [...] operación de un acto quirúrgico como una herniorrafia inguinal. Se revisan conceptos de la ética quirúrgica y el evento adverso y se trata de establecer nuevos interrogantes para calcular las tarifas mínimas teniendo en cuenta ese evento adverso. Se utilizaron datos para calcular la oferta de cirujanos y la relación con la fijación de tarifas mínimas. Resultados: Se encontró una tarifa mínima (honorarios quirúrgicos mínimos) para la UVR y se vio cómo el empleado quirúrgico trabaja por debajo de esa tarifa mínima. Se encontró cómo la sobreoferta de cirujanos afecta esta tarifa. "La esperanza es una gran falsificadora de la verdad" (1). Abstract in english Introduction: This paper intends to answer the interrogant regarding what should be the minimum tariffs or fee schedules (surgeon’s fee) to be applied in general surgical operative procedures. Materials and methods: The current fee schedules were taken as departing point, versus the personal investm [...] ent by the author in terms of the time of training. Inguinal herniorraphy was taken as the operation-example for the study. The paper also reviews the concepts of surgical ethics and adverse events, and intends to pose new interrogants in order to calculate the minimal tariffs considering the occurrence of the adverse effect. Figures corresponding to the number of surgeons were utilized for calculating the minimal tariff. Results: A minimal tariff (surgeon’s fee) was determined, and the study demonstrated that the surgeon employed by the current Colombian health system works for a fee below that tariff. It was also found that the overproduction of surgeons affects that tariff.

Pablo, García Echeverri.

97

Electricity trade and tariffs. Imports as a bargaining game  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity transboundary trade could be characterized as a bilateral monopoly between two national electricity boards. The bargaining over prices that takes place between importer and exporter is considered in the framework of bargaining game theory. Strategies are strongly affected by the type of regulation of the national electric utility within the importing country. The most suitable tariff policy seems to be that based on marginal cost pricing because it reduces both tariff level and the consumers' welfare loss in respect to other pricing rules. 14 refs., 3 figs

98

Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were used to carry out case studies to illustrate the proposed EV charging schedule algorithm.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2011-01-01

99

49 CFR 1310.5 - Availability of tariffs at carrier offices.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Availability of tariffs at carrier offices. 1310.5 Section 1310...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS TARIFF REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSEHOLD GOODS CARRIERS § 1310.5 Availability of...

2010-10-01

100

14 CFR 221.163 - Agents' and other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Agents' and other carriers' tariffs shall reflect adoption...Publications Required To Show Change in Carrier's Name or Transfer of Operating...221.163 Agents' and other carriers' tariffs shall reflect...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

2010-04-01

102

18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties...of tariff filings on customers and other parties...must serve, upon all customers as of the date...complete copy from any customer or state...

2010-04-01

103

18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs...

2010-04-01

104

Comparing the feed-in tariff incentives for renewable electricity in Ontario and Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ith tariffs increases certainty for investors. ? Targeted incentives in the form of adders can deliver more diversity in renewable generation capacity. ? Degression of tariff rates delivers renewable generation capacity at lower cost.

105

Optimum-Welfare and Maximum-Revenue Tariffs in Vertically Related Markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper compares the optimum-welfare tariffs with the maximum-revenue tariffs in a model of vertically related markets characterized by Cournot competition. It shows that the optimum-welfare tariff on the intermediate good exceeds the maximum-revenue tariff if the home intermediate-good firm is much more cost-competitive than the foreign intermediate-good firm. Further, the optimum-welfare tariff on the final good exceeds the maximum-revenue tariff if the home intermediate-good firm is significantly inefficient compared to the foreign intermediate-good firm. It is less likely that the optimum-welfare tariffs on the intermediate and the final good, respectively, exceed the maximum-revenue tariffs on the intermediate and the final good in the presence of vertical trade structures than in their absence.

Yasushi Kawabata

2014-05-01

106

Economic mechanisms of tariff regulation in housing-and-municipal services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article the problem of use of economic mechanisms of tariff formation and regulation in housing-and-municipal services is considered. In a basis of effective system of tariff regulation scientifically proved mechanism of charge of depreciation charges in structure of means for major overhaul is determined. The expediency of introduction of new approaches to tariff definition is shown, they are connected with use of two rates tariffs in housing-and-municipal services.

Svistunov Andrey Valerjevich

2011-12-01

107

Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

108

Software for industrial consumers electrical energy tariff optimal selection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.

Simona Ardelean

2008-05-01

109

Network ownership and optimal tariffs for natural gas transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper addresses the issue of national optimal tariffs for transportation of natural gas in a setting where national gas production in its entirety is exported to end-user markets abroad. In a situation where the transportation network is owned altogether by a vertically integrated national gas producer, it is shown that the optimal tariff depends on the ownership structure in the integrated transportation company as well as in the non-facility based gas company. There are two reasons why it is possibly optimal with a mark-up on marginal transportation costs. First, there is a premium on public revenue if domestic taxation is distorting. Second, with incomplete national taxation of rents from the gas sector, the transportation tariffs can serve as a second best way of appropriating rents accruing to foreigners. In a situation where the network is run as a separate entity subject to a rate of return regulation, it will be optimal to discriminate the tariffs between shippers for the usual Ramseyean reasons. (Author)

110

Fun Times With Tariffs : NERN blog | UK Energy Research Centre  

I hope everyone had a good Easter holiday (or not, if you live in a country which \\doesn't have one!) ... I head a lot about this project when I was out in Japan in \\March (David ... However, the range of different tariffs and complex billing \\structures make ... Things are going to get more, rather than less complex, is my \\impression.

111

Communications Satellite Tariffs for Television. IBI Monograph Number 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dealing with the experiences of and the conditions for international and intercontinental satellite transmissions as they have been carried out during the past decade, this paper focuses on the rules and practices applied within the Intelsat system. The purpose of the paper is to explore the issues involved in establishing tariffs in accord with…

Passell, Peter; Ross, Leonard

112

Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? tively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

113

Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: {yields} Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. {yields} Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. {yields} Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. {yields} Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. {yields} Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

Krajacic, Goran, E-mail: Goran.Krajacic@fsb.h [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Duic, Neven, E-mail: Neven.Duic@fsb.h [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Tsikalakis, Antonis, E-mail: atsikal@corfu.power.ece.ntua.g [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zoulias, Manos, E-mail: mzoulias@cres.g [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings (CRES), Pikermi (Greece); Caralis, George, E-mail: gcaralis@central.ntua.g [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Panteri, Eirini, E-mail: panteri@rae.g [Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE), Athens (Greece); Carvalho, Maria da Graca, E-mail: mariadagraca.carvalho@europarl.europa.e [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

2011-03-15

114

Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

115

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well

116

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

117

Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

2007-11-15

118

A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes in industry structure by analyzing the different liberalization channels for an equal effect on openness. The welfare ranking is sensitive to the degree of efficiency in tariff redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. Ad valorem tariff cuts switch from the least to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs.

Schröder, Philipp; SØrensen, Allan

2011-01-01

119

No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-05-15

120

China's agricultural trade: An optimal tariff framework perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Future trends of China's agricultural trade have been a subject of considerable debate among agricultural economists. One particular problem is that China may be a large country relative to some world agricultural markets, yet virtually all previous studies assumed a perfectly competitive world market and simply treated China as a small country. The objective of this study is to revisit this important subject from an optimal tariff framework, assuming China is a large trading country. Our app...

Zhuang, Renan

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed

122

The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

2002-06-01

123

Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ? We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ? Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ? Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ? Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.

124

The principles of tariff policy and the objectives of economic growth promotion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the tariff policy issues serving as the focus of economic discussions, since their solution has a profound effect on the opportunities of the country’s economic development. The tariff policy problems impair the efficiency and competitiveness of national business and lower living standards. The government declares its readiness to limit the growth of tariffs, which, however, suggests “manual operation” and stopgap measures. The author emphasizes the need to reconsider the methodology and principles of public tariff policy.

Gerasimenko V.

2014-04-01

125

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

126

Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

127

Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

128

Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2013-10-01

129

Conclusion statement of the 'gas tariffs' Commission works  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations

130

Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

131

On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: ? Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. ? Current tariff policies of coal-powe? Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. ? Further market-oriented reforms are needed. ? Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

132

Feed-in tariff in Ukraine: The only driver of renewables' industry growth?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

d-in tariff investors get after completion of construction. ? The definition of the term “biomass” in Ukrainian legislation needs to be reviewed. ? The investments in renewables are mostly commenced by Ukrainian investors. ? Feed-in tariff is the most efficient measure for green electricity production.

133

Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

er tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ? Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ? Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

134

49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes. 1312.10 Section 1312...10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes. Every publication filed...clearly identify such changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in...

2010-10-01

135

47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...  

Science.gov (United States)

...letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers subject to price cap regulation. ...COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.49 Supporting...

2010-10-01

136

40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart A of... - Harmonized Tariff Schedule Description of Products That May Contain Controlled Substances in...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tariff Schedule Description of Products That May Contain Controlled...Tariff Schedule Description of Products That May Contain Controlled...this may include depilatory products and other perfumery, cosmetic or toilet preparations,...

2010-07-01

137

18 CFR 385.209 - Notices of tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209).  

Science.gov (United States)

...tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209). 385.209 Section...of Tariff or Rate Examination, Orders To Show Cause, Intervention, and Summary Disposition...tariff or rate examination and orders to show cause (Rule 209). (a)...

2010-04-01

138

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Unit's goals, including the protection of consumers and market participants by the identification...flaw. (vi) Market Monitoring Unit ethics standards. Each Commission-approved...Market Monitoring Unit. At a minimum, the ethics standards must include the following...

2010-04-01

139

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...directors' responsiveness to customers and other stakeholders and satisfy...procedures must ensure that any customer or other stakeholder affected...representative, is permitted to communicate the customer's or other...

2010-04-01

140

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...changes that could remedy the perceived design flaw, any recommendations...state commissions regarding the perceived design flaw, and any actions...system operator regarding the perceived design flaw. (vi) Market...may not accept anything of value from a market participant...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...reference levels, identification of system constraints, and cost calculations. (C) A...its employees must have no material financial interest in any market participant or...matter that would have an effect on the financial interest of the market...

2010-04-01

142

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coordination agreement as defined in paragraph (b...Commission-approved independent system operators andregional...Commission-approved independent system operator or regional...employs it, for any expert witness testimony or...Commission-approved independent system operator or...

2010-04-01

143

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Monitoring Unit to report to management and the external Market Monitoring...board of directors with its management members removed, or to...participants, on at least a quarterly basis and submit a more comprehensive...information exchange and communication continue over time....

2010-04-01

144

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...thatoperates organized markets based on competitive...reserves, reactive power and voltage control, or regulation and frequency...design flaws and market power abuses. ...Functions of Market Monitoring Unit...Energy Market Regulation staff and...

2010-04-01

145

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...electric energy reduction that the demand...directors, with its management members removed...Unit to report to management and the external...directors with its management members removed...constraints, and cost calculations...responsibility and the tools to monitor the...

2010-04-01

146

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission-approved independent system operator's...databases of market information. (C) The...Commission-approved independent system operator's...the exclusive control of the Market...to ensure that information exchange and...Commission-approved independent system operators and...aggregation of retail customers, shortage...

2010-04-01

147

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...responsibility and the tools to monitor the quality...alleged manipulative effect on market prices...Perceived Market Design Flaws and Recommended...perceived market design flaw, its effects on the market...remedy the perceived design flaw, any...

2010-04-01

148

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...thatoperates organized markets based on competitive...thesemarkets for that product on a basis comparable...at or belowthe market-clearing price...may phasein this modification of its market rules. (2...databases of market information. (C)...

2010-04-01

149

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...operator or regional transmission organization, the Commission, and other interested...operator's or regional transmission organization's behavior may require investigation, including...operator or regional transmission organization may not permit its Market...

2010-04-01

150

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...day-ahead and a real-time market may not...real-timemarket during a real-time market period... (3) Market monitoring policies. ...markets, Market Monitoring Units, Commission-approved...reporting on the study of the need...

2010-04-01

151

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Monitoring Unit, whether internal or external, to participate in...structure may permit its internal market monitor to conduct...must assign to its external market monitor the...independent system operator, stakeholders, market...

2010-04-01

152

18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.  

Science.gov (United States)

...service agreement, except an economy energy coordination agreement as defined...in the consumption of electric energy by customers from theirexpected...response to an increase in the price of electric energy or to incentive...

2010-04-01

153

Short term use of the system tariffs : the substitution method revisited  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some countries, electricity network losses are evaluated using a substitution method in order to apply Use of the System Tariffs against generators and loads. Although the substitution method is widely used for loss pricing in real distribution systems with distributed generation, this method can produce inconsistent results, particularly when all users are included in the analysis. This paper demonstrated how all agents are responsible for some of the network loss reduction and no single user is responsible for the actual loss. For these reasons, a new and more complex procedure based on a cost-causality approach was introduced. In this study, the substitution method was revisited and reformulated with a new performance index in order to produce an equitable sharing of the benefits or added costs introduced by distributed generators. Under certain operating scenarios, the newly proposed method can emulate the solution provided by a marginal or incremental approach fulfilling some requirements for an effective loss allocation policy to ensure recovery of losses and send economic signals to agents. It was concluded that the reformulated method is a practical alternative for access pricing in distribution networks. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs., 1 appendix

154

Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.

Munk, Knud JØrgen

2006-01-01

155

The Nova Scotia community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the number of renewable energy projects to increase, government bodies need to offer incentives that will attract more groups to participate. This presentation introduces the Nova Scotia Department of Energy's community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) program which was designed to encourage community based renewable energy projects. The COMFIT program is open to a number of community groups, such as First Nations, municipalities, universities, not-for-profits groups, CEDIFs, and co-operatives. The program encourages these groups to invest in renewable energy projects by offering an established price per kilowatt hour. For a project to be eligible, it must be community owned, connected to the distribution grid, and be based on one of a list of approved technologies which includes: biomass, in-stream tidal, hydroelectricity, and wind. The presentation states that CEDIFs currently account for the majority of groups participating in the COMFIT program, with large wind being the primary technology.

Bird, Michael [Nova Scotia Department of Energy (Canada)

2011-07-01

156

Tariffs, Mechanisms and Equilibria at a Single Internet Link  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyze the interplay between the demand for downloads, choice of congestion control mechanism, and tariff structure at a single link, when users have preferences in terms of average download delay and they are charged according to the number of ECN marked packets they receive. Our model involves a timescale separation approach, where in the fast timescales active flows compete for instantaneous bandwidth share by optimally tuning congestion control parameters in a noncooperative fashion. This is modeled by letting flows choose utility functions within the network utility maximization framework laid down by Kelly [1]. On a slower timescale, users selfishly change their otherwise unrestricted demand for downloads based on the average experienced download delay and charges incurred. We study the equilibrium of this loop of interactions from the point of view of social welfare.

Courcoubetis, Costas; Dimakis, Antonis

157

Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

158

Structure of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat for bound customers in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of the new Dutch Electricity Law and the Natural Gas Law energy consumers in the Netherlands are or will be free to choose an energy supplier. The freedom of choice for small-scale consumers (e.g. households, small businesses) will be realized in a few years. For them, this booklet gives insight into the structure which forms the basis of tariffs for natural gas, electricity and heat in the Netherlands. How final consumption tariffs are determined is explained on the basis of the related starting points, tariffs for buying and selling, taxes and surcharges on the markets for the fore-mentioned energy carriers

159

Envisaging feed-in tariffs for solar photovoltaic electricity: European lessons for Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

e renewable electricity, presently in place in different parts of Canada, are reviewed. Attention is then focused, more specifically, in the second section of this article, upon 'feed-in tariffs'. After defining and describing this alternative system, experiences in the countries of the European Union are reviewed. The main strengths and weaknesses of feed-in tariffs - in the European experience - are also examined. The focus then moves back to Canada in the third section of the article. In this, a system of feed-in tariffs is proposed for the province of Ontario in order to provide just one example of the kind of support that could be forthcoming. (author)

160

Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)

 
 
 
 
161

Per month or per kWh? Assessment of the effects of a different tariff system for small-scale consumers of electricity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different types of capacity tariffs for small-scale consumers of electricity are assessed with respect to the effects of the implementation on those tariffs: impact on the administration costs of electric utilities, the extent to which a tariff is based on the cost-inducing principle, environmental impact, impact on the competitive strength of electric power companies, impacts on taxes and income. Three capacity tariffs are assessed: a uniform capacity tariff for households, a differentiated capacity tariff for households and a tariff which is based on the reference year consumption

162

Comparison of industrial tariffs for natural gas and electricity within the European Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In adherence to the EU Directive on the ''Transparency of Gas and Electricity Tariffs Paid by the Industrial End Consumer'' the Statistical Office of the European Union (eurostat) since July 1991 has biannually pusblished the gas and electricity tariffs paid by industrial consumers. In order to approximate the consumers' real situation as closely as possible these surveys determine the effective tariffs for typical consumption rates in certain towns or service areas of a country rather than just giving mean values. Selection of towns depends on several criteria such as, for example, population, economic import, different tariff zones, or the intent to give a representative picture of a country's geography. In the present study, one town was chosen from every country to permit an international comparison. (orig./UA)

163

Pareto-optimal electricity tariff rates in the Republic of Armenia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of electricity tariff rates on the residential sector of Yerevan, Armenia, is examined. The effect of tariff design on revenue generation and equity measures is considered, and the combination of energy pricing and compensatory social policies which provides the best mix of efficiency and protection for poor households is examined. An equity measure is defined in terms of a cumulative distribution function which describes the percent of the population that spends x percent or less of their income on electricity consumption. An optimal (Pareto-efficient) tariff is designed based on the analysis of survey data and an econometric model, and the Armenian tariff rate effective 1 January 1997 to 15 September 1997 is shown to be non-optimal relative to this rate. 22 refs

164

Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.

Ernest Ernest Aryeetey

2012-05-01

165

Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting : Evidence from German Mobile Telecommunications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.

Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg

2013-01-01

166

18 CFR 154.205 - Withdrawals and amendments of tariff filings and executed service agreements.  

Science.gov (United States)

(1) A natural gas company may withdraw in its entirety a tariff filing or executed service agreement that has not become effective and upon which no Commission or delegated order has been issued by filing a withdrawal motion with the...

2010-04-01

167

18 CFR 281.212 - Draft tariff and index of entitlements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule § 281.212 Draft tariff and index of entitlements. (a) Each...

2010-04-01

168

14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the filer terminate its business or cease filing tariffs...other mutually acceptable electronic medium, contemporaneously...the cessation of such business, a complete copy of...other mutually acceptable electronic medium, all...

2010-01-01

169

Trick or treat ? Development opportunities and challenges in the WTO negotiations on industrial tariffs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Negotiations on industrial tariffs in the current WTO have turned out to be surpisingly more difficult than expected. On the one hand, developing countries, particularly in Africa, are concerned about the effect on their industrial development of developed country efforts to push them into deep cuts in applied tariffs:after the disillusion of the Urguay Round, promises of welfare gains seem like buying one of Akerloff's lemons. On the other hand, a number of the more complex formula proposals...

Fernandez Co?rdoba, Santiago; Laird, Sam; Vanzetti, David

2004-01-01

170

Feed-in tariffs: misfits in the Federal and state regulatory regime?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While some states seeking to develop energy policies that promote fuel diversity and greater use of renewable resources have responded by enacting renewable portfolio standards, others, like California, have sought to capture some of the success demonstrated from the use of feed-in tariffs in countries such as Germany. Yet, as the California Public Utilities Commission's FIT Order makes clear, states are greatly limited in their ability to adopt feed-in tariffs. (author)

Morton, Teresa E.; Peabody, Jeffrey M.

2010-10-15

171

Tariff System in General and Its Impact on New Possibilities of Natural Gas Use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The natural gas tariff system in the Republic of Croatia was completed in 1993. This system has not yet been operational, because of some practical problems. Since 1993, many new possibilities of using natural gas have emerged, such as cooling, traffic, cogeneration (still in preparation). This paper analyzes these new possibilities of natural gas usage and considers their position in natural gas tariff system. Further analyses should leave enough space for possible amendments. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs

172

Fair and efficient tariffs for wind energy : principles, method, proposal, data and potential consequences in France  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

173

How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs, netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1 How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2 How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.

Simon Jonathon L.

2002-01-01

174

Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

2011-06-01

175

Smart Tariff for Smart Meters In Smart Grid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrow’s challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is “a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between”. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of “Smart Grid” technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.

Dr.D.P.Kothari

2010-10-01

176

The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'; Le tarif reglemente transitoire d'ajustement du marche de l'electricite dit 'tarif de retour'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

177

Unlocking Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We hold the key to unlocking access! This dynamic presentation covers open access in the broader context of the potential of the internet. Reasons for providing open access include: it's required (for example, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research open access policy), it's easy, and there are many benefits. Discusses open licenses, open digitization methods, new means of delivering content, open content and collaborative content development. This presentation includes many examples ...

Geist, Michael

2007-01-01

178

Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff, which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science.

Murray Christopher JL

2011-08-01

179

International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

180

A review on feed-in tariff in Australia, what it is now and what it should be  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this paper is to review the feed-in tariffs introduced and now are being implemented in different states and territories of Australia for the grid-connected small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. A further objective is to take a closer look at the production cost of these solar PV systems to compare with the introduced feed-in tariffs. The review results show that the gap between production cost of PV electricity and the feed-in tariff is relatively high, particularly in those states, were feed-in tariff based on net metering is implemented. (author)

Zahedi, A. [School of Engineering, James Cook University, Queensland (Australia)

2010-12-15

 
 
 
 
181

A review on feed-in tariff in Australia, what it is now and what it should be  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to review the feed-in tariffs introduced and now are being implemented in different states and territories of Australia for the grid-connected small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. A further objective is to take a closer look at the production cost of these solar PV systems to compare with the introduced feed-in tariffs. The review results show that the gap between production cost of PV electricity and the feed-in tariff is relatively high, particularly in those states, were feed-in tariff based on net metering is implemented. (author)

182

The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Demand side management (DSM has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and without the support of intelligent smart appliances. Sixty-seven households in Germany within an experimental design with fictive tariff model (August 11 to July 12 driven by RWE Effizienz GmbH, as the energy utility, and Miele & Cie.KG, as the appliance manufacturer, were equipped with intelligent smart meters and 41 of them also with smart appliances (washing-machine and tumble-dryer. As a first part of the experiment, the energy tariff changed per hour and day by day, depending on the forecast of the availability of renewable energy in Germany between 10 €-Cent and 40 €-Cent per kWh. Consumers could respond to this change by adjusting the operation of their energyconsuming appliances either by themselves or—with the smart appliances—by a programmed start at low tariffs. The behaviour of the 41 consumers with smart appliances and their motivation are intensively investigated and analysed during this running two year project including several questionnaires. The consumers had to fill out daily a diary about the usage of their washing-machine, tumble-dryer, dishwasher and ironing devices. These data were matched with the actual tariff. This did allow identifying if and to which extend the consumers adjust their household activities depending on availability of solar and wind energy. These data were also used to calculate the cost savings by using the flexible tariff. In comparison to the costs of the fixed tariff of 25 €-Cent per kWh savings of 25% were realised on average. The results of a first phase already show that flexible tariffs are able to influence the operation of household appliances towards a flexible demand.

Rainer Stamminger

2013-07-01

183

Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

2006-06-01

184

Encouraging vehicle-to-grid (V2G) participation through premium tariff rates  

Science.gov (United States)

The provision of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services to an electric grid by electric vehicles (EVs) can potentially reduce the cost of vehicle ownership through revenue generation. Recent studies indicate that yearly vehicle profit from V2G may not be sufficient to induce widespread participation. This paper investigates the feasibility of a premium tariff rate for V2G power, similar to current feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs for renewable energy. Using Ontario, Canada as a case study, an hourly time-series model for a fleet of commuter EVs is created. Tariff rates for V2G peak power are calculated based on the same return on investment as the current FIT for renewable energy in Ontario. The tariff rates are competitive with the renewable energy tariffs, especially when EVs are allowed to provide ancillary services to the grid in addition to peak power. Despite the guaranteed rate of return, yearly vehicle profit is low. Two variations are considered to increase vehicle profit, thereby enhancing the attractiveness of V2G. A higher return on investment is favored over direct benefits offered to EV owners. A higher return on investment may be justifiable based on the higher level of risk inherent in V2G when compared to renewable energy.

Richardson, David B.

2013-12-01

185

Tariff advice for the supply of heat to small-scale consumers in 2008  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The title advice is based on the principle of 'not more than otherwise' (nmda, abbreviated in Dutch), which principle is applied for the calculation of the contribution for connection to the energy supply system, the reduced rate for those paying standing charges, and the price of heat. The principle implies that the determined tariff for the supply of heat is such that, on average, the consumer of heat does not pay more than in case natural gas is used for an individual central heating system. From the year 2000 on the tariff advice includes a so-called cost-effectiveness contribution. In this advice attention is paid to the cost-effectiveness contribution, the connection contribution, the reduced rate, and the heat price. In the final chapter the indexing and updating of the different tariff elements of the advice are discussed

186

Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them

187

Tar?m D??? Ürünlerde Pazara Giri? (NAMA Müzakereleri ve Türkiye (Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations and Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse Turkey’s position and constraints in the WTO Nonagricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA especially vis-à-vis developing countries.It basically, underlines Turkey’s unique negotiating position; de jure developing, de facto an advanced economy status in the WTO Doha NAMA negotiations.At Doha Ministerial Meeting in 2001, WTO members agreed to initiate negotiations to further liberalize trade, among other areas, on non-agricultural goods. For this purpose, the Negotiating Group on Market Access (NGMA was created at the first meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee of the WTO, in early 2002. Turkey has been quite active since then in NAMA negotiations in calibrating its position between offensive and defensive negotiation interests although its offensive market access interests largely outweigh defensive one.Turkey has also been propagating an offensive non-linear tariff cutting Swiss Formula approach at the WTO to curb the international high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations. Having a strong offensive market access interests, Turkey mainly aims at large developing country markets diversifying its trade portfolio away from traditional markets towards large developing economies.From the perspective of governance, Turkey has serious constraints on its trade and industry policy space stemming from the Turkey-EU Customs Union (CU. Although Turkey is a de jure developing country in the WTO and will have all legal rights and mobligations stemming from the outcome of the DOHA, in practice, Turkey will have to implement the same applied common external tariffs of the EU. Despite the constraints and dilemmas stemming from the EU-Turkey customs union, it can be strongly argued that, it is in Turkey’s industrial interests to be actively involved in the WTO to tackle the high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations which hinders Turkey’s exports to the world markets.

?ahin YAMAN

2010-04-01

188

STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage, formation of the reserve fund and achieve the insurer has a specific benefit, get the first tariff or first gross.

Vaduva Maria

2012-03-01

189

Walking the tightrope: balancing effectiveness against cost in the Netherlands' feed-in tariffs. Commentary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A feed-in electricity tariff is a policy mechanism used in many countries to support renewable energy technologies until they can compete with other methods of generating electricity. But, as experience in the Netherlands shows, it is a challenging policy task to support renewables without wasting government money or creating perverse incentives. The Dutch government has implemented two feed-in tariff schemes since 2003, the first being the Environmental Quality of Electricity program ('Milieukwaliteit van de Elektriciteitsproductie' or MEP). This was followed in 2008 by the Promoting Renewable Energy scheme ('Stimulering Duurzame Energie' or SDE)

190

Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

Suber, Peter

2012-01-01

191

Improving of the Validity Tariffs Level Control for Housing and Communal Services Based on Economic and Mathematical Modeling ????????????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?????????-??????????????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of the tariffs for housing and communal services regulation. Topicality of the control validity level in tariffs were reasoned in view of coordinating the interests of all stakeholders of housing and communal services: the state, producers and customers. The concept of modeling, evaluation and removal uncertainty based on forming a quasi-homogeneous statistical aggregates regulated organizations, modeling, and assessment of variance in declared tariff levels from their estimated («analog-to-average» level was proposed to using in forming of system of tariff control. This approach will identify with lowest cost violators of the tariff legislation - an organization with a high potential of regulation.? ?????? ???????????????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ????????????? ???. ??????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ???? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????: ???????????, ?????????????? ? ???????????? ?????. ?????????? ??? ???????????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????? ?????????????, ?????? ? ?????? ???????? ???????????????? ?? ?????? ???????????? ??????????????? ?????????????? ????????????? ???????????? ???????????, ????????????? ?? ???????????? ? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? («???????-???????????» ????????. ????? ?????? ???????? ??????? ? ??????????? ????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????????????? – ??????????? ??? ? ??????? ??????????? ?????????????.

Bublik Nikolay D.

2012-04-01

192

7 CFR 1486.209 - How are program applications evaluated and approved?  

Science.gov (United States)

...The following priority technical assistance activities...activities which use technical assistance designed...and other non-tariff barriers; (v) Assessments...systems, to reduce trade barriers, to increase...

2010-01-01

193

78 FR 42886 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Publication Exemption  

Science.gov (United States)

...financial responsibility under the Shipping Act (46 U.S.C. 40902...tariff \\2\\ as required by the Shipping Act (46 U.S.C. 40501...necessary to better protect the shipping public. The extension of...46 CFR Part 520 Freight, Intermodal transportation,...

2013-07-18

194

Northern States Power Company's open transmission tariff from a customer's perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In October of 1990, Northern States Power Company (NSP or Company), filed a unique open transmission tariff for both captive customers and through-system transactions. This is an important step towards expanding transmission services in the United States. Many individuals in the utility industry, who may be considering Imposing generation costs on transmission services, have been closely monitoring NSP's case which is currently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). NSP's innovative generation costs include charges for reactive power production, frequency control, load dispatching, and load following. The results of this case may also have an important impact on the future of open transmission tariffs. Rates for these services depend on the customer's classification as either a captive or through-system consumer. The proposed tariff raises critical issues related to the costing of these transmission services. NSP's methodology has caused serious concern because the proposed tariff would increase transmission costs by an average of 53%. This paper will discuss the benefits of transmission, proposed rates, contract terms, and costing methodologies of NSP's plan

195

Feed-in tariffs for renewable energies in Europe - an overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tariffs paid for renewable electricity have become the decisive criteria for renewable energy development in Europe. This interdependency has been reflected by the introduction of various legislative schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) in an increasing number of Eu Member States which is being analysed in this paper. The rapidly expanding market for wind power in Europe has been the best example for the success of favourable tariff schemes for renewable energies. Such as supportive framework - especially as in Denmark and Germany - has allowed the emerging industry to develop and expand, with thousands of new jobs created. Taking a closer look at installation rates, it is obvious that many existing regulations and tariff schemes in other Member States do not seem sufficient to allow for an accelerated market introduction of RES. Therefore, favourable framework conditions - especially with regard to financing - are required at European level. This is why this paper proposes the introduction of a common European legislation granting minimum tariffs to renewable energies which are fed into the electricity grids. The proposed directive is in line with several resolutions of the European Parliament and with many documents adopted by the European Commission, the latest the Green Paper on RES. (orig.)

196

Maximum and minimum tariffs for transport concessions: a statistic study [paper in Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that leased public services prices can be calculated endogenously from the rate of return regulation model. In particular, this research extends the work by Rocha, Cavalcante and Oliveira (2009 where a method to price minimum and maximum leased fares to be charged from the users was presented. Moreover, these fares must be published on the public document bidding. Therefore, the value of the leased tariff must be between the minimum and the maximum ones, including the extreme values. The model is grounded upon the rate of return regulation method and, to establish the minimum tariff, it is resorted to the so-called certainty equivalent concept. The Brazilian transport regulatory agencies apply such method of regulation. This paper advances the described method assuming that the needed variables (demand and costs used to determine the minimum and the maximum tariffs of the leased public services have stochastic properties. To show its feasibility, the proposed model is implemented to the leasing of an inter-state bus service, where the values of the minimum and maximum tariffs are obtained, besides making a sensitivity analysis study.

Reinaldo Crispiniano Garcia

2011-10-01

197

Electricity tariff design for transition economies. Application to the Libyan power system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a general electricity tariff design methodology, especially applicable for transition economies. These countries are trying to modernize their power systems from a centralized environment (with normally, a public vertically integrated electric company) to a liberalized framework (unbundling electricity companies and, eventually, starting a privatization process). Two issues arise as crucial to achieving a successful transition: (1) ensuring cost recovery for all future unbundled activities (generation, transmission, distribution and retailing), and (2) sending the right price signals to electricity customers, avoiding cross-subsidies between customer categories. The design of electricity tariffs plays a pivotal role in achieving both objectives. This paper proposes a new tariff design methodology that, complying with these two aforementioned criteria, requires a low amount of information regarding system data and customer load profiles. This is important since, typically, volume and quality of data are poor in those countries. The presented methodology is applied to computing tariffs for the Libyan power system in 2006, using real data. (author)

Reneses, Javier; Gomez, Tomas; Rivier, Juan [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Angarita, Jorge L. [Europraxis Operations, Madrid (Spain)

2011-01-15

198

Estimating the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff commonly used by a local distribution company (LDC) in its electricity demand response program. This option value captures the benefit that a LDC enjoys from not serving an end-use load during high-price hours in a wholesale electricity market. It is conservative in that it does not include the cost savings in meeting the LDC's resource adequacy requirement or deferring transmission and distribution (T and D) investments necessary for delivering reliable service. Illustrated by a Northern California example, our two-pronged approach entails (a) a set of summer monthly market price regressions to forecast daily spot price distributions that incorporate uncertainty in natural gas price and weather; and (b) a simulation exercise to quantify the tariff's value under a specific design. The results indicate that a non-firm service tariff can have varying option value estimates that are highly sensitive to the tariff's design, and that an incentive payment based on the option value alone is likely insufficient to attract customer participation in a non-firm service program. (author)

199

Assessment of the feed-in tariff mechanism for renewable energies in Taiwan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on imported energy, and pursuit of sustainable development, renewable energies are extremely important for Taiwan's future energy supply. Since Taiwan's feed-in tariff (FIT) is still in its initial stage, one must examine whether the current system is compatible with a well-designed FIT scheme. This study examines the main features of Taiwan's FIT system and assesses design options using several criteria. Additionally, one of the most important elements of a FIT scheme, namely, a tariff system, is discussed. Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs, and the guaranteed-return tariff system coincides with the spirit underlying leading global FITs; however, many issues, such as setting goals by stages, refinement of the tariff calculation methodology, and elimination of other non-economic barriers, must be addressed to achieve future developmental goals and green industry growth. - Highlights: ? No in-depth study has focused exclusively on Taiwan's FIT design options. ? This study fills this gap in the literature by examining Taiwan's FIT system. ? Assessments demonstrate that Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs. ? Four issues are identified that Taiwan's policy makers should address to achieve future developmental goals and expand green industries.

200

The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

 
 
 
 
201

19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

19 ? Customs Duties ? 1 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims. ? 10.521 ? Section 10.521 ? Customs Duties ? U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ? ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO...

2010-04-01

202

76 FR 70448 - Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause  

Science.gov (United States)

...Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause This proceeding is instituted pursuant...Schedule A to this Order are directed to show cause why the Commission should not cancel...Schedule A to this Order are directed to show cause why the Commission should not...

2011-11-14

203

How much do electricity tariff increases in Ukraine hurt the poor?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Increasing the electricity tariffs for private consumers to cost-covering levels has been a very sensitive issue for all transition countries. The likely negative social consequences are the central argument why the necessary tariff corrections have not yet been implemented in Ukraine by the political decision makers. Since official data is not available, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the electricity consumption behaviour of private households. This makes it difficult to counter the official arguments with hard evidence. A survey was carried out by the authors giving a more detailed picture. Basic data of the survey was used in evaluating the impact of possible tariff increases on the household expenditures of different income groups, using both the compensating (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV) methods. The findings confirm that an electricity tariff increase up to the level which would cover ''officially'' measured costs, as defined by the Ukrainian electricity regulatory authority, would not cause severe social problems. However, further increases up to a level, which would cover the ''true'' costs, i.e. up to a level comparable to the average OECD level, should only be realised in steps. (author)

204

Attitude Accessibility.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitude formation, attitude accessibility and attitude-behavior consistency were studied. Experiments indicated that subjects could respond more quickly to inquiries about their attitudes when based on direct behavioral experience with attitude objects t...

R. H. Fazio

1981-01-01

205

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Structural Characterization of Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Using EPR Techniques by Udo Kielmann, Gunnar Jeschke and Inés García-Rubio ...3390/ma7021384 - published online 21 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Polymer-clay nanocomposites (PCNCs) containing either a rubber or an acrylate polymer were prepared ... Open Access Article: Preparation and Catalytic Activity of Carbon Nanofibers Anchored Metallophthalocyanine in Decomposing Acid Orange 7 by Baocheng Zhou and Wenxing Chen ...

206

Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of freshwater in such a way that does not jeopardize feasibility of agriculture would promote irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even at increased prices. On one hand, it increases the gap between the price of freshwater and that of reclaimed wastewater, making the later more attractive. On the other hand, it would be used as a financial resource for funding the investment costs of the infrastructure needed for conveyance and distribution of reclaimed wastewater. This paper studies the viability of increasing the prices of freshwater and reclaimed wastewater. The results show that irrigation with reclaimed wastewater even for restricted irrigation can be as profitable as, and sometimes better than, freshwater irrigation. Some of the permitted crops such as fruit trees can be more profitable than vegetables. Thus, it appears that the level of knowledge farmers and others on the benefits of reclaimed wastewater is still limited. PMID:18496015

Abu-Madi, M; Al-Sa'ed, R; Braadbaart, O; Alaerts, G

2008-01-01

207

Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

208

Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it is approved

209

Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

210

Statistics about transfer tariffs in the regional- and distribution grid 1997; Statistikk over overfoeringstariffer (nettleie) i regional- og distribusjonsnettet 1997  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains statistics of transport tariffs for electricity distribution in Norway in 1997. The transfer tariff is regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) in accordance with the Energy Act. It is defined as the price per kWh collected by the network owner for transporting the energy to the consumer. From 1996 to 1997 the tariffs for business customers and for houshold customers have increased by 5%. For the larger period 1993-1997, however, there is a reduction of 6% for large business customers, 13% for small business customers and 10% for household customers. 6 tabs.

Saetrang, Inger [ed.

1997-02-20

211

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Synthesis of Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution Norbornene-Lactone Functionalized Polymers by Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization: Candidates for 193- nm Photoresist Materials by ...Abstract: One hundred ninety three-nanometer candidate photoresist materials were synthesized by nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP). Statistical copolymerizations of 5-methacryloyloxy-2,6-norboranecarbolactone (NLAM)...with 5-10 mol% of controlling co-monomers (which are necessary for controlled polymerizations of methacrylates by NMP with the initiator used) in the feed, ... Open Access Article: Optimal Focusing and Scaling Law for Uniform Photo-Polymerization in a Thick Medium Using a Focused UV Laser by Jui-Teng ...

212

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships by Justin J. Lehmiller, William G. Graziano and Laura ...Access Article: An Instrument to Investigate Expectations about and Experiences of the Parent-Child Relationship: The Parent-Child Relationship Schema Scale by Marcia Dixson, ...of creating and testing for reliability and constructing the validity of the Parent-Child Relationship Schema Scale (PCRSS). The instrument is based ...on the Model of Relationships Survey (MRS). However, where the MRS is an open-ended survey which takes 20-30 minutes to ...

213

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Self-Sensing Control of Nafion-Based Ionic Polymer-Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuator in the Extremely Low Humidity Environment by Minoru Sasaki,... We tried to replicate this controllability in Nafion-based IPMC. We found that the displacement of a Nafion-based IPMC was proportional to the ... This property is the basis of self-sensing controllers for Nafion-based IPMC bending behavior: we perform bending curvature experiments on Nafion-based IPMCs, ... All three controllers performed very well with the Nafion-based IPMC actuator. Open Access Article: Concept of a Series-Parallel Elastic Actuator for ...

214

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Evaluating Complex Magma Mixing via Polytopic Vector Analysis (PVA) in the Papagayo Tuff, Northern Costa Rica: Processes ... Polytopic vector analysis (PVA) is a multivariate technique that can be used to evaluate suites of samples that are produced by mixing ... The PVA solution for the sample set is consistent with observations from bulk chemistry, microchemistry and petrographic data from the rocks. ...However, without PVA, the unequivocal identification of the three end-member solution would not have been possible. Open Access Article: The Lost ...

215

Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

2011-01-20

216

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Feature-Based Choice and Similarity Perception in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study by Sibilla Di Guida and Giovanna Devetag Games 2013, 4(4), 776-794; doi:10.3390/g4040776 - published online 18 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: In this ...

217

78 FR 15803 - Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...requesting accelerated tariff elimination and changes to the non-textile and non-apparel products rules of origin under the United...comments. Please do not attach separate cover letters to electronic submissions; rather, include any information that...

2013-03-12

218

19 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Bond To Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, as Amended  

Science.gov (United States)

...Chapter I) and § 210.50(d) of the U.S. International Trade Commission Regulations (19 CFR Chapter II) apply. Bond Toto Indemnify Complainant Under Section 337, Tariff Act of 1930, As Amended ______ as principal and ____ as...

2010-04-01

219

INVESTMENT PROBLEMS IN HOUSING AND COMMUNAL SERVICES’ SPHERE: ALTERNATIVE TARIFFS’ FORMING POLITICS AS A MEAN OF THEIR SOLVING ?????????????? ???????? ???????-???????????? ?????: ?????????????? ???????? ????????????????? ??? ?????? ?? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The situation formed in housing and communal sphere of the Russian Federation is analyzed; the means of investment attractiveness’ growth of the sphere are considered; an alternative to existing model of tariffs’ forming is offered

Matvienko D. A.

2012-11-01

220

78 FR 39259 - Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2013 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: Committee for the...

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

77 FR 40589 - Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2012 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: Committee for the...

2012-07-10

222

75 FR 38772 - Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America...  

Science.gov (United States)

...IMPLEMENTATION OF TEXTILE AGREEMENTS Amendment to the 2010 Tariff Preference Level (TPL) for Nicaragua Under the Central America-Dominican Republic-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) AGENCY: Committee for the...

2010-07-06

223

By-law from January 14, 2005, relative to the tariffs of use of public natural gas distribution networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This by-law defines the tariffing rules for the different French gas utilities according to the delivered quantities or to the subscribed daily capacity. Tariffs increase for overstepping of subscribed daily capacity are detailed. (J.S.)

224

77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...  

Science.gov (United States)

...REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...sugar established by the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered...States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

2012-04-25

225

Tariff advice for the supply of heat to small-scale consumers in 1999  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The title advice is based on the principle of 'not more than otherwise' (nmda, abbreviated in Dutch), which principle is applied for the calculation of the contribution for connection to the energy supply system, the reduced rate for those paying standing charges, and the price of heat. The principle implies that the determined tariff for the supply of heat is such that, on average, the consumer of heat does not pay more than in case natural gas is used for an individual central heating system. In his advice attention is paid to the connection contribution, the reduced rate, and the heat price. In the final chapter the indexation and updating of the different tariff elements of the advice are discussed

226

Informal Wage, Informal Price and Extortion under Migration and Tariff Reform*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we propose a theoretical model where formal and informal sectors co-exist in tandem. Trade union segregates some labor from being formal. Capital is not allowed to freely move between formal and informal sectors. Using this sort of framework it has been shown that immigration of unskilled workers re-duces the return to informal labor and makes the informal good relatively cheap. A tariff slash also impinges on similar kind of results. In both the cases informal capitalists gain. Moreover, what is more striking is that both migration and tariff reform are equally bad for the economy as a whole since these policies enhance the ‘unproductive’ element or labor in the society which is really costly as these laborers could have been used to produce some more consumable commodities.

Biswajit Mandal

2011-02-01

227

Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because of the high quantities of wind generation. The main goal is to evaluate the changes in the EVs charging diagram with the energy price preventing wind curtailment.

Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

2013-01-01

228

A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) forms part of integrated water resource management and can be used as an economically viable alternative to the upgrade of infrastructure to balance supply and demand. In order to enable effective decision-making, a model was developed in this [...] study to estimate expected water savings and the financial impact of a change in water tariff as a WC/WDM measure. This paper describes a model that was developed for municipalities to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example.

JJ, Hoffman; JA, du Plessis.

229

Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import ta...

Qishen Zhou; Mingxing Yang

2013-01-01

230

On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection with the tariffs of domestic contracts; - Proposals for tariffing the international transports. The sixth section presents the efficiency of the short and medium term access. The following issues are tackled: - Regulation of access and transmission; - Short term treating of the bottlenecks; - De-congestion investments; - Tariffs for lead-in and reinforcement operations; - the case of proximity production, direct lines and self-production. Finally, the last section titled 'Inciting the GRT internal efficiency and tariffing evolution, displays the subject matters: - The GRT behaviour guide; - Evolution of tariffing; - Benchmarking possibilities. In the concluding section the basic ideas of the report i.e., improving the market functioning, developing the network management and inciting the grow in the internal efficiency of GRT are elaborated and entailing recommendations are set down.

NONE

1999-08-17

231

Switching the lights off : the impact of energy tariff increases on households in the Kyrgyz Republic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Raising energy prices to cost?recovery tariffs has several implications. The implicit (quasi?fiscal) subsidization of the energy sector will be reduced to a large extent. Energy companies will have higher revenues, and consumers will be faced with a major increase of their energy bills and potentially high welfare losses. Removing subsidies affects poor households more as they spend on average a larger share of household income on energy and because they have fewer options to adjust th...

Gassmann, Franziska

2012-01-01

232

Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.)

233

Pressure in the natural gas pipe. Coherence between tariffs for natural gas transport, and congestion in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using GASTALE (Gas mArket System for Trade Analysis in a Liberalizing Europe), a comprehensive computational game theoretic model of the European gas market, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) conducted at the request of Gas Transportation Services (GTS) a study on the relationship between gas transport tariffs, the demand for gas transport and possible re-routing of gas flows in Northwestern Europe. We find that lowering the average Dutch transport tariff compared to the average German transport tariff induces a re-routing of gas flows from the German network to the Dutch network. In periods of high gas demand, such as the peak winter season, the lower transport tariffs lead to a high potential demand for gas transport which cannot be fulfilled by the limited capacity of the Dutch gas transport network. This will probably even lead to congestion in the Dutch network as a 'first-come first-served' regime is currently applied in the Netherlands. So Dutch gas transport tariffs being out of line with the gas transport tariffs neighbouring countries, implies that there is a real chance that transit flows are crowding-out gas flows destined for Dutch final consumers of gas. Hence, the security of gas supply for the Netherlands is seriously threatened. These findings are robust for variations in the model assumptions as shown by a number of sensitivity analyses

234

Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

2010-01-01

235

Willingness to Pay and Inclusive Tariff Designs for Improved Water Supply Services in Urban Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study investigates willingness to pay for improved water supply services in urban Bangladesh, using a contingent valuation survey of 3000 households in Khulna city. Since the large connection cost is regarded as one of the major obstacles to expand the piped network among the poor, the study explicitly incorporates the connection cost in addition to monthly charge. The construct validity tests show that the respondents have understood the elicitation questions and answered truthfully. Policy simulations show that poor households are less likely to be connected under fixed charge tariff, and introduction of volumetric tariff will increase the acceptance of the improved water service by poor households. Increasing block tariff shows the highest uptake rate of the improved service by the poor. The large connection cost is found to be a critical bottleneck to expanding the coverage for the poor. Easy payments systems for connection charge such as installment payments, or including the connection costs under the capital investment of the project, will significantly improve the inclusion of the poor in the proposed water supply scheme.

Herath Gunatilake

2014-09-01

236

Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

Vogl, Matthias

2012-01-01

237

Revised feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic in the United Kingdom: A cloudy future ahead?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The United Kingdom (UK) started implementing a national Feed-In Tariff (FiT) mechanism on the 1 April 2010, which included specific payment tariffs for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, a revised FiT rate has been put in place starting from 1 April 2012, applicable to any installations with an eligibility date of on or after 3 March 2012. This paper presents, first, an overview of solar PV installation in the UK. This followed by a general concept of the FiT in the UK before analyzing the financial impact of the new FiT rate on the consumers. Similar financial analysis is conducted with selected countries in Europe. The financial analysis investigates the total profit, the average rate of return and the payback period. It is found that the new FiT rate generates very low profit, minimum rate of return and a longer payback period, suggesting a downward trend of solar PV uptake in the future. - Highlight: ? Overview of solar PV installation in the UK until present time is discussed. ? Financial analysis is presented using previous, new and degression FiT tariff. ? Comparative analysis with other European countries is evaluated. ? The new FiT rate in the UK generates very low return than other countries. ? This could suggest a downward trend of UK's solar PV uptake in the future

238

High-efficiency electric motors: An analysis of a feasible tariff policy for Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective is to calculate an average value for an electricity tariff which will facilitate the introduction of high-efficiency electric motors in the production sector. Two computational models will be developed for technical-economic evaluation to assess economic attractiveness by calculating feasible average electricity tariffs in order to create a market for substitution of standard motors by new high-efficiency models (Purchase Decision Model) as well as to determine if retrofitting of standard installed motors by others with high-efficiency characteristics is viable, and, if so, to specify the optimum timing for such substitution (Substitution Decision Model). It should be noted that the Purchase Decision Model takes into account power factor adjustment and the Substitution Decision Model incorporates considerations as to reduction in the electromechanical performance of operating motors. Results indicate that even where average electricity tariffs are low, as in Brazil, high-efficiency motors are economically attractive compared to standard motors. There is an obvious need for complementary instruments to assist massive market penetration

239

Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

240

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Titania Photocatalysis beyond Recombination: A Critical Review by Bunsho Ohtani Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 942-953; doi:10.3390/catal3040942 - published online 15 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: This short review paper shows the significance of recombination of a photoexcited electron and a hole in conduction and valence bands, respectively, of a titania photocatalyst, since recombination has ...not yet been fully understood and has not been evaluated adequately during the past several decades of research on heterogeneous photocatalysis. Open Access Article: Rate Parameter Distributions for Isobutane Dehydrogenation and Isobutene Dimerization and Desorption over HZSM-5 by Trevor C. Brown, David J. Miron, Abdullah K. Alanazi and Cam Le Minh Catalysts 2013, 3(4), 922-941; doi:10.3390/catal3040922 - ...

 
 
 
 
241

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Influence of Annealing on Mechanical Properties of Al-20Si Processed by Selective Laser Melting by Pan Ma, Konda G. Prashanth, Sergio Scudino, Yandong Jia, Hongwei Wang, Chunming Zou, Zunjie Wei and Jürgen Eckert Metals 2014, 4(1), 28-36; doi:10.3390/met4010028 - published online 27 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The microstructure and mechanical properties ...

242

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Genetics of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Disease within the Frame of the Human Genome Project Success by Vincent Timmerman, Alleene V. Strickland and Stephan Züchner Genes 2014, 5(1), 13-32; doi:10.3390/genes5010013 - published online 22 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies comprise a group of monogenic disorders affecting the peripheral nervous system....

243

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Preferences for Prenatal Tests for Cystic Fibrosis: A Discrete Choice Experiment to Compare the Views of Adult Patients, ...Carriers of Cystic Fibrosis and Health Professionals by Melissa Hill, Ranjan Suri, Edward F. Nash, Stephen Morris and Lyn S....As new technologies enable the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis ( NIPD) for cystic fibrosis (CF), research examining stakeholder views is essential ...

244

Open Access  

...Open Access Article: Miniaturized Bioaffinity Assessment Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Guided Purification of Bioactives from Toad and Cone Snail by Ferry Heus, Reka A. Otvos, Ruud L. E. G. Aspers, Rene van Elk, Jenny I. Halff, Andreas W. Ehlers, Sébastien Dutertre, Richard J. Lewis, Sybren Wijmenga, August B. Smit, Wilfried M. A. Niessen and Jeroen Kool Biology 2014, 3(1), 139-156; doi:10.3390/biology3010139 - published online 13 February 2014 ...

245

Open Access  

... Although ß-lactoglobulin is a predominantly ß-sheet protein, it has been shown to form non-native helices during the early stage of folding. The location of non-native helices, their stabilization mechanism, and their role in the folding reaction are discussed. Open Access Article: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Capture the Misfolding of the Bovine Prion Protein at Acidic pH by Chin Jung Cheng and Valerie Daggett Biomolecules 2014, 4(...

246

'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard employment, the company's regional reorganisation involved the loss of hundreds of jobs. Conclusions Regional integration organisations and their member states should be aware of the capacity of TTCs to act in a coordinated transnational manner to influence policy in their own interests, and coordinate their own public health and tax policies in a similarly effective way.

Holden Chris

2011-05-01

247

47 CFR 61.39 - Optional supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for Access Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...shall be based on cost and demand data for the same period...shall be based on cost and demand data for the same period...shall be based on cost and demand data for the same period...the proposed rates, in the aggregate, are no greater than...

2010-10-01

248

Open Access  

... Powder X-ray diffraction was also employed to characterize the bulk materials and those phases which did not yield single-crystals. These compounds are ... Namely, ITO additive initiates an early breakdown of the doped LC samples exposed to high electric fields. A model is proposed in ... Open Access Review Review: High Performance Negative Dielectric Anisotropy Liquid Crystals for Display Applications by Yuan Chen, Fenglin Peng, Takashi Yamaguchi,...Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: We review recent progress in the development of high birefringence (?n = 0.12) negative dielectric ...

249

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Clinical Documentation and Data Transfer from Ebola and Marburg Virus Disease Wards in Outbreak Settings: Health Care Workers’ Experiences and Preferences by Silja Bühler, Paul Roddy, Ellen Nolte and Matthias Borchert Viruses 2014, 6(2), 927-937; doi:10.3390/v6020927 - published online 19 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Understanding human filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) clinical manifestations and evaluating treatment strategies require the collection of clinical data in outbreak settings, where clinical documentation has been limited. Currently, no ...

250

Open Access  

...and Motivators for Referral of Patients with Suspected Lynch Syndrome to Cancer Genetic Services: A Qualitative Study by Yen Y. Tan and ...specialists on their referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services. Using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy, we ... Referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services is motivated and hindered by a range of individual, interpersonal and ...Access Article: Design and Implementation of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Genomic Counseling for Patients with Chronic Disease by Kevin Sweet, Erynn S....

251

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review by Zhao Chen and Xiuping Jiang ...3390/agriculture4010001 - published online 28 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve ... As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans ...the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small ...

252

Open Access  

... Across affective behavior and narrative within stories of late procreative desire, dream journals and Word Association Tests of eight participants was the memory ... Open Access Article: Jung on the Nature and Interpretation of Dreams: A Developmental Delineation with Cognitive Neuroscientific Responses by Caifang Zhu Behav....published online 22 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Post-Jungians tend to identify Jung’s dream theory with the concept of compensation; they tend to believe ...that Jung’s radically open stand constitutes his dream theory in its entirety. However, Jung’s theory regarding dreams was a product of an ...

253

Open Access  

... and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests. Open Access Article: Tenure Issues in REDD+ Pilot Project Sites in Tanzania by Therese Dokken, Susan Caplow, Arild Angelsen and William D. Sunderlin Forests 2014, 5(2), 234-255;...

254

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Organizational Mission and Revenue Diversification among Non-profit Sports Clubs by Pamela Wicker, Svenja Feiler and Christoph Breuer Int. J. Financial Stud. 2013, 1(4), 119-136; doi:10.3390/ijfs1040119 - published online 8 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The beneficial effects of diversified income portfolios are well documented in previous research on non-profit organizations. This study examines how different types of organizational missions affect the level of revenue diversification of organizations in one industry, a question that was neglected in ...

255

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: miR-137: A New Player in Schizophrenia by Jingwen Yin, Juda Lin, Xudong Luo, Yanyan Chen, ...3390/ijms15023262 - published online 21 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disease and characterized by affective, cognitive, neuromorphological, ... Recently, miR-137 has been confirmed as a gene related to schizophrenia susceptibility. In the following review, we summarize the expression pattern,...in psychiatric illness, may improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. Latest articles - ...

256

Open Access  

... This paper offers a cartography, both phenomenological and social scientific, of this multi-tiered site of meat, power, and belief. Open Access Correction: Bickmann, Claudia. “The Idea of a Highest Divine Principle—Founding Reason and Spirituality. A Necessary Concept of a Comparative Philosophy?” Religions 3 (2012): 1025-40 by Claudia Bickmann Religions 2014, 5(1), 21; doi:10.3390/rel5010021 - published online 16 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The author wishes to add the following correction to her paper ...

257

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index by Timothy J. Fullman and Erin ... The African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability ...to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI) applies ...livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted ...

258

Open Access  

... However, there appeared to be a trimodal distribution during summer, with two peaks in the coarse mode, which might be due to the hygroscopic growth of the local particles and the generation of aerosol precursor resulting from the extreme-high temperature and relative humidity. Open Access Article: Data Mining Methods to Generate Severe Wind Gust Models by Subana Shanmuganathan and Philip Sallis Atmosphere 2014, 5(1), 60-80; doi:10.3390/atmos5010060 - published online 13 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Gaining knowledge on weather patterns, trends and ...

259

Open Access  

...Access Review Review: Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials by Yuanzeng Min, Jinming Li, Fang Liu,...3390/nano4010129 - published online 6 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs), which can be excited by near-infrared (...mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in ...One-Pot Solvothermal Synthesis of Highly Emissive, Sodium-Codoped, LaF3 and BaLaF5 Core-Shell Upconverting Nanocrystals by Joshua T. Stecher, Anne B. Rohlfing and ...

260

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Elements of an Integrated Phenotyping System for Monitoring Crop Status at Canopy Level by Donald Rundquist, Anatoly Gitelson, Bryan Leavitt, Arthur Zygielbaum, Richard Perk and Galina Keydan Agronomy 2014, 4(1), 108-123; doi:10.3390/agronomy4010108 - published online 17 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Great care is needed to obtain spectral data appropriate for phenotyping in a scientifically rigorous manner. This paper discusses the procedures and considerations necessary and also suggests important pre-processing and analytical steps leading to real-time, non- destructive ...

 
 
 
 
261

Open Access  

...Open Access Review Review: Telemedicine Workplace Environments: Designing for Success by Elizabeth A. Krupinski Healthcare 2014, 2(1), 115-122;...published online 24 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: When designing a facility for telemedicine, there are several things to consider from a human factors ... Although the future practice of telemedicine is likely to be more of a mobile-based practice and centered more in the home than it ...still very important to consider ways to optimize the design of clinic-based telemedicine facilities. This is true on both ends of a consultation—where ...

262

Open Access  

...cryptomonad bloom and this was followed by a bloom of the mixotrophic dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium instriatum. Chlorophyll a, nutrient concentrations, and ... Open Access Article: Towards an Ecological Understanding of Dinoflagellate Cyst Functions by Isabel Bravo and Rosa Isabel Figueroa Microorganisms 2014, 2(1)...published online 3 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The life cycle of many dinoflagellates includes at least one nonflagellated benthic stage (cyst). ...In the literature, the different types of dinoflagellate cysts are mainly defined based on morphological (number and type of layers in the cell ...

263

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Antioxidant Activity in Two Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) Cultivars as Influenced by Processing by Florence Suma Pushparaj and ...antioxidant components as well as the antioxidant activities in the commonly used pearl millet cultivars—Kalukombu (K) and Maharashtra Rabi Bajra ( ... The methanolic extracts of processed pearl millet flours were analyzed for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, reducing power ...Processing did not have any significant effect on the FRAP activity of pearl millet. The data on the correlation coefficient suggests that DPPH ...

264

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Emergence as Mesoscopic Coherence by Gianfranco Minati and Ignazio Licata Systems 2013, 1(4), 50-65; doi:10.3390/systems1040050 - published online 27 September 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: We propose here a formal approach to study collective behaviors intended as coherent sequences of spatial configurations, adopted by agents through various corresponding structures over time. Multiple, simultaneous structures over time and their sequences are called Meta-Structures and establish sequences of spatial configurations considered as emergent on the basis of coherent criteria chosen and detected ...

265

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Referee Bias and Stoppage Time in Major League Soccer: A Partially Adaptive Approach by Katherine G. Yewell, Steven B. Caudill and Franklin G. Mixon, Jr. Econometrics 2014, 2(1), 1-19; doi:10.3390/...econometrics2010001 - published online 17 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: This study extends prior research on referee bias and close bias in professional soccer by examining whether Major League Soccer (MLS) referees’ discretion over stoppage time (i.e., extra play beyond regulation) is influenced ...

266

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries by Kadri Koppel, Suntaree Suwonsichon, Uma Chitra, Jeehyun Lee and Edgar Chambers IV Foods 2014, 3(1), 110-127; doi:10.3390/foods3010110 - published online 16 January 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately ...

267

Open Access  

...Open Access Editorial: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Coatings in 2013 by Coatings Editorial Office Coatings 2014, 4(1), 160-161; doi:...under processing) - published online 24 February 2014 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The editors of Coatings would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers ...Surface Immune-Compatibility by Olimpia Gamucci, Alice Bertero, Mariacristina Gagliardi and Giuseppe Bardi Coatings 2014, 4(1), 139-159; doi:10.3390/...specific features used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging need particular coatings to improve their blood solubility and increase their biocompatibility. Other ...

268

Open Access  

... Open Access Article: Framework for Analyzing Android I/O Stack Behavior: From Generating the Workload to Analyzing the Trace by Sooman Jeong,...are not adaptable to generating nor capturing the I/O requests of Android apps. The Android platform needs proper tools to capture and ...replay real world workload in the Android platform to verify the result of benchmark tools. This paper introduces Android Storage Performance Analysis Tool,...for characterizing and analyzing the behavior of the I/O subsystem in Android based devices. The AndroStep consists of Mobibench (workload generator)...

269

Open Access  

... Glucose monitoring is an integral part of diabetes management, and the maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the only way for ...investigate the expression of glycolysis-associated genes and to compare this with FDG-PET imaging as well as with the cellular proliferation index in two cancer ... The Ki67 proliferation index and, when available, FDG-PET imaging was compared with gene expression. Overexpression of GLUT1 gene expression was less frequent ... Open Access Review Review: Functional Imaging in Diagnostic of Orthopedic Implant-Associated Infections by Inga Potapova Diagnostics 2013, 3(4), 356-371;...

270

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair by Manvendra K. Singh and Jonathan A. Epstein J. Dev. ...3390/jdb1020141 - published online 26 August 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The death of cardiac myocytes resulting from myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart ... Effective therapies for regenerating lost cardiac myocytes are lacking. Recently, the epicardium has been implicated as a source of inflammatory cytokines,...During embryonic development, epicardially-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple cardiac lineages, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle and potentially other ...

271

Proposal of October 26, 2005 from the Commission of energy regulation about the tariff of use of natural gas distribution networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Each manager of a natural gas distribution network has its own tariff for the use of its network. This document recalls the general tariffing principles: delivery point invoicing, services included, structure and choice of tariff options, metering frequency, monthly or daily subscriptions of daily capacity, penalties for daily capacity excess, regrouping of delivery points, supply of a delivery point by several suppliers. The tariffs of the different French gas utilities are given in appendix. (J.S.)

272

When Is Open Access Not Open Access?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As open access grows in prominence, so too has confusion about what open access means; such confusion arises from a genuine misunderstanding of open access by funders, authors, editors, and publishers alike.

Maccallum, Catriona J.

2007-01-01

273

Open Access  

...3390/lubricants1040075 - published online 15 November 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: Metalworking fluids (MWF) play a significant role in manufacturing processes, such as machining or forming. Consequently, a high number of MWF with varying chemical composition are commercially available. However, the working mechanisms of the MWF are still object of discussion in science and application. This paper addresses the possible interactions of additives with metal surfaces taking the characteristic ...conditions in machining and forming processes as well as the chemical properties of the surface and the additives into account. The new model for possible interaction of additives with the metal surface is considered and supported by experimental data. This new model does not imply reaction layers as tribological active layer anymore. Open Access Technical Note: Employing Acoustic Emission for Monitoring Oil Film Regimes by Mhmod Hamel, ...

274

Open Access  

... Open Access Review Review: Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives by Anu Puri Pharmaceutics 2014, 6(1), 1-25; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics6010001 - published online 19 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a ... Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief ...summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations ...

275

Open Access  

... Paley, Araminta Ledger, Martin O. Leach, Craig Cummings, Raymond Hughes and Ali Akgun Technologies 2013, 1(3), 44-53; doi:10.3390/technologies1030044 - published online 10 December 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: MRI-guidance is increasingly used for minimally-invasive procedures, such as biopsy, and requires real-time active tracking of surgical instruments. Although optical and MR-based fiducial tracking devices have been ... Open Access Article: Influence of the Academic Library on US University Reputation: A Webometric Approach by Enrique Orduña-Malea and John J. Regazzi Technologies 2013, 1(2), 26-43; doi:10.3390/technologies1020026 - published online 16 September 2013 Show/Hide Abstract Abstract: A previous study conducted through a survey of academic libraries at 100 US universities with the highest total expenditures on academic libraries according to ...

276

Research on the Impacts of Expensive Food and Luxury Goods Import Tariff Adjustment on Chinese Economy and Related Measures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. Nowadays, Asia especially China has been the world’s biggest expensive food and luxury goods market. However, due to relatively higher luxury import tariff in China, most consumers have chosen to purchase expensive food and luxury goods abroad which leads to a large of domestic consumption cash outflow. Therefore, whether to cut the luxury import tariff in China has been an urgent topic in the field. This study reviews the existing research on luxury consumption as well as relative background home and abroad, especially focusing on the situation on Chinese consumers. Then it briefly introduces the current status of Chinese luxury consumption as well as luxury market, illustrating that expensive food and luxury goods consumption import tariff cut has a great contribution to the Chinese economy. Based on the conclusions, the proposing measures will be put forward when cutting luxury import tariff.

Qishen Zhou

2013-10-01

277

Renewables without limits : moving Ontario to advanced renewable tariffs by updating Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Ontario Sustainable Energy Association (OSEA) promotes the development of community-owned renewable energy generation. It was emphasized that in order to achieve OSEA's original objectives of developing as much renewable energy as quickly as possible through community participation, changes are needed to Ontario's groundbreaking standard offer contract (SOC) program. This report examined the status of Ontario's SOC program and proposed changes to the program as part of the program's first two-year review. The report provided a summary of the program and discussed each of the program's goals, notably to encourage broad participation; eliminate barriers to distributed renewable generation; provide a stable market for renewable generation; stimulate new investment in renewable generation; provide a rigorous pricing model for setting the tariffs; create a program applicable to all renewable technologies; provide a simple, streamlined, and cost-effective application process; and provide a dispute resolution process. The program goals as developed by the Ontario Power Authority and Ontario Energy Board were discussed with reference to mixed results to date; simplicity; removing barriers; balancing targets with value to ratepayers; and building on the efforts of OSEA. Advanced renewable tariffs (ART) and tariff determination was also discussed along with ART's in Germany, France, Spain and Ontario. Inflation indexing; tariff degression; proposed new tariffs by technology; and other costs and factors affecting profitability were also reviewed. ref., tabs.

Gipe, P. [Wind-works, Tehachapi, CA (United States)

2007-11-15

278

DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN TARIFF BILL-BASED THEORIES OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 USING EVENT STUDY DATA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jude Wanniski (1978 argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005, on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated higher revenues and profits from the anticipated increase in sales and revenues. The Stock Market Crash, he argued, came on the heels of the defeat of the Thomas Recommittal Plan which foretold of lower, not higher as Wanniski contended, tariffs on manufactures. Using Event Study data from January 14, 1929 to October 29, 1929, this paper attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses. The results show that “good” tariff bill news as reported in the New York Times contributed to stock price appreciation, and vice-versa, supporting the latter theory.

Bernard C. Beaudreau

2014-07-01

279

Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992–2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. - Highlights: ? This is the first econometric study of feed-in tariff (FIT) efficacy in Europe. ? We test the impact of FIT's on photovoltaic (PV) and wind power from 1992 to 2008. ? We calculate country- and year-specific return on investment provided by each FIT. ? FIT policies increased PV installations by ?0.5% per ROI percentage point. ? Policy design, market traits, and ROI are more important factors than policy alone.

280

Governmental intervention approaches to promote renewable energies—Special emphasis on Japanese feed-in tariff  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Almost all countries have issued laws and regulations to promote renewable energy (RE). However, the applications and motivations of such laws as well as achievements have been different. Currently, the Japanese government has announced its targets to expand the electricity feed-in tariff scheme for solar power, along with other energy sources, within two years to meet the goal set by the Japanese Prime Minister who, in the 15th United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) held in September 2009, proclaimed to cut 25% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the 1990 levels by 2020. In this paper, the current Japanese energy policies and measures for promoting RE in comparison to popular methods followed worldwide are explored. Furthermore, a Least Cost Feed-in Tariff (LCFIT) Simulation Model for Japanese case was developed to calculate the optimal mix of technologies to reach certain targets. The LCFIT also calculates the tariff that should be proposed for each technology and the total cost for the program with and without a carbon tax and estimates the premium added to the bill of the customer every month. - Highlights: ? RE governmental interventions vary with country's economical, social and topological condition. ? LCFIT Model showed that Japan can apply the FiT system with reasonable burdens on the customers. ? Applying 20% of carbon tax can lead to declining the burdens on the customer by about 32%–45%. ? The R and D expenditures on RE is almost one-fourth that of nuclear power in some countries. ? Japanese scenarios seem very satisfying compared to that of Germany and other European countries.

 
 
 
 
281

Two-Part Tariff Lottery: A Means to Provide Public Good at the Social Optimum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pure public goods provided by charitable organizations may be provided at the first-best level when the provision is financed by an appropriately designed lottery. If lottery tickets are sold using a two-part tariff, the level of provision of the public good is greater than when fees are not charged to participate in the lottery. Unlike [13] who asymptotically approach the first-best level of provision with an arbitrarily large prize, a Pareto efficient level of the public good is produced when participation fees for the lottery are set appropriately.

Vicky Barham

2012-02-01

282

On the role of government regulation in creating conditions for the development of Russian regions: the case of tariff policy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The elimination of disparities in the economic conditions of regional development is an important task of government regulation. The tariff policy influences the economic development of Russia and different regions. The market incentives for innovation are not sufficiently strong. The rise in prices and tariffs has a negative impact on cost structure and production efficiency. The research conducted shows the degree of variation in the level and dynamics of prices and rates in each region and provides a basis for analyzing the conditions of economic development and their comparison at a regional level. The paper shows the impact of tariff policy on the development of regional markets and the creation of conditions for economic development.

Gerasimenko V. V.

2013-01-01

283

Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

2010-07-01

284

Energy saving in energy market reform—The feed-in tariffs option  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of feed-in tariffs (FITs) is now widespread for renewable energy and under discussion for other low carbon electricity generation, but not for energy efficiency. There is a small literature on FITs for electricity demand reduction, but not energy efficiency more generally. This paper considers the general application of FITs on the demand side and sets out the economic arguments in the context of changing energy markets. It then discusses the implications of some practical issues, including the definitional problems arising from the difference between energy efficiency and demand reduction. Using experience from historical energy efficiency programmes, it considers the public benefits, payment methods and policy scope that need to be considered and how these might affect policy design. It makes some provisional estimates of economically justified payments in the context of the proposed UK energy market reform. It concludes that FITs for energy saving might be a powerful tool for incentivising energy efficiency. - Highlights: ? The concept of an energy saving feed-in tariff (ESFIT) is introduced and analysed. ? ESFITs are potentially an alternative to supplier energy efficiency obligations. ? To maximise effectiveness, ESFITs should be paid as capital grants. ? ESFITs are justifiable if there are premium prices for low carbon generation. ? Higher rates of ESFIT may be justified to overcome barriers to energy efficiency.

285

Willingness to pay for renewable energy: implications for UK green tariff offerings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although financial support for renewable electricity sources has existed via the non-fossil fuel obligation since 1990, the UK 'green power' market is still in its infancy. This paper looks at attitudes to tariffs for 'green power' in light of the proposed phase-out of the non-fossil fuel obligation. The hypothesis tested was the consumer's willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources and to see if this was related to income and attitude. Data for analysis were taken from replies to a questionnaire sent to an energy-aware subpopulation of Leicester which were analysed by a variety of statistical tests. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that whether someone was willing to pay more was significantly correlated with attitude, experience (whether they had visited an environmental centre) and the purchasing power placed on GBP 5.00. This finding has implications for the methods by which support for green tariffs can be increased. Education and raising people's awareness through experience should be able to change attitudes and so increase their willingness to pay. (author)

286

Effects of Serbian accession to the European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the global simulation model (GSIM of Joseph F. Francois and Keith H. Hall (2009 for analyzing global, regional, and unilateral trade policy changes was applied to Serbia. This was to measure the effects of full trade liberalization with the EU after Serbian accession to the EU. As anticipated, most of the changes in welfare after full liberalization of trade between Serbia and EU can be expected in sectors where Serbia has specialized; protection against imports from the EU is strong. However, losses could also occur in sectors that currently face strong protection against the rest of the world and this protection is lost after EU accession. Trade liberalization will lead to a substantial loss of tariff revenues. Reduced consumer prices might, on the one hand increase consumer surplus but on the other hand decrease producer surplus and output in certain industries.

Holzner Mario

2012-01-01

287

Feed?in Tariff Design for Domestic Scale Grid?Connected PV Systems Using High Resolution Household Electricity Demand Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The advent of large samples of smart metering data allows policymakers to design Feed?in Tariffs which are more targeted and efficient. This paper presents a methodology which uses these data to design FITs for domestic scale gridconnected PV systems in Ireland. A sample of 2,551 household electricity demand data collected at ½?hourly intervals, electricity output from a 2.82 kWp PV system over the same time interval as well as PV system costs and electricity tariffs were used to determi...

Ayompe, Lacour; Duffy, Aidan

2013-01-01

288

Proposal of tariffs of the Commission of the Energy Regulation (CRE) at the 10 November 2006 for the use of the natural gas transport networks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CRE proposes new tariffs of the natural gas transport networks. With the preservation of the main today tariffs, the new proposal takes into account the environmental economic and financial regulation evolution and introduces new dispositions to favor the competition development. The proposals are presented. (A.L.B.)

289

Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs; Commission chargee d'une mission de reflexion sur les tarifs du gaz  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

Brochard, B. [Maire de Cannes, 06 (France); Durieux, B. [Inspection General des Finances, 75 - Paris (France); Chevalier, J.M

2006-03-15

290

19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). 10.13 Section 10.13 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). Subheading...

2010-04-01

291

19 CFR 162.23 - Seizure under section 596(c), Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)).  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)). 162.23 Section 162.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (19 U.S.C. 1595a(c)). (a) Mandatory...

2010-04-01

292

19 CFR 10.13 - Statutory provision: Subheading 9802.00.80, Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U...  

Science.gov (United States)

19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). 10.13 Section 10...Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202). Subheading...

2010-04-01

293

Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ? This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ? Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ? Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ? The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ? Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

294

Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados Water tariffs in irrigation districts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigação é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica.In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, since the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

Marcos C. Ribeiro

2010-08-01

295

Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados / Water tariffs in irrigation districts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigaç [...] ão é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica. Abstract in english In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, si [...] nce the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

Marcos C., Ribeiro; Delly, Oliveira Filho; Antônio A., Soares; José H., Martins; Everardo C., Mantovani.

2010-08-01

296

77 FR 24198 - Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission Notice of Revocation of Market-Based Rate Authority and Termination of Market-Based Rate Tariffs...ER04-584-000 Green Energy Partners, LLC...announcing its intent to revoke the market-based rate authority of...

2012-04-23

297

78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...  

Science.gov (United States)

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is providing notice of country-by-country allocations of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 (Oct. 1, 2013, through Sept. 30, 2014) in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups and molasses), specialty sugar, and sugar-containing...

2013-09-18

298

Compliance with technical codes becomes obligatory for receipt of feed-in tariff and ancillary services bonus for wind power plants in Germany  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The German government aims at a share of electricity generation based on renewable sources (RES-E) of more than 30% by 2020. A major part of this share will be reached by the use of wind power plants (WPP). Therefore, when amending the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in June 2008, the German government acknowledged the importance of enhanced technical requirements for WPP and announced the development of a respective technical ordinance. For all WPP that go into operation after June 2010, full grid code-compliance becomes a precondition for privileged network access, receipt of feed-in tariff, and extra payments (''ancillary services bonus''). The basis for the technical requirements in the EEG has been laid down by Medium-Voltage (MV)-Directive 2008 and the TransmissionCode 2007. However, the work of the authors - consulting the German government during the development of the technical ordinance - showed that the TransmissionCode 2007 needed careful review and some clarifying specifications were proposed. Eventually, the so called ''Ancillary Services Ordinance'' for wind power plants went into power in July 2009. The interrelation between all three grid codes as well as their specifications and implications for renewable energy sources generators, with special regard to wind power plants, are presented in this paper. (orig.)

Boemer, Jens. C. [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Electrical Power Systems Group; Burges, Karsten [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Kumm, Thomas [VDE, Network Technology and Operation Forum (FNN), Berlin (Germany); Poeller, Markus [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

2009-07-01

299

Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

NONE

2006-12-20

300

The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost. LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply analyzed and discussed. A modified test system (RBTS) illustrates the proposed method.

Ding, Yi; Li, Yang

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

An analysis of feed-in tariff remuneration models: Implications for renewable energy investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent experience from around the world suggests that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most effective policy to encourage the rapid and sustained deployment of renewable energy. There are several different ways to structure a FIT policy, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents an overview of seven different ways to structure the remuneration of a FIT policy, divided into two broad categories: those in which remuneration is dependent on the electricity price, and those that remain independent from it. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of these different FIT models, and concludes with an analysis of these design options, with a focus on their implications both for investors and for society.

302

Engel curves, household characteristics and low-user tariff schemes in natural gas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We explore the relative importance of income and household characteristics (such as family size) in explaining differences in household consumption of natural gas and LPG. In a simple model of vertically (willingness to pay) ordered households we posit that the relative importance of the income elasticity of demand (vs. the family size elasticity) depends positively on the price faced by households. Thus, very low prices tend to depress the across households income elasticity of demand relative to the characteristic-elasticity and the opposite holds for under high prices. We test this hypothesis using, for the first time in Argentina, data from the household expenditure survey on Natural gas and LPG and compare the cross-consumption equations for both fuels, which have quite different price regimes. Finally, we explore welfare implications for low-user tariff scheme reforms in natural gas. (author)

303

The challenge of product development and tariff migration; Herausforderung Produktentwicklung und Tarifmigration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Power supply companies in German-speaking countries expect a marked shortening of product life cycles over the next five years. This means that new products will need to be developed at ever shorter time intervals. However, opinions on the success of newly introduced products are mediocre. While there is an understanding that the product portfolio should meet customers' needs, the importance of the conceptualisation phase in developing suitable products is systematically underestimated. A study performed by a reputed strategic consultancy firm has shown that at least when it comes to tariff migration there is a failure to address customers in a differentiated manner. A rethink in conceptualising product portfolios is needed if the success of new product launches is to be driven by other criteria than merely the price.

Haller, Thomas [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Strategy und Marketing Consults, Wien (Austria); Stiller, Michael [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Bonn (Germany); Cerna, Daniela [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2011-01-15

304

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned

305

Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments-Some observations and suggestions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint.

306

Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity

Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro

2014-01-01

307

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned. (author)

Rio, P. del [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Faculty of Social Sciences and Law; Gual, M.A. [University of Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain). Dpto. Economics, Economic History and Quantitative Methods

2007-02-15

308

An integrated assessment of the feed-in tariff system in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the relative socioeconomic and environmental benefits linked to the deployment of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), its public promotion has been a priority on the agendas of governments in virtually all European countries. The Spanish government has not been an exception in this regard. Public support at the national level has been based on a feed-in tariff (FIT) scheme, which has had its pros and cons in the encouragement of effective and cost-effective deployment of RES-E. Based on different information sources and empirical data, this paper provides an integrated assessment of the system in the period of influence of the Royal Decree 2818/1998 (i.e., between 1999 and 2003), according to different criteria. The strong and weak points of the system are assessed. The paper suggests that some of its elements should be redesigned. (author)

309

Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

2010-10-01

310

The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ? We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ? Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ? High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ? Optimal tariff is a rnal costs. ? Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

311

Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

Fujita, K. Sydny

2011-06-23

312

"THE GROSSEST AND MOST UNJUST SPECIES OF FAVORITISM” COMPETING VIEWS OF REPUBLICAN POLITICAL ECONOMY: THE TARIFF DEBATES OF 1841 AND 1842  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Historians have long examined the causes of the American Civil War. Frequently, they identify three explanatory factors: slavery, states’ rights and tariffs. This paper assesses the Tariffs of 1841 and 1842, asserting that arguments attributing the tariff as a causal factor of the Civil War are exaggerated and deserve reconsideration. Upon close examination, these tariff debates represent a continuation of a long-standing discourse as to whether American foreign trade policy should embrace free trade or protectionist characteristics. Consequently, these debates, which occurred only nineteen years before Fort Sumter, are more closely aligned with late 18th century debates over political economy than they are as a prelude cause to Civil War.

John A. Moore

2011-01-01

313

Supply chain coordination via a two-part tariff contract with price and sales effort dependent demand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper studies the channel coordination between a supplier and a retailer with price and sales effort dependent demand. By means of game theory, we analyze price and sales effort decisions of the centralized supply chain. Then we consider three different contracts under decentralized model, i.e., wholesale price contract, cost-sharing contract and a two-part tariff contract, in which the supplier offers a contract comprising a wholesale price and a lump-sum fee to the retailer to coordinate the supply chain. Finally, we analyze the results to compare the equilibrium decisions under different contract scenarios. Our results show that both the wholesale price contract and the cost-sharing contract cannot coordinate the supply chain while the two-part tariff contract can effectively coordinate the supply chain.

Qinqin Li

2015-01-01

314

Impacts of the transition of the purchase tax for passenger cars into a tariff per driven kilometre [in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the end of 2007, the Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing scheme in the Netherlands, called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit' (Paying differently for mobility). Major goal is to start with a full operational system in 2016 in which every car user will pay a tariff per driven kilometre. Starting point is that for the average car user, the car mobility will not be more or less expensive. In order to accomplish this, the fixed car and road taxes will be abolished. Point of departure is to convert the road tax (MRB) into a tariff per kilometre. In this report it is examined what the impacts are in case the purchase tax for private cars (BPM) will be incorporated into a price per kilometre as well.

315

Managing tariff risks in cogeneration: the example of La Doua; La maitrise des risques tarifaires en cogeneration: exemple de la Doua  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Combined to a district heating system based on a coal burning plant, a cogeneration unit has been installed in Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France, with a gas engine using natural gas for power production and complementary heat production. Electric power surplus is sold back to the national grid, EDF. Costs and tariffs for power, heat and natural gas have been evaluated and the tariff evolutions are considered for price indexing and adapted financial coverings. Results after one year of operation are discussed

Lartigue, D. [SLEC / Prodith (Country unknown/Code not available)

1996-12-31

316

Vietnam’s Accession to the WTO : Lessons from Past Trade Agreements  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper examines Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements and compares subsequent outcomes with predictions from existing computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Those model based assessments have greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements. Tariff reform is not the main factor driving economic adjustments, and market imperfections mean there is potential for greater output and trade expansion. The key questions to ask in future research are what critical new institutional reforms WTO accession will bring, and what incentives will be put in place to determine the evolution of investment by sector

Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet

2007-01-01

317

An innovative Accession intended for FEC Decryption predicated on the BP Contrivance in LTE as well as WiMAX Conformity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous wireless contact systems such as IS-54, superior data tariff for the GSM succession (EDGE), universal interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and long term progression (LTE) have adopted low-density parity-check (LDPC), tail-biting intricacy, and turbo codes as the forward error correcting codes (FEC) method on behalf of information and transparency channels. Consequently, several well-organized algorithms have been projected for decoding these codes. Conversely, the dissimilar...

G Kumar, Prof C. Rajendra

2012-01-01

318

Professional Access 2013 programming  

CERN Document Server

Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

2013-01-01

319

Access 2010 bible  

CERN Document Server

The expert guidance you need to get the most out of Access 2010 Get the Access 2010 information you need to succeed with this comprehensive reference. If this is your first encounter with Access, you'll appreciate the thorough attention to database fundamentals and terminology. If you're familiar with earlier versions, you can jump right into Access 2010 enhancements such as the new Access user interface and wider use of XML and Web services.Takes you under the hood of Microsoft Access 2010, the database application included with Microsoft Office 2010Explores the latest en

Groh, Michael R

2010-01-01

320

Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.

O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

2012-01-01

322

Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

2014-01-01

323

IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

Natan Szuster

2012-12-01

324

Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison: The case of cogeneration units in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price

325

Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

326

Evaluation of feed-in tariff-schemes in African countries  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Almost all African countries are planning to increase their power supply capacities and to diversify the resource base of the electricity sector. In sharp contrast to the ambitious objectives, grid connected power plants, based on renewable energies, are very rare except large scale hydropower in Af [...] rican countries. The small number of renewable energy (RE)-plants in Africa shows that a quick diffusion of these technologies cannot be expected from the dynamic of market forces alone. Political support is necessary. By now, feed-in tariffs (FIT) is the most prominent economic instrument promoting renewable energy technologies in the power sector. They are applied in more than 50 countries, among them several African countries like Algeria, Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania. The objective of the paper is to investigate the outcome and effectiveness of African FIT-schemes. It is assumed that most of the FIT-schemes in Africa are poorly working because of unfavourable institutional design, insufficient level of FIT rates or obstacles in the process of implementation. Deficiencies in the design of FIT-schemes and the implementation process can be explained by conflicting policy targets like affordable power prices and grid stability but also with an unclear allocation of property rights that can lead to time-consuming negotiations of Power Purchase Agreements.

M, Meyer-Renschhausen.

327

The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: ? We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. ? We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. ? The scheme is really a series of put options. ? Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. ? The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

328

Tariffs and investments at the Brazilian electric sector; Tarifas e investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)

Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2006-07-01

329

The Prohibition of Restrictions on Exports in Free Movement of Goods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is emphasized, that both fiscal (tariff) export restrictions and non–fiscal (non–tariff) export restrictions shall be prohibited between Member States. Fiscal (tariff) export restrictions are customs duties on exports and charges having equivalent effect. Measures having equivalent effect can be distinguished to distinctly and indistinctly applicable measures and discriminatory and non–discriminatory measures. Only discriminatory measures, which usually are distinctly applicable, are...

Vaitkevic?iu?te?, Agne?

2006-01-01

330

Access Control Enforcement Testing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A policy-based access control architecture com- prises Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs), which are modules that intercept subjects access requests and enforce the access decision reached by a Policy Decision Point (PDP), the module implementing the access decision logic. In applications, PEPs are generally implemented manually, which can introduce errors in policy enforcement and lead to security vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose an approach to systematically test and validate the co...

El Kateb, Donia; Elrakaiby, Yehia; Mouelhi, Tejeddine; Le Traon, Yves

2012-01-01

331

Cancer Data Access System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) is a web portal that facilitates access to PLCO data. Investigators can register with CDAS and request access to data collected through December 31, 2009 for the first 13 years of participation for each subject in the PLCO trial. Newly diagnosed cancers and deaths continue to be collected and will be available in the future.

332

Open access and beyond  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Uncensored exchange of scientific results hastens progress. Open Access does not stop at the removal of price and permission barriers; still, censorship and reading disabilities, to name a few, hamper access to information. Here, we invite the scientific community and the public to discuss new methods to distribute, store and manage literature in order to achieve unfettered access to literature.

Das Chhaya; Mathur Shawn

2006-01-01

333

Pro Access 2010 Development  

CERN Document Server

Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

Collins, Mark

2011-01-01

334

Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control  

CERN Document Server

Cryptographic access control (CAC) is an approach to securing data by encrypting it with a key, so that only the users in possession of the correct key are able to decrypt the data and/or perform further encryptions. Applications of cryptographic access control will benefit companies, governments and the military where structured access to information is essential. The purpose of this book is to highlight the need for adaptability in cryptographic access control schemes that are geared for dynamic environments, such as the Internet. "Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control" presents th

Kayem, Anne V D M; Martin, Patrick

2010-01-01

335

Access 2013 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2013-01-01

336

Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.re than one hundred million Euros.

337

Setting the price for PV for the Advanced Renewable Tariffs program in Ontario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Key considerations for the pricing of photovoltaic (PV) energy in an advanced renewable tariff (ART) program in Ontario were presented. This paper addressed solar industry fears concerning a financing mechanism for on-site solar generation in Ontario and its potential to fail if markets are not sufficiently prepared in advance. The mechanism could result in the creation of an unsustainable demand for solar products. It was suggested that in addition to building capacities in the industry, training and public education are important issues that the first phase of an ART's program must address. A 5 year pilot program was recommended in order to build industry infrastructure and capacity, before moving to rates based on the model developed by the Ontario Sustainable Energy Association. An initial price of 0.42 kWh was recommended to stimulate early adopters and to build capacity. It was noted that PV supplied power coincides with peak demand, and that its ART rate should reflect this premium cost value. Ontario ratepayers are already paying millions of dollars for electricity at rates higher than $0.42 per kWh. It was estimated that the average cost of the ART program for PV in the introductory stage would cost ratepayers under $10 million per year. While there have been no Canadian studies done on the value of PV's benefits to the power grid, Californian studies have indicated that benefits for Ontario should range between $0.20-$0.38 CAN per kWh. It was concluded that -$0.38 CAN per kWh. It was concluded that the price for PV in Ontario's ARTs program needs to be set at a high enough rate to stimulate the sustainable growth of the industry in the province. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

338

Market structure and market access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries vis-´a-vis 69 exporters. Competition in services affects the volume of goods trade. Additionally, because of interaction between tariffs and competition, the ma...

Francois, Joseph F.; Wooton, Ian

2007-01-01

339

A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States.

340

A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Access Data Analysis Cookbook  

CERN Document Server

This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.

Bluttman, Ken

2008-01-01

342

Renewable energies in the EU-Accession States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this article is to discuss obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources in the EU-Accession States and to compare them with the framework in the EU-15. Besides the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. Most of these countries have had a century-long tradition in the utilisation of RES, primarily in biomass and hydropower. However, the communist regimes were convinced of the superiority of large-scale systems and converted the energy sectors into centralised units. Due to this dominating belief system more decentralised applications such as installations using renewable energies had to close. One crucial driving force for future renewable energy development in the Accession States comes from the stipulations set by the EU. The EU-Directive on the promotion of electricity produced from RES gives the new EU-members targets for their RES-development until 2010. Due to the Directive many Accession States have already begun to pay more attention to the topic and to introduce more systematic policies. Six of the Accession States have introduced minimum tariffs which were one of the main success conditions (besides a stable and sound investment programme as well as favourable background conditions) in the leading wind energy countries Germany and Spain. Beside the external pressure by the EU and other international obligations other driving forces such as theligations other driving forces such as the path dependencies in the national energy policies (degree of coal, oil and gas exploitation, nuclear power use, import dependency), the political support schemes for renewable energies, possibilities of obtaining external financial support and the cognitive environment are discussed. Finally similarities and differences between EU-15 and Accession States are worked out

343

Access 2013 bible  

CERN Document Server

A comprehensive reference to the updated and new features of Access 2013 As the world's most popular database management tool, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data as well as build powerful database solutions. However, databases can be complex. That's why you need the expert guidance in this comprehensive reference. Access 2013 Bible helps you gain a solid understanding of database purpose, construction, and application so that whether you're new to Access or looking to upgrade to the 2013 version, this well-rounded resource provides you with a th

Alexander, Michael

2013-01-01

344

Sustainable water use in cities: water tariff as tool for consumption control; El uso sostenible del agua en nucleos urbanos: las tarifas como herramienta de control del consumo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)

Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.

2012-07-01

345

The stakes of gas and electricity transport: the fixing of access charges; Les enjeux du transport pour le gaz et l'electricite: la fixation des charges d'acces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of opening of network industries to competition is the lowering of the tariffs paid by the end-user. This opening is accompanied by a bookkeeping separation and sometimes a legal un-bundling between the different segments of activities (production, transport, distribution, commercialization). When natural monopolies exist, a system of access to the network by third parties must be implemented and controlled by an independent regulation authority. The main question remains the fixing of a just, efficient, transparent and non-discriminatory tariff of access which allows a long-term viability of this network activity. This paper presents first, the lessons of the economical theory and then, the practical experience in France, UK and the USA and the difficult arbitrations with their perverse side effects. (J.S.)

Percebois, J.; David, L.

2001-05-01

346

Open-Access-Suchmaschinen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Open Access ist eine von Wissenschaftlern für Wissenschaftler gegründete Bewegung mit dem Interesse, einen kostenlosen und uneingeschränkten Zugang zu wissenschaftli-chen Forschungsbeiträgen über das Internet zu ermöglichen. Im Zuge dieser Entwicklung stellen Forschungsinstitutionen ihren Wissenschaftlern kostenlos Open-Access-Archive zur freien Veröffentlichung ihrer Forschungsbeiträge zur Verfügung. Dies hat in den vergangenen Jahren zu mehreren Millionen frei verfügbaren wissensc...

Thomas Nicolai

2009-01-01

347

Access to mobile services  

CERN Document Server

Focuses on methods for accessing broadcast based M-services from multiple wireless channels. This book presents a novel infrastructure that provides a multi-channel broadcast framework for mobile users to effectively discover and access composite M-services. It is suitable for those who work in the general area of mobile services.

Bouguettaya, Athman

2009-01-01

348

Access to Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study researches the degree to which the location and services offered by a multicampus university, geographically situated consistent with the commercial principles of a large mass-market enterprise, facilitate access for educationally underserved groups. First, the necessity of democratizing educational access to an underprivileged…

Briscoe, Felecia; De Oliver, Miguel

2006-01-01

349

SIMPLE ACCESSIBLE RINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we prove that every associator commutes with every element of accessible ring .Using this we prove that a simple accessible ring of characteristic 2, 3 is an associative or commutative. And also we prove that a simple standard ring of characteristic not 3 either Jordan ring or associative.

D. Eswara Rao,

2011-05-01

350

The Open Access Divide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

Jingfeng Xia

2013-10-01

351

Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: > Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. > Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. > Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. > Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. > Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

Walters, Ryan [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Walsh, Philip R., E-mail: prwalsh@ryerson.ca [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

2011-09-15

352

Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: ? Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. ? Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. ? Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. ? Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. ? Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

353

Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L

2002-07-01

354

An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

355

Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

2005-11-14

356

Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

357

Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs; Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, sur les tarifs de l'electricite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)

NONE

2007-01-15

358

The too expensive invoice of the wind energy. The electric power regulation commission criticizes the State tariff; La facture trop lourde des eoliennes. La commission de regulation de l'electricite critique le tarif fixe par l'Etat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After the order of the 12 june, fixing the purchase tariffs of the wind energy, the CRE (electric power regulation commission) contested this tariff: this wind energy development policy is too expensive for the collectivity. (A.L.B.)

Nathan, E.; Delbecq, D.; Coroller, C.; Cori, N.; Bernard, C.

2001-07-01

359

Pediatric vascular access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)rig.)

360

Pediatric vascular access  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

Donaldson, James S. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medical Imaging, Children' s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

2006-05-15

 
 
 
 
361

Demystifying Open Access  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tenets of Open Access are to grant anyone, anywhere and anytime free access to the results of scientific research. HEP spearheaded the Open Access dissemination of scientific results with the mass mailing of preprints in the pre-WWW era and with the launch of the arXiv preprint system at the dawn of the '90s. The HEP community is now ready for a further push to Open Access while retaining all the advantages of the peer-review system and, at the same time, bring the spiralling cost of journal subscriptions under control. I will present a possible plan for the conversion to Open Access of HEP peer-reviewed journals, through a consortium of HEP funding agencies, laboratories and libraries: SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics). SCOAP3 will engage with scientific publishers towards building a sustainable model for Open Access publishing, which is as transparent as possible for HEP authors. The current system in which journals income comes from subscription fees is replaced with a scheme where SCOAP3 compensates publishers for the costs incurred to organise the peer-review service and give Open Access to the final version of articles. SCOAP3 will be funded by all countries active in HEP under a 'fair share' scenario, according to their production of HEP articles. In this talk I will present a short overview of the history of Open Access in HEP, the details of the SCOAP3 model and the outlook for its implementation.ook for its implementation.

362

Access 2010 for dummies  

CERN Document Server

A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

2010-01-01

363

Live Access Server  

Science.gov (United States)

The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

Hankin, Steve

2002-09-09

364

Web Accessibility Checking Tool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater entered. Then it reads the page line by line, compare it with WCAG standard and report the corresponding error.

Tripti Singh

2013-04-01

365

Access to Investigational Drugs  

Science.gov (United States)

... available for the disease. NCI’s Treatment Referral Center (TRC) protocols are one type of expanded access protocol. NCI program staff establish a TRC protocol when clinical evidence suggests that an investigational ...

366

United States Access Board  

Science.gov (United States)

... Communications & IT Access to information and communication technology (ICT) is addressed by Board standards and guidelines issued ... Performance En Español No Fear Act Data Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Partner Sites disability.gov usa. ...

367

Access to the Countryside  

...AreasAccess to the CountrysideLegal ResponsibilitiesOutdoor Recreation Northern IrelandAreas...the Outdoor Recreation Northern Ireland websiteFind out more about Legal ResponsibilitiesCookies© Crown Copyright...

368

Access to Genetic Resources  

varieties that are recognised worldwide for their fragrant aroma, long and slender grain and distinctive ...If Monsanto wins, it could claim any crop that becomes contaminated. ...of continued access to agricultural biodiversity, stands to win from such a system.\\

369

Access to physiotherapy services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of community physiotherapy services operating within the National Health Service throughout England and Wales in 1980 showed a considerable increase in the availability of physiotherapy outside hospital, with 159 health districts (75 per cent) having some form of community physiotherapy. Additional information obtained about access by general practitioners to hospital physiotherapy departments showed that in 140 districts (66 per cent), some direct access was available.

Partridge, C. J.

1982-01-01

370

Open Access Publishing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rise of open source online journals, free online courses, and other changes in the research and education environment, coined the "academic spring" by some commentators, represents an increasing trend in opening up the rules of access for research. Universities, libraries, publishers and even govern­ments are paying attention to this new movement often referred to with the acronym A2K (access to knowledge.

Amelia Hadfield

2013-07-01

371

Anonymous Biometric Access Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC) system to protect user anonymity....

Ye Shuiming; Luo Ying; Zhao Jian; Cheung Sen-ChingS

2009-01-01

372

Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

373

Vascular Access in Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

374

A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países [...] , este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese estabelecida. A Primeira Guerra Mundial, contudo, foi um momento decisivo para o Brasil. Ao fazer-se este estudo, usaram-se os melhores dados disponíveis, partindo-se ocasionalmente dos usados por Clemens e Williamson. As nossas conclusões prevalecem com dados alternativos. Abstract in english This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countr [...] ies, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.

Maria Eugénia, Mata; Joseph L., Love.

2008-09-01

375

Reaction of 'Windkoepel' to ECN with regard to the market consultation on MEP-tariffs 2004-2005 for onshore wind energy in the Netherlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 'Windkoepel is a cooperative between several wind energy-related organizations in the Netherlands. This article is a reaction to the so-called MEP-tariffs (MEP stands for environmental quality of power generation) for the years 2004-2005 for onshore wind energy

376

The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

377

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel, E-mail: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

2010-07-01

378

Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of underinvestment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com

2010-07-01

379

Feed-in tariff vs. renewable portfolio standard: An empirical test of their relative effectiveness in promoting wind capacity development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the relative effectiveness of feed-in tariff (FIT) and Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in promoting wind capacity development using panel data. Conservative estimates suggest that, on average across countries, FIT increases total wind capacity more than RPS by a magnitude of about 1800 MW. When using time variant policy indicators, the difference between the two policies increases to nearly 2000 MW, roughly 8% of 2009 cumulative capacity in Germany. As for annual wind capacity since 2005, this paper has found no significant difference between FIT and RPS. It is also found that wind energy development responds to high electricity demand and high oil dependence. - Highlights: ? Examined the relative effectiveness of FIT and RPS in promoting wind capacity. ? FIT increases total wind capacity more than 1800 MW than RPS across counties. ? RPS is catching up with FIT for annual wind capacity in recent years. ? Wind development also responds to high electricity demand and oil dependence.

380

Double-rate tariffs for electric power and their impact on the financial results of NPP operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specific features of the system of double-rate tariffs (DRT) acting on the federal wholesale market of electric energy (power) including NPPs as the subjects are analyzed. It is shown that counting order in the DRT case is sufficiently flexible and thus it is economically profitable for electric power producers. Basing on operational experience with DRT system for two and a half it is shown that the discussed features of its application for NPPs are undoubtedly justified from the corporative viewpoint. The conclusion is made that the DRT system provides for NPP the guarantees of the more total compensation of the expenditures on the electric power generation and contributes to NPP economic surviving in complex conditions of transition to the market economics

 
 
 
 
381

Access control system operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

382

Green Barrier Promotes SustainableDevelopment of Our Foreign Trade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Green barrier is a kind of new non-tariff barrier in the current international trade. This paper based on the meaning of green barrier, analyzed green barrier can promote Sustainable Development of our foreign trade, and proposed counter strategies to green barrier.

Yongning Wang

2009-05-01

383

Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL  

Science.gov (United States)

TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

Jambor, Paul Z.

2012-01-01

384

BOOKMARKS:  

is a critical contributor to the new global economy, benefits substantially from standards harmonization.1) This, ...fact, Wilson’s research points to the significant poten- tial benefits to global trade from addressing non-tariff measures.In ...(2005), “ Assessing the Benefits of Trade Facilitation : A Global Perspective ”.World Economy, 28:

385

Earth Negotiations Bulletin  

and nationally owned social protection systems offer immediate positive effects as well as broader development impacts.Finally, ...He agreed with a participant’s statement on the harmful effects of non-tariff barriers for low- income countries.He ...She spoke of the negative effects of decreasing international aid on education programmes in Africa, and proposed

386

Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

NONE

2008-07-01

387

Disruption - Access cards service  

CERN Multimedia

We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

2014-01-01

388

Tariff design for communication-capable metering systems in conjunction with time-variant electricity consumption rates; Gestaltung von Tarifen fuer kommunikationsfaehige Messsysteme im Verbund mit zeitvariablen Stromtarifen. Eine empirische Analyse von Praeferenzen privater Stromkunden in Deutschland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)

Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft

2013-06-15

389

Migrants' access to healthcare  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare.

Norredam, Marie

2011-01-01

390

A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

Domiciano, Jose Antonio

2002-07-01

391

International trade and investment law reports  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten reports provide the latest information on the legal and policy framework renewable energy companies will need to understand to enter foreign markets. Information includes the national policy toward renewable energy, relevant tariff and non-tariff regulations, as well as controls on licensing arrangements. The reports also describe the government's general policies and controls on foreign investors, and list incentives the government has enacted specifically to encourage renewable energy investments.

1986-01-01

392

Trade liberalisation and the balance of payments in selected developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyses the impact of the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers on the trade balance and the current account of the balance of payments of 22 selected developing countries from Africa, Latin America, East Asia, and South Asia. The study presents estimates of dynamic panel data models and time-series/cross-section models. The main findings are that trade liberalisation has worsened the balance of trade and the balance of payments, because imports have increased more rapidly t...

Santos-paulino, Amelia U.

2002-01-01

393

Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countri...

Bagheri, F.

2012-01-01

394

Shallow versus deep integration between mediterranean countries and the EU and within the mediterranean region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims at assessing the specific impact of shallow versus deep integration between Mediterranean (MED) countries1 and their partners in the European Union (EU) as well as between the MED countries themselves. It relies on dataset developed for this project concerning tariffs (as a proxy for shallow integration) and Non Tariff Measures (NTMs)2 (as a proxy for deep integration). Additional data are also included in order to take into account other trade costs, especially transport costs...

Ghoneim, Ahmed Farouk; Lopez Gonzalez, Javier; Mendez Parra, Maximiliano; Peridy, Nicolas

2011-01-01

395

Digital Scholarship and Open Access  

Science.gov (United States)

Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

2010-01-01

396

A Panorama of Web Accessibility?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the myth and reality of web accessibility. The survey considers the feature analysis of a few websites which support accessibility. The paper explores the existing ICT facilities for various impairments (VI, HI, CI --- etc. of differently abled persons particular to web accessibility. The work gives the results of analytical study of the existing web accessibility approaches.

Ramesh Babu J.

2014-08-01

397

Open access to transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig

398

Serving up Access  

Science.gov (United States)

When low-income students returned to Chicago public schools this fall, many had better access to technology, thanks to a public-private partnership. Chicago families with children enrolled in the National School Lunch Program are eligible for subsidized computers and Internet connections through an agreement between the city and telecom giant…

Rich, Sarah

2011-01-01

399

Vascular Access Procedures  

Science.gov (United States)

... a needle, a guide wire and a vascular access catheter are used. The equipment typically used for this examination consists of a ... x-ray machine and a detector that is suspended over a table on which the patient lies. The x-ray equipment allows the operator to watch the wire and ...

400

Efficient Distributed Medium Access  

CERN Document Server

Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Counterpoint: Accessibility and Sprawl  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay provides a counterpoint to Robert Bruegmann's perspective on accessibility and sprawl in this journal volume. Bruegmann's recent work on the history of urban form situates contemporary discussions of sprawl in a well-researched historical context; however, this essay takes a different perspective on several key points in Bruegmann's analysis, particularly in relation to cost-benefit analysis for transportation-disadvantaged populations.

Randall Crane

2008-07-01

402

Telecommunication access to INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proceeding from the features of on-line retrieval from the INIS data base, a description is given of the technical and organizational conditions established by the national INIS Centre of the GDR in using the INIS direct access service. Data are presented on the structure of search queries, retrieval precision, and connect time to the computer. Experience has shown that efficient dialogue searching necessitates the searcher's skill and familiarity with the system. (author)

403

Lesbian access to justice.  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Although some aspects of New Zealand family law have been criticised as discriminatory, the New Zealand legal system has yet to be critically examined from a lesbian perspective. This article begins a development of lesbian legal theory for Aotearoa/New Zealand by analysing the contribution that the 1999 Law Commission study, Women's Access to Legal Services,has made to our knowledge about the impact of the law on lesbian relationships and communities. PMID:24807572

McDonald, E

2001-01-01

404

High Speed Packet Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.Thi...

Santosh G Bari, Kishor P. Jadhav Vishal P. Jagtap

2013-01-01

405

CC and Open Access  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dr Tobias Schonwetter, the legal lead of Creative Commons South Africa, discussed the impact of the Creative Commons licenses on Open Access and what Creative Commons is doing to build an ecosystem of openness. Creative Commons licences are arguably the most widely used open licences available for literary and musical works. Through a series of different licences, Creative Commons licences allow content creators to keep or give away a variety of rights under copyright law.

Schonwetter, Tobias

2010-01-01

406

By-law from January 14, 2005, relative to the tariffs of use of public natural gas distribution networks; Arrete du 14 janvier 2005 relatif aux tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This by-law defines the tariffing rules for the different French gas utilities according to the delivered quantities or to the subscribed daily capacity. Tariffs increase for overstepping of subscribed daily capacity are detailed. (J.S.)

NONE

2005-01-15

407

Rationalization of water reservoirs operation reduces energy cost with the application of period- and season-dependent tariffs; Racionalizacao da operacao de pocos associada a reservacao reduz custo de energia com aplicacao de tarifa horo-sazonal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is presented the utilization of differentiated tariffs for water supply by the Brazilian utility SABESP (Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo) as a mean to save electric power 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Cassiano Filho, Almiro; Orsati, Walter; Bianchi Neto, Cesar [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), SP (Brazil)

1994-12-31

408

ADOPT Open Access  

CERN Multimedia

Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

2007-01-01

409

Intelligent card access keys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A newly developed access control technology allows information about users to be stored on key-like EEPROM devices. The keys store encrypted information about the user and his or her authorized access activity. Specially developed key readers scan, decrypt, and process the key data, and make the decision whether entry should be granted or denied. The key readers can function as complete, stand-alone facility management systems, incorporating access control, security monitoring, and remote control. In this configuration, the key readers provide anti-passback protection and other special features without requiring any data lines between readers. The key readers also feature sophisticated algorithmic processing for performing complex operations such as two-man control or cross zoned security annunciation. Key readers can also be interconnected with an MCM-1000 Multiples Monitoring System to form a distributed processing local area network. In such a configuration, changes in key reader status can be uploaded to the MCM-1000, and programming changes and operator commands can be downloaded to the key readers

410

Load-variable tariff rates in resdential households. Theory or applicable market solution; Lastvariable Tarifmodelle in Privathaushalten. Reine Theorie oder praxistaugliche Zukunft?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy turnaround poses new challenges to energy utilities. In an era that increasingly focuses on renewables there will be more and more fluctuations in the electricity network. In the ''smart'' energy would of the future, the energy industry will focus on approaches to pass on load variability to residential households. This article presents two research projects of RWE Effizienz GmbH aimed at creating the basis for future solutions to deal with load-variable tariff rates for residential households. For the realisation of load-variable tariff rates in residential households, it will be decisive to focus on technical implementation that is acceptable in cost terms as well as on customer needs and customer comfort. (orig.)

Zierdt, Tobias; Lang, Dirk; Rummeni, Joerg [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

2011-07-01

411

ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS TARIFF POLICY IN FOREST FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT BORDER TO CHINA REGION (FOR EXAMPLE ZABAYKALSKY KRAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Availability of large amounts of forest resources in Russian Federation, as well as existence of the general border between Russia and China causes export orientation in the development of timber industry in regions of Russia, which have borders with China. On the basis of the actual material is considered the impact of ongoing customs and tariff policy on the development of the forestry sector toChina's border regions (for example, Zabaykalsky Kray.During the studies it was concluded that despite the ongoing customs and tariff policy in the Russian Federation is now forestry development of border regions is at an early stage. In addition, despite the existing flow of investment, including foreign investment it is by far not sufficient to change the current export-oriented raw timber industry complex border regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-23

Anastasia Vladimirovna Kolesnikov?

2013-10-01

412

Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

413

Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes.

Kitzing, Lena

2014-01-01

414

Unlocking the Euro 53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU: How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be Euro 51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between Euro 26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of Euro 10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as Euro 67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only Euro 14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs.

415

Teach Yourself VISUALLY Access 2010  

CERN Document Server

The visual way to get up to speed on Access 2010. It's one thing to gain access to Access. It's another thing entirely to figure out how to do all the things you want to do in Access, because the software is not all that intuitive. This full-color guide clearly shows you how to get the most out of Access 2010, including how to enter new records; create, edit, and design tables and forms; organize, analyze, and share data; generate concise reports; and much more. With pages of step-by-step instructions, graphics, and helpful advice, this is the visual learner's Access book-keep this on your des

Wempen, Faithe

2010-01-01

416

The new Swedish Regulation of Power Distribution System Tariffs : A Description and an Initial Evaluation on its Risk and Asset Management Incentives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From 2012, a new tariff regulation has been introduced in Sweden. A reasonable revenue framework for the distribution system operators (DSOs) is determined before the regulatory period of four years. The aim of this paper is to overall describe the new regulation, especially reliability aspects, including an approach to superficially perform an initial investigation/evaluation on its incentives of risk and asset management. A recently performed M.Sc. thesis by one of the authors shows that th...

Stenberg, Sabina; Wallnerstro?m, Carl Johan; Hilber, Patrik; Hansson, Olle

2012-01-01

417

Fostering the use of renewable energies in the European Union: the race between feed-in tariffs and green certificates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fostering the use of renewable energies for power generation is at the heart of the EU's long term energy policy. Accordingly, the European Commission and literally all member states have set up ambitious installation targets for alternative energy sources. These aims can only be reached by recurring to support systems that help covering the cost disadvantages faced on liberalised electricity markets. Currently, a dichotomy of support models exists: Feed-in tariffs on the one side and green certificates on the other side seem promising tools to foster renewable energies. In this contribution we look closely at the concepts of both models as well as their advantages and disadvantages in terms of ecological effectiveness and economic efficiency. It becomes obvious that in the context of the liberalised power markets and the rush for the harmonisation of the instruments it will depend very much on in-detail regulations whether the installation targets will be met-regardless of the basic choice of model. (author)

418

The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

419

Direct access to INIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend hese advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

420

Modern indicators of transport accessibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adequate uses of indicators of transport accessibility, as quantitative measures, allow us to move spatial interactions analysis from theoretical to practical level. Aggregate indicators of transport accessibility of places dominate in the research studies, although the indicators of individual accessibility are taking considerable place in the last few decades. The most types of indicators of transport accessibility of places are presented in this article, as well as their characteristics, possibilities for application, advantages and weaknesses.

Ratkaj Ivan

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deciding whether a given quantum state is entangled or not is a difficult task. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses are used in order to prove presence of entanglement. Entanglement witnesses can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography). We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve linear entanglement witnesses and as a result detect more entangled states with high statistical significance. Second, we can go from evaluating linear entanglement witnesses to their nonlinear counterpart without additional experimental effort, which makes them attractive for implementations in current experiments.

422

?????????????? Access Conference Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?Conference proceedings are becoming increasingly important for Sci-Tech communication especially in highly dynamic and mult-disciplinary fields of knowledge. How to access to conference proceedings becoming more important for Libraries. Collects and analyzes data about conference literature in the field of library from Library and Information Science Abstracts, Library Literature. Describing them in year division. This study presented describing the state of conference literature situation in the very diverse conditions that govern information dissemination in the libraries. This analysis shows the history, influence and value of conference papers and proceedings source for librarians.

Sheue-fang Song

1998-06-01

423

Some self-access principles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, I will describe how the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS was established, and discuss some of the personal philosophies of self-access centres (SACs and self-access learning that I have developed over the eight years of being associated with this centre.

Lucy Cooker

2010-06-01

424

Some self-access principles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, I will describe how the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC) at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS) was established, and discuss some of the personal philosophies of self-access centres (SACs) and self-access learning that I have developed over the eight years of being associated with this centre.

Lucy Cooker

2010-01-01

425

EPICS: Channel Access security design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

1994-05-01

426

Open Access: an institutional perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An overview of Open access and its two routes is given. It highlights South African achievements in creating Open access to scholarly output and discusses practical implementation strategies that the Open scholarship office at the University of Pretoria follows in making their research article outputs available in open access mode.

Olivier, Elsabe

2012-01-01

427

EPICS: Channel Access security design  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

428

Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs) nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tari [...] fárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam, em média, 33 vezes mais entre si do que com o resto do mundo. A introdução explícita da tarifa no modelo indicou um efeito redutor nas exportações, mais que proporcional ao aumento tarifário. Isolando a influência das tarifas do efeito-fronteira, os estados brasileiros ainda comercializariam 26 vezes mais entre si. O cálculo do equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias mostrou que as BNTs correspondiam à uma tarifa ad valorem de aproximadamente 29%. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest mod [...] el, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.

Orlando Monteiro da, Silva; Fernanda Maria de, Almeida.

2009-09-01

429

Uma estimativa da contribuição tarifária para o efeito-fronteira no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar, explicitamente, o efeito das tarifas e das barreiras não-tarifárias (BNTs nas exportações brasileiras e sua contribuição para o efeito-fronteira. Utilizou-se um modelo de gravidade e um procedimento para calcular o equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias. No modelo mais simples, o efeito-fronteira estimado mostrou que os estados brasileiros comercializam, em média, 33 vezes mais entre si do que com o resto do mundo. A introdução explícita da tarifa no modelo indicou um efeito redutor nas exportações, mais que proporcional ao aumento tarifário. Isolando a influência das tarifas do efeito-fronteira, os estados brasileiros ainda comercializariam 26 vezes mais entre si. O cálculo do equivalente tarifário das barreiras não-tarifárias mostrou que as BNTs correspondiam à uma tarifa ad valorem de aproximadamente 29%.The objective of this paper was to analyze, explicitly, the effect of tariffs and non-tariff barriers (NTBs on the Brazilian exports and its contribution to the border effect. It was used a gravity model with a procedure to calculate the tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers. In the simplest model, estimated border effect showed that Brazilian states trade on average 33 times more among themselves than with the rest of the world. Explicit introduction of tariffs in the model showed that exports suffered a greater reduction than the increase on tariffs. The isolation of the influence of tariffs on the border-effect indicated that Brazilian states would still trade 26 times more among themselves. The calculated tariff equivalent of non-tariff barriers showed that those NTBs correspond to a tariff ad valorem of approximately 29%.

Orlando Monteiro da Silva

2009-09-01

430

Analysing Access Control Specifications  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all. Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also nontechnical applications such as identifying possible suspects, or, beyond cyber crimes, picking the “best” actor for a certain task. We also sketch an online analysis that identifies where an actor can be located based on observed actions.

Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

2009-01-01

431

Art : accessible, renewable technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technologhas been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

432

Compressed random access memory  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by applications which need to store huge amounts of data in the main memory of a computer, this paper proposes a new dynamic data-structure for compressed random access memory. Ferragina and Venturini [SODA 2007, TCS 2007] recently gave a compressed data-structure for storing a string that allows substrings to be retrieved efficiently, but it requires the string to be static. Here, we extend their results in a non-trivial way to also allow the stored compressed string to be modified during execution. Our results are as follows. A memory (or string) $T[1..n]$, where each character $T[i]$ is of $\\log\\sigma$ bits, can be stored in $n H_k(T) + O(n \\log \\sigma \\frac{(k+1) (\\log \\sigma +\\log \\log n)}{\\log n})$ bits, where $H_k(T)$ is the $k$-th order empirical entropy of $T$, such that (1) accessing $T[i..j]$ takes optimal $O(1 + (j-i) / \\log_{\\sigma} n)$ time and (2) replacing $T[i..i+\\log_{\\sigma} n - 1]$ by another string of length $\\log_{\\sigma} n$ takes $O(\\log n/\\log\\log n)$ time. We can also suppor...

Jansson, Jesper; Sung, Wing-Kin

2010-01-01

433

AccessSTEM  

Science.gov (United States)

The University of Washington's award-winning DO-IT Center (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology) collaborates with AccessSTEM, which has been funded by the National Science Foundation since 2002. AccessSTEM, aims to "broaden participation in STEM fields and improve those fields with the perspectives and expertise of people with disabilities." Visitors to the site who are disabled students, faculty, employees, or just the interested public will find much to peruse or read in-depth. There is the longitudinal transition study link in the "For Faculty and Employees" section that tracks the college and career paths of students with disabilities who used the DO-IT program. Visitors will find the "Promising Practices" section, also in the Faculty and Employees section, to be filled with useful articles and innovations. There is "A Smart Board in the Classroom: A Promising Practice for Engaging Students", which addresses how the use of a Smart Board can aid students with attention deficits, visual impairments, and other disabling conditions without bringing the whole class' attention to them.

434

Role-Based Access Controls  

CERN Document Server

While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based access control (RBAC) - that is more central to the secure processing needs of non-military systems then DAC.

Ferraiolo, David F

2009-01-01

435

High Speed Packet Access  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.This paper review brief Advantages, futures of different technology against HAPA, Like CDMA2000/UMB, IEE802.16e Wi-MAX and the evolution of HSPA (HSPA+. HSPA offers operators a single network for multiple services, with a sound business case built on revenues from voice, SMS, MMS, roaming customers and mobile broadband.

Mr. Santosh G. Bari1 , Mr. Kishor P. Jadhav2 Mr. Vishal P. Jagtap

2013-08-01

436

Vascular access today  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring renal replacement therapy has increased worldwide. The most common replacement therapy is hemodialysis (HD). Vascular access (VA) has a key role for successful treatment. Despite the advances that have taken place in the field of the HD procedure, few things have changed with regards to VA in recent years. Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), polytetrafluoroethylene graft and the cuffed double lumen silicone catheter are the most common used for VA. In the long term, a number of complications may present and more than one VA is needed during the HD life. The most common complications for all of VA types are thrombosis, bleeding and infection, the most common cause of morbidity in these patients. It has been estimated that VA dysfunction is responsible for 20% of all hospitalizations. The annual cost of placing and looking after dialysis VA in the United States exceeds 1 billion dollars per year. A good functional access is also vital in order to deliver adequate HD therapy. It seems that the native AVF that Brescia and Cimino described in 1966 still remains the first choice for VA. The native forearm AVFs have the longest survival and require the fewest interventions. For this reason, the forearm AVF is the first choice, followed by the upper-arm AVF, the arteriovenous graft and the cuffed central venous catheter is the final choice. In conclusion, VA remains the most important issue for patients on HD and despite the technical improvements, a number of problems and complications have to be resolved. PMID:24175244

Pantelias, Konstantinos; Grapsa, Eirini

2012-01-01

437

Proposal of October 26, 2005 from the Commission of energy regulation about the tariff of use of natural gas distribution networks; Proposition de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 26 octobre 2005 pour le tarif d'utilisation des reseaux de distribution de gaz naturel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each manager of a natural gas distribution network has its own tariff for the use of its network. This document recalls the general tariffing principles: delivery point invoicing, services included, structure and choice of tariff options, metering frequency, monthly or daily subscriptions of daily capacity, penalties for daily capacity excess, regrouping of delivery points, supply of a delivery point by several suppliers. The tariffs of the different French gas utilities are given in appendix. (J.S.)

NONE

2005-10-15

438

A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

439

Controlling Access to RDF Graphs  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the current barriers towards realizing the huge potential of Future Internet is the protection of sensitive information, i.e., the ability to selectively expose (or hide) information to (from) users depending on their access privileges. Given that RDF has established itself as the de facto standard for data representation over the Web, our work focuses on controlling access to RDF data. We present a high-level access control specification language that allows fine-grained specification of access control permissions (at triple level) and formally define its semantics. We adopt an annotation-based enforcement model, where a user can explicitly associate data items with annotations specifying whether the item is accessible or not. In addition, we discuss the implementation of our framework, propose a set of dimensions that should be considered when defining a benchmark to evaluate the different access control enforcement models and present the results of our experiments conducted on different Semantic Web platforms.

Flouris, Giorgos; Fundulaki, Irini; Michou, Maria; Antoniou, Grigoris

440

Mobile Access to Oncology Knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although considerable effort has been put into creating extensive on-line reference resources for oncology, this compiled knowledge is underutilized in clinical situations. The Mobile Access To Oncology Knowledge (MATOK) project facilitates access to a variety of knowledge sources by providing a system designed to be used at the point-of-care. The system's key characteristics are mobility, homogeneous access, concept-based searching, step-wise refinement, and integration with on-line patient ...

Acuff, Richard D.; Carlson, Robert W.; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Olson, Nels E.; Tuttle, Mark S.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Mobile Access to Oncology Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Although considerable effort has been put into creating extensive on-line reference resources for oncology, this compiled knowledge is underutilized in clinical situations. The Mobile Access To Oncology Knowledge (MATOK) project facilitates access to a variety of knowledge sources by providing a system designed to be used at the point-of-care. The system's key characteristics are mobility, homogeneous access, concept-based searching, step-wise refinement, and integration with on-line patient data.

Acuff, Richard D.; Carlson, Robert W.; Fagan, Lawrence M.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Olson, Nels E.; Tuttle, Mark S.

1996-01-01

442

First Monday: Open Access Publishing  

Science.gov (United States)

The peer-reviewed Internet journal, First Monday (discussed in the August 23, 1996 Scout Report), presents a dreary picture for open access publishing and research. The author of this article, Joseph J. Esposito, comments on The Unexpected Future of Open Access Publishing. Esposito is skeptical of the idea that the age of the Internet and online publishing will bring access to the world's research publications free for everyone, "by shifting the costs to other places in the value chain and disintermediating publishers." Instead, he argues that Open Access will come about at the cost of authors and their proxies. The author details his argument regarding these unanticipated outcomes in this article.

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ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient ? = 1. Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (?<1, and with increasing diameter of the organic molecules their accessibility to cellulose structure decreases. Accessibility of cellulose samples to molecules of various substances is a linear function of the coefficient ? and the content of non-crystalline domains. The relationship between crystallinity (X and accessibility (A of cellulose to molecules of some liquids has been established as A = ? (1-X. The water molecules were found to have greater access to cellulose samples than the molecules of the investigated organic liquids. The obtained results permit use of accessibility data to estimate the crystallinity of cellulose, to examine the structural state of non-crystalline domains, and to predict the reactivity of cellulose samples toward some reagents.

Michael Ioelovich

2009-08-01

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ACCESSIBLE TOURISM - THE IGNORED OPPORTUNITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To create a positive visitor experience, a key factor in obtaining economic benefits, the tourism industry must pay attention to all the elements that contribute to it, especially to accessibility. Visitor accessibility encompasses all tourism markets including seniors and people with disabilities, who have been defined through accessible tourism. This article offers a short presentation of the term accessible tourism, the existing research in the field and the main reasons why the worldwide tourism industry is seemly unaware of this particular market.

Souca Maria Luiza

2010-12-01