WorldWideScience

Sample records for access tariffs non-tariff

  1. Non-tariff barriers, market access, and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Matha?, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of non-tariff barriers, in terms of both variable and fixed export costs, on trade structure. The relationship between fixed and variable trade costs determines whether international trade emerges. If trade emerges, only variable, but not fixed export costs, influence the trade structure. The empirical results suggest that non-tariff barriers act, in particular, as fixed export costs, as the trade and intra-industry trade emerge in a larger number of industries...

  2. Non-tariff measures and the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Staiger, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I sketch out the rough contours of the challenge faced by the WTO in dealing with non-tariff measures (NTMs) as seen from the economic theories of trade agreements. The key questions for the WTO - the answers to which largely dictate the choice between shallow and deep approaches to integration - appear to be two: (1) Is it the terms-of-trade problem or the commitment problem that WTO member governments seek to solve with their WTO membership?; and (2) Is it market clearing or o...

  3. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  4. Trade Restrictiveness Indices in Presence of Externalities : An Application to Non-Tariff Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Beghin, John Christopher; Disdier, Anne-ce?lia; Marette, Ste?phan

    2014-01-01

    We extend the trade restrictiveness index approach to the case of market imperfections and domestic regulations addressing them. We focus on standard-like non-tariff measures (NTMs) affecting cost of production and potentially enhancing demand by increasing product quality or reducing negative externalities. We apply the framework to the database of Kee et al. (2009) and derive ad valorem equivalents (AVEs) for NTMs. Half of the product lines affected by NTMs exhibit negative AVEs, indicating...

  5. The impacts of non-tariff barriers on the export price of Vietnamese catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Khuu, Thi Phuong Dong

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study to identify the impacts of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on Vietnamese catfish export price in the international market. The time-series monthly data from 1999 to 2011 was used in our paper. Base on the demand and supply equilibrium theory, we constructed the function of Vietnamese catfish export price. The unit toot test results showed that our data was stationary at differenced level. Therefore, the econometric models, such as first-differenced model, Error correction mo...

  6. The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqin Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have arisen that may threaten the future of the Chinese textile and clothing industry.World trade liberalization doesn’t necessarily mean free markets. The industry is still facing great challenges and difficulties from non-tariff barriers which are playing an ever-greater role in the ability of governments to regulate imports from other countries.  Known as “green trade barriers”, new non-tariff barriers to trade, such as technical trade barriers and environmental trade barriers, have taken the place of traditional trade barriers, such as tariffs and quotas. By analyzing the background and current situation of China's textile and clothing industry, as well as the great impact on both sides of these new barriers, this paper puts forward an effective way to clarify what efforts should be made not only by trade companies, but also by the government to alleviate the effects of NTBs.  Only through a well-coordinated joint-effort can manufacturers break through such non-tariff trade barriers and enhance the overall quantity and quality of clothing exports, so that China can maintain its current growth in the textile and clothing trade and also regain its reputation as the “kingdom of textiles”.

  7. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

  8. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

  9. The Impact of Non-tariff Barriers on China’s Textile and Clothing Exports and Relevant Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Tingqin Zhang; Lihong Han

    2007-01-01

    The textile and clothing industry is a traditional pillar industry for China’s economy.  We have developed rapidly in international textile and clothing trading and have gained significant achievements in this field with reform and opening-up to the international market.  China also expects to maintain this prevailing trend and to even increase the volume of exports with the gradual reduction of tariffs and the elimination of quotas. With these gains, however, a number of problems have ar...

  10. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform.

  11. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  12. Multilateral approaches to market access negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, Sam

    1997-01-01

    Market access negotiations in merchandise trade at the multilateral level cover tariffs and non-tariff measures (NTMs). While tariffs have been substantially reduced in earlier rounds, they remain high in certain areas and further reductions involve a number of complex technical issues. Some formulae approaches, not used in the Uruguay Round, seem more favourable to developing countries. Elimination or phased reductions of NTMs in agriculture is one of the main areas for further market access...

  13. RUSSIA’S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: COMMITMENTS, PROCESSES, AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, R.; Ph. Hanson

    2014-01-01

    Two noted British economists survey a range of issues linked to Russia’s forthcoming accession to the World TradeOrganization (WTO) and its implications for the Russian economy. They describe the far-reaching commitments Russia has undertakenin the realm of tariffs, non-tariff barriers, and openness to inward investment, identifying factors that tend both to support and challengerealization of these commitments. They follow with a brief historical account of the reasons why the accession pr...

  14. Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Released on Tuesday May 8, 2001, Market Access for Developing Countries' Exports is a 61-page report that strives to show that developing countries are also benefiting from multilateral, unilateral, and regional trade liberalization. The report is divided into three main sections. Protection in Merchandise Trade offers information on tariffs, agricultural subsidies and non-tariff measures, and trade preferences. The second section, Trade in Services, provides background, current research, and forecasts in two categories: barriers to trade in services and measuring barriers to trade in services. Finally, the last section explores the benefits of liberalizations in several different factions.

  15. How to encourage network trade rules interconnections? an application to the case of non tariff barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillant, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is different and is also a by-product of the globalization process. As the range of economic activities in the international economy expands, the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements also grow. The extension of the set of economic activities in the international economy provokes an extension of the themes that require necessary consideration in trade agreements. The adaptation speed in the multilateral field is structurally slo...

  16. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  17. Using supply chain analysis to examine the costs of non-tariff measures (NTMs) and the benefits of trade facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrantino, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    It has become increasingly common to produce goods in a number of geographically dispersed stages linked by international trade. This tendency, known by names such as production fragmentation, processing trade, and vertical specialization, has important implications for the analysis of nontariff measures (NTMs) and trade facilitation. First, different types of NTMs or trade facilitation issues are naturally associated with different stages in the movement of goods. Different price gaps can be...

  18. RUSSIA’S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: COMMITMENTS, PROCESSES, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Connolly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two noted British economists survey a range of issues linked to Russia’s forthcoming accession to the World TradeOrganization (WTO and its implications for the Russian economy. They describe the far-reaching commitments Russia has undertakenin the realm of tariffs, non-tariff barriers, and openness to inward investment, identifying factors that tend both to support and challengerealization of these commitments. They follow with a brief historical account of the reasons why the accession process for Russia wasso protracted and an assessment of the likely medium- and long-term economic impacts of accession for the country as well as for itsparticular regions and social groups. The arguments suggest that the likely direct impacts of accession will overall be modest (at leastover the near- to medium- term, and focused in spheres in which a foreign presence may enhance the productivity of Russian firms inthe domestic market (e.g., business services. Potentially, more substantial indirect benefits will largely depend on the scale andseriousness of domestic reform policies launched in support of WTO compliance (i.e., effects of accession on Russia’s politicaleconomy.

  19. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing various transport/transit tariff methodologies (i.e. cost-plus, incentive tariff regulation, negotiated tariffs as well as distance-related, stamp, exit/entry model) that are used in the countries examined. Chapter 6 compares available information on transit tariffs by country and by methodology used. It also compares these tariffs with domestic transport tariffs, where appropriate and possible. Finally, chapter 7 attempts to evaluate the consistency of transit tariffs with the obligations of the Energy Charter framework and highlights the areas requiring further analysis

  20. Rain, food and tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Paulo; Straume, Odd Rune; Urrego, Jaime A.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether and how rainfall shocks affect tariff setting in the agricultural sector. In a model of international oligopoly, we show that the impact of a negative rainfall shock on optimal import tariffs is generally ambiguous, depending on the weight placed by the domestic policy maker on tariff revenue, profi ts and the consumer surplus. The more weight placed on domestic profits ts, the more likely it is that the policy maker will respond to a rainfall shortage by reducing import ta...

  1. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-onsistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

  2. Chile Frente a la Regulación sobre Medidas no Arancelarias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio / Chile and OMC's Law on Non Tariff Provisions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.

  3. Carbon Tariffs Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?hringer, Christoph; Mu?ller, Andre?; Schneider, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about adverse impacts on domestic energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries are at the fore of the political debate about unilateral climate policies. Tariffs on the carbon embodied in imported goods from countries without emission pricing appeal as a measure to reduce carbon leakage and protect domestic EITE industries. We show that the introduction of carbon tariffs can do more harm than good to domestic EITE industries. Two determinants drive the sign and magnitude of E...

  4. Embodied Carbon Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?hringer, Christoph; Carbone, Jared C.; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    In a world where the prospects of a global agreement to control greenhouse gas emissions are bleak, the idea of using trade policy as an implicit regulation of foreign emission sources has gained many supporters in countries contemplating unilateral climate policies. Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in imported goods. The appeal seems obvious: as OECD countries are, on average, large net importers of embodied emissions from non-OECD countries, carb...

  5. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  6. The impact of tariff diversity on broadband diffusion: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Lange, Mirjam R. J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis how tariff diversity affects broadband uptake, utilizing a new data set with 1497 fixed-line and 2158 mobile broadband tariffs from 91 countries across the globe. An instrumental variable approach is applied to estimate the demand for fixed broadband internet access, controlling for various industry and socio-economic factors. The empirical results indicate that, first, in addition to lower prices and higher income, more tariff diversity additionally ...

  7. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  8. Ontario feed-in-tariff programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatchew, Adonis, E-mail: yatchew@chass.utoronto.ca [Economics Department, University of Toronto, 150 St. George Street, Toronto, M5S 3G7 (Canada); Baziliauskas, Andy, E-mail: ABaziliauskas@crai.com [Charles River Associates, Toronto (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research Highlights: > Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. > Most projects are either solar or wind. > Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) > Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

  9. Transmission tariffs based on optimal power flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses transmission pricing as a means of obtaining optimal scheduling and dispatch in a power system. This optimality includes consumption as well as generation. The report concentrates on how prices can be used as signals towards operational decisions of market participants (generators, consumers). The main focus is on deregulated systems with open access to the network. The optimal power flow theory, with demand side modelling included, is briefly reviewed. It turns out that the marginal costs obtained from the optimal power flow gives the optimal transmission tariff for the particular load flow in case. There is also a correspondence between losses and optimal prices. Emphasis is on simple examples that demonstrate the connection between optimal power flow results and tariffs. Various cases, such as open access and single owner are discussed. A key result is that the location of the ''marketplace'' in the open access case does not influence the net economical result for any of the parties involved (generators, network owner, consumer). The optimal power flow is instantaneous, and in its standard form cannot deal with energy constrained systems that are coupled in time, such as hydropower systems with reservoirs. A simplified example of how the theory can be extended to such a system is discussed. An example of the influence of security constraints on prices is also given. 4 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Understanding the 'historical' electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the debates about the French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law, it is interesting to analyse the principles which have led to elaborate the 'historical' electricity tariffs in France, in order to better understand the stakes around their recasting. Today, there exists 2 categories of tariffs: the regulated selling prices and the market offers. The regulated selling prices are different depending on the client (individuals, small professionals, companies)

  11. New transmission tariffs for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, F. [ESBI Alberta Ltd, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    The transmission tariff structure in Alberta is currently undergoing a review by ESBI Alberta. This paper by the Transmission Administrator of the Alberta Interconnected System discusses the process used by his office to design the new tariff system; review the problems with the current tariff system (poor locational signals, unusually high standby rates, volatile price signals for new generators; etc), reviews results of a study on international transmission tariff pricing systems (FERC pro-forma, investment cost related pricing, locational marginal pricing, cost reflective network pricing); and describes the new transmission pricing methodology of System Expansion Related Pricing (SERP) which combines the best features of the MW-mile system used in Texas, the locational marginal pricing system which is in current use in New York, Norway, Sweden and New Zealand and the load/generator relationships based on electrical distance as practiced in Australia. Features of the proposed Alberta system will be discussed at a forthcoming special seminar. Without providing details, it was, nevertheless, promised to be flexible, robust and transparent.

  12. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2005-01-01

    WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula. No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff.

  13. 14 CFR 221.121 - How to prepare and file applications for Special Tariff Permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...file applications for Special Tariff Permission...AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission...an application for Special Tariff Permission...Department-established zone of price...

  14. Tariff systems in offshore Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents studies of the tariff systems and the effects of different ownership shares in production, processing, and transportation of petroleum on the Norwegian continental shelf (NOCS). The aim of this study is to analyse the issue of the price field owners have to pay for using the infrastructure owned by others, what is meant by efficient pricing, and compare this with NOCS experience so far. In the report it is discussed whether the provision of NOCS infrastructure services, with an eye to determining the system of joint venture development on the NOCS, is beneficial to infrastructure provision. Main topics cover as follow: NOCS infrastructure; the effect of different ownership shares in production and transportation; tariff regimes. 19 refs., 12 figs., 10 tabs

  15. The Strategic Value of Carbon Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?hringer, Christoph; Carbone, Jared C.; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral carbon policies are inefficient due to the fact that they generally involve emission reductions in countries with high marginal abatement costs and because they are subject to carbon leakage. In this paper, we ask whether the use of carbon tariffs?tariffs on the carbon embodied in imported goods?might lower the cost of achieving a given reduction in world emissions. Specifically, we explore the role tariffs might play as an inducement to unregulated countries adopting emission co...

  16. Race-to-the-bottom tariff cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Ve?zina, Pierre-louis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical assessment of race-to-the-bottom unilateralism. It suggests that decades of unilateral tariff cutting in Asia's emerging economies have been driven by a competition to attract FDI from Japan. Using spatial econometrics, I show that tariffs on parts and components, a crucial locational determinant for Japanese firms, converged across countries following a contagion pattern. Tariffs followed those of competing countries if the latter were lower, if FDI jealousy ...

  17. Tariff based competition : latest developments in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation provided an explanation of the concept of regulated rates in the natural gas industry, including cost based rates, tariff defined services, tariff defined terms and conditions, discounting and capacity release. Definition of competitive alternatives, such as negotiated rates and negotiated terms and conditions, was included. Additional alternatives, comprising revisions to capacity release programs and further unbundling of the natural gas industry, were also examined. A section on market competition dealt with the development of market centers and hubs, the impact of new pipeline projects as well as recontracting and decontracting. Under the heading of 'Maximizing Value' were discussed issues such as seasonally adjusted contract quantities and seasonally adjusted rates. Other competitive issues, such as access to alternative supplies and alternative markets, quality of customer relations, and timing of contract expirations, also received attention

  18. New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

  19. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  20. Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

  1. 46 CFR 520.4 - Tariff contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...and (7) The publisher, if any, used...lading); (5) Contact person and address...certifying that all information contained in the...be used. Tariff publishers are not required...governing tariff, a publisher may define and...description of the information necessary for...

  2. Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Uros Andrejevic; Giuliana Campanelli Andreopoulos; Alexandros Panayides

    2011-01-01

    The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumer...

  3. Tariff System and Electricity Price in the Republic if Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the origin and development of Electricity Tariff System in Croatia with special emphasis on the tariff system established in 1991. The analyzed period of the application of the tariff system in force and all other tariff rates from 1991 to 1995 are the basis for the assessment of required and possible alternations of tariff rates till the year 2000. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs., 1 plan

  4. Tariff Policy, Increasing Returns and Endogenous Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of government tariff policy in a one-sector small open economy RBC model with a productive externality that generates social increasing returns to scale. Various forms of endogenous fluctuations, including stable 2-, 4-, 8-, and 15-cycles, quasiperiodic orbits and chaos can be identified in this model if we introduce a constant tariff or subsidy (applied to the imported production factor) into the laissez-faire economy that exhibits local indeterminacy. In a somewhat diff...

  5. Carbon tariffs for financing clean development

    OpenAIRE

    Springmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to address carbon leakage and preserve the competitiveness of domestic industries, some industrialized Annex I countries have proposed to implement carbon tariffs. These tariffs would be levied on energy-intensive imports from developing non-Annex I countries that have not agreed to binding emissions reductions. This action could have detrimental welfare impacts, especially on those developing countries, and may not lead to significant reductions in leakage. A recent proposal is to u...

  6. 14 CFR 221.120 - Grounds for approving or denying Special Tariff Permission applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...approving or denying Special Tariff Permission applications...AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TARIFFS Special Tariff Permission...Department-established zone of fare flexibility...an application for Special Tariff Permission...

  7. Industrial labor productivities and tariffs in South Africa :identification based on multilateral liberalization reform

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Torfinn; Rattsø, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. We seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage of multilateral tariff liberalization using reductions in industrial sector tariffs in other world regions as instruments for sectoral tariff reductions in South Afri...

  8. MFN status and the choice of tariff regime

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimzade, N.; Khodavaisi, H.; Myles, G. D.

    2011-01-01

    The gradualist approach to trade liberalization views the uniform tariffs implied by MFN status as an important step on the path to free trade. We investigate whether a regime of uniform tariffs will be preferable to discriminatory tariffs when countries engage in non-cooperative interaction in multilateral trade. The analysis includes product differentiation and asymmetric costs. We show that with the cost asymmetry the countries will disagree on the choice of tariff regime. When the choice ...

  9. Market Access and Welfare : Is There a Conflict?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objectives at the same time.

  10. Export enhancing tariff protection with strategic precommitment

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Dermot

    1994-01-01

    The import protection as export promotion thesis is examined from a positive and normative perspective in a series of two-stage games in which firms choose R&D and capacity in the first stage and quantity or price in the second. It is shown (i) that a tariff affects exports in two ways; firstly, with increasing marginal cost it crowds out exports; secondly by increasing R&D and/or capacity it raises exports indirectly, (ii) when firms choose R&D and quantities a small tariff will raise welfar...

  11. Feed-in tariff in Ukraine: The only driver of renewables' industry growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to review the recently adopted legislation on feed-in tariffs in Ukraine, focusing on its advantages and drawbacks, as well as on the related challenges. The recommendations listed in the paper will help to change the existing legislation regarding green electricity by means of eliminating its main drawbacks. The best prospects for renewable electricity production are related to the energy from the wind and the sun, nonetheless energy from the sun and biomass is used mostly for heating purposes, whereas the number of plans for the construction of wind farms and solar plants is growing tremendously. Despite policies and legislation being in place for the inclusion of electricity from renewables in the grid, technical and financial obstacles exist. There are plenty of plans to build new generating facilities, but at the same time there is absolutely no information about the construction of power backup. The existing regulatory policy regarding green electricity production and consumption still has significant potential for improvement. Compared to other measures, feed-in tariff implementation has spurred green electricity production in Ukraine, because feed-in tariff rates are high, and grid access is guaranteed by law, a major advantage of the current legislation on renewables in Ukraine. - Highlights: ? The number of wind farms and solar plants construction plans in Ukraine is growing. ? Guarantees to obtain feed-in tariff investors get after compled-in tariff investors get after completion of construction. ? The definition of the term “biomass” in Ukrainian legislation needs to be reviewed. ? The investments in renewables are mostly commenced by Ukrainian investors. ? Feed-in tariff is the most efficient measure for green electricity production.

  12. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...10-141; FCC 11-92] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS...over the Internet, using the Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS...sought; (3) A showing of good cause; and (4) The appropriate...Washington, DC 20554.'' The Electronic Tariff Filing System...

  13. A dressing down for tariff system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, R; Keynes, M; Dormer, M

    1979-05-25

    The poor standard of dressing provision in the crucial role of community nursing is discussed by Roy Lukacs, assistant district finance officer, Aylesbury and Milton Keynes Health District and Mike Dormer, product manager, patient care division, Johnson and Johnson. They ask why the drug tariff system is still common to many districts. PMID:10246189

  14. Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Andrejevic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumers and to suggest policies to end a possible discriminatory conduct.

  15. The world trading system: Recent trends

    OpenAIRE

    Funke, Norbert

    1994-01-01

    Tariffs no longer represent the most serious impediment to international trade. As the importance of tariffs in restricting free trade has been declining, non-tariff barriers are becoming increasingly important. The use of selected non-tariff barriers is analyzed, focusing on anti-dumping measures, voluntary export restraints, trade related investment measures, and trade related intellectual property rights. Coming multilateral negotiations will have to concentrate on non-tariff barriers. A f...

  16. The Impact of Integrated Tariff Systems on Public Transport Demand: Evidence from Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, Massimiliano; Vannoni, Davide

    2009-01-01

    The increasing problems of pollution and traffic congestion require the definition of a model of sustainable mobility – in particular, in large, urban areas. An indirect control on these negative externalities associated with private transport may be pursued by means of policies aimed at improving quality and accessibility of public transit networks. To that end, one popular option is the design of an Integrated Tariff System (ITS): the crucial question remains whether such a policy can be ...

  17. Distribution network tariffs: A closed question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity regulators are facing new challenges to keep the pace of the liberalization process and the revision of regulatory schemes that is taking place all over the world. The pressure is also felt by regulated activities such as distribution. One of the main objectives of this process is to improve efficiency. Electricity rates and more specifically distribution network tariffs should also be adapted to these new requirements. This paper describes the main rate design approaches that are used to recover distribution costs. Drawbacks of the current methods are highlighted, and a new tariff design methodology based on cost causality is presented. Efficiency achievement as well as compliance with legal and regulatory criteria, such as cost recovery and non-discrimination, is analyzed

  18. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay

    2007-01-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment avai...

  19. Optimal tariffs with FDI: The evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Blonigen, Bruce; Cole, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that the presence of foreign direct investment (FDI) lowers a country's noncooperative Nash tariff. To test this hypothesis, we first adapt the theoretical model formulated by Blanchard (2010) to derive an intuitive, empirically testable equation. This equation is an augmentation of the standard formula equal to the inverse of export supply elasticity. Using constructed estimates of export supply elasticities and measures of FDI, we test this hypothesis with r...

  20. Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Regional Integration - The Politics of Regional Economic Communities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyirabikali, Gaudence

    2005-01-01

    Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Usin...

  1. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Firestone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP, or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically, CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describes a method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to a light industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1 the added benefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2 the price elasticity of the system, and 3 the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, all under three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristic controls are adequate under the current tariff structure and relatively high electricity prices, capturing 97% of the value of the distributed generation system. Even more value could be captured by simply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high natural gas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity, heuristic controls would capture only 70% of the value of distributed generation.

  2. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  3. Price discrimination and three part tariffs in a duopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Sissel

    2000-01-01

    The paper studies how second degree price discrimination can be implemented in a duopoly with differentiated products. Two firms serve consumers having heterogeneous willingness to pay for the good, willingness to pay being private knowledge. Consumers choose from a menu of tariffs and are subsequently billed according to the chosen tariff. Although product differentiation enables the firms to implement price discrimination, it is shown that competition has important effects on the tariff str...

  4. The role of green tariffs in environmental harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Naghavi, Alireza

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between trade and environment by exploring the effects of green tariffs on the location of firms, innovation and environmental policy. Besides the standard effect of reducing trade and production of dirty goods, green tariffs discourage firms from relocating to pollution havens and induce them to engage in pollution abatement R&D instead. With no concern about pollution among Southern residents, green tariffs can block delocation to serve as the only means ...

  5. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related...REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS...SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT § 341.1 Electronic filing of tariffs and...

  6. Tariff based value of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  7. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  8. Tariffs for natural gas, heat, electricity and cogeneration in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurance, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration and horticulture, and natural gas supply contracts. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, the tariffs and compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. Also attention will be paid to tariffs for electricity transport. Finally, several taxes, excises and levies that have a direct or indirect impact on natural gas tariffs, are discussed. 9 refs

  9. 75 FR 48629 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...10-141; FCC 10-127] Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS...the initiation of mandatory electronic filing. * * * * * 7. Section...sought; (3) A showing of good cause; and (4) The appropriate...Washington, DC 20554.'' The Electronic Tariff Filing System...

  10. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  11. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff valuelopment of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of electricity received from the transmission network, between 1.64 and 2.37 USD/MWh (31%); The locational signal provided by the tariff is mitigated in certain respects by the average cost component related to the fixed costs, which represent 70% of the total costs of the transmission system operator

  12. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

  13. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  14. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  15. Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

  16. Advice for adjustment of the MEP subsidy tariffs for 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the interim evaluation and possible subsequent changes to the incentive structures of the MEP subsidies for renewable electricity, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has asked ECN and KEMA to assess the need for the annual reassessment of the MEP subsidies for 2006. In this report it is concluded that any changes to the tariffs are likely to be modest and that it is better to await the outcome of the interim evaluation before calculating new tariffs

  17. EDF: The revision of the electrical supply tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with proposals by EDF for restructuring their tariffs for the supply of electricity. The objective is to take account of probable developments in demand, notably the steadily increasing gap between the summer and winter rates of consumption, and in generation, notably the large increase in the fraction of the total load that is met by nuclear stations. It is estimated that by 1990 generation will be 70% nuclear, 16% hydraulic, 9% by coal and 4% by oil, nuclear generation being by far the cheapest. The general philosophy of the new tariffs is: to retain the two-part (kW and kWh) structure; to simplify tariffs for small consumers; to apply to large consumers sophisticated tariffs that accurately reflect true costs of supply; to make maximum demand rather than supply voltage the determining factor; tariffs will be geographically uniform except for a few very large consumers favourably situated with respect to key points in the network; to adopt special means to spread peak loads. The new tariffs and some additional related measures for influencing the incidence of electricity consumption are described in some detail. (C.J.O.G.)

  18. 78 FR 15803 - Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Request for Petitions To Accelerate Tariff Elimination and Modify the Rules of Origin...file petitions requesting accelerated tariff elimination and changes to the non-textile...solicits proposals seeking accelerated tariff elimination under the USCTPA as well...

  19. Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumpt increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design

  20. 19 CFR 162.75 - Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act of 1930, as amended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff Act...CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Special Procedures for Certain Violations § 162.75 Seizures limited under section 592, Tariff...

  1. Electricity price and tariff problems and approaches to their solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following problems are discussed: (i) integrity of the tariff system, price setting and price control in relation to the secondary market; (ii) long-term contracting relations between the subjects - primary and secondary market entities; (iii) the setting of electricity purchase prices from independent producers; (iv) international integration of national systems, including electricity import prices; (v) cross-subsidies within the system; (vi) identification of adverse environmental impacts and their remediation by incorporating the associated costs into electricity prices; (vii) the cost basis of prices; (viii) objectivization of the cost basis; (ix) unification/diversification of the price and tariff levels and the associated distribution rent problem; (x) rational structure of the tariff system with respect to its complexity and ties to the measuring and control instrumentation and their efficiency; and (xi) breakdown of the costs of heat and electricity cogeneration and a fair price setting. (J.B.)

  2. Carbon tariffs on Chinese exports: Emissions reduction, threat, or farce?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (1) We estimate CO2 implicitly exported via commodities relative to a region's total emissions: We find ?15% for the industrialized, 12% for the developing region, and 24% for China. (2) We analyze a Contraction and Convergence climate regime in a CGE model including international capital mobility and technology diffusion: When China does not participate in the regime and instead a carbon tariff is imposed on its exports, it will likely be worse off than when participating. This result does not hold for the developing region in general. Meanwhile, the effect on emissions appears small. - Highlights: ? Carbon intensities and contents of trade by commodity and region using GTAP 7. ? Net carbon exports: industrialized region ?15%, developing region 12%, China 24%. ? CGE analysis of carbon tariffs based on our carbon intensities. ? The tariffs make China worse off than climate policy and are ambiguous for the developing region. ? They have a small impact on reducing global emissions.

  3. Tariff escalation and EU agricultural imports: An assessment of selected products

    OpenAIRE

    Berkum, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates whether tariff escalation does occur in the EU's agricultural imports for ten selected product groups, for which developing countries are the main source of imports in the Union. Key findings are that tariff escalation does occur, but not for all ten product categories selected for this study. Further, the empirical analysis shows no strong evidence of a unambiguous link between the level of tariffs and imports: high (or low) import tariffs do not correspond much with ...

  4. Carbon Tariffs: An Analysis of the Trade, Welfare and Emission Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Larch, Mario; Wanner, Joschka

    2014-01-01

    Carbon tariffs are one prominently discussed environmental policy. The proponents stress the carbon tariffs? ability to mitigate the potential negative effect of environmental-friendly production on competitiveness, to avoid carbon leakage and to reduce world carbon emissions. We analyze the effects of carbon tariffs on trade, welfare and carbon emissions in a multi-sector, two-factor gravity model. The introduction of carbon tariffs reduces welfare in most countries, but the effect tends to...

  5. Optimal choice and consumption of cost cap tariffs: Theory and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ko?hler, Philip; Kra?mer, Jan; Kru?ger, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Cost cap tariffs are pay-per-use tariffs for which costs cannot exceed a predefined cost limit. They were recently introduced to telecommunications markets, but were previously also applied in the insurance industry as deductibles or in the rental industry as day rates. This paper develops and empirically validates a consumer surplus model that explains the optimal consumption pattern under cost cap tariffs and the conditions under which cost cap tariffs are chosen over pure pay-per-use and f...

  6. Trade in tasks, tariff policy and effective protection rates

    OpenAIRE

    Diakantoni, Antonia; Escaith, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of global value chains, effective protection rates (EPRs) provide important insights on the impact of nominal tariffs on the competitiveness of industries. Building on the results of the OECD-WTO Trade in Value-Added TiVA database, the paper analyses the evolution of EPRs in about 50 developed and developing countries from 1995 to 2008. The paper reviews also the role of preferential agreements on effective protection as well as the impact of tariffs on the production costs of s...

  7. Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

  8. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar for entry through November 30, 2011...tariff-rate quota for imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

  9. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  10. Determinants of green electricity tariff uptake in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a ‘green tariff’, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that – to the authors’ knowledge – have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: •Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. •Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. •Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome

  11. Support to photovoltaic: comparison between the German, Spanish and French feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes a comparison of the German, Spanish and French tariff system of compulsory purchase as support system to the photovoltaic sector. He briefly compares the legal general framework, indicates purchase obligation durations in the three countries, the tariffs which may depend on the solar plant size, outlines the French characteristic of a 'simplified integration to the building'. He discusses the possible and predictable evolutions of contracts. Appendices provide an interview of an EDF manager, presentations of German and Spanish tariff frameworks and of new French tariffs, and a synthetic table presenting purchase tariffs, tax credit or reduction, and other subsidies in European countries

  12. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  13. Analysis of economic characteristics of a tariff system for thermal energy activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banovac, Eraldo [Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Gelo, Tomislav; Simurina, Jurica [University of Zagreb (Croatia). Faculty of Economics and Business

    2007-11-15

    Generally speaking, the creation of tariff systems for energy activities carried out as regulated or public service obligation is becoming professionally challenging. The Croatian Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA) created the methodology of the tariff system for thermal energy activities and passed this tariff system (without tariff element amounts) in May 2006. The background of the tariff system for thermal energy activities (heat generation, heat distribution and heat supply) including a legislative framework relevant for passing the tariff system, terminology, matrix of the tariff models, tariff elements and amounts of tariff entries are analyzed in this paper. Special attention is paid to the economic characteristics of the tariff system, such as the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), which is chosen among several models of the weighted average of cost of capital (WACC). Using the WACC, the regulatory authorities ensure returns to be equal to the opportunity cost of capital. Furthermore, main formulae and procedures for submitting the proposal for changing the amounts of tariff elements are analyzed as well. (author)

  14. Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? tively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

  15. Asymmetric Equilibria and Non-Cooperative Access Pricing in Telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at competition in the Telecommunications industry with non-linear tariffs and network based price discrimination. Allowing for asymmetric networks and non-cooperatively chosen access prices simultaneously allows to explicitly derive non-reciprocal equilibrium access price choices that are above the efficient level.

  16. Electricity tariffs - Part 2: the NOME law stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article follows a previous note about the Understanding of the 'historical' electricity tariffs implemented in France since the 1960's. This tariffing construction has been under severe strain during the market opening era, but paradoxally, it has also influenced this opening and in particular the competition itself. In reality, the basic principles of the power system have been strongly affected. The French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law aims at finding a solution to this triple problem now, with a useful but probably insufficient text. Regulated prices and opening to competition have encountered strong difficulties since 10 years and can hardly coexist in France. Several decisions taken to try to solve this difficulty have led in fact to terribly complexify the construction of electricity tariffs, finally creating an hybrid situation between the monopoly and the deregulation which satisfies none of the intervening parties and in particular the end-users

  17. On Trade Barriers to China’s Textiles Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Ma; Weiquan Yang

    2010-01-01

    Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of China’s textile industry from international tradeperspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barrierswhich consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriersto China’s textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of theindustry.

  18. Specifying An Efficient Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Niall; Devine, Mel; Lee, William; Gleeson, James; Lyons, Sea?n

    2013-01-01

    This paper derives efficient pricing formulae for renewable energy Feed-in Tariff (FiT) designs that incorporate exposure to uncertain market prices by using option pricing theory. Such FiT designs are presented as a means to delineate market price risk amongst investors and policymakers when designing renewable energy support schemes. Sequential game theory provides the theoretical framework through which we model the strategic interaction of policymakers and investors during policy formul...

  19. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    O Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Cha, Seung-tae

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system...

  20. The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed

  1. Tariffs and welfare in new trade theory models

    OpenAIRE

    Felbermayr, Gabriel; Jung, Benjamin; Larch, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Arkolakis, Costinot and Rodriguez-Clare (ACR, 2012) prove that, conditional on the change in openness, the welfare gains from foreign trade reforms are quantitatively identical across single-sector trade models with radically different micro-foundations. We generalize this result to domestic and multilateral trade reforms. And we extend it to cover revenue generating import tariffs. This gives rise to a new type of welfare isomorphisms across models and liberalization scenarios and allows der...

  2. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  3. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under VariousElectricity Tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-05-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer buildingowners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits suchas reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reducedgreenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration,systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heatingneeds. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult todetermine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty inCHP equipment availability, energy prices, and system loads. Typically,CHP systems use simple heuristic control strategies. This paper describesa method of determining optimal control in real-time and applies it to alight industrial site in San Diego, California, to examine: 1) the addedbenefit of optimal over heuristic controls, 2) the price elasticity ofthe system, and 3) the site-attributable greenhouse gas emissions, allunder three different tariff structures. Results suggest that heuristiccontrols are adequate under the current tariff structure and relativelyhigh electricity prices, capturing 97 percent of the value of thedistributed generation system. Even more value could be captured bysimply not running the CHP system during times of unusually high naturalgas prices. Under hypothetical real-time pricing of electricity,heuristic controls would capture only 70 percent of the value ofdistributed generation.

  4. EFFECT OF SUBSIDIZING EXPORT OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AFTER THE ACCESSION OF POLAND TO THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Together with the accession of Poland to the European Union, the conditions of commodity exchange with the abroad have been considerably changed. Trade of Poland with the European Member State has been covered with the regulations of the Common European Market. Pursuant to the Accession Treaty, Poland has adopted acquiscommunautaire of the Community concerning trade policy, including all instruments and rules of common commercial policy, including external customs tariff and out-tariff measur...

  5. Oil-field equipment in Romania. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil field equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Romanian consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Romanian production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Romanian tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Romanian market for oil field equipment

  6. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  7. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  8. Effects of cost reflective electricity tariffs in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-15

    The power balance in Southern Africa is changing. Namibia faces the choice between increased reliance on imports of electricity or expanding domestic generation. One option is to build a gas fired power plant at Kudu. This plant will have an average generation cost well above the projected import cost. The changing power balance in the region may warrant that Namibia incurs substantial costs to ensure energy security. If Kudu is not built, we project that real end user tariffs will peak in 2010/11 at a level 22 percent higher than in 2006, but then gradually revert towards the 2006 level. The effects of this tariff scenario on the economy should not be dramatic, and we would not recommend to subsidise electricity in this case. This forecast is based on an assumed 67 percent increase the real price of imports. In this and all other scenarios we assume that the unit costs of distribution in Namibia and local surcharges will decline. Namibia has experienced temporary halts in imports of electricity. As the balance in the Southern African power market is changing, the risks of capacity shortages appear to have increased. Frequent power outages could be very costly to the economy, and one may thus argue that Namibia should accept the higher costs of electricity to ensure stable supply. Building Kudu could be one, and possibly the only, viable option to reduce the risks of capacity shortages. The cost of generation at Kudu, if it is built, is uncertain. We have assumed a cost at 44 c/kWh. This can be viewed as an upper bound of the cost range. If Kudu is built at this cost, the end user tariff would have to increase by 85 per cent in real terms over the 2006-2011 period to finance Kudu in full, having factored in projected exports earnings. The real tariff will decline slowly after 2011. This appears a risky scenario, not least for the effects on investments in exports sectors and businesses facing international competition in the Namibian market. If Kudu is built at this cost, and one alternatively subsidises exports from Kudu from the Government budget, the annual subsidy would amount to almost 3 per cent of GDP in 2010/11 and well above 2 percent of GDP also in 2015/16. In this scenario, the real end user tariff will peak in 2011/12 at a level 46 percent above the 2005/06 level. We would suggest that if Kudu is built, one should look for a compromise between these two policy scenarios (author)

  9. Increasing block tariffs in the water sector: An interpretation in terms of social preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Meran, Georg; Von Hirschhausen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Many developing countries around the world apply progressive water tariffs, often structured in the form of discretely increasing block tariffs (IBTs). These tariffs have been criticized in the welfare economic literature due to their perceived inefficiency: many of the prices charged under IBTs do not correspond to marginal costs and thus violate the principle of allocative efficiency. In this paper we explore an alternative interpretation of the widespread use of IBTs, in terms of social pr...

  10. A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair? (online first)

    OpenAIRE

    Zetland, D. J.; Gasson, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower risk of shortage. Aggregating to the national level, higher tariffs are correlated with higher GDP and better governance. A different country-level analysis shows that a higher percentage of the po...

  11. Alternative designs for tariffs on embodied carbon. A global cost-effectiveness analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?hringer, Christoph; Bye, Brita; Fæhn, Taran; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of effective world-wide cooperation to curb global warming, import tariffs on embodied carbon have been proposed as a potential supplement to unilateral emissions pricing. We consider alternative designs for such tariffs, and analyze their effects on global welfare within a multi-region, multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of global trade and energy. Our analysis suggests that the most cost-efficient policy could be region-specific tariffs on all products, b...

  12. The economics of U.S. ethanol import tariffs with a consumption mandate and tax credit

    OpenAIRE

    Gorter, Harry; Just, David R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of an ethanol import tariff in conjunction with a consumption mandate and tax credit. A tax credit alone acts as a subsidy to ethanol producers, equally benefiting exporters like Brazil. If an import tariff is imposed to offset the tax credit, world prices of ethanol decline by less than the tariff (unless oil prices are unaffected). Eliminating the tariff with a tax credit in place results in a significant gain to exporters like Brazil but eliminating the tax c...

  13. Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ? We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ? Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ? Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billionissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ? Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.

  14. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  15. Italian tariff system - relationships with public and private institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In all countries where the gas industry has reached a significant level of development, the public authorities subject companies to restrictions and control of various types. The intervention of the State influences significantly the gas sector. In this respect the relations with concession system should be taken into account as well as the relations between transmission company and distribution companies. A distinction is to be made in sales at two market segments, commercial and residential and industrial. Basic criteria for a tariff system are based on balancing revenue and costs, and constant control of costs. Standard cost components are: raw materials, staff, real estate management, operation costs and general expenses

  16. Are imports in Africa responsive to tariff reductions?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Chris; Morrissey, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    In the 1980's and 1990's many African countries liberalised their trade policy, although since the mid 1990s there are countries that did not alter tariffs. This allows us to analyse the effects of trade liberalisation on the change in imports using Difference-in-Differences techniques that allow us to evaluate the impact on imports of trade liberalisation at the general and sector-specific level. During the period of study (1996-2004), Algeria (in 1997), Ethiopia (2001), Egypt (1998), Tanzan...

  17. Conclusion statement of the 'gas tariffs' Commission works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations

  18. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nr 150 - Private bill introducing a progressive energy tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents a private bill which, by introducing a progressive energy tariff, aims at speeding up energy transition (by inciting households to reduce their consumption, notably by insulating their housing), and at addressing the ineluctable issue of energy price increase. This private bill notably applies a bonus-malus concept by defining an energy consumption threshold which is to be determined by means of several parameters related to climate, housing occupancy, heating mode. This raises several issues concerning for example housing insulation of rented housing. All these aspects lead to a rather complex process to define and implement such a progressive pricing approach

  20. Rollercoaster year ends in feed-in tariff turmoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, Chris

    2012-07-01

    By the end of 2011, Great Britain's PV market had increased from 60 MW to almost 700 MW within 12 months. This development was enabled by a powerfull feed-in tariff scheme introduced in April 2010. However, yet at the beginning of 2012 the success ended in turmoil as the UK government tried to reduce the rates abruptly. This did not give the industry enough time to adapt. It appeared as if the government snatched a defeat from the jaws of a solar energy victory. (orig.)

  1. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...false Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room. 221.550 Section...550 Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room. Copies of...

  2. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA...in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078...INFORMATION: A quantity of 22,000 MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses...

  3. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and...of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and...filing constitutes a certification that the...

  4. 63 FR 20516 - Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-27

    ...Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  5. Pitfalls in the theory of international trade policy: concertina reforms of tariffs and subsidies to high technology industries

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the links between international trade theory and the practice of trade and industrial policy in open economies, with special attention to three areas where theoretical lessons have been misunderstood in policy debates. I argue that the ''concertina rule'' for tariff reform justifies reductions in high tariffs, but not moves towards uniformity, and particularly not increases in low tariffs. I show that the basic principles of tariff reform are the same in unilateral, multil...

  6. Pitfalls in the theory of international trade policy : concertina reform of tariffs, and subsidies to high-technology industries

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, J. Peter

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the links between international trade theory and the practice of trade and industrial policy in open economies, with special attention to three areas where theoretical lessons have been misunderstood in policy debates. I argue that the "concertina rule" for tariff reform justifies reductions in high tariffs but not moves towards uniformity and particularly not increases in low tariffs. I show that the basic principles of tariff reform are the same in unilateral, multilater...

  7. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions.

  8. Electricity tariff reform and rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has implemented increasing-block power tariffs. It might be a breakthrough in the country's stagnant residential power tariff reform. Improving energy efficiency is the primary method adopted by the Chinese government for energy conservation in residential sector. However, negative effects brought by energy rebound would weaken the real effect of efficiency improvement. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact of residential electricity tariff adjustment on rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China. We set up an LA-AIDS Model (linear approximation of the almost ideal demand system model) to estimate the rebound effect of urban residential electricity consumption. The results show that the rebound effect is approximately 165.22%. This figure manifests the existence of ‘backfire effect’, indicating that efficiency improvement does not have energy-saving effect in practice. After the implementation of increasing-block electricity tariff policy in China, the rebound is reduced to 132.3%. In addition, we also obtain the electricity tariffs at which the rebound effect is less than 1 or even close to zero. In this regard, for Chinese electricity market, electricity tariff reform might be an effective method for mitigating rebound effect. - Highlights: • LA–AIDS Model was used to estimate price elasticity for residential electricity. • The rebound size of urban residential electricity in China is estimated. • The size of electricity rebound is approximately 165.22%. • The impact of increasing-block power tariffs on rebound is studied. • Electricity pricing reform is an effective method to mitigate the rebound effect

  9. The Optimum Discriminatory Tariffs under the Cournot-Nash Strategy in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wen Cheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimum ad valorem tariffs under the Cournot competition. There are three situations that exceptions to most-favored-nation (MFN principle are made within the GATT framework: free trade agreement, ‘safeguard’ actions and escape clause. Hence, the issue of discriminatory tariffs has important policy implications. Most of the literature concerning the discriminatory tariffs assumes that the objective of the government is to maximize their country’s welfare by choosing the appropriate trade policy. We expand welfare-maximizing to loss-minimization model in order to comparing two types of optimum discriminatory tariff ratios. In the loss-minimization model, we assume that the objective of the government is to minimize loss in consumers’ surplus while subject to a minimum target level of tariff revenue. The aim of this paper is to show that the optimum ad valorem tariff ratio between two exporting countries can be unambiguously derived with a linear demand curve and constant marginal costs. We conclude that the welfare-maximizing tariff ratio differs from that of the loss-minimization model or a quasi-Ramsey rule. The Ramsey-like tariff ratio does not depend on the size of the intercept of market demand since its objective function is to minimize the loss in consumers’ surplus. On the contrary, the welfare-maximizing tariff ratio is dependent on the intercept since it is used to measure the total consumers’ surplus. Only when the two foreign producers have the identical marginal cost will they coincide.

  10. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  11. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud JØrgen

    2006-01-01

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.

  12. The tariff policy in Romania - strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the guiding lines of the Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs. The main constraints and difficulties of the electricity rates and tariffs designing activity in a transitional economy are analysed, focusing on: financial and economic aspects, such as the dramatic decrease of economic activity, high inflation, scarcity of financial resources...; technical aspects related to the existing metering equipment and obsolete electricity generation, transmission and distribution facilities; social aspects regarding the impact of using energy tariffs designed taking into account the real costs of the electricity company; regulatory policy, legal and administrative aspects

  13. Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)

  14. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting : Evidence from German Mobile Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.

  15. 77 FR 33971 - Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ...Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carriers Negotiated Rate Arrangements; Tariff Filing Exemption AGENCY...regulations which govern negotiated rate arrangements. The rule eliminates some recordkeeping...entering into a ``negotiated rate arrangement'' (NRA). Commission Docket...

  16. Comparison of industrial tariffs for natural gas and electricity within the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In adherence to the EU Directive on the ''Transparency of Gas and Electricity Tariffs Paid by the Industrial End Consumer'' the Statistical Office of the European Union (eurostat) since July 1991 has biannually pusblished the gas and electricity tariffs paid by industrial consumers. In order to approximate the consumers' real situation as closely as possible these surveys determine the effective tariffs for typical consumption rates in certain towns or service areas of a country rather than just giving mean values. Selection of towns depends on several criteria such as, for example, population, economic import, different tariff zones, or the intent to give a representative picture of a country's geography. In the present study, one town was chosen from every country to permit an international comparison. (orig./UA)

  17. Comparison of feed-in tariff, quota and auction mechanisms to support wind power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of support schemes for market-based deployment of renewable energy in the UK and Germany shows that the feed-in tariff reduces costs to consumers and results in larger deployment. A survey among project developers suggests two explanations: (1) Site selection presents the biggest obstacle under the feed-in tariff. Uncertain financing of other schemes reduces efforts at initial project stages and planning permits become a major obstacle. (2) Project developers do not compete in price but for good sites under the feed-in tariff. Most importantly, turbine producers and construction services contribute to most of the costs, and face at least equal levels of competition under the feed-in tariff. (author)

  18. Mass Customization in Wireless Communication Services: Individual Service Bundles and Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Pau, L-f

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results on mass customization of wireless communications services and tariffs. It advocates for a user-centric view of wireless service configuration and pricing as opposed to present-day service catalog options. The focus is on design methodology and tools for such individual services and tariffs, using altogether information compression, negotiation algorithms, and risk portfolio analysis. We first analyze the user and supplier needs and aspirations. We then introduce th...

  19. On the relationship between tariff levels and the nature of mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Halis Murat; Ulus, Aysegul

    2011-01-01

    This paper employs an endogenous merger formation approach in a two-country oligopoly model of trade to examine the international linkages between the nature of mergers and tariff levels. Firms sell differentiated products and compete in a Bertrand fashion in product markets. We find two effects playing key roles in determining equilibrium market structure: the tariff saving effect and the protection gain effect. The balance between these two effects implies that, when foreign country practic...

  20. South Africa's tariff liberalisation policy : an appraisal of developments during the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Rangasamy, L.; Harmse, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Trade liberalization in South Africa has been a characteristic of trade policy since the early 1970s, with the reduction of quantitative restrictions being the main policy instrument as far as imports were concerned. By the early 1990s there was strong support for South Africa’s industrial strategy being spearheaded by comprehensive tariff reductions agreed to under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994, and implemented from 1995 onwards under the auspices...

  1. Tariffs, Trade, and European integration, 1947-1957 : From study group to Common Market

    OpenAIRE

    Asbeek Brusse, Wendy

    1997-01-01

    --Acknowledgments vi (1) --List of Abbreviations vii (2) --Archival References ix (2) --List of Tables xi (2) --List of Illustrations xiii --Introduction 1 (10) --Chapter 1 The Patterns and Politics of Protection in Historical Perspective 11 (28) --Chapter 2 The Foundations of the Postwar Trading System and the First Regional Plans for European Trade Cooperation 39 (40) --Chapter 3 The OEEC's Tariff Debate 79 (36) --Chapter 4 European Tariff Plans in GATT 115 (28) ...

  2. TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Rizwana; Iqbal, Zafar

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses impact of one of the major trade liberalisation policies of Structural Adjustment reforms, tariff rate reduction, on functional income distribution to households in Pakistan through CGE modelling, that is well known for this type of analysis. Using SAM-based CGE model, simulation exercises are undertaken to describe the impact of key adjustment policy i.e., reduction in tariff rate by 80% on industrial imports. Simulation results of CGE model simply show the direction of ...

  3. Import tariffs and export subsidies in the World Trade Organization: A small-country approach

    OpenAIRE

    Potipiti, Tanapong

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a simple small-country model to explain why the World Trade Organization (WTO) prohibits export subsidies but allows import tariffs. Governments choose protection rates (import tariffs/export subsidies) to maximize a weighted sum of social welfare and lobbying contributions. While transportation costs decrease due to the progress of trade liberalization and lower transportation costs, import-competing sectors decline but export industries grow. In the growing export indust...

  4. Fair and efficient tariffs for wind energy : principles, method, proposal, data and potential consequences in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2000, the government of France announced a national energy plan that included the installation of 5,000 to 10,000 MW of wind power by 2010. It also announced a new system based on fixed tariffs that would replace the EOLE 2005 calls for tenders for projects under 12 MW. This paper described the principles and methods used to develop this fair and efficient tariff system for wind energy in France. The Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie (ADEME) uses the Profitability Index Method to help define a wind energy tariff system for wind power plants under 12 MW. This paper presents some figures of the related over-cost incurred with the new tariff system which makes it possible for energy developers in France to develop huge wind potential at a pace equal to other countries with fixed premium prices. The over-cost of the new tariff system is not too high, plus it could be passed equally over all consumers of electricity. The tariff system will help France comply with its national, European and international commitments regarding climate change and with the future European directive on electricity generated from renewable energy sources. 8 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  5. How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jonathon L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs, netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1 How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2 How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.

  6. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  7. International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

  8. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...market rules to allow the market-clearing price during periods of operating reserve shortage...alleged manipulative effect on market prices, market conditions, or market rules...organization's board of directors; (ii) Fairness in balancing diverse interests....

  9. The Effect of Variable Electricity Tariffs in the Household on Usage of Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Stamminger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Demand side management (DSM has been discussed and investigated widely as a strategy to also influence residential energy consumption. Flexible energy tariffs are often proposed as a possible tool of DSM. However, real-life experience with this tool is rare. It was therefore the objective of this study to investigate under more realistic conditions how consumers are able and willing to adjust their residential energy consumption under the conditions of flexible energy tariffs with and without the support of intelligent smart appliances. Sixty-seven households in Germany within an experimental design with fictive tariff model (August 11 to July 12 driven by RWE Effizienz GmbH, as the energy utility, and Miele & Cie.KG, as the appliance manufacturer, were equipped with intelligent smart meters and 41 of them also with smart appliances (washing-machine and tumble-dryer. As a first part of the experiment, the energy tariff changed per hour and day by day, depending on the forecast of the availability of renewable energy in Germany between 10 €-Cent and 40 €-Cent per kWh. Consumers could respond to this change by adjusting the operation of their energyconsuming appliances either by themselves or—with the smart appliances—by a programmed start at low tariffs. The behaviour of the 41 consumers with smart appliances and their motivation are intensively investigated and analysed during this running two year project including several questionnaires. The consumers had to fill out daily a diary about the usage of their washing-machine, tumble-dryer, dishwasher and ironing devices. These data were matched with the actual tariff. This did allow identifying if and to which extend the consumers adjust their household activities depending on availability of solar and wind energy. These data were also used to calculate the cost savings by using the flexible tariff. In comparison to the costs of the fixed tariff of 25 €-Cent per kWh savings of 25% were realised on average. The results of a first phase already show that flexible tariffs are able to influence the operation of household appliances towards a flexible demand.

  10. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  11. Transmission cost allocation for an efficient tariff action of electricity in a liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work is focused on the evaluation of the costs of an electricity transmission system operator and on their allocation among the users of the grid in liberalized market. After a recall of the goals of an efficient tariff for transmission, an original method for the cost allocation is proposed called ZI. Based on the marginal cost approach, this method could be the base for setting an efficient transmission tariff that at the same time covers costs and stimulates efficient behaviours. The performances of such an approach have been tested on a real 47 bus grid and ZI tariffs have been compared to the traditional postage stamp ones, highlighting the strong differences between them

  12. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ...Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade...tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: March 25, 2010...TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the...

  13. 66 FR 21047 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2001...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-27

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  14. 69 FR 27818 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2004...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-17

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  15. 71 FR 51977 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  16. 68 FR 25479 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2003...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-13

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  17. 70 FR 32219 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2005...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-02

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  18. 74 FR 41033 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2009...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  19. 65 FR 20063 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2000...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-14

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  20. 78 FR 46491 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  1. 72 FR 53913 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-21

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  2. 67 FR 20881 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-29

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  3. 79 FR 34213 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-16

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  4. 73 FR 50875 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 2008...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-29

    ...Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...This document sets forth the revised appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota...the cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy...

  5. Products Facing High Tariffs in Major Developed Market Economy Countries : An Area of Priority for Developing Countries in the Uruguay Round?

    OpenAIRE

    Erzan, Refik; Karsenty, Guy

    1987-01-01

    Developing countries have an important stake in products which have relatively high post-Tokyo MFN tariff rates in developed market economy countries (DMECs). On the whole, their market share is greater in higher tariff imports and, consequently, reductions which cut high tariffs more than lower ones, e.g. by applying tariff ceilings or harmonization formulae, are in the interest of developing countries. They would benefit from such MFN reductions despite erosions in their existing preference...

  6. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: The case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

  7. Increasing block tariffs in the water sector: a semi-welfarist approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meran, Georg; Von Hirschhausen, Christian R.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the properties of progressive water tariffs that are often applied in the sector in the form of discretely increasing block tariffs (IBT). We are particularly interested in water tarification in a poverty context where a subsistence level of water has to be allocated to each household. Our approach is semi-welfarist to the extent that we analyze second-best pricing schemes that may be applied in practice due to fairness or other, non-welfarist considerations. In our theoretical mod...

  8. STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage, formation of the reserve fund and achieve the insurer has a specific benefit, get the first tariff or first gross.

  9. The solar photovoltaic feed-in tariff scheme in New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems are part of Australia's energy supply matrix. In the case of New South Wales (NSW), the state government has had to deal with a complex policy problem. In order to play its role in the federal Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, the NSW government initiated the 7 year Solar Bonus Scheme in 2010. However, in attempting to maximise community investment in small-scale solar PV systems, it relied on faulty financial modelling that applied a generous Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and underestimated the level of investor participation and installed capacity. Consequently, the scheme has resulted in very high public costs that will require policy changes that bring investors and energy retailers into conflict, and unpopular electricity retail price adjustments. This paper uses a structured case and stakeholder analysis to critically analyse the FiT policy, while also highlighting important lessons for policymakers engaging in FiT design. - highlights: • Describes the design of a feed-in tariff policy for solar PV electricity exports. • Exposes a A$1 billion payment overrun and weaknesses in policy controls. • Identifies policy design flaws and opportunities to improve future tariff designs. • Discusses the importance of developing nationally integrated feed-in tariff policies

  10. How much do electricity tariff increases in Ukraine hurt the poor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the electricity tariffs for private consumers to cost-covering levels has been a very sensitive issue for all transition countries. The likely negative social consequences are the central argument why the necessary tariff corrections have not yet been implemented in Ukraine by the political decision makers. Since official data is not available, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the electricity consumption behaviour of private households. This makes it difficult to counter the official arguments with hard evidence. A survey was carried out by the authors giving a more detailed picture. Basic data of the survey was used in evaluating the impact of possible tariff increases on the household expenditures of different income groups, using both the compensating (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV) methods. The findings confirm that an electricity tariff increase up to the level which would cover 'officially' measured costs, as defined by the Ukrainian electricity regulatory authority, would not cause severe social problems. However, further increases up to a level, which would cover the 'true' costs, i.e. up to a level comparable to the average OECD level, should only be realised in steps

  11. How much do electricity tariff increases in Ukraine hurt the poor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the electricity tariffs for private consumers to cost-covering levels has been a very sensitive issue for all transition countries. The likely negative social consequences are the central argument why the necessary tariff corrections have not yet been implemented in Ukraine by the political decision makers. Since official data is not available, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the electricity consumption behaviour of private households. This makes it difficult to counter the official arguments with hard evidence. A survey was carried out by the authors giving a more detailed picture. Basic data of the survey was used in evaluating the impact of possible tariff increases on the household expenditures of different income groups, using both the compensating (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV) methods. The findings confirm that an electricity tariff increase up to the level which would cover ''officially'' measured costs, as defined by the Ukrainian electricity regulatory authority, would not cause severe social problems. However, further increases up to a level, which would cover the ''true'' costs, i.e. up to a level comparable to the average OECD level, should only be realised in steps. (author)

  12. Estimating the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff commonly used by a local distribution company (LDC) in its electricity demand response program. This option value captures the benefit that a LDC enjoys from not serving an end-use load during high-price hours in a wholesale electricity market. It is conservative in that it does not include the cost savings in meeting the LDC's resource adequacy requirement or deferring transmission and distribution (T and D) investments necessary for delivering reliable service. Illustrated by a Northern California example, our two-pronged approach entails (a) a set of summer monthly market price regressions to forecast daily spot price distributions that incorporate uncertainty in natural gas price and weather; and (b) a simulation exercise to quantify the tariff's value under a specific design. The results indicate that a non-firm service tariff can have varying option value estimates that are highly sensitive to the tariff's design, and that an incentive payment based on the option value alone is likely insufficient to attract customer participation in a non-firm service program. (author)

  13. Assessment of the feed-in tariff mechanism for renewable energies in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to Taiwan's lack of natural resources, dependence on imported energy, and pursuit of sustainable development, renewable energies are extremely important for Taiwan's future energy supply. Since Taiwan's feed-in tariff (FIT) is still in its initial stage, one must examine whether the current system is compatible with a well-designed FIT scheme. This study examines the main features of Taiwan's FIT system and assesses design options using several criteria. Additionally, one of the most important elements of a FIT scheme, namely, a tariff system, is discussed. Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs, and the guaranteed-return tariff system coincides with the spirit underlying leading global FITs; however, many issues, such as setting goals by stages, refinement of the tariff calculation methodology, and elimination of other non-economic barriers, must be addressed to achieve future developmental goals and green industry growth. - Highlights: ? No in-depth study has focused exclusively on Taiwan's FIT design options. ? This study fills this gap in the literature by examining Taiwan's FIT system. ? Assessments demonstrate that Taiwan's FIT scheme has the design options required by well-functioning FITs. ? Four issues are identified that Taiwan's policy makers should address to achieve future developmental goals and expand green industries.

  14. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  15. Northern States Power Company's open transmission tariff from a customer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October of 1990, Northern States Power Company (NSP or Company), filed a unique open transmission tariff for both captive customers and through-system transactions. This is an important step towards expanding transmission services in the United States. Many individuals in the utility industry, who may be considering Imposing generation costs on transmission services, have been closely monitoring NSP's case which is currently before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). NSP's innovative generation costs include charges for reactive power production, frequency control, load dispatching, and load following. The results of this case may also have an important impact on the future of open transmission tariffs. Rates for these services depend on the customer's classification as either a captive or through-system consumer. The proposed tariff raises critical issues related to the costing of these transmission services. NSP's methodology has caused serious concern because the proposed tariff would increase transmission costs by an average of 53%. This paper will discuss the benefits of transmission, proposed rates, contract terms, and costing methodologies of NSP's plan

  16. Estimation and comparison of ostomy appliance costs with tariffs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2008-02-01

    This study estimated costs of production and distribution of ostomy appliances, and compared cost estimates with tariffs in Belgium. The cost model took into account manufacturing costs, overhead, R&D, warehousing, profits, and distribution margins. Data were derived from manufacturers, a decomposition of finished products, and interviews with stakeholders. The cost model generated estimated retail prices of euro 2.96 for one-piece appliances, euro 1.62 for two-piece pouches, and euro 2.06 for two-piece flanges. Production and distribution costs accounted for 40 and 60% of retail prices, respectively. Estimated retail prices corresponded well with tariffs for one-piece appliances and for two-piece pouches. For two-piece regular flanges, a substantial difference was observed between the calculated price of euro 2.06 and the tariffs of euro 6.05. In the absence of publicly disclosed information on the cost structure of appliances, estimating ostomy appliance costs is valuable to reimbursement agencies when setting tariffs. PMID:17180385

  17. 19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED...Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United States-Caribbean...

  18. Review of European regulatory and tariff experience with the sale of heat and electricity from combined heat and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Prince Edward Island Energy Corporation, Edmonton Power, Energy, Mines and Resources Canada and the Canadian Electrical Association commissioned a study to understand how electrical power and district heat from combined heat and power (CHP) plants is priced in Europe. Four northern European countries were investigated, Denmark, Germany, Sweden and Finland. These countries produce 45.8 TWh of power from combined heat and power plants, 7.1% of their annual consumption. In the case of Denmark, CHP accounts for 37.5% of its total power production. The energy situation in each country is reviewed using published statistics, and in particular the rapidly changing situation with regard to environmental and fuel taxes is examined. In order to obtain practical insights with regard to tariffs used by the various utilities, a series of generic examples were examined, supported by specific case studies. Technologies reviewed included: CHP from coal-fuelled extraction plant, CHP from coal-fuelled back pressure plant, waste heat from a municipal waste plant, and gas turbine with waste heat recovery. The benefits and risks associated with different tariff designs are discussed in detail including tariff formulae. This should enable interested parties to develop appropriate tariffs for combined heat and power plants in the context of current electrical utility policies. As a complement to the tariffs for combined heat and power plants, the design of district heating tariffs is ale design of district heating tariffs is also addressed. The typical concepts used in different countries are presented and discussed. 23 tabs

  19. Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in sevee system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it is approved

  20. Tar?m D??? Ürünlerde Pazara Giri? (NAMA Müzakereleri ve Türkiye (Non-Agricultural Market Access Negotiations and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?ahin YAMAN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay tries to analyse Turkey’s position and constraints in the WTO Nonagricultural Market Access Negotiations (NAMA especially vis-à-vis developing countries.It basically, underlines Turkey’s unique negotiating position; de jure developing, de facto an advanced economy status in the WTO Doha NAMA negotiations.At Doha Ministerial Meeting in 2001, WTO members agreed to initiate negotiations to further liberalize trade, among other areas, on non-agricultural goods. For this purpose, the Negotiating Group on Market Access (NGMA was created at the first meeting of the Trade Negotiations Committee of the WTO, in early 2002. Turkey has been quite active since then in NAMA negotiations in calibrating its position between offensive and defensive negotiation interests although its offensive market access interests largely outweigh defensive one.Turkey has also been propagating an offensive non-linear tariff cutting Swiss Formula approach at the WTO to curb the international high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations. Having a strong offensive market access interests, Turkey mainly aims at large developing country markets diversifying its trade portfolio away from traditional markets towards large developing economies.From the perspective of governance, Turkey has serious constraints on its trade and industry policy space stemming from the Turkey-EU Customs Union (CU. Although Turkey is a de jure developing country in the WTO and will have all legal rights and mobligations stemming from the outcome of the DOHA, in practice, Turkey will have to implement the same applied common external tariffs of the EU. Despite the constraints and dilemmas stemming from the EU-Turkey customs union, it can be strongly argued that, it is in Turkey’s industrial interests to be actively involved in the WTO to tackle the high tariffs, tariff peaks and escalations which hinders Turkey’s exports to the world markets.

  1. Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

  2. Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qixin; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing [State Key Lab. of Power System, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

  3. Establishing the Optimal Tariff in Rural Electricity Distribution Networksy.

    OpenAIRE

    Guler, Hazal; Tedgren, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Access to electricity is a key factor of improving the living standard in a country, as it enhances the quality of services such as education, health care and productivity. The rural population of Uganda is however only supplied with electricity to a degree less than three percent. There are large financial issues in extending the national electricity grid why small stand alone systems are sometimes a more valuable option. Even then, there are large investment costs that need to be covered by...

  4. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

  5. 77 FR 413 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States and for Other Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...with respect to the United States, the trade agreements resulting from the Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, including Schedule XX...the Marrakesh Protocol to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994...

  6. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  7. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  8. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

  9. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  10. 64 FR 17501 - Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Regulation for the 1999...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-12

    ...Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 6 Adjustment of Appendices to the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing...the new levels of cumulative annual transfers from Appendix 1 to Appendix 2 for certain dairy product import licenses...

  11. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, J. R.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P. W. G.; Boer, I. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a dairy farm. Helping dairy farmers to make informed business decisions when confronted with future options in the sphere of electricity tariffs and energy efficient cooling systems will contribute t...

  12. On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-17

    This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection with the tariffs of domestic contracts; - Proposals for tariffing the international transports. The sixth section presents the efficiency of the short and medium term access. The following issues are tackled: - Regulation of access and transmission; - Short term treating of the bottlenecks; - De-congestion investments; - Tariffs for lead-in and reinforcement operations; - the case of proximity production, direct lines and self-production. Finally, the last section titled 'Inciting the GRT internal efficiency and tariffing evolution, displays the subject matters: - The GRT behaviour guide; - Evolution of tariffing; - Benchmarking possibilities. In the concluding section the basic ideas of the report i.e., improving the market functioning, developing the network management and inciting the grow in the internal efficiency of GRT are elaborated and entailing recommendations are set down.

  13. Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: ? Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. ? Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. ? Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. ? Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. ? Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

  14. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because of the high quantities of wind generation. The main goal is to evaluate the changes in the EVs charging diagram with the energy price preventing wind curtailment.

  15. A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JJ, Hoffman; JA, du Plessis.

    Full Text Available Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) forms part of integrated water resource management and can be used as an economically viable alternative to the upgrade of infrastructure to balance supply and demand. In order to enable effective decision-making, a model was developed in this [...] study to estimate expected water savings and the financial impact of a change in water tariff as a WC/WDM measure. This paper describes a model that was developed for municipalities to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example.

  16. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  17. The Impacts of Feed-in Tariffs on Innovation: Empirical Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bo?hringer, Christoph; Cuntz, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Otoo, Emmanuel Asane

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in tariffs under the Renewable Energy Sources Act, the so - called Erneuerbare - Energien - Gesetz (EEG), have triggered a massive expansion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Germany over the last decade. The increase in non-competitive renewable power generation though went hand in hand with a substantial rise in electricity prices with consumers paying for the renewable energy subsidies. The high cost burden has provoked an intense public debate on the benefits of renewab...

  18. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  19. Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries

    OpenAIRE

    Groba, Felix; Indvik, Joe; Jenner, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as two of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation in the developed world. A few studies have assessed their effectiveness, but most do not account for policy design features and market characteristics that influence policy strength. In this paper, we employ 1992-2008 panel data to conduct the first analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promot...

  20. The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Ronan; O Malley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for ...

  1. A look inwards: Carbon tariffs versus internal improvements in emissions-trading systems

    OpenAIRE

    Springmann, M.

    2012-01-01

    Subglobal climate policies will be the norm for some years to come. However, several options exist for improving the efficiency of domestic emissions regulation. A prominent but contentious policy option for improving the external efficiency is the implementation of carbon tariffs on non-regulating regions. This is thought to reduce carbon leakage and increase domestic production, albeit at the cost of non-regulating countries. In contrast, internal efficiency improvements can be more collabo...

  2. Carbon Tariffs: Effects in Settings with Technology Choice and Foreign Comparative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, David Francis

    2012-01-01

    Carbon regulation is intended to reduce global emissions, but there is growing concern that such regulation may simply shift production to unregulated regions and increase global emissions in the process. Carbon tariffs have emerged as a possible mechanism to address these concerns by imposing carbon costs on imports at the regulated region's border. I show that, when firms choose from discrete production technologies and offshore producers hold a comparative cost advantage, carbon leakage ca...

  3. Managing investor and consumer exposure to electricity market price risks through Feed-in Tariff design

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Mel; Farrell, Niall; Lee, William

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) incentivise the deployment of renewable energy technologies by subsidising remuneration and transferring market price risk from investors, through policymakers, to a counterparty. This counterparty is often the electricity consumer. Different FiT structures exist, with each transferring market price risk to varying degrees. Explicit consideration of policymaker/consumer risk burden has not been incorporated in FiT analyses to date. Using Stackelberg game the...

  4. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Analysis of Operator Business and Risk Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Pau, L-f

    2007-01-01

    A design approach is offered for individual tariffs for mass customized mobile service products, whereby operators can determine their contract acceptance rules to guarantee with a set probability their minimum profit and risk levels. It uses realistic improvements to earlier reported negotiation algorithms [1], and a full operator operational model including infrastructure and content acquisition. Value at risk and profit are analyzed when a random user has consistent characteristics to a su...

  5. Revised feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic in the United Kingdom: A cloudy future ahead?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom (UK) started implementing a national Feed-In Tariff (FiT) mechanism on the 1 April 2010, which included specific payment tariffs for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, a revised FiT rate has been put in place starting from 1 April 2012, applicable to any installations with an eligibility date of on or after 3 March 2012. This paper presents, first, an overview of solar PV installation in the UK. This followed by a general concept of the FiT in the UK before analyzing the financial impact of the new FiT rate on the consumers. Similar financial analysis is conducted with selected countries in Europe. The financial analysis investigates the total profit, the average rate of return and the payback period. It is found that the new FiT rate generates very low profit, minimum rate of return and a longer payback period, suggesting a downward trend of solar PV uptake in the future. - Highlight: ? Overview of solar PV installation in the UK until present time is discussed. ? Financial analysis is presented using previous, new and degression FiT tariff. ? Comparative analysis with other European countries is evaluated. ? The new FiT rate in the UK generates very low return than other countries. ? This could suggest a downward trend of UK's solar PV uptake in the future

  6. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic ned heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, S.; Bhattacharya, K. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Fuller, J.D. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Management Science

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Individual Telecommunications Tariffs in Chinese Communities: History as a Mirror of the Future, and Relevance for Mobile Service Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H.; Pau, L-f

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the mobile service pricing and affordability issues in China. Taking history as a mirror, it shows individual tariffs existed at the dawn of telephony. A vision of future mobile services with individual tariffs are formalized which will suit specially well the culture of communities rooted in Chinese traditions. An analysis of current tariff conditions in China, and of technologies developments worldwide, shows community-based indiviudal tariifs will speed up the diffusio...

  9. UK organisation of access care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, Teun; Powers, Sarah; Baharani, Jyoti

    2015-03-01

    National UK audits show that 73% of patients start renal replacement therapy (RRT) with haemodialysis (HD). However, 59% of those start HD on non-permanent access in the form of a tunnelled line (TL) or a non-tunnelled line (NTL), 40% on an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 1% on an arteriovenous graft (AVG). After 3 months, the number of patients dialysing on AVF was only 41%. Late referrals, within 90 days of starting dialysis to the renal service, occur in one-fifth of all incident HD patients. Referral to a surgeon was an important determinant of mode of access at first dialysis. However, referral to a surgeon occurred in 67% of patients who were known to the nephrologist for over a year and in 46% of patients who were known to nephrology less than a year but more than 90 days. Best practice tariffs of the National Health Service (NHS) payment by results program have set a target of 75% of prevalent HD occurring via an AVF or AVG in 2011/2012, rising to 85% in 2013/2014. We suggest that this target is best achieved by increasing timely referral to a surgeon for creation of access before HD is needed. PMID:25751543

  10. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  11. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN TARIFF BILL-BASED THEORIES OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 USING EVENT STUDY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C. Beaudreau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jude Wanniski (1978 argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005, on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated higher revenues and profits from the anticipated increase in sales and revenues. The Stock Market Crash, he argued, came on the heels of the defeat of the Thomas Recommittal Plan which foretold of lower, not higher as Wanniski contended, tariffs on manufactures. Using Event Study data from January 14, 1929 to October 29, 1929, this paper attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses. The results show that “good” tariff bill news as reported in the New York Times contributed to stock price appreciation, and vice-versa, supporting the latter theory.

  12. Bonus-malus scales in segmented tariffs : Gilde & Sundt's work revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Denuit, Michel; Pitrebois, Sandra; Walhin, Jean-franc?ois

    2004-01-01

    In a recent paper, the authors have shown how to compute analytically the Bayesian relativ- ities for a Bonus-Malus scale superimposed on a segmented tariff. However, the percentages associated with the levels of such a scale may exhibit an abrupt rise or drop from one level to another. For commercial reasons, it is sometimes preferable that each level inflicts the same relative penalty. In this paper we will show how to obtain such linear relativities for a given Bonus-Malus System. The mode...

  13. Foreign Direct Investment and Customs Union: Incentives for Multilateral Tariff Cooperation over Free Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2010-01-01

    We examine the implications of a customs union (CU) on the pattern of tariffs, welfare and the prospects for free trade when the nonmember firm has an incentive to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI). First we show that upon the formation of a bilateral CU, the non-member firm has greater incentives to engage in FDI. However, when FDI becomes a feasible entry option for the nonmember firm under a CU, member countries have incentives to strategically induce export over FDI by lowering th...

  14. The comparison between ad valorem and specific taxation under two-part tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Schjelderup, Guttorm; Jensen, Sissel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we compare ad valorem and specific taxation under heterogeneous demand when a monopolist offers a menu of two-part tariffs. An increase in either tax rate leads to a higher usage fee for all consumers, whereas the fixed fee under reasonable assumptions will fall. If the government changes the mix of taxes in such a way that the firm’s behavior is unchanged, a system of wholly ad valorem taxation generates higher tax revenue than does a system of wholly specific taxes. Tax ref...

  15. Volatility of world rice prices, import tariffs and poverty in Indonesia: a CGE-microsimulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh, Dartanto

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at measuring the impact of world price volatility and import tariffs on rice on poverty in Indonesia. Applying a Computable General Equilibrium-Microsimulation approach and the endogenous poverty line, this study found that the volatility of world rice prices during 2007 to 2010 had a large effect on the poverty incidence in Indonesia. The simulation result showed that a 60 per cent increase in world rice price raises the head count index by 0.81 per cent which is equivalent t...

  16. Two-Part Tariff Lottery: A Means to Provide Public Good at the Social Optimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Barham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pure public goods provided by charitable organizations may be provided at the first-best level when the provision is financed by an appropriately designed lottery. If lottery tickets are sold using a two-part tariff, the level of provision of the public good is greater than when fees are not charged to participate in the lottery. Unlike [13] who asymptotically approach the first-best level of provision with an arbitrarily large prize, a Pareto efficient level of the public good is produced when participation fees for the lottery are set appropriately.

  17. Two-Part Tariff Lottery: A Means to Provide Public Good at the Social Optimum

    OpenAIRE

    Vicky Barham; Amornrat Apinunmahakul

    2012-01-01

    Pure public goods provided by charitable organizations may be provided at the first-best level when the provision is financed by an appropriately designed lottery. If lottery tickets are sold using a two-part tariff, the level of provision of the public good is greater than when fees are not charged to participate in the lottery. Unlike [13] who asymptotically approach the first-best level of provision with an arbitrarily large prize, a Pareto efficient level of the public good is produced wh...

  18. On the role of government regulation in creating conditions for the development of Russian regions: the case of tariff policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of disparities in the economic conditions of regional development is an important task of government regulation. The tariff policy influences the economic development of Russia and different regions. The market incentives for innovation are not sufficiently strong. The rise in prices and tariffs has a negative impact on cost structure and production efficiency. The research conducted shows the degree of variation in the level and dynamics of prices and rates in each region and provides a basis for analyzing the conditions of economic development and their comparison at a regional level. The paper shows the impact of tariff policy on the development of regional markets and the creation of conditions for economic development.

  19. 77 FR 64462 - Conference on International Trade Issues Facing U.S. Machinery Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    On December 4, 2012 the Office of Transportation and Machinery will hold a one-day conference on bi-lateral and multi-lateral international trade issues impacting the U.S. machinery manufacturing industries, with emphasis on tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and global market...

  20. EFFECT OF SUBSIDIZING EXPORT OF AGRO-FOOD PRODUCTS AFTER THE ACCESSION OF POLAND TO THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the accession of Poland to the European Union, the conditions of commodity exchange with the abroad have been considerably changed. Trade of Poland with the European Member State has been covered with the regulations of the Common European Market. Pursuant to the Accession Treaty, Poland has adopted acquiscommunautaire of the Community concerning trade policy, including all instruments and rules of common commercial policy, including external customs tariff and out-tariff measures as well as system of agreements with the commercial partners outside the European Union. Accession to the European Union meant the extension of greater protective barriers over Poland in the field of import of agricultural products from third countries and the possibility of taking an advantage of export subsidies to agro-food products exported to third countries on equal rights as other European Union entrepreneurs.

  1. Vietnam's accession to the WTO: A roadmap for a rational approach in trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    Aspiring to become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) the Vietnamese government is confronted with tremendous political, economic and institutional challenges. Issues to be addressed are not only technical questions such as the tariff regime, industrial and agricultural subsidies, market access for foreign service providers, and the protection of intellectual property rights. More far-reaching will be the consequences of the reform and modernization of the legal system, the privat...

  2. Scoring the Icecap-a Capability Instrument. Estimation of a UK General Population Tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Terry N; Huynh, Elisabeth; Peters, Tim J; Al-Janabi, Hareth; Clemens, Sam; Moody, Alison; Coast, Joanna

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a best-worst scaling (BWS) study to value the Investigating Choice Experiments Capability Measure for Adults (ICECAP-A), a new capability measure among adults, in a UK setting. A main effects plan plus its foldover was used to estimate weights for each of the four levels of all five attributes. The BWS study was administered to 413 randomly sampled individuals, together with sociodemographic and other questions. Scale-adjusted latent class analyses identified two preference and two (variance) scale classes. Ability to characterize preference and scale heterogeneity was limited, but data quality was good, and the final model exhibited a high pseudo-r-squared. After adjusting for heterogeneity, a population tariff was estimated. This showed that 'attachment' and 'stability' each account for around 22% of the space, and 'autonomy', 'achievement' and 'enjoyment' account for around 18% each. Across all attributes, greater value was placed on the difference between the lowest levels of capability than between the highest. This tariff will enable ICECAP-A to be used in economic evaluation both within the field of health and across public policy generally. © 2013 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24254584

  3. Potentials and challenges in implementing feed-in tariff policy in Indonesia and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in Southeast Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines are characterized by a tropical climate and high amounts of rainfall that render their high potential for hydro-power and wind energy deployment. The volcanic geography of both countries also indicates their high geothermal potential compared with that of other countries, and their high solar radiation level makes them suitable areas to establish power plants. The present study is an archival-statistical overview of the potential generation of renewable energy in Indonesia and the Philippines and the implementation of the Feed-in-tariff (FiT) policy. This research focuses on the challenges encountered by politicians and policymakers and confirms the insufficient production of energy from wind, solar, and bio-gas sources despite the potential and the attempts to deploy FiT. Results show that the role of the government in providing support to investors is not clear in both countries. In addition, inflation rates have not been calculated. However, FiT has benefitted both countries by preventing degression during the primary years. - Highlights: • Both countries are unsuccessful in finalizing a fixed Feed-in-tariff payment. • Both have the same aims from FiT but they have different mechanisms. • The Philippines has shown good ability in managing geothermal energy. • Indonesia's energy generation from biomass is better managed than the Philippines. • Both do not have significant energy production from the wind, solar and biogas

  4. Tariffs and subsidies in Zimbabwe's reforming electricity industry: steering a utility through turbulent times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1991, the Government of Zimbabwe adopted a public enterprise reform strategy as part of a World Bank driven Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP). For the electricity sector, the Government adopted a two-pronged programme of reform - a performance improvement programme (PIP) for the national utility, the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA), and a legal and regulatory reform programme for the electricity sector in general. Ten years later, significant success has been achieved in improving the utility's performance in technical operations and customer service. However, there has been very little progress on the legal and regulatory front. This has adversely affected the utility's financial performance, as well as frustrating the Government's efforts in attracting private sector investment. The centrality of the tariff question reflects the importance of the customer or end-user to the power sector reform process. This article outlines the power sector reform experiences in Zimbabwe with special focus on the tariff question. The paper suggests, from the perspective of a utility executive, reasons for the mixed results at ZESA, and lessons for other countries in the region undertaking similar reforms. (Author)

  5. Energy saving in energy market reform—The feed-in tariffs option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of feed-in tariffs (FITs) is now widespread for renewable energy and under discussion for other low carbon electricity generation, but not for energy efficiency. There is a small literature on FITs for electricity demand reduction, but not energy efficiency more generally. This paper considers the general application of FITs on the demand side and sets out the economic arguments in the context of changing energy markets. It then discusses the implications of some practical issues, including the definitional problems arising from the difference between energy efficiency and demand reduction. Using experience from historical energy efficiency programmes, it considers the public benefits, payment methods and policy scope that need to be considered and how these might affect policy design. It makes some provisional estimates of economically justified payments in the context of the proposed UK energy market reform. It concludes that FITs for energy saving might be a powerful tool for incentivising energy efficiency. - Highlights: ? The concept of an energy saving feed-in tariff (ESFIT) is introduced and analysed. ? ESFITs are potentially an alternative to supplier energy efficiency obligations. ? To maximise effectiveness, ESFITs should be paid as capital grants. ? ESFITs are justifiable if there are premium prices for low carbon generation. ? Higher rates of ESFIT may be justified to overcome barriers to energy efficiency.

  6. Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ? This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ? Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ? Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ? The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ? Financing and dynamics bet? Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

  7. Vascular Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna YELKEN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis patients are connected to life by means of vascular access. The complications of vascular access represent one of the most important causes of morbidity, mortality and high healthcare costs in the hemodialysis patients. Although it is known that the best vascular access is AVF, the fistula use rate is still low in most countries. This review will examine; association of various vascular access with morbidity, mortality and dialysis costs; different practice patterns in the world and reasons of this; finally, solutions for vascular access problems.

  8. The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ? We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ? Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ? High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ? Optimal tariff is a rnal costs. ? Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

  9. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  10. Optimal Reconfiguration Based Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management and Line Loss Reduction in Distribution Networks.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programming (MIP) when calculating the DT, leading to minimized energy cost and reduced DT compared to the DT concept without FR. The paper further demonstrates that the line losses can be taken into account during the calculation of DT. As a result, the line loss reduction can be realized in a decentralized manner through the DT framework. Three case studies were conducted to validate the optimal reconfiguration based DT method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks.

  11. Engel curves, household characteristics and low-user tariff schemes in natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navajas, Fernando H. [Fundacion de Investigaciones Economicas Latinoamericanas (FIEL), Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    We explore the relative importance of income and household characteristics (such as family size) in explaining differences in household consumption of natural gas and LPG. In a simple model of vertically (willingness to pay) ordered households we posit that the relative importance of the income elasticity of demand (vs. the family size elasticity) depends positively on the price faced by households. Thus, very low prices tend to depress the across households income elasticity of demand relative to the characteristic-elasticity and the opposite holds for under high prices. We test this hypothesis using, for the first time in Argentina, data from the household expenditure survey on Natural gas and LPG and compare the cross-consumption equations for both fuels, which have quite different price regimes. Finally, we explore welfare implications for low-user tariff scheme reforms in natural gas. (author)

  12. Tariffs on power supply and prices of electricity per 1st January 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives a survey of the most usual types of tariffs connected with the Danish electric-power distribution companies and the prices, valid per January 1st, 1994, set by individual companies and also the cost to consumers of connection to the supply network. A survey of prices set by power plant administrators with regard to the distribution companies is also included in addition to a summary of the modes of calculation in connection with wind turbines not owned by the electricity companies and descriptions of models for calculations related to decentral and industrial plants. Local conditions such as structure, economy etc. must be taken into consideration when comparing prices set by companies in several different areas. (AB)

  13. Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments. Some observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint. (author)

  14. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  15. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity

  16. Features of Formation of Tariff Policy in the Sphere of Housing and Communal Services at the Present Stage on an Example of the Kharkiv Region ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Vladimir M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of formation of tariff policy in the sphere of housing and communal services of Ukraine. The main directions of state regulation of functioning of housing sector were highlighted. It was theoretically grounded and developed recommendations of the market environment in the reform of the tariff policy in the housing and communal services. The current state of security settlements of Ukraine centralized water supply and the basic problems of development in this field was analysed. The methodical approach to the formation of tariffs for public utilities example of Kharkiv region was offered.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ???. ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????-???????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.

  17. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  18. Site Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institutes of Health, NIH is making every effort to ensure that the information available on our website is accessible to all. If you use special adaptive equipment to access the Web and encounter problems when using our site, please let us know.

  19. Managing tariff risks in cogeneration: the example of La Doua; La maitrise des risques tarifaires en cogeneration: exemple de la Doua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, D. [SLEC / Prodith (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1996-12-31

    Combined to a district heating system based on a coal burning plant, a cogeneration unit has been installed in Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France, with a gas engine using natural gas for power production and complementary heat production. Electric power surplus is sold back to the national grid, EDF. Costs and tariffs for power, heat and natural gas have been evaluated and the tariff evolutions are considered for price indexing and adapted financial coverings. Results after one year of operation are discussed

  20. Impacts of the transition of the purchase tax for passenger cars into a tariff per driven kilometre [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2007, the Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing scheme in the Netherlands, called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit' (Paying differently for mobility). Major goal is to start with a full operational system in 2016 in which every car user will pay a tariff per driven kilometre. Starting point is that for the average car user, the car mobility will not be more or less expensive. In order to accomplish this, the fixed car and road taxes will be abolished. Point of departure is to convert the road tax (MRB) into a tariff per kilometre. In this report it is examined what the impacts are in case the purchase tax for private cars (BPM) will be incorporated into a price per kilometre as well.

  1. Free Trade and Investment in the Fisheries Sector of the Asia-Pacific Region: An Economic Analysis of Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Patrick; Munro, Gordon; Macneil, Paul; Fekete, Alex; Xue, Gong

    1999-01-01

    This paper was commissioned by the APEC Working Group on Fisheries to examine the economic impact of eliminating tariffs on fish and fish products in APEC economies. Chapter II provides a qualitative assessment of the impacts of liberalization of fisheries trade drawing on the available data and economic theory. Chapter III presents specific quantitative estimates of the impact on trade flows of fish and fish products using an econometrically estimated model of fisheries trade liberalizati...

  2. Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (?2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not predict any outcome of interest on its own. Keywords: hip fractures, best practice tariff, mortality

  3. Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work “open access”: digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But...

  4. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ? 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ? Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ? Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  5. Effects of Serbian accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzner Mario

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the global simulation model (GSIM of Joseph F. Francois and Keith H. Hall (2009 for analyzing global, regional, and unilateral trade policy changes was applied to Serbia. This was to measure the effects of full trade liberalization with the EU after Serbian accession to the EU. As anticipated, most of the changes in welfare after full liberalization of trade between Serbia and EU can be expected in sectors where Serbia has specialized; protection against imports from the EU is strong. However, losses could also occur in sectors that currently face strong protection against the rest of the world and this protection is lost after EU accession. Trade liberalization will lead to a substantial loss of tariff revenues. Reduced consumer prices might, on the one hand increase consumer surplus but on the other hand decrease producer surplus and output in certain industries.

  6. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison: The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uran, Vedran [Platana 40, 10434 Strmec Samoborski, Zagreb County (Croatia)], E-mail: vedran.uran@ri.t-com.hr; Krajcar, Slavko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-15

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price.

  7. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uran, Vedran [Platana 40, 10434 Strmec Samoborski, Zagreb County (Croatia); Krajcar, Slavko [The Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-03-15

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

  8. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. L.; Van Gerven, T.; Baeyens, J.; Degrève, J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57?m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313?€/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future. PMID:24959614

  9. Evaluation of feed-in tariff-schemes in African countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Meyer-Renschhausen.

    Full Text Available Almost all African countries are planning to increase their power supply capacities and to diversify the resource base of the electricity sector. In sharp contrast to the ambitious objectives, grid connected power plants, based on renewable energies, are very rare except large scale hydropower in Af [...] rican countries. The small number of renewable energy (RE)-plants in Africa shows that a quick diffusion of these technologies cannot be expected from the dynamic of market forces alone. Political support is necessary. By now, feed-in tariffs (FIT) is the most prominent economic instrument promoting renewable energy technologies in the power sector. They are applied in more than 50 countries, among them several African countries like Algeria, Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania. The objective of the paper is to investigate the outcome and effectiveness of African FIT-schemes. It is assumed that most of the FIT-schemes in Africa are poorly working because of unfavourable institutional design, insufficient level of FIT rates or obstacles in the process of implementation. Deficiencies in the design of FIT-schemes and the implementation process can be explained by conflicting policy targets like affordable power prices and grid stability but also with an unclear allocation of property rights that can lead to time-consuming negotiations of Power Purchase Agreements.

  10. Are Feed-in Tariffs suitable for promoting solar PV in New Zealand cities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in Tariffs (FITs) implemented by city councils in the USA have proven an effective means of stimulating installation of renewable-electricity generation capacity at a local level, and may also be effective for New Zealand cities. Though New Zealand has a high proportion of electricity generated renewably, this is mostly from centralized hydroelectricity plants. The suitability of city-level FITs for promoting solar photovoltaic panels in New Zealand is examined. Findings suggest that FITs, with rates obtained using the cost-of-generation method, could be implemented in New Zealand cities at rates comparable to those in successful FIT schemes internationally. The unique structure of New Zealand's liberalized electricity market, however, is likely to make financing FIT schemes at city-level more complex than the equivalent situation in the USA. Benefits of introducing such schemes will include the possibility for purchasers of solar PV systems to calculate returns on investment over the long term, and the streamlining of the grid connection process by reducing the number of authorities involved. - Highlights: • Results pertain to New Zealand city councils implementing FITs. • FIT rates similar to those in other countries provide sufficient investor incentive. • FITs could greatly increase investor security and ease grid connection. • Electricity market structure precludes financing through burden-sharing

  11. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  12. IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Szuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

  13. Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)

  14. Challenges facing the European power transmission tariffs: The case of inter-TSO compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoilov, Dimo, E-mail: dstoilov@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1000 (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, Yulian [Elektroenergien Sistemen Operator-EAD, 8 Vesletz Str., Sofia 1040 (Bulgaria); Francois, Bruno [Ecole Centrale de Lille, Cite scientifique, BP 48, 59651, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-09-15

    This article draws attention to problems important for all EU power consumers-the unfairness in individual payments for power transmission and in the cross-border subsidy element in the mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operators (TSO) Compensation (ITC). A brief review of power transmission tariffs brings out the structure of the problems. A short retrospection explains their growth. The essence of the ITC mechanism is explained and existing shortcomings are illustrated. The deficiencies of existing regulations for transmission pricing are analyzed. In the light of this analysis, the ITC problem is reconsidered and defined more precisely. The basic prerequisites to an ITC reformulation process are presented. The main principles of a new simple, transparent and equitable approach are suggested, in accordance with the contemporary legal positions and functions of the TSOs. - Highlights: > Investigations in the mechanism known as Inter-TSO Compensation (ITC). > Deficiencies in European regulations for cross-border power transmission payments. > Main principles of a new approach avoiding the existing cross-subsidies. > Appeal for reconsideration and a more precise definition of the ITC problem. > Public welfare enhancement by fairness in payment for power transmission.

  15. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Wai Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâ??s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

  16. Challenges facing the European power transmission tariffs: The case of inter-TSO compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws attention to problems important for all EU power consumers-the unfairness in individual payments for power transmission and in the cross-border subsidy element in the mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operators (TSO) Compensation (ITC). A brief review of power transmission tariffs brings out the structure of the problems. A short retrospection explains their growth. The essence of the ITC mechanism is explained and existing shortcomings are illustrated. The deficiencies of existing regulations for transmission pricing are analyzed. In the light of this analysis, the ITC problem is reconsidered and defined more precisely. The basic prerequisites to an ITC reformulation process are presented. The main principles of a new simple, transparent and equitable approach are suggested, in accordance with the contemporary legal positions and functions of the TSOs. - Highlights: ? Investigations in the mechanism known as Inter-TSO Compensation (ITC). ? Deficiencies in European regulations for cross-border power transmission payments. ? Main principles of a new approach avoiding the existing cross-subsidies. ? Appeal for reconsideration and a more precise definition of the ITC problem. ? Public welfare enhancement by fairness in payment for power transmission.

  17. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

  18. The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: ? We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. ? We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. ? The scheme is really a series of put options. ? Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. ? The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations repreient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

  19. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach is highly efficient at grid congestion prevention, and the precise level of congestion that can be alleviated is dependent on the price profile of the optimisation period in question.

  20. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

  1. Access Denied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    As faculty members add online and multimedia elements to their courses, colleges and universities across the country are realizing that there is a lot of work to be done to ensure that disabled students (and employees) have equal access to course material and university websites. Unfortunately, far too few schools consider the task a top priority.…

  2. Access Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Acker, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Das Access Manager Framework erlaubt die modulare Erweiterung eines herkömmlichen Datenbank Management Systems (DBMS). Zu diesem Zweck wird ein voll einsatzfähiges DBMS mittels einer kompakten Schnittstelle geöffnet, die Zugriff auf interne Komponenten des Systems gewährt. Das DBMS fungiert dabei als Wirtssystems für Erweiterungen in Form von alternativen primären oder sekundären Zugriffsmethoden, die durch entsprechende Algorithmen für relationale Transformationen ergänzt werden kö...

  3. A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uran, Vedran [Platana 40, 10434 Strmec Samoborski, Zagreb County (Croatia); Krajcar, Slavko [The Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2009-12-15

    The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States. (author)

  4. A method for the correction of the feed-in tariff price for cogeneration based on a comparison between Croatia and EU Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission has adopted Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration, which the EU Member States, as well as candidates including Croatia, were obliged to accept. Among other terms and conditions, the Directive requires certain support mechanisms, such as feed-in tariff prices and premiums added to market electricity prices. In this paper, the cost effectiveness of selling electricity at the feed-in tariff prices in the selected EU Member States is compared to selling it on the European electricity market, with or without premiums. The results of this comparison will indicate whether correction of the Croatian feed-in tariff price to a higher value would be justified. The cost effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit upgraded with mean reverting and jump diffusion processes is used for comparison. At the end of this paper, a method is suggested for the correction of feed-in tariff prices, with examples of corrected prices for the years 2008 and 2009. Such corrections have been proven to be justified and are compared to the feed-in tariff prices in most of the selected EU Member States. (author)

  5. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ? Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ? Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ? Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ? Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ? Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  6. United States Access Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Access Board Advancing Full Access and Inclusion for All The Board Guidelines & Standards Training Enforcement Research ... from the Access Board: Board Newsletter: Access Currents United States Access Board 1331 F Street NW, Suite 1000 ...

  7. Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.re than one hundred million Euros.

  8. An innovative Accession intended for FEC Decryption predicated on the BP Contrivance in LTE as well as WiMAX Conformity

    OpenAIRE

    G Kumar, Prof C. Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Numerous wireless contact systems such as IS-54, superior data tariff for the GSM succession (EDGE), universal interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) and long term progression (LTE) have adopted low-density parity-check (LDPC), tail-biting intricacy, and turbo codes as the forward error correcting codes (FEC) method on behalf of information and transparency channels. Consequently, several well-organized algorithms have been projected for decoding these codes. Conversely, the dissimilar...

  9. Determining appropriate feed-in tariff rates to promote biomass-to-electricity generation in Eastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site data collection, interviews, and financial models were used to determine the feed-in tariff (FIT) rate required to encourage investment in the generation of electricity from currently unused biomass from the Eastern Ontario forest industry. A financial model was adapted and run to determine the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period associated with a 15 MW biomass-to-electricity facility. The analysis suggests that Ontario should consider a stronger incentive than the recently-offered CDN$ 0.13 kW?1 h?1 for biomass-to-electricity. If no customer for heat generated from the plant can be found, FIT rates between CDN$ 0.17–0.22 kW?1 h?1 are necessary to achieve a 15% internal rate of return and a simple payback of approximately 5 yr; achieving a price of CDN$ 0.013 kW?1 of thermal output still requires elevated FIT rates between CDN$ 0.15–0.21 kW?1 h?1 to meet economic performance criteria. Other barriers, particularly regulations regarding the use of operating engineers in steam plants, should also be addressed to facilitate development of biomass-to-electricity. Without these changes, it is likely that biomass will be significantly under-used and will not contribute to the renewable energy goals of Ontario. - Highlights: • Economic performance of biomass-to-electricity generation in Ontario is assessed. • Feed-in tariffs needed to meet industrial payback and IRR targets are determined. • Existing feed-in tariff rates for biomass must be raised to meet industrial targets. • Incentives that adjust feedstock price might be explored to increase biomass use

  10. Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs; Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, sur les tarifs de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)

  11. Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Ryan [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada); Walsh, Philip R., E-mail: prwalsh@ryerson.ca [Ted Rogers School of Management, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: > Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. > Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. > Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. > Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. > Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

  12. Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: ? Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. ? Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. ? Application of performance data from Warwiction of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. ? Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. ? Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

  13. Advice for adjustment of the MEP subsidy tariffs for 2006; Advies aanpassing MEP-subsidietarieven voor 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Cleijne, H. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2004-03-01

    In view of the interim evaluation and possible subsequent changes to the incentive structures of the MEP subsidies for renewable electricity, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has asked ECN and KEMA to assess the need for the annual reassessment of the MEP subsidies for 2006. In this report it is concluded that any changes to the tariffs are likely to be modest and that it is better to await the outcome of the interim evaluation before calculating new tariffs. [Dutch] In het licht van de tussenevaluatie en de mogelijke wijzigingen ten aanzien van de stimuleringssystematiek binnen de MEP heeft het Ministerie van Economische Zaken aan ECN gevraagd advies uit te brengen over de noodzaak en wenselijkheid van het aanpassen en consulteren van de berekeningsaannames in het kader van het vaststellen van de MEP-subsidietarieven voor 2006. De conclusie in deze notitie is dat de eventuele wijzigingen in de MEP-subsidietarieven zeer beperkt zullen zijn en dat het beter is om de uitkomst van de evaluatie af te wachten alvorens nieuwe tarieven worden berekend.

  14. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  15. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L

    2002-07-01

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  16. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  17. Green Barrier Promotes SustainableDevelopment of Our Foreign Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Yongning Wang

    2009-01-01

    Green barrier is a kind of new non-tariff barrier in the current international trade. This paper based on the meaning of green barrier, analyzed green barrier can promote Sustainable Development of our foreign trade, and proposed counter strategies to green barrier.

  18. Protectionist Measures in Postsecondary Ontario (Canada) TESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Paul Z.

    2012-01-01

    TESL in Ontario, Canada, seems to be on an inauspicious path by having set up non-tariff protectionist measures in an apparent attempt to keep out a multinational TESL workforce, effectively going against the spirit of globalization. This paper highlights some of the differences between South Korean TEFL and TESL in Ontario; for the most part…

  19. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  20. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ...WTO Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses...in-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw...of raw value) for imports of raw cane sugar and certain sugars, syrups,...

  1. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  2. Political economy of protection in Belgium. Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tharakan, P.K.M.

    This paper reports the results of the analysis of the causes of protection in Belgium. Tariffs were found to be correlated positively with the total and non-wage value added per person, suggesting that the present structure of the European Community's Common External Tariff supports industries in which Belgium has a comparative advantage. However, industries using scarce natural resources also receive some tariff protection, and non-tariff assistance to industry appears to be skewed toward the more labor intensive products. Government assistance to industry on the whole seems to be favoring sectors that are vulnerable to competition from the developing countries. (Copyright (c) 1980 by The World Bank.)

  3. Whither international trade policies? Worries about continuing protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Donges, Juergen B.

    1986-01-01

    The eighties should have seen further progress in the liberalization of international trade. During the Tokyo Round of trade policy negotiations (completed in 1979) an agreement on tariff reductions was reached and several "Codes of Conduct" were set up with the aim of stopping the proliferation of non-tariff restrictions and thereby providing for stability and predictability of trade rules. But by now it has become evident that the Tokyo Round marked a turning point in the post-war developme...

  4. The sequencing of regional trade initiatives in Europe and East Asia, with

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.; Venables, Anthony J.; Alan Winters, L.

    2004-01-01

    The latest wave of international market integration has seen a proliferation of bilateral and regional trading arrangements at the same time as the multilateral trading system has struggled to expand in scope. By and large, these developments have resulted in falling tariff and non-tariff barriers, fewer restrictions on inward foreign direct investments and, in some cases, the narrowing of regulatory differences. As the leading case of regional integration, the European Union (EU) and its pre...

  5. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countri...

  6. Trade related business climate and manufacturing export performance in Africa: A firm-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lawrence; Balchin, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Africa continues to be marginalised in world trade of manufactured goods, despite reductions in tariffs and non-tariff barriers. This paper investigates whether high business and trade costs associated with Africa’s trade-related infrastructure, trade institutions and the regulatory environment have contributed towards its mediocre trade performance. The paper focuses on eight African countries - Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia - using the Wor...

  7. Does Anti-dumping Enforcement Generate Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Sagnik; Bhattacharyya, Surajit; Narayanan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed that countries across the world are guided by the rules and regulations of multilateral trading institutions (for example, World Trade organization [WTO], International Monetary Fund [IMF]) in order to promote free and fair trade through gradual reduction in trade barriers. The World economy has noticed significant reduction in tariffs, yet we find a rise in non-tariff barriers (NTBs). However, we still find dumping and few other trade strategies of the exp...

  8. Trade Costs Algorithm in Manoilescu Generalised Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Dogaru, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The study of the comparative advantage’s scheme, using the modified prices because of the trade costs in terms of a real two product barter, brings us on a “previous” position towards the merchandise exchange using the currency. In this new algorithm of scheme, the remarks include in the formal analytical plan the prices’ increase cases, determined by the tariff and non-tariff measures and also by the reduction ones through subventions or other similar measures of these. Through the n...

  9. Trade facilitation: a conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...

  10. A comprehensive method to find RPO trajectory and incentive scheme for promotion of renewable energy in India with study of impact of RPO on tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) regime in India started in 2011 with the announcement of benchmark RPO (BRPO) of states for the Financial Year (FY) 2011 by respective State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC), to promote Renewable Energy (RE). The report submitted to Forum of Regulators (FoR) in this regard has recommended uniform rate of increase of BRPO of states and studied the impact of RPO on tariff for FY 2011–2015. However, more rigorous analysis is needed for fixing BRPO in a scientific manner and for fair allocation of incentives to promote RE. This paper attempts to evaluate all states on a common platform to find BRPO, giving due weightage to the state-wise energy demand and RE generation, ensuring minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years and hence less impact of RPO on tariff. To encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO, a financial incentive scheme is proposed giving due weightage to RE consumption, RE capacity addition and RPO compliance of the states. The methods are illustrated for the Indian states using real system data. A study of RPO's impact on electricity tariff of Indian states is also conducted and reported for FY 2011–2015, considering Renewable Energy Certificate (REC). - Author-Highlights: • Proposes a comprehensive method to find the BRPO of Indian states for promoting RE. • Minimum change in BRPO of consecutive years hence less impact of RPO on tariff. • Incentive scheme to encourage the states to align their actual RPO with BRPO. • Study of impact of RPO on tariff of Indian states is conducted

  11. Tariff design for communication-capable metering systems in conjunction with time-variant electricity consumption rates; Gestaltung von Tarifen fuer kommunikationsfaehige Messsysteme im Verbund mit zeitvariablen Stromtarifen. Eine empirische Analyse von Praeferenzen privater Stromkunden in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft

    2013-06-15

    In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  13. Feed-in tariff vs. renewable portfolio standard: An empirical test of their relative effectiveness in promoting wind capacity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative effectiveness of feed-in tariff (FIT) and Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in promoting wind capacity development using panel data. Conservative estimates suggest that, on average across countries, FIT increases total wind capacity more than RPS by a magnitude of about 1800 MW. When using time variant policy indicators, the difference between the two policies increases to nearly 2000 MW, roughly 8% of 2009 cumulative capacity in Germany. As for annual wind capacity since 2005, this paper has found no significant difference between FIT and RPS. It is also found that wind energy development responds to high electricity demand and high oil dependence. - Highlights: ? Examined the relative effectiveness of FIT and RPS in promoting wind capacity. ? FIT increases total wind capacity more than 1800 MW than RPS across counties. ? RPS is catching up with FIT for annual wind capacity in recent years. ? Wind development also responds to high electricity demand and oil dependence.

  14. Wind power merit-order and feed-in-tariffs effect: A variability analysis of the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • M5P algorithm-based model determines influence of wind power on Spanish spot market. • Assessment of the wind power influence for different levels of wind resource. • Cost-benefit analysis is developed, accounting feed-in-tariffs and merit order effect. • The worst and best levels of wind power production for the system are determined. - Abstract: The incipient large-scale energy-storage technologies are not sufficiently developed yet, which means that the wind power production depends on the wind speed at every moment. This, along with the fact that the wind resource is not constant over time, makes wind power production quite variable. Therefore, an artificial intelligence-based technique (M5P algorithm) is applied to empirical hourly data to determine the influence of wind power technology on the spot market for different levels of wind resource in 2012. It concludes that wind power depressed the spot prices between 7.42 and 10.94 €/MW h for a wind power production of 90% and 110% of the real one, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the important presence of wind power in the Spanish generation mix, the above range has been extended up to 0% in order to determine the worst and best level of wind power production for the Spanish electrical system (from an economical point of view). To do so, both feed-in-tariffs and wind power impact on spot market (merit order effect) have been accounted in accordance with the different levels of wind power production. Since empirical data from 2012 have been used to conduct the research, the results presented in this paper may provide policy makers with a worst and best-case scenario to discuss about the convenience of the last cutting expenses over wind power technology in Spain

  15. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  16. Feed-in tariff design for domestic scale grid-connected PV systems using high resolution household electricity demand data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of large samples of smart metering data allows policymakers to design Feed-in Tariffs which are more targeted and efficient. This paper presents a methodology which uses these data to design FITs for domestic scale grid-connected PV systems in Ireland. A sample of 2551 household electricity demand data collected at 1/2-hourly intervals, electricity output from a 2.82 kWp PV system over the same time interval as well as PV system costs and electricity tariffs were used to determine the required FIT to make it worthwhile for the households to invest in the PV system. The methodology shows that it is possible to design single, multiple and continuous FITs. Continuous FITs are the most efficient and result in no overcompensation to the housholder while single and multiple FITs are less efficient since they result in different levels of overcompensation. In the PV case study considered, it was shown that the use of three FITs (0.3170, 0.3315 and 0.3475 €/kW h) resulted in a 59.6% reduction in overcompensation compared to a single FIT of 0.3475 €/kW h; assuming immediate and complete uptake of the technology, this would result in NPV savings of over €597 m to the Irish government over a 25 year lifetime. - Highlights: • Targeted and efficient FITs can be designed for domestic grid-connected PV systems. • The design is based on household electricity demand data at 1/2-hourly intervals. • Designs consist of single, multiple and continuous FITs. • Continuous FITs are most efficient with no overcompensation. • Multiple FITs result in lower overcompensation compared to a single FIT

  17. Hemodialysis access - self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. Using the access, blood is removed from your body, cleaned by ... dialyzer, then returned to your body. Usually the access is put in a person's arm. But it ...

  18. Rationalization of water reservoirs operation reduces energy cost with the application of period- and season-dependent tariffs; Racionalizacao da operacao de pocos associada a reservacao reduz custo de energia com aplicacao de tarifa horo-sazonal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassiano Filho, Almiro; Orsati, Walter; Bianchi Neto, Cesar [Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo (SABESP), SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    It is presented the utilization of differentiated tariffs for water supply by the Brazilian utility SABESP (Companhia de Saneamento Basico do Estado de Sao Paulo) as a mean to save electric power 3 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes.

  20. Unlocking the EUR53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU. How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be EUR51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between EUR26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of EUR10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as EUR67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only EUR14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs. (author)

  1. Unlocking the Euro 53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU: How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be Euro 51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between Euro 26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of Euro 10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as Euro 67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only Euro 14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs.

  2. Economic feasibility of large community feed-in tariff-eligible wind energy production in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova Scotia, Canada's community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) scheme is the world's first feed-in tariff program specifically targeting locally-based renewable energy projects. This study investigated selected turbine capacities to optimize electricity production, based on actual wind profiles for three sites in Nova Scotia, Canada (i.e., Sydney, Caribou Point, and Greenwood). The turbine capacities evaluated are also eligible under the current COMFIT-large scheme in Nova Scotia, including 100 kW, 900 kW and 2.0 MW turbines. A capital budgeting model was developed and then used to evaluate investment decisions on wind power production. Wind duration curves suggest that Caribou Point had the highest average wind speeds but for shorter durations. By comparison, Sydney and Greenwood had lower average wind speeds but with longer durations. Electricity production cost was lowest for the 2.0 MW turbine in Caribou Point ($0.07 per kWh), and highest for the 100 kW turbine located in Greenwood ($0.49 per kWh). The most financially viable wind power project was the 2.0 MW turbine assumed to operate at 80 m hub height in Caribou Point, with NPV=$251,586, and BCR=1.51. Wind power production for the remaining two sites was generally not financially feasible for the turbine capacities considered. The impact of promoting local economic development from wind power projects was higher in a scenario under which wind turbines were clustered at a single site with the highest wind resources than generating a similar level of electricity by distributing the wind turbines across multiple locations. -- Highlights: •Wind energy production was highest at Caribou Point than at Sydney and Greenwood. •Estimated energy production increased with hub-height, for two of the three sites. •Cost of energy production was lowest at Caribou Point and highest at Greenwood. •In general, benefit–cost ratios increased with wind turbine capacity. •Pay-back period tended to decrease with increase in size of the wind turbine

  3. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean–variance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean–variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean–variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feed-in tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes. - Highlights: • Mean–variance portfolio approach to analyse risk implications of policy instruments. • We show that feed-in tariffs require lower support levels than feed-in premiums. • This systematic effect stems from the lower exposure of investors to market risk. • We created a stochastic model for an exemplary offshore wind park in West Denmark. • We quantify risk-return, Sharpe Ratios and differences in required support levels

  4. Reasons for decision in the matter of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Alberta Clipper expansion project : facilities and tolls and tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2007, Enbridge Pipelines Inc. applied for approval to construct the Alberta Clipper Expansion Project which consists of 1074 km of oil pipeline and associated facilities between its Hardisty, Alberta terminal and the Canada/United States border near Gretna, Manitoba. The purpose of the project is to increase the takeaway capacity out of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and into PADD 2 and eastern Canadian markets. The pipeline would have an initial capacity of 71,500 cubic metres per day. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion with a targeted in-service data for July 2010. Public hearings into the Alberta Clipper project began in November 2007 and included an oral hearing. The Board was presented with evidence from intervenors on many issues including impacts to Aboriginal peoples and the impact of the project on domestic interests. The Board reviewed the design and operation of the proposed facilities as well as routing and land requirements. Issues regarding the environment, socio-economic matters, tolls, tariffs and economics were also addressed. The Board was satisfied from the evidence that the proposed facilities are, and will be, required by the present and future public convenience and necessity. In approving the project, the Board attached several conditions, including one that requires Enbridge to conduct an emergency response exercise at its South Saskatchewan River crossing. This condition is in response to public concerns raisedn is in response to public concerns raised during the hearing process. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs., 4 appendices

  5. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  6. Access 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

  7. Access 2010 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Groh, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    The expert guidance you need to get the most out of Access 2010 Get the Access 2010 information you need to succeed with this comprehensive reference. If this is your first encounter with Access, you'll appreciate the thorough attention to database fundamentals and terminology. If you're familiar with earlier versions, you can jump right into Access 2010 enhancements such as the new Access user interface and wider use of XML and Web services.Takes you under the hood of Microsoft Access 2010, the database application included with Microsoft Office 2010Explores the latest en

  8. Access to Investigational Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access to Investigational Drugs Key Points An investigational drug is one that is under study and is ... receive investigational drugs through mechanisms such as expanded access protocols and special exception programs, but specific criteria ...

  9. Trade policy substitution: Theory and evidence from Specific Trade Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Beverelli, Cosimo; Boffa, Mauro; Keck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We investigate to what extent the probability that a Specific Trade Concern (STC) is raised in the WTO against a Member in a given sector is affected by past reductions in applied tariffs. Employing an identification strategy based on 'new measures', we find evidence of a substitution of non-tariff measures for tariffs both in the sample of TBT and in the sample of SPS concerns. While in the SPS sample this result holds both among developed and developing economies, in the TBT sample such 'tr...

  10. WTO accession issues

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammer, Rolf J.; Lu?cke, Matthias

    1999-01-01

    For many applicant countries, accession to the WTO has been, and still is, a frustratingly slow process. In this paper, we discuss the substantial, contentious issues that are slowing down progress in accession negotiations. We contrast these with the benefits of WTO accession not only to the applicant countries, but also to the multilateral trading system as a whole and, hence, to current members. Against this background, we suggest a strategy to accelerate accession without diluting the gro...

  11. Are PDF Documents Accessible?

    OpenAIRE

    Turro?, Mireia Ribera

    2013-01-01

    Adobe PDF is one of the most widely used formats in scientific communications and in administrative documents. In its latest versions it has incorporated structural tags and improvements that increase its level of accessibility. This article reviews the concept of accessibility in the reading of digital documents and evaluates the accessibility of PDF according to the most widely established standards.

  12. The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Mimately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

  13. A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

  14. Hybrid modeling to support energy-climate policy: Effects of feed-in tariffs to promote renewable energy in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariffs have been the main policy instrument applied in Portugal for the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources under the EU Directives on energy and climate regulation. In this paper, we provide an empirical impact assessment of the economic and environmental effects of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. Impact assessment of policy instruments plays a crucial role on decision-making process. For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium modeling approach, which represents a reliable tool to analyze the complex interactions between economic, energy, and environmental issues related to energy policies. Numerical simulations confirm the empirical evidence that the FITs policy implemented by Portugal was both an effective and a cost-efficient way to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and thus to achieve the national RES-E target of 45% in 2010. Results show relatively modest macroeconomic impacts indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. From an environmental perspective, the deployment of renewable energy source results in significant carbon emissions reductions. - Highlights: ? We provide an impact assessment of Portugal's FITs policy to promote RES-E generation. ? For numerical simulations, we make use of a hybrid top-down/bottom-up general equilibrium model. ? Portugal's FITs policy proved to be a cost-efficient way to increase generation of renewable electricity. ? Results show relatively modest macroeconomic effects indicating potentially low economic adjustment costs. ? The deployment of renewable energy sources results in significant carbon emission reductions

  15. Access 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

  16. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  17. Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control

    CERN Document Server

    Kayem, Anne V D M; Martin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cryptographic access control (CAC) is an approach to securing data by encrypting it with a key, so that only the users in possession of the correct key are able to decrypt the data and/or perform further encryptions. Applications of cryptographic access control will benefit companies, governments and the military where structured access to information is essential. The purpose of this book is to highlight the need for adaptability in cryptographic access control schemes that are geared for dynamic environments, such as the Internet. "Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control" presents th

  18. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EkstrØm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc.

  19. The suitability of a feed-in tariff for wind energy in New Zealand—A study based on stakeholders' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Zealand (NZ) aims to expand the deployment of wind energy as one means to achieve 90% of electricity generation from renewables by 2025 and in addition to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Due to electricity market regulations that inhibit market entry for independent developers, New Zealand's wind energy development has been limited to primarily large wind farms developed by a handful of electricity utilities. In contrast to many other countries, NZ lacks policy support for entry of smaller investors into the wind generation sector. In order to gage the acceptability of a feed in tariff (FIT) for wind energy in New Zealand, a survey questionnaire (366 respondents) with land owning farmers and semi structured interviews with wind energy stakeholders was conducted. Although international literature suggests that a FIT would be the most suitable policy support scheme to accelerate wind energy deployment, this conclusion was not reached by many influential stakeholders in NZ. However, a majority of the surveyed farmers supported the introduction of a FIT for wind energy. The study also revealed that farmers' acceptance of wind energy in their local area increases with their awareness about climate change issues. - Highlights: ? Of countries in the world with a good wind regime, NZ has a low level of policy support for wind energy. ? A survey of landowning farmers in NZ (366 respondents) indicated support for a feed in tariff for wind energy. ? The major eariff for wind energy. ? The major electricity generators, however, did not indicate support for a feed in tariff. ? A low level of recognition of climate change being anthropogenic was found among landowning farmers.

  20. Impacts of time variable electricity tariffs in the accounting for grid billing of household customers; Auswirkungen zeitvariabler Stromtarife in der Bilanzkreisabrechnung von Haushaltskunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST); Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht; Ifland, Mike; Westermann, Dirk [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    During the research project RESIDENS (moRe Efficient energy utiliSation through system oriented Integration of DomEstic eNd customerS), representing this work's basis, the consequences of private customer's Indirect Demand Side Management have been investigated. The work at hand comments on problems which were being raised due to different load shapes for system operators and retailers regarding accounting and balancing of shortages or excesses in yearly quantities and presents possible approaches to a successful roll out of variable tariffs.

  1. Agent-based model for electricity consumption and storage to evaluate economic viability of tariff arbitrage for residential sector demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Storage-based demand response (loadshifting) is underutilized in residential sector. • Economics (arbitrage savings versus equipment cost) are not well understood. • Stochastic demand models and real-life tariffs can illuminate economic viability. • A range of available storage options provide economically viable DR. • Daily/seasonal stochastic demand variations crucial to understanding optimum capacity. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) is one of many approaches to address temporal mismatches in demand and supply of grid electricity. More common in the commercial sector, DR usually refers to reducing consumption at certain hours or seasons, thus reducing peak demand from the grid. In the residential sector, where sophisticated appliance-level controls such as automatic dimming of lights or on-demand lowering of air conditioning are less common, building-based electricity storage to shift grid consumption from peak to off-peak times could provide DR without requiring consumers to operate their appliances on shifted or reduced schedules: Storage would be dispatched to appliances as needed while still shaving peaks on the grid. Technologically, storage and two-way-inverters are readily available to enable such residential DR. Economically, however, the situation is less clear. Specifically, are time-varying electricity tariffs available such that electricity cost reduction via arbitrage could offset manufacturing, financing, and installation costs of the required storage? To address this question we (i) devise an agent-based appliance-level stochastic model to simulate the electricity demand of an average U.S. household; (ii) loadshift the demand via simple dispatch strategies; and (iii) determine potential profits to the building owner, i.e. reduced electricity cost of the modified demand with realistic tariffs (Con Edison, NY) minus storage cost. We determine the economic viability for a range of traditional and advanced storage technologies as well as their optimum storage capacities to maximize profits. We find that (i) profits can range from <1% to 48% of annual electricity costs of a typical household; and (ii) optimum capacities, while approximately equal to households’ kWh consumption during peak hours, is affected by stochastic variations in daily and seasonal consumption. Future improvements to storage technology, arbitrage strategies, and tariffs are discussed. Details of the storage technologies, agent-based model, testing, and benchmarking are supplied as Supplementary Data

  2. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  3. The open access advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    A study published today in PLoS Biology provides robust evidence that open-access articles are more immediately recognized and cited than non-OA articles. This editorial provides some additional follow up data from the most recent analysis of the same cohort in April 2006, 17 to 21 months after publication. These data suggest that the citation gap between open access and non-open access papers continues to widen. I conclude with the observation that the "open access advantage" has at least three components: (1) a citation count advantage (as a metric for knowledge uptake within the scientific community), (2) an end user uptake advantage, and (3) a cross-discipline fertilization advantage. More research is needed, and JMIR is inviting research on all aspects of open access. As the advantages for publishing open access from a researchers' point of view become increasingly clear, questions around the sustainability of open access journals remain. This journal is a living example that "lean publishing" models can create successful open access journals. Open source tools which have been developed by the Public Knowledge Project at the University of British Columbia with contributions from the Epublishing & Open Access group at the Centre for Global eHealth Innovation in Toronto are an alternative to hosting journals on commercial open access publisher sites. PMID:16867971

  4. Access to modern contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery. PMID:16443395

  5. Access Data Analysis Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bluttman, Ken

    2008-01-01

    This book offers practical recipes to solve a variety of common problems that users have with extracting Access data and performing calculations on it. Whether you use Access 2007 or an earlier version, this book will teach you new methods to query data, different ways to move data in and out of Access, how to calculate answers to financial and investment issues, how to jump beyond SQL by manipulating data with VBA, and more.

  6. Web Accessibility Checking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Singh; Nitish Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater) entered. Then it reads ...

  7. Access 2003 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Prague, Cary N; Reardon, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The most comprehensive reference on this popular database management tool, fully updated with the new features of Access ""X"" including increased use of XML and Web servicesExplores the new, tighter integration with SharePoint and BizTalk in Office ""X"" that enables greater flexibility for gathering and manipulating dataWritten by an international bestselling author team with several books to their credit, including previous editions of Access BibleGets Access beginners started with hundreds of examples, tips, and techniques for getting the most from AccessOffers adva

  8. Employment effects of regional climate policy. The case of renewable energy promotion by feed-in tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, Peter; Voigt, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the local impacts of renewable energy carrier promotion by the German feed-in tariffs scheme ''Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz'' for the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg by using an input-output approach. The local impacts are of particular interest as in Baden-Wuerttemberg the manufacturing industries are highly important compared to the rest of Germany. We analyze the effects of the policy actions on the production as well as the employment of several sectors. We construct a regional input-output table of Baden- Wuerttemberg and introduce the construction and the operation of installations for seven renewable energy types in order to examine different paths to achieve the state government's targets. We consider two scenarios with different sources funding the investments in the construction and operation of renewable energy installations. In the first scenario, all the necessary investments are funded completely by internal sources. Hence, the scenario is driven by the assumption that these investments either crowd out investments in other industries of the regional economy or the investments are paid by the government, i.e. by taxes which are borne by all other industries and by the households. Therefore, the final demand of all other sectors decreases. In this scenario, we have a slightly positive total turnover effect, although in many sectors the turnover effect is negative. In addition, the total employment effect is negative since the more labour-intensive industries are affected more heavily from the policy than the less labour-intensive industries. The second scenario considers the case of a partly external funding by taking into account that the installations may be demanded from ''abroad'', i.e. the rest of Germany and the rest of the world. Therefore, investments in other industries are not completely crowded out in this scenario. We find positive production and employment effects also for most industries besides the energy sector. Our findings suggest that policy actions promoting renewable energy types do not necessarily create new jobs and additional turnover for the whole economy. They rather induce a structural change of the economy since other investments might be crowded out by investments in installations of renewable energy and the demand in other sectors might decrease. However, if the producers of the installations are able to export parts of their products to the rest of Germany and the rest of the world, these crowding out effects can be attenuated and turnover and employment effects might be positive in total.

  9. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis

  10. Efecto de los aranceles en la competitividad de la porcicultura mexicana / Effect of the tariffs in the competitiveness of the mexican pork industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Gómez-Tenorio; S., Rebollar-Rebollar; J., Hernández-Martínez; E, Guzmán-Soria.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los porcicultores nacionales demandan la aplicación de aranceles a las importaciones de carne cerdo provenientes de los EUA argumentando un daño grave a la industria en tanto que las autoridades gubernamentales desechan esta opción, por lo que se justifica la evaluación del impacto de su implantació [...] n como una alternativa que propicie mejorar la competitividad de la porcicultura nacional. Para analizar este efecto se utilizó un modelo de equilibrio parcial tipo Armington, utilizando datos de 2006 del comercio internacional de carne de cerdo. Los resultados indican que si se hubiera aplicado un arancel del 20.0 % a la carne proveniente de Estados Unidos de América y Canadá en 2008 la demanda por México de su carne habría bajado 9.6 y 27.5 %, mientras que la demanda de carne nacional habría aumentado 6.4 %. Además, la producción se habría elevado en 4.5 % y el precio interno subido 12.5 %. Por otra parte, si el arancel solamente se hubiera aplicado a los Estados Unidos, la demanda en México de carne proveniente de este país habría bajado 23.4 %, la de Canadá y la nacional habrían aumentado 5.4 y 3.4 %, mientras que la producción se habría incrementado 2.4 % y el precio 6.6 %. Se espera que el arancel de 5.0 % impuesto por México en 2010 a las compras de carne de cerdo de Estados Unidos de América genere cambios poco significativos al mercado nacional. Por lo que, si se aplican aranceles a la carne de cerdo de EUA y Canadá cuando su precio es menor a los costos de producción nacionales, el incremento en el precio interno ayudaría a la porcicultura nacional a ser competitiva. Abstract in english The national pork producers demand the application of tariffs to the imports of originating meat pig of the EUA arguing a serious damage to the industry whereas, on the other hand, the governmental authorities reject this option, reason why the evaluation of the impact of its implantation like an al [...] ternative is justified that it causes to improve the competitiveness of the national pork industry. In order to analyze this effect a model of partial balance was used Armington type, using the data of 2006 of the international trade of pig meat. The results indicate that if a tariff of 20 % to the originating meat of the United States of America and Canada in the 2008 had been applied the demand by Mexico of its meat would have lowered 9.6 and 27.5 %, whereas the demand of national meat would have increased 6.4%. In addition, the production would have risen in 4.5 % and the internal price raised 12.5 %. By another part, if the tariff had been only applied to the United States, the demand in Mexico of originating meat of this country would have lowered 23.4 %, the one of Canada and the national would have increased 5.4 and 3.4 % respectively, whereas the 2.4 % production would have been increased and price 6.6 %. It is expected that the 5.0% tariff imposed by Mexico in 2010 to purchases of pork from the United States of America generate changes few significant to the domestic market. Reason why, if tariffs are applied to the meat of EUA pig and Canada when its price is smaller to the national production costs the increase in the internal price would help the national pork industry to be competitive.

  11. Access & Persistence. Summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This issue of "Access & Persistence" describes the roundtable discussion, "Ensuring Access to College Amid Economic Uncertainty," held on June 13, 2008 in Nashville, Tennessee. The purpose of the discussion was to gather information from a variety of perspectives within the higher education community on effects of the credit crisis and general…

  12. Comparing Information Access Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

  13. Access to mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on methods for accessing broadcast based M-services from multiple wireless channels. This book presents a novel infrastructure that provides a multi-channel broadcast framework for mobile users to effectively discover and access composite M-services. It is suitable for those who work in the general area of mobile services.

  14. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  15. Access eLearning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tutorial is comprised of 10 modules that offer information, instructional techniques, and practice labs on how to make the most common needs in distance education accessible for individuals with disabilities, and enhance the usability of online materials for all students. The modules center around topics such as making video, flash, word , PDF and many other documents accessible for students with disabilities.

  16. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  17. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)rig.)

  18. Evaluation of the electric power social tariffs policy during the period of 1991-2004; Avaliacao da politica de tarifas sociais de energia eletrica no periodo 1991-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: srosim@uol.com.br; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This study analyses the behaviour or the social tariffs no period of 1991-2004 comparatively to the variation of minimum salary and the macro economic indexes, IGPM, IPCA, and IPC of FIPE. In these period the Program for Desestatization of the Public Services, specifically the electric sector.

  19. Access 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

  20. Web Accessibility Checking Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater entered. Then it reads the page line by line, compare it with WCAG standard and report the corresponding error.

  1. Live Access Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Hankin

    2002-09-09

    The Live Access Server (LAS) is a highly configurable Web server designed to provide flexible access to geo-referenced scientific data. LAS enables users to view data with on-the-fly graphics, request custom subsets of variables in a variety of file formats, and compare variables from distributed locations. LAS enables the data provider to unify access to multiple types of data in a single interface, create thematic data servers from distributed data sources (through the use of DODS/OPenDAP), offer derived products on the fly, and offer unique products (e.g. visualization styles specialized for the data).

  2. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks Guest Editors Jun Zheng, University of Ottawa Nirwan Ansari, New Jersey Institute of Technology Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005 Background With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or are now underway this hot area. The purpose of this feature issue is to expose the networking community to the latest research breakthroughs and progresses in the area of optical access networks. Scope of Contributions This feature issue aims to present a collection of papers that focus on the state-of-the-art research in various networking aspects of optical access networks. Original papers are solicited from all researchers involved in area of optical access networks. Topics of interest include but not limited to: Optical access network architectures and protocols Passive optical networks (BPON, EPON, GPON, etc.) Active optical networks Multiple access control Multiservices and QoS provisioning Network survivability Field trials and standards Performance modeling and analysis Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating ``Optical Access Networks feature' in the ``Comments' field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Optical Access Networks' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 June 2005

  3. Children's access to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Saad Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Access to health care for children is important. It is dependent on access to health professionals and also parental attitudes towards illness. Children have the right to receive medicines that are scientifically evaluated for both efficacy and safety. Counterfeit and substandard medicines unfortunately result in the death of many children worldwide. There have been particular problems with diethylene glycol which has been used as a solvent in counterfeit medicines. It has also been foun...

  4. Evolutionarily Stable Spectrum Access

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xu; Huang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we design distributed spectrum access mechanisms with both complete and incomplete network information. We propose an evolutionary spectrum access mechanism with complete network information, and show that the mechanism achieves an equilibrium that is globally evolutionarily stable. With incomplete network information, we propose a distributed learning mechanism, where each user utilizes local observations to estimate the expected throughput and learns to adju...

  5. The universal access handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress in consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as in exploring new application domains. Increasingly, professionals in this rapidly maturing area require a comprehensive and multidisciplinary resource that addresses current principles, methods, and tools. Written by leading international authorities from academic, research, and industrial organizations and nonmarket institutions, The Universal Access Handbook covers the unfolding scientific, methodological, technological, and pol

  6. Web Accessibility for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Web developers may find this website from the Center on Education and Work (CEW) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison helpful. In collaboration with the university's McBurney Disability Resource Center, the Center has created this website to provide "an array of resources, links, and tutorials designed to help individuals and organizations create and maintain accessible web content." Among the resources are a free accessibility checker, a slide show tutorial on the HiSoftware Web accessibility suite (available for purchase separately), and a video presentation and related information on Web Standards techniques used to make Web pages more accessible, faster, smaller, easier to maintain, ranked higher in search engines, and compatible with other devices such as PDAs. The Center has also developed the Aquatic Arts Learn by Example website, which addresses "the most prevalent problems that commonly inhibit access" and provides examples of both inaccessible and accessible pages, along with explanations of the problems exemplified. Note that some services and support offered on the website are available only for employees of the University of Wisconsin system.

  7. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  8. Acceso al mercado de productos lácteos de Europa: Un análisis de equilibrio parcial para evaluar las potenciales ganancias de los exportadores argentinos

    OpenAIRE

    Leo?n, Sonia M.; Roitman, Mauricio E.; Romero, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    A partial equilibrium model is used to quantify price differentials not explained by tax policy and efficiency cost in the international trade of dairy products between Argentina and some countries of European Union (EU). Prices of imports of EU from Argentina and European producer of the domestic variety welfare fall when liberalization of non-tariff barriers are reduced or eliminated as well as European consumer’s welfare and Argentinean exporter’s earnings are increased. A sensibil...

  9. Model Penilaian Risiko Berbasis Kinerja untuk Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2012-01-01

    As the country's largest palm oil producer in the world, Indonesian palm oil production is still encounter political barriers or non-tariff economy of several countries. Sustainable development policies have a role to overcome these obstacles. The research problem is how to build policies through the performance based risk assessment for sustainable palm oil supply chain in Indonesia. The research objective is to recommend policies that supported by performance-based risk assessment models fo...

  10. Criza comer?ului mondial

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, George

    2005-01-01

    One of the roots of the current global imbalances resides in the asymmetry of the international trade flows under the constraints of maintaining non-tariff barriers and of protectionism revival. Trade liberalization is critical for restoring the financial global equilibrium. The study is emphasizing the importance of finding compromise solutions for finalizing the negotiations under the Doha Round multilateral agreement, otherwise increasing the risk of global imbalances deepening to unsustai...

  11. International trade, minimum quality standards and the prisoners' dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Unilateral minimum quality standards are endogenously determined as the outcome of a non-cooperative standard-setting game between the governments of two countries. Cross-country externalities from the implementation of minimum quality standards are shown to give rise to a Prisoners' Dilemma structure in the incentives of policy-makers leading to inefficient policy outcomes. The role of minimum quality standards as non-tariff barriers is examined and the scope for mutual gains from reciprocal...

  12. Chinese Small and Medium Enterprises Transnational Operation Strategies in the Post Crisis Era

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Implementing transnational management strategy is the important way of Chinese small and medium enterprises development that get rid of excessive competition in domestic, bypass the non-tariff barriers, and expand overseas markets. At present, the international operation of Chinese small and medium enterprises is in an early stage, when they face the narrow financing channels, the non-perfect foreign investment enterprises management mechanism and many other factors, how to overcome the inter...

  13. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs; Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien mit Schwerpunkt auf kostenbasierter Einspeiseverguetung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.

  14. Governing community energy—Feed-in tariffs and the development of community wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the development of community energy in the UK by comparing it to Germany in relation to decentralisation, scales and ownership structures particularly of wind energy. Varying approaches to energy generation at the community scale provide interesting insights into the impact of policy innovation as well as the capacity of national energy frameworks to foster socially innovative engagement practices beyond the purely technological diffusion of innovations. By examining interactions between technological and social innovations with the help of a qualitative analysis, opportunities for potential generators not traditionally engaged in energy generation to tap into these innovation systems are analysed. This paper suggests that greater commitment to diversification beyond the implementation of policy measures such as the feed-in tariff is required to provide communities with the capacity to develop new generation practices in terms of scale and ownership. The UK in particular is struggling to protect these new generation practices which allow communities to derive benefits facilitated by specific energy policy measures according to their potential. It concludes by indicating areas where niche protection might need to be expanded if community energy is to play a greater role in the UK?s ambitious transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • Scalar path-dependency and lock-in are inhibiting the development of community energy in the UK. • Feed-in tariffs alone do not provide greater opportunities for multi-scalar energy transitions. • Multi-scalar approaches to technological diffusion allow new engagement potentials to develop in the community energy niche

  15. Enteral access in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Emmanuel; Van Gossum, André; Ballarin, Asuncion; Arvanitakis, Marianna

    2014-11-13

    Enteral feeding is widely used for hospitalized patients but is also used for ambulatory persons living at home or in home care settings. Aside from decisions that must be made about appropriate nutrient delivery, choices related to which type of enteral access will be used and the procedures for enteral access surveillance are extremely important. In this paper we review the various techniques for establishment of enteral access in adult patients. Prevention and treatment of potential complications are detailed. The use of protocols that are written by a multidisciplinary nutrition team is mandatory. It is also of vital importance to discuss treatment plans with the patient and care givers, to assure appropriate follow-up, and to consider ethical issues related to enteral feeding. PMID:25439396

  16. Just the Facts: Vascular Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why is a vascular access important to me? Your access is your dialysis lifeline. You have only a few sites for vascular access. It is ... last as long as possible . What happens in access surgery? A fistula or graft is most often ...

  17. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare.

  18. Open access publishing demystified

    OpenAIRE

    Villiers, Pierre J. T.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation was presented during the 2009 international Open Access Day celebrations on Wednesday 21 October from 12:30-14:00 in the Conference Hall 100, Conference Centre, Hatfield campus in partnership with the Department of Research and Innovation Support.

  19. Open access to transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 12 to 15 years, the US electric power and energy industry and its federal regulators have been going through a prolonged exercise leading to opening up the national interconnected transmission grid for all qualified wholesale users to have open and equal access. The debates have been painful in a sense that not all parties - especially some of the transmission system owning utilities - believe that the concept of Open Access is achievable, due to technical constraints on the systems. The present Open Access activity is limited to wholesales transaction under the federal jurisdiction, but several states are either experimenting with or considering retail wheeling. In fact, the FERC - Federal Energy Regulatory Commission - has already expanded its view to embrace retail transmission, if the retail transaction involves the use of the interstate transmission systems which are under FERC's jurisdiction. This paper delves into some of the results of the technical cost and pricing analysis for open access. The statutes and resulting regulations are not addressed herein. (author). 1 fig

  20. Unique Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  1. Access to Little Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    Indexes to literature published in English-language little magazines are analyzed for duplication and completeness of coverage, and the number of little magazines founded since 1900 is estimated to determine the extent of literary work accessible by means of indexes. A 50-item annotated list of information sources and 12 references are included.

  2. Access Solutions Tips, Tricks, and Secrets from Microsoft Access MVPs

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Arvin

    2010-01-01

    Two Microsoft Access MVPs show how you can become an Access power user: Microsoft Access is the world’s leading database system, with millions of users and hundreds of thousands of developers. The best practices, tips, and techniques in this book can turn users into power users.; Millions of eager users make Access the most popular database system in the world. These Microsoft MVPs exploit key features in Access, providing advice on techniques for capturing, sharing and reporting Access data.; Each tip provides detailed solutions with clear instructions for implementation, and samples of all

  3. Potentials of optimized purchasing with variable tariffs. Analysis of the challenges and recommendations for action for public utilities; Potenziale aus der Beschaffungsoptimierung mit variablen Tarifen. Analyse der Herausforderungen und Handlungsempfehlungen fuer Energieversorger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    This study investigates the requirements on future electricity purchasing by public utilities and the possible optimization measures. The focus is on the one hand on the identification of the potentials of optimized purchasing with variable tariffs based on smart metering; on the other hand, the challenges accompanying the implementation of all relevant processes are gone into. The potentials are identified by evaluating real measured data. Recommendations for action for public utilities are derived in order to develop the potential of optimized purchasing.

  4. Editorial: Accessibility (July 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Dru Lavigne

    2008-01-01

    Much has changed since the term "open source" was coined ten years ago. The idea of sharing code, once relegated to research institutions and hobbyists, is starting to reach ubiquity in the consciousness of both government and business. More recently, this concept has extended beyond software. Everything from hardware to data to knowledge is becoming "open". Despite this trend towards openness--or perhaps due to the stark contrast openness provides--accessibility remains a difficult obstacle ...

  5. Accessibility: long term perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-01-01

    Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost) network citie...

  6. Spatial Spectrum Access Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xu; Huang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    A key feature of wireless communications is the spatial reuse. However, the spatial aspect is not yet well understood for the purpose of designing efficient spectrum sharing mechanisms. In this paper, we propose a framework of spatial spectrum access games on directed interference graphs, which can model quite general interference relationship with spatial reuse in wireless networks. We show that a pure Nash equilibrium exists for the two classes of games: (1) any spatial sp...

  7. Advanced access control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype voice verification system has been installed which provides the required positive identification at the main site access control point. This system compares an individual's file voice print with a sample voice print obtained from the individual when an attempt is made to enter the site. The voice system transmits the individual's identify to a central processor. The system installed at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant is described

  8. Telecommunication access to INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceeding from the features of on-line retrieval from the INIS data base, a description is given of the technical and organizational conditions established by the national INIS Centre of the GDR in using the INIS direct access service. Data are presented on the structure of search queries, retrieval precision, and connect time to the computer. Experience has shown that efficient dialogue searching necessitates the searcher's skill and familiarity with the system. (author)

  9. Counterpoint: Accessibility and Sprawl

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Crane

    2008-01-01

    This essay provides a counterpoint to Robert Bruegmann's perspective on accessibility and sprawl in this journal volume. Bruegmann's recent work on the history of urban form situates contemporary discussions of sprawl in a well-researched historical context; however, this essay takes a different perspective on several key points in Bruegmann's analysis, particularly in relation to cost-benefit analysis for transportation-disadvantaged populations.

  10. Kidney Access Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert; Patel, Mitesh; Mittal, Vijay K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the most complicated stone surgery technique to learn. The steep learning curve is related mainly to obtaining precise renal access by puncturing the targeted calyx. A minimally misaligned puncture may lead to torrential bleeding, failure of the surgery, and complications. Renal puncture can take a long time, and the increased fluoroscopic time is a hazard for the patient and surgeon. Methods: To aid in renal puncture and overcome the learning curve associated with learning the renal puncture technique, we designed a kidney access device (KAD), which helps align the 3-dimensional targeted calyx under fluoroscopy for precise needle placement. The KAD allows access to calyces at all angles. A 3-step puncture technique was formulated for puncturing the kidney using the KAD in a porcine model (with comparable renal size and anatomy with humans). To evaluate the practicality of the KAD and its possible advantages and limitations, the KAD was used to puncture 3 targeted calyces of bilateral kidneys in 4 pigs. Guidewires were inserted into the renal collecting system through the placed needle. Results: Mean time per puncture was 4 ± 2 minutes (n = 24). Necropsy showed no retroperitoneal hematoma, visceral organ injury, or active bleeding from kidneys in any of the pigs. Kidneys were dissected and precise intrarenal placements of guidewires in relation to targeted calyces were noted at all 24 sites. Conclusions: The KAD with the 3-step technique aids in the safe and accurate renal puncture, even in novice hands, while drastically reducing operative and fluoroscopy time. The KAD may also be used to access other organs and has potential applications in minimally invasive surgery. PMID:25489217

  11. High Speed Packet Access

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh G Bari, Kishor P. Jadhav Vishal P. Jagtap

    2013-01-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.Thi...

  12. Accessing naïve human pluripotency

    OpenAIRE

    Los Angeles, Alejandro; Loh, Yuin-han; Tesar, Paul J.; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotency manifests during mammalian development through formation of the epiblast, founder tissue of the embryo proper. Rodent pluripotent stem cells can be considered as two distinct states: naïve and primed. Naïve pluripotent stem cell lines are distinguished from primed cells by self-renewal in response to LIF signaling and MEK/GSK3 inhibition (LIF/2i conditions) and two active X chromosomes in female cells. In rodent cells, the naïve pluripotent state may be accessed through at lea...

  13. Accessing the spoken word

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Jerry; Renals, Steve; Bird, Steven; Jong, Franciska; Federico, Marcello; Fleischhauer, Carl; Kornbluh, Mark; Lamel, Lori; Oard, Douglas W.; Stewart, Claire; Wright, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Spoken-word audio collections cover many domains, including radio and television broadcasts, oral narratives, governmental proceedings, lectures, and telephone conversations. The collection, access, and preservation of such data is stimulated by political, economic, cultural, and educational needs. This paper outlines the major issues in the field, reviews the current state of technology, examines the rapidly changing policy issues relating to privacy and copyright, and presents issues relati...

  14. ADOPT Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

  15. Intelligent card access keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly developed access control technology allows information about users to be stored on key-like EEPROM devices. The keys store encrypted information about the user and his or her authorized access activity. Specially developed key readers scan, decrypt, and process the key data, and make the decision whether entry should be granted or denied. The key readers can function as complete, stand-alone facility management systems, incorporating access control, security monitoring, and remote control. In this configuration, the key readers provide anti-passback protection and other special features without requiring any data lines between readers. The key readers also feature sophisticated algorithmic processing for performing complex operations such as two-man control or cross zoned security annunciation. Key readers can also be interconnected with an MCM-1000 Multiples Monitoring System to form a distributed processing local area network. In such a configuration, changes in key reader status can be uploaded to the MCM-1000, and programming changes and operator commands can be downloaded to the key readers

  16. Ask me about Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Elsabe

    2011-01-01

    The University of Pretoria's Department of Library Services celebrated Open Access Day 27th October 2011. Various students, researchers and library staff members took part in the Open Access competition sponsored by Bookmark and the Department of Library Services.

  17. Open Access and Horizon 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Ronan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the open access and open data requirements for proposals for the European Horizon 2020 Funding, 2014. This presentation outlines what open access is, how the Glucksman library can facilitate researchers and advises on publication strategy. Recommended text to researchers: In line with Ireland’s National Principles for Open Access Policy Statement, the project team will apply the ‘green’ Open Access model for this Horizon 2020 funded project. The project team will: • ...

  18. Role-Based Access Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraiolo, David F.; Kuhn, D. Richard

    2009-01-01

    While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based...

  19. Access to innovation: is there a difference in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between French hospitals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastre, Julia; Chevalier, Julie; Van der Laan, Chantal; Delibes, Michel; De Pouvourville, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    In DRG-based hospital payment systems, expensive drugs are often funded separately. In France, specific expensive drugs (including a large proportion of anticancer drugs) are fully reimbursed up to national reimbursement tariffs to ensure equity of access. Our objective was to analyse the use of expensive anticancer drugs in public and private hospitals, and between regions. We had access to sales per anticancer drug and per hospital in the year 2008. We used a multilevel model to study the variation in the mean expenditure of expensive anticancer drugs per course of chemotherapy and per hospital. The mean expenditure per course of chemotherapy was €922 [95% CI: 890-954]. At the hospital level, specialisation in chemotherapies for breast cancers was associated with a higher expenditure of anticancer drugs per course for those hospitals with the highest proportion of cancers at this site. There were no differences in the use of expensive drugs between the private and the public hospital sector after controlling for case mix. There were no differences between the mean expenditures per region. The absence of disparities in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between hospitals and regions may indicate that exempting chemotherapies from DRG-based payments and providing additional reimbursement for these drugs has been successful at ensuring equal access to care. PMID:24314625

  20. Financial analysis of revision knee surgery based on NHS tariffs and hospital costs: does it pay to provide a revision service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallala, R F; Vanhegan, I S; Ibrahim, M S; Sarmah, S; Haddad, F S

    2015-02-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex procedure which carries both a greater risk for patients and greater cost for the treating hospital than does a primary TKA. As well as the increased cost of peri-operative investigations, blood transfusions, surgical instrumentation, implants and operating time, there is a well-documented increased length of stay which accounts for most of the actual costs associated with surgery. We compared revision surgery for infection with revision for other causes (pain, instability, aseptic loosening and fracture). Complete clinical, demographic and economic data were obtained for 168 consecutive revision TKAs performed at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2012. Revision surgery for infection was associated with a mean length of stay more than double that of aseptic cases (21.5 vs 9.5 days, p < 0.0001). The mean cost of a revision for infection was more than three times that of an aseptic revision (£30 011 (sd 4514) vs £9655 (sd 599.7), p < 0.0001). Current NHS tariffs do not fully reimburse the increased costs of providing a revision knee surgery service. Moreover, especially as greater costs are incurred for infected cases. These losses may adversely affect the provision of revision surgery in the NHS. PMID:25628282

  1. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  2. Direct access to INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Librarians, researchers, and information specialists throughout the world now have the opportunity for direct access to coverage of almost 95% of the world's literature dealing with the peaceful uses of atomic energy and nuclear science. This opportunity has been provided by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the IAEA. INIS, with the voluntary collaboration of more than 60 of the Agency's Member States, maintains a comprehensive, computer-resident data-base, containing the bibliographic details plus informative abstracts of the bulk of the world's literature on nuclear science and technology. Since this data-base is growing at a rate of 75,000 items per year, and already contains more than 500,000 items, it is obviously important to be able to search this collection conveniently and efficiently. The usefulness of this ability is enhanced when other data-bases on related subjects are made available on an information network. During the early 1970s, on-line interrogation of large bibliographic data-bases became the accepted method for searching this type of information resource. Direct interaction between the searcher and the data-base provides quick feed-back resulting in improved literature listings for launching research and development projects. On-line access enables organizations which cannot store a large data-base on their own computer to expand the information resources at their command. Because of these advantages, INIS undertook to extend hese advantages, INIS undertook to extend to interested Member States on-line access to its data-base in Vienna

  3. Role-Based Access Controls

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraiolo, David F

    2009-01-01

    While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based access control (RBAC) - that is more central to the secure processing needs of non-military systems then DAC.

  4. Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deciding whether a given quantum state is entangled or not is a difficult task. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses are used in order to prove presence of entanglement. Entanglement witnesses can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography). We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve linear entanglement witnesses and as a result detect more entangled states with high statistical significance. Second, we can go from evaluating linear entanglement witnesses to their nonlinear counterpart without additional experimental effort, which makes them attractive for implementations in current experiments.

  5. Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittsovich, Oleg; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Luetkenhaus, Norbert [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, N2L 3G1 Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Deciding whether a given quantum state is entangled or not is a difficult task. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses are used in order to prove presence of entanglement. Entanglement witnesses can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography). We provide a method to construct accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve linear entanglement witnesses and as a result detect more entangled states with high statistical significance. Second, we can go from evaluating linear entanglement witnesses to their nonlinear counterpart without additional experimental effort, which makes them attractive for implementations in current experiments.

  6. Sandia Access Delay Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been involved in security systems development and application for approximately twenty years. This involvement has included the development of physical security system elements such as detection, assessment, access delay, and response. SNL has continued to be very active in access delay design, development, and application including fixed barriers, deployable barriers, and activated dispensables. Access delay is becoming increasingly important in physical security systems designs as threat capabilities increase and security personnel operational costs escalate. SNL is presently developing two access delay systems incorporating multiple access delay features. The first is the Intra- site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) which is being developed to address security and safety vulnerabilities during transportation. The second is a Rapid Deployment Access Delay System (RAPADS) that provides enhanced security for temporary storage or contingency operations. This paper includes a brief history of SNL involvement in access delay hardware development and the basic design features and capabilities of the ISTV and RAPADS

  7. Negotiations on market access within world trade organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelisavac Sanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author examines GATT/WTO's actual contribution to lower tariffs and more open markets. The GATT has played a core role in the reduction of non-agricultural tariffs in developed countries, but some of the oft-quoted trade liberalization figures may be misleading. Developing countries for many decades prior to the Uruguay Round made little use of the GATT to reduce or bind their tariffs. Uruguay Round commitments have mostly extended the binding coverage, sometimes at levels far above the applied rates. It is also important to evaluate the effect of the GATT/WTO on border measures. Here again, the multilateral system can claim partial success. The author also examines GATT/WTO's contribution to world trade growth.

  8. Compressed random access memory

    CERN Document Server

    Jansson, Jesper; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications which need to store huge amounts of data in the main memory of a computer, this paper proposes a new dynamic data-structure for compressed random access memory. Ferragina and Venturini [SODA 2007, TCS 2007] recently gave a compressed data-structure for storing a string that allows substrings to be retrieved efficiently, but it requires the string to be static. Here, we extend their results in a non-trivial way to also allow the stored compressed string to be modified during execution. Our results are as follows. A memory (or string) $T[1..n]$, where each character $T[i]$ is of $\\log\\sigma$ bits, can be stored in $n H_k(T) + O(n \\log \\sigma \\frac{(k+1) (\\log \\sigma +\\log \\log n)}{\\log n})$ bits, where $H_k(T)$ is the $k$-th order empirical entropy of $T$, such that (1) accessing $T[i..j]$ takes optimal $O(1 + (j-i) / \\log_{\\sigma} n)$ time and (2) replacing $T[i..i+\\log_{\\sigma} n - 1]$ by another string of length $\\log_{\\sigma} n$ takes $O(\\log n/\\log\\log n)$ time. We can also suppor...

  9. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiming Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  10. Art : accessible, renewable technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the role of non-governmental organization (NGO) citizen groups in Ontario in the use and production of electricity. NGOs have the potential to act both directly on their own accord, and indirectly by pressuring government and others. Current demand for electricity is divided between industrial, commercial and residential users. Citizens have an important role to play in reducing energy demand. On the supply side, there is a revival of interest in renewable energy based on wind, photovoltaic and local-hydro technologies as a result of the escalating environmental and economic costs of coal and nuclear generation. However, citizen groups have greater interest and enthusiasm than technical expertise, creating a mismatch between technological solutions and human need or use of them. This paper discusses how this mismatch applies to renewable-energy technologies, many of which are not especially user-friendly, or accessible. While alternative technologies are increasingly welcomed by government, industry is developing a large and growing array of technological devices. In between this is the citizen, who, despite keen interest, can be overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. This paper links the theoretical perspective to the real world with a discussion of the dynamics between people and renewable energy in citizen groups and makes particular reference to one group, Citizens for Renewable Energy, that has been making renewable energy technologhas been making renewable energy technology more accessible to its members for over a decade

  11. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker's actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions---if they are logged at all. Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also non-technical applications such as identifying possible suspects, or, beyond cyber crimes, picking the "best" actor for a certain task. We also sketch an online analysis that identifies where an actor can be located based on observed actions.

  12. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Shuiming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the -Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  13. 32 CFR 154.49 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Granting access. 154.49 Section 154.49 National Defense...PROGRAM REGULATION Issuing Clearance and Granting Access § 154.49 Granting access. (a) Access to classified information...

  14. Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    CERN Document Server

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Verification of entanglement is an important tool to characterize sources and devices for use in quantum computing and communication applications. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses (EW) are used in order to prove the presence of entanglement in a quantum state. EWs can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require a reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography), which is especially valuable for high-dimensional systems. We provide a method to construct {\\it accessible nonlinear EWs}, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve on linear EWs in the sense that each non-linear EW detects more entangled states than its linear counterpart and therefore allow the verification of entanglement without critical dependence on having found the 'right' linear witness. Second, they can be evaluated using exactly the same data as for the evaluation of the original linear witness. This allows a reanalysis of published experimental data to stren...

  15. Ad*Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Duke University Libraries has an extensive physical and online collection of advertisements that appeared in magazines and newspapers in the U.S. and Canada from 1911-1955. The Ad*Access collection focuses on advertisements in five main subject areas: Radio, Television, Transportation, Beauty and Hygiene, and World War II. Visitors should read the "About Us" section to learn about why the collection was created and its importance for research. Visitors can "browse" the collection by the aforementioned categories, product, year, and company. For example, "War Bonds" are listed under "Product", and visitors will find that the messages in war bond advertisements are quite frank, and insistent, that people should help the war effort. Visitors should check out the following ads found when browsing war bonds: "I'm Saving to go to Ag College...And Buying Bullets for Pete!", "Avenge Pearl Harbor! Buy Bonds! Give Bonds!", and "Your Bond Purchase Makes These Nazis Shiver".

  16. Comunicazione e Open Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Maria Valastro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Il potenziale editoriale della rivista, sebbene compia appena il suo terzo anno di attività, è considerevole: basti pensare che la scelta fondante una parte del progetto editoriale, la pubblicazione di testi integrali, accessibili liberamente e gratuitamente su formato html, ha permesso l’accrescersi costante della consultazione delle pagine web pubblicate su internet e del numero dei visitatori che hanno avuto accesso agli articoli diffusi per ogni numero trimestrale. Condividendo e promuovendo i principi dell’Open-Access, il libero accesso al patrimonio culturale e scientifico, partecipando ad una comunicazione scientifica che favorisca una democratizzazione della conoscenza, si è inoltre indotto un valore aggiunto allo strumento editoriale: la valorizzazione della produzione scientifica e degli stessi contributi degli autori, insieme all’ampia divulgazione dei contenuti, liberamente accessibili da qualsiasi luogo del mondo tramite una connessione ad internet.

  17. The energy market in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western exporters that are looking to distribute their products and services in mainland China can do so through the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Hong Kong's proposed upgrade to their electrical power industry will result in a strong demand for specialized power equipment and services. A total of $15.9 billion will be invested from 2000 to 2005 by the China Light and Power Holding Limited and Hong Kong Electric Company. The planned projects include the construction of a liquefied natural gas pipeline, the expansion of power transmission and distribution networks, plus the installation of gas fired generators at power plants. Canadian companies have the opportunity to form strategic alliances with the above mentioned electric utilities to pursue projects in other countries. Currently, the most significant environmental issue in Hong Kong is air pollution. The HKSAR is introducing strict standards for vehicle emissions, and is promoting cleaner fuels for the automotive industry, such as electric-powered vehicles and liquefied petroleum gas as a substitute for diesel and gasoline. The increased demand for clean technology for pollution prevention and environmental control presents new opportunities in the power sector. Currently, there are no tariff and non-tariff barriers inhibiting imports of power equipment into the HKSAR. Distributors in Hong Kong are ready to promote foreign products both in the HKSAR and mainland China. The most effective method mainland China. The most effective method for foreign distributors to market technology products and services is through a local agent or through joint ventures with domestic companies. In addition to providing legal advantages, such partnerships can help sort through import regulations and provide access to local staff and facilities. refs., tabs

  18. Event Systems and Access Control

    OpenAIRE

    Me?ry, Dominique; Merz, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    We consider the interpretations of notions of access control (permissions, interdictions, obligations, and user rights) as run-time properties of information systems specified as event systems with fairness. We give proof rules for verifying that an access control policy is enforced in a system, and consider preservation of access control by refinement of event systems. In particular, refinement of user rights is non-trivial; we propose to combine low-level user rights and s...

  19. Remote Data Access with IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A tool based on IDL (Interactive Data Language) and DAP (Data Access Protocol) has been developed for user-friendly remote data access. A difficulty for many NASA researchers using IDL is that often the data to analyze are located remotely and are too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed a protocol for accessing remote data, DAP, which is used for both SOHO and STEREO data sets. Server-side side analysis via IDL routine is available through DAP.

  20. OPEN ACCESS MOVEMENT IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Qutab

    2008-01-01

    Open Access iS a vital trend for developing countries like Pakistan. OpenAccess (OA) has made its place in 1r formation world like a blessing for scholarly community to learn, search, write and share freely and timely. In this paper an effort has been made to explore the Open Access efforts in Pakistan on existing OA sources and to make recommendations for further developments in this regard. Open Access movements have been started in Pakistan on personal or institutional levels. There is no ...

  1. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  2. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  3. Remote direct memory access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2012-12-11

    Methods, parallel computers, and computer program products are disclosed for remote direct memory access. Embodiments include transmitting, from an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node to a plurality target DMA engines on target compute nodes, a request to send message, the request to send message specifying a data to be transferred from the origin DMA engine to data storage on each target compute node; receiving, by each target DMA engine on each target compute node, the request to send message; preparing, by each target DMA engine, to store data according to the data storage reference and the data length, including assigning a base storage address for the data storage reference; sending, by one or more of the target DMA engines, an acknowledgment message acknowledging that all the target DMA engines are prepared to receive a data transmission from the origin DMA engine; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, the acknowledgement message from the one or more of the target DMA engines; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine, data to data storage on each of the target compute nodes according to the data storage reference using a single direct put operation.

  4. Accessibility in E-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Simon

    2009-01-01

    E-assessment offers many opportunities to broaden the range of tools at the assessor's disposal and thereby improve the overall accessibility of the assessment experience. In 2006, TechDis commissioned a report, produced by Edexcel, on the state of guidance on accessibility at the various stages of the assessment process--question design,…

  5. Transmission access review - interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim report of the Transmission Access Review, announced in the UK government's Energy White Paper, examines the present technical, commercial and regulatory framework for delivery of new transmission infrastructure and management of the grid to ensure it is fit for purpose as the proportion of renewables generation on the system grows. Progress made in removing the barriers to grid access, the need for measures to improve the efficiency and timely connection of new generation, and better use of existing transmission assets and capacity in support of the government's targets for renewable energy are discussed. The background to the study is traced, and the challenges for transmission access, access reform, delivering and operating infrastructure, and initial recommendations are examined along with implementing changes to transmission access arrangements. A summary of responses to the call for evidence is presented

  6. Internet Access to Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Jackson, Chris; Price, Harold; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project at NASA's Goddard Space flight Center (GSFC), is demonstrating the use of standard Internet protocols for spacecraft communication systems. This year, demonstrations of Internet access to a flying spacecraft have been performed with the UoSAT-12 spacecraft owned and operated by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL). Previously, demonstrations were performed using a ground satellite simulator and NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). These activities are part of NASA's Space Operations Management Office (SOMO) Technology Program, The work is focused on defining the communication architecture for future NASA missions to support both NASA's "faster, better, cheaper" concept and to enable new types of collaborative science. The use of standard Internet communication technology for spacecraft simplifies design, supports initial integration and test across an IP based network, and enables direct communication between scientists and instruments as well as between different spacecraft, The most recent demonstrations consisted of uploading an Internet Protocol (IP) software stack to the UoSAT- 12 spacecraft, simple modifications to the SSTL ground station, and a series of tests to measure performance of various Internet applications. The spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 3 months. The tests included basic network connectivity (PING), automated clock synchronization (NTP), and reliable file transfers (FTP). Future tests are planned to include additional protocols such as Mobile IP, e-mail, and virtual private networks (VPN) to enable automated, operational spacecraft communication networks. The work performed and results of the initial phase of tests are summarized in this paper. This work is funded and directed by NASA/GSFC with technical leadership by CSC in arrangement with SSTL, and Vytek Wireless.

  7. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of access pricing with congestion and in which investments in infrastructure are lumpy. To fix ideas, the model is formulated in the context of airport infrastructure investments, which captures both the element of congestion and the lumpiness involved in infrastructure investments. The optimal investment program suggests how many units of capacity should be installed and at which times. Because time is continuous in the model, the discounted cost -- despite the lumpiness of capacity additions -- can be made to vary continuously by varying the time a capacity addition is made. The main results that emerge from the analysis can be described as follows: First, the global demand for air travel rises with time and experiences an upward jump whenever a capacity addition is made. Second, the access price is constant and stays at the basic level when the system is not congested. When the system is congested, a congestion surcharge is imposed on top of the basic level, and the congestion surcharge rises with the level of congestion until the next capacity addition is made at which time the access price takes a downward jump. Third, the individual demand for air travel is constant before congestion sets in and after the last capacity addition takes place. During a time interval in which congestion rises, the individual demand for travel is below the level that prevails when there is no congestion and declines as congestion worsens. The third essay contains a model of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines, both when pipeline operators are regulated and when they behave strategically. The high sunk costs involved in building a pipeline network constitute a serious barrier of entry, and competitive behaviour in the transmission pipeline sector cannot be expected. Most of the economic analyses of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines are carried out from the regulatory perspective, and the access price paid by shippers are cost-based. The model formalized is intended to capture some essential characteristics of networks in which components inte

  8. Access control system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An access system based on the one now in operation at the CERN ISR is recommended. Access doors would presumably be located at the entrances to the utility tunnels connecting the support buildings with the ring. Persons requesting access would insert an identity card into a scanner to activate the system. The request would be autologged, the keybank adjacent to the door would be unlocked and ISABELLE operations would be notified. The operator would then select the door, activating a TV-audio link. The person requesting entry would draw a key from the bank, show it and his film badge to the operator who would enable the door release

  9. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  10. Comportamiento de las tarifas de referencia de los tres exámenes de laboratorio clínico más solicitados en Medellín, Colombia. 1990-2003 Behavior of the reference tariffs of three frequently requested laboratory test in three institutions in Colombia, 1990-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Andrés Arias Valencia

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento en los últimos años de las tarifas de referencia de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica (SCPC, el Instituto de Seguros Sociales (ISS y el Ministerio de Salud (MS, de los tres exámenes de mayor demanda en el laboratorio clínico: la glicemia, el citoquímico de orina y el hemograma. Metodología: Se tomó la tarifa propuesta para las tres pruebas por las tres instituciones desde su inicio hasta el 2003. Las de la SCPC fueron ajustadas también por el índice de precios al consumidor y el salario mínimo. Se realizó una comparación año a año. Resultados: Las tarifas propuestas por la SCPC fueron muy similares a los ajustes por indicadores económicos. Las tarifas de la glicemia fueron en promedio un 61,3% más bajas en el ISS y un 45,2% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas del citoquímico de orina fueron en promedio un 58,9% más bajas en el ISS y un 49,4% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas de los hemogramas fueron en promedio un 36,5% más bajas en el ISS y un 31,8% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC Conclusión: en las tres pruebas evaluadas la diferencia entre las tarifas del ISS y el MS se va haciendo mayor año a año comparadas con las de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica. PURPOSE: To describe the tendency of reference tariffs in recent years in three colombian institutions (Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica —SCPC—, Instituto de Seguros Sociales —ISS— and Ministry of Health, for the three laboratory tests with greater demand, namely: glucose test, urine analysis and blood count. Methodology: The tariffs for these tests in the aforementioned institutions were analyzed since first available until 2003. Tariffs of the SCPC are adjusted according to official price indexes and the minimum salary. A comparison year after year was carried out. Results: The proposed tariffs of the SCPC were very closely similar to the adjustments by economic indicators. Prices of the glucose test were on the average 61,3% lower in the ISS and 45,2% lower in the Ministry of Health as compared with the SCPC. Prices of the urine analysis were on the average 58,9% lower in the ISS and 49,4% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Prices for the blood count were on the average 36,5% lower in the ISS and 31,8% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Conclusion: Tariffs for the three evaluated tests are lower in the ISS and the Ministry of Health and the gap with those of the SCPC becomes wider every year.

  11. 15 CFR 784.1 - Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Complementary access: General information on the purpose of complementary access, affected locations, and the role...ACCESS § 784.1 Complementary access: General information on the purpose of...

  12. Ultrasound guidance for vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Paul-André C; Kendall, John L

    2004-08-01

    The evidence that supports the general application of US guidance for venous access in the ED has reached a critical mass. The increasing familiarity of emergency physicians with US and the recent focus on patient safety and clinical outcomes has intensified attention on the capacity for US to improve patient care in the ED. US guidance can increase the safety and efficiency of venous access procedures and offers improved outcomes. The potential for these improvements is compelling, especially among certain types of ED patients such as those with difficult or complicated access. Varying levels of evidence support the use of US guidance over the traditional landmark approach for venous access in adult and pediatric populations and for central and peripheral veins. Many different techniques may be applied, depending on the clinical situation and equipment available. PMID:15301849

  13. Computer access security code system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  14. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  15. The Continental Free Trade Area – A GTAP assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially impressive results were forecast by simulating a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with the particular African problem of transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. These gains are significantly above both just intraAfrican tariff elimination and what may be thought of as the more traditional non-tariff barriers that we modelled individually and separately. Althoughwe have not modelled a combined approach which incorporates all three components of tariff elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time-in-transit cost reductions, the final combined outcome from all three are likely to be cumulative and generate very large gains to Africa. The overall results from especially time-in-transit costs support the current emphasis on projects such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) infrastructural supports to Africa. In addition, the World Bank and others have produced a dataset of constraints in trade-related services for Africa and others that we are examining, adding these simulations to our portfolio. Again, the results here are likely to be significant and additive to reductions in the other three constraints (tariff barriers, more traditional non-tariff barriers, and time in transit costs). Our simulations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with a selected group of African countries show that this is very much a second-best option, and the inclusion of most ofthe significant economies in Africa generates the best results. Only in the event of a failure to achieve integration across the continent with all or most African countries should partial integration be pursued. The policy implications from our research are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional cooperation that does not need the long and drawn-out processes associated with FTA negotiations. However, against this background the concept of ‘governance’ must be emphasised, as must the crucial importance of a rules-based structure. In addition, provided African countries are willing to play their part, global funds seem to be available for these reforms.

  16. 5 CFR 2606.203 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting access. 2606.203 Section 2606.203...AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT RULES Access to Records and Accounting of Disclosures § 2606.203 Granting access. (a) The methods for allowing...

  17. 10 CFR 1017.21 - Limited access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited access. 1017.21 Section 1017.21 ...UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.21 Limited access. (a) A person who is not...

  18. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 ...UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized...

  19. 78 FR 20255 - Leased Commercial Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ...07-42; FCC 07-208] Leased Commercial Access AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission...revised rules concerning Leased Commercial Access. Some of the revised rules contained...Register reflect the Leased Commercial Access rules that have remained in effect...

  20. 75 FR 76729 - Market Access Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION Market Access Agreement AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration...the amended and restated market access agreement...the Amended and Restated Market Access Agreement (MAA) proposed to be entered into...

  1. Cell Phone Accessibility (for the Visually Impaired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Vision Loss Using Technology Cell Phone Accessibility Cell Phone Accessibility Cell phones have revolutionized the way we ... Share: Email Print Like (49 Likes) Choosing a Cell Phone Cell Phone Accessibility Expectations Assistance with Filing a ...

  2. Security in Unlicensed Mobile Access

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) provides transparent access to 2G and 3G networks for Mobile Stations over the unlicensed radio interface. Unlicensed radio tehnologies such as Bluetooth or WLAN technology connects the Mobile Station to the fixed IP network of the home or office and delivers high bandwith to the Mobile Station. The purpose of this report is to examine if subscribers can feel as secure using UMA as they do when using any of the alternetive mobile technologies that UMA supports. ...

  3. Export dynamism and market access

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Jo?rg

    2003-01-01

    Market access liberalization has influenced product-specific growth of world exports and contributed to the shift in the structure of world exports of manufactures towards electrical and electronic goods (including parts and components), goods that require high R&D expenditures, and labour-intensive products such as clothing. Multilateral trade liberalization has strongly improved market access conditions for manufactures and partly explains why manufactures have experienced particularly stro...

  4. Database Access through Java Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Lungu, Ion; Mercioiu, Nicolae; Vla?ducu, Victor

    2010-01-01

    As a high level development environment, the Java technologies offer support to the development o f distributedapplications, independent of the platform, providing a robust set of methods to access the databases, used to createsoftware components on the server side, as well as on the client side.Analyzing the evolution of Java tools to access data, we notice that these tools evolved from simple methodsthat permitted the queries, the insertion, the update and the deletion of the data to advanc...

  5. Delay Optimal Multichannel Opportunistic Access

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shiyao; Tong, Lang; Zhao, Qing

    2011-01-01

    The problem of minimizing queueing delay of opportunistic access of multiple continuous time Markov channels is considered. A new access policy based on myopic sensing and adaptive transmission (MS-AT) is proposed. Under the framework of risk sensitive constrained Markov decision process with effective bandwidth as a measure of queueing delay, it is shown that MS-AT achieves simultaneously throughput and delay optimality. It is shown further that both the effective bandwidth...

  6. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels NØrgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129 and Miyakojima MG-20. Here, we show the wild accessions and a list of all mutants isolated so far

  7. Introducing Access Control in Webdamlog

    OpenAIRE

    Abiteboul, Serge; Antoine, E?milien; Miklau, Gerome; Stoyanovich, Julia; Zaychik Moffitt, Vera

    2013-01-01

    We survey recent work on the specification of an access control mechanism in a collaborative environment. The work is presented in the context of the WebdamLog language, an extension of datalog to a distributed context. We discuss a fine-grained access control mechanism for intentional data based on provenance as well as a control mechanism for delegation, i.e., for deploying rules at remote peers.

  8. Neurological complications of vascular access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Christopher P

    2015-03-01

    Neurological problems are common in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Over 60% of patients will suffer from symptoms of underlying polyneuropathy due to uraemia or diabetes. Others will have subclinical disease demonstrable by nerve conduction studies.Nerve injury following haemodialysis access surgery is underreported. However, sensory nerve lesions are probably common after most vascular access procedures but are rarely debilitating.Nerve compression syndromes such as carpal tunnel and ulnar compression syndromes are common, especially in patients who have been on dialysis for some years and at least some of these are related to or exacerbated by the access. Recognition is essential as they are eminently treatable by decompression surgery. Tourniquet use appears to be safe for carpal tunnel or ulnar nerve decompression surgery.Ischaemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is rare but follows a period of ischaemia during or as a result of access surgery, most commonly to construct a brachial arteriovenous fistula or graft. It is characterised by intense pain, out of proportion to any ischaemia, involves all of the upper limb nerves and may progress to involve the motor nerves eventually resulting in a useless clawed hand. It requires prompt treatment of any residual ischaemia after access creation, if necessary by access ligation, as in the established syndrome, like the even rarer complication of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, it is very difficult to offer any useful treatment other than symptomatic relief and physiotherapy. PMID:25751556

  9. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    This study focuses on the accessibility of electricity to the poor in South Africa and Zimbabwe as a means to improve understanding of the various factors that affect the provision of modern energy to the poor in these countries. The study examines the impact on the poor of power sector reforms. Specifically, it makes an assessment of the impact of the electrification programmes in the two countries. The situation in the two countries is discussed separately, followed by a comparative analysis. South Africa is the most industrialised country in Africa and it is endowed with a wide variety of natural resources. It is currently going through major changes in many spheres of its economy, including energy, following the democratic elections in 1994. An important consideration that is directing all aspects of government policy is the need to address the enormous disparities in income levels and living conditions betaveen the different racial groups, a result of apartheid. The rural areas are even more impoverished than urban ones. Alter the 1994 democratic elections, the South African Government launched the first phase of the National Electrification Programme (1994-99), aimed at increasing electrification from 36 per cent to about 66 per cent nationally by 2001 - 46 per cent rural and 80 per cent urban. By the end of 2001, 66.1 per cent of households were electrified, with more than 3.4 million connections made since 1994. Since then, several polities have been introduced in the electricity sector that are of direct relevance to this work. The most important of these concern the restructuring of the electricity supply industry and direct subsidies for the poor and disadvantaged. The South African Government established a National Electrification Fund to subsidise a portion of the capital costs of new electricity connections under the National Electrifcation Programme. The Fund derives its income not only from the electricity industry, but also from fiscal allocations, grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to meet the national demand and, hence, domestic supply is supplemented by imports from neigh

  10. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  11. The “SAFARI” Technique Using Retrograde Access Via Peroneal Artery Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The “SAFARI” technique or subintimal arterial flossing with antegrade–retrograde intervention is a method for recanalisation of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) when subintimal angioplasty fails. Retrograde access is usually obtained via the popliteal, distal anterior tibial artery (ATA)/dorsalis pedis (DP), or distal posterior tibial artery (PTA). Distal access via the peroneal artery has not been described and has a risk of continued bleeding, leading to compartment syndrome due to its deep location. We describe our experience in two patients with retrograde access via the peroneal artery and the use of balloon-assisted hemostasis for these retrograde punctures. This approach may potentially give more options for endovascular interventions in lower limb CTOs.

  12. Self-Access Centers: Maximizing Learners’ Access to Center Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Tanner, Mark W.; Anderson, Neil J.; Mcmurry, Benjamin L.

    2010-01-01

    Originally published in TESL-EJ March 2009, Volume 12, Number 4 (http://tesl-ej.org/ej48/a2.html). Reprinted with permission from the authors.Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC) at Brigham Young University’s English Language Center (ELC) more effectively. Student...

  13. Accessible Capacity of Secondary Users

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xiao; Lin, Lei; Bai, Baoming

    2010-01-01

    A new problem formulation is presented for the Gaussian interference channels (GIFC) with two pairs of users, which are distinguished as primary users and secondary users, respectively. The primary users employ a pair of encoder and decoder that were originally designed to satisfy a given error performance requirement under the assumption that no interference exists from other users. In the case when the secondary users attempt to access the same medium, we are interested in the maximum transmission rate (defined as {\\em accessible capacity}) at which secondary users can communicate reliably without affecting the error performance requirement by the primary users under the constraint that the primary encoder (not the decoder) is kept unchanged. By modeling the primary encoder as a generalized trellis code (GTC), we are then able to treat the secondary link as a finite state channel (FSC). The relation of the accessible capacity to the capacity region of the GIFC is revealed. Upper and lower bounds on the acce...

  14. Utilisation of prehospital intravenous access

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B H, Bester; S, Sobuwa.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of intravenous (IV) therapy in the South African (SA) prehospital setting, and to determine the proportion of prehospital IV cannulations considered unnecessary when graded against the South African Triage Score (SATS) chart. METHODS: The study was conducted in the pre [...] hospital emergency medical care setting in the Western Cape Province, SA. Using a descriptive research design, we looked at the report forms of patients treated and transported by personnel currently employed in the public sector, serving the urban and rural areas stipulated by the municipal boundaries. All medical and trauma cases in which establishment of IV access was documented for the month of April 2013 were included. Interhospital transfers, unsuccessful attempts at IV access and intraosseous cannulation were excluded. RESULTS: When graded against the SATS, prophylactic IV access was not justified in 42.3% of the total number of cases (N=149) in which it was established, and therefore added no direct benefit to the continuum of patient care. It is worth noting that 18.8% (n=39) of the IV lines were utilised for fluid administration, as opposed to 9.2% (n=19) for the administration of IV medications. CONCLUSION: In view of the paucity of studies indicating a direct benefit of out-of-hospital IV intervention, the practice of precautionary, protocol-driven prophylactic establishment of IV access should be evaluated. Current data suggest that in the absence of scientific evidence, IV access should only be initiated when it will benefit the patient immediately, and precautionary IV access, especially in non-injured patients, should be re-evaluated.

  15. ACCESSING HDF DATA VIA OPENDAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M.; Lee, H.; Folk, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    HDF is a set of data formats and software libraries for storing scientific data with an emphasis on standards, storage, and I/O efficiency. The HDF-EOS version 2 (HDF-EOS2) profile and library, built on top of HDF version 4 (HDF4), define and implement the standard data format for the NASA Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS). Since the launch of Terra in 1999, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has produced more than three terabytes of EOS earth science data daily. More than five hundred data products in NASA data centers are stored in HDF4. HDF5 is a newer data format. It has been embraced as an important data format for Earth science, HDF-EOS5, which is built on top of HDF5, is the primary data format for data from the Aura satellite. HDF5 is being used as the data format for data products produced from the National Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). The newer version of netCDF, netCDF-4, is built on top of HDF5. The OPeNDAP Data Access Protocol (DAP) and its related software (servers and clients) have emerged as important components of the earth science data system infrastructure. The OPeNDAP protocol is widely used to remotely access earth science data. Several third-party visualization and analysis tools that can read data from OPeNDAP servers, such as IDV, GrADS, Ferret, NCL, MATLAB, and IDL, are widely used by many earth scientists, researchers, and educators to access HDF earth science data. Ensuring easy access to HDF4, HDF5 and HDF-EOS data via the above tools through OPeNDAP will reduce the time for HDF users to visualize the data in their favorite way and improve their working efficiencies accordingly. In the past two years, under the support of NASA ESDIS and ACCESS projects, The HDF Group implemented the HDF5-OPeNDAP data handler so that some NASA HDF-EOS5 Aura Swath and Grid data can be accessed by widely used visualization and analysis tools such as IDV, GrADS, Ferret, NCL and IDL via OPeNDAP. The HDF Group is also in the process of enhancing HDF-OPeNDAP data handler so that some NASA HDF-EOS2 AIRS and MODIS Swath and Grid data can also be accessed by visualization tools such as IDV and GrADS via OPeNDAP. We will use this poster to demonstrate several examples on how visualization tools can access NASA HDF-EOS data via OPeNDAP.

  16. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  17. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP), and others.

  18. SCOAP3 and Open Access

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Dan; Dyas-Correia, Sharon; 10.1016/j.serrev.2009.08.015

    2009-01-01

    SCOAP3 is an innovative Open Access initiative for publishing in high-energy physics. The model is viewed by many as a potential solution to multiple issues related to the financial crisis, the peer review system, scholarly communication, and the need to support institutional repositories. This installment of “The Balance Point” presents articles written by three Open Access advocates, outlining the SCOAP3 proposal, benefits of participation, and some of the roles libraries, publishers and scientists can play in making important changes to scholarly communication. Contributors discuss scalability and transferability issues of SCOAP3, as well as other matters of concern.

  19. Simulation Analysis of Medium Access Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Israr, I.; Yaqoob, M. M.; Javaid, N.; Qasim, U.; Khan, Z. A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents comparison of Access Techniques used in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Comparison is performed between Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA), Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA (S-ALOHA). Performance metrics used for comparison are throughput (T), delay (D) and offered load (G). The main goal for comparison i...

  20. Selective access and editing in a database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  1. Transição malograda de um poder emergente? A participação brasileira nas negociações tarifárias da Rodada Tóquio Thwarted transition of an emerging power? Brazilian participation in the tariff negotiations of the Tokyo Round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Souza Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O propósito do artigo é analisar a participação brasileira nas negociações tarifárias do Gatt na Rodada Tóquio (1973-1979. Argumentar-se-á que houve uma mudança das crenças dos diplomatas sobre os benefícios que o país poderia ter nas negociações comerciais multilaterais. Contudo, esse movimento não foi generalizado no aparelho estatal, de forma que outros órgãos governamentais impediram a implementação da nova estratégia do Itamaraty de forma adequada.The purpose of the article is scrutinize the Brazilian participation in the Gatt tariff negotiations of the Tokyo Round (1973-1979. It will be argued that there was a transition in the diplomat's beliefs about the potential benefits that Brazil could obtain in the multilateral trade negotiations. Nonetheless, this movement was not generalized within the state apparatus. Therefore, other governmental institutions precluded the implementation of Itamaraty's new strategy.

  2. 75 FR 11528 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...Pool, Inc. submits revised pages to its Open Access Transmission Tariff intended to implement rate changes for KCP&L and GMO, which are transmission owners and pricing zones under SPP Tariff. Filed Date: 03/03/2010. Accession Number:...

  3. Multilingual Access for Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Carol; Sheridan, Paraic

    With the rapid growth of the global information society, the concept of library has evolved to embrace all kinds of information collections, on all kinds of storage media, and using many different access methods. The users of today's information networks and digital libraries, no longer restricted by geographic or spatial boundaries, want to be…

  4. Proximity Displays for Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniea, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Managing access to shared digital information, such as photographs and documents. is difficult for end users who are accumulating an increasingly large and diverse collection of data that they want to share with others. Current policy-management solutions require a user to proactively seek out and open a separate policy-management interface when…

  5. Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rex

    Oakland Schools, an Intermediate School District for Administration, operates a Remotely Accessible Management System (RAMS). RAMS is composed of over 100 computer programs, each of which performs procedures on the files of the 28 local school districts comprising the constituency of Oakland Schools. This regional service agency covers 900 square…

  6. Garnet Random-Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Random-access memory (RAM) devices of proposed type exploit magneto-optical properties of magnetic garnets exhibiting perpendicular anisotropy. Magnetic writing and optical readout used. Provides nonvolatile storage and resists damage by ionizing radiation. Because of basic architecture and pinout requirements, most likely useful as small-capacity memory devices.

  7. Molecular random access memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronically programmable memory devices utilizing molecular self-assembled monolayers are reported. The devices exhibit electronically programmable and erasable memory bits compatible with conventional threshold levels and a memory cell applicable to a random access memory is demonstrated. Bit retention times #gt#15 min have been observed. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  8. Open Access Publishing with Drupal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina McHale

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, the Colorado Association of Libraries (CAL suspended publication of its print quarterly journal, Colorado Libraries, as a cost-saving measure in a time of fiscal uncertainty. Printing and mailing the journal to its 1300 members cost CAL more than $26,000 per year. Publication of the journal was placed on an indefinite hiatus until the editorial staff proposed an online, open access format a year later. The benefits to migrating to open access included: significantly lower costs; a green platform; instant availability of content; a greater level of access to users with disabilities; and a higher level of visibility of the journal and the association. The editorial staff chose Drupal, including the E-journal module, and while Drupal is notorious for its steep learning curve—which exacerbated delays to content that had been created before the publishing hiatus—the fourth electronic issue was published recently at coloradolibrariesjournal.org. This article will discuss both the benefits and challenges of transitioning to an open access model and the choice Drupal as a platform over other more established journal software options.

  9. The Development of FTA Rules of Origin Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin xuan Cheng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rules of origin derived from the international trade needs of country trade statistics. When a government determined the supply and demand sources of imports and exports, they needed to clear the meaning of origin. For a large trade country, its customs levels differed from the country. So when imported the goods, the first was to discern the source of goods, then can accurately provide the appropriate treatment of the goods. It’s also the need to balance international trade. From this, the rules of origin initially were the technical aspects of international trade. With the development of liberalization of international trade and the tariff levels gradually reduced between countries, the use of non-tariff barriers was limited. Rules of origin’s impact on trade structure and resource allocation became more and more prominent, which had evolved into a hidden trade protection tool. With the deepening of international economic exchange, the application of rules of origin had expanded from the original customs technical problems to the country quotas, anti-dumping and many other fields. Also, it had become a powerful policy tool for implementing the trade protection, to some extent it had evolved into the discriminatory non-tariff barriers.

  10. Automated Computer Access Request System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  11. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  12. The Excel analyst's guide to Access

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate handbook for Excel analysts who need reporting solutions using Access Excel and Access are intended to work together. This book offers a comprehensive review of the extensive analytical and reporting functionality that Access provides and how it enhances Excel reporting functions. Sales managers, operations analysts, administrative assistants, office managers, and many others who rely heavily on data can benefit from learning to integrate Excel and Access, and this book shows you how. Coverage includes:Data Analysis in Access & the Basics of AccessBeyond S

  13. An Access Definition and Query Language : Towards a Unified Access Control Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenbichler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this work we suggest a meta access control model emulating established access control models by configuration and offering enhanced features like the delegation of rights, ego-centered roles, and decentralized administration. The suggested meta access control model is named \\'\\'Access Definition and Query Language\\'\\' (ADQL). ADQL is represented by a formal, context-free grammar allowing to express the targeted access control model, policies, facts, and access queries as a formal language.

  14. Risks and Countermeasures of Chinese Corporations Participation in Global Sourcing as Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Jing-yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available On the ground of entering into the WTO, more and more Chinese corporations participate in global sourcing. Summarize the condition of Chinese corporations’ participation as suppliers in global sourcing and analyze the potential risks, such as risk of holding inventory, receivable accounts, capital locked up, incomplete contracts and other risks such as non-tariff barriers and so on. And on the base, discuss countermeasures to them, such as giving the extended concept of cost and the procurement-supply sharing information system, forecast and contract protective terms, setting contract terms flexibly, scientific consideration of capital investment and so on.

  15. The Effects of the 16th Century Price Revolution and the Ottoman-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Afsin Sahin

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the two basic issues affected the Ottoman silk industry. The first one is the global Price Revolution; the second is the wars between Ottoman and Iran. The silk industry in Bursa which was the most important silk center of Ottoman had been affected negatively from these events. The non-tariff barriers had been created by the Iran wars also weakened the relations borne from the silk trade among these two countries. The diminished trade volume decreased the tax rev...

  16. Risk regulation, trade and international law: debating the precautionary principle in and around the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Gerstetter, Christiane; Maier, Matthias Leonhard

    2005-01-01

    The precautionary principle is one of the most contested principles in international law. In the context of trade regulation in particular, it has been a source of concern to those who fear that it might help to justify existing non-tariff barriers to trade or create addi-tional ones. Proponents of the principle, in turn, argue that it is needed to fend off un-warranted health and environmental risks in situations where scientific uncertainty pre-vails, even if this works against the liberali...

  17. Remote access to mathematical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The network-oriented application services paradigm is becoming increasingly common for scientific computing. The popularity of this approach can be attributed to the numerous advantages to both user and developer provided by network-enabled mathematical software. The burden of installing and maintaining complex systems is lifted from the user, while enabling developers to provide frequent updates without disrupting service. Access to software with similar functionality can be unified under the same interface. Remote servers can utilize potentially more powerful computing resources than may be available locally. We discuss some of the application services developed by the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory, including the Network Enabled Optimization System (NEOS) Server and the Automatic Differentiation of C (ADIC) Server, as well as preliminary work on Web access to the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc). We also provide a brief survey of related work

  18. Accessing the VO with Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, R.; Fitzpatrick, M.; Graham, M.; Tody, D.; Young, W.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce two products for accessing the VO from Python: PyVO and VOClient. PyVO is built on the widely-used Astropy package and is well suited for integrating automated access to astronomical data into highly customizable scripts and applications for data analysis in Python. VOClient is built on a collection of C-libraries and is well suited for integrating with multi-language analysis packages. It also provides a framework for integrating legacy software into the Python environment. In this demo, we will run through several examples demonstrate basic data discovery and retrieval of data. This includes finding archives containing data of interest (VO registry), retrieving datasets (SIA, SSA), and exploring (Cone Search, SLAP). VOClient features some extended capabilities including the ability to communicate to other desktop applications from a script using the SAMP protocol.

  19. Language features for access control

    OpenAIRE

    Ancilotti, Paolo; Boari, Maurelio; Lijtmaer, Norma

    1980-01-01

    The properties of a capability-based protection mechanism to be incorporated in a language for concurrent programming are presented. The protection mechanism is first abstractly characterized in terms of a protection model; the components of the protection mechanism, that is objects, subjects and protection rules which govern the accessing to the objects by the subjects, are defined. The paper then concentrates on appropriate programming language features to specify how the protection mechani...

  20. Fast Access Data Acquisition System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Vladimir Katsman

    1998-03-17

    Our goal in this program is to develop Fast Access Data Acquisition System (FADAS) by combining the flexibility of Multilink's GaAs and InP electronics and electro-optics with an extremely high data rate for the efficient handling and transfer of collider experimental data. This novel solution is based on Multilink's and Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) unique components and technologies for extremely fast data transfer, storage, and processing.

  1. Data Access by Data Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    SarathChand P.V.; VenuMadhav K; Mahendra Arya Bhanu; Rajalakshmi Selvaraj; Laxmaiah.M

    2011-01-01

    The mining is a source for the data base as it requires several elements and techniques for the retrieval operations. Some techniques and their corresponding technologies have an important role in the database which is required in large amounts for data access. The primary method is to retrieve the relevant data and the secondary is retrieval of the matched data. Generally the data ware houses is much more than an information technology project for the companies embracing the concept of mass ...

  2. Access to aquatic research sites

    OpenAIRE

    Bouleau, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    This article combines a political ecology approach and actor-network theory to conceptualise how access to environmental sampling sites frames the construction of regulatory scientific Tools. It draws on a case-study documented by empiric research dealing with the French biotic index, designed in the 60s for the purpose of assessing biological quality of rivers. I identified three steps of design of a scientific indicator built for regulatory purposes which are influenced by conditions of acc...

  3. Accessible solitons in diffusive media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-08-01

    We investigate spatial solitons in nonlocal media with a nonlinear index well modeled by a diffusive equation. We address the role of nonlocality and its interplay with boundary conditions, shedding light on the behavior of accessible solitons in real samples and discussing the accuracy of the highly nonlocal approximation. We find that symmetric solitons exist only above a power threshold, with an existence region that grows larger and larger with nonlocality in the plane width power. PMID:25078166

  4. Minerals, markets and open access

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2014-01-01

    Minerals, Markets and Open Access Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: cjmi@bgs.ac.uk The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a world-leading geological survey that focuses on public-good science for government and research to understand earth and environmental processes. The BGS is the UK provider of spatial and statistical minerals information, in addition it carries out research in areas such as metallogenesis, land-use im...

  5. E-accessible Astronomy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Making online resources more accessible to physically challenged library users is a topic deserving informed attention from astronomy librarians. Recommendations like WCAG 2.0 standards and section 508, in the United States, have proven valuable, and some vendors are already making their products compliant with them. But what about the wide variety of databases and other resources produced by astronomy information professionals themselves? Few, if any, of these are currently...

  6. Social Innovation: Access and Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly Runte, Roseann O.

    2008-01-01

    We live in an age where the rapid pace of technological innovation and the ability to disseminate knowledge far exceed our capacity to ensure that all members of society receive their benefits. The challenges in providing access to technology have been largely solved in this globally connected world. How to best use that technology to increase social value and alleviate lack of education, poverty, and other societal problems is an ongoing question with no easy answers. This article explores t...

  7. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  8. Support the Open Access Movement

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    CERN's Executive Board recently endorsed a new policy of open access to the laboratory's results: Continuing CERN action on Open Access (OA) [http://cds.cern.ch/record/828991/files/open-2005-006.pdf]. What does this policy mean for you? CERN authors have two responsibilities: Submit your document to the CERN Document Server; Consider submitting future articles to an Open Access journal. Since 2001, Operational Circular No. 6 has required every CERN author (Staff member, Fellow, or any Associated member of personnel who is allowed to use CERN as his affiliation) to submit a copy of their scientific documents to the CERN Document Server (CDS). For some groups all approved documents are submitted by the secretary (see the Departments' policies at: http://library.cern.ch/cern_publications/cern_publication_policy.html). Each author should personally also ensure the submission of any other articles which are not added in this way, such as conference contributions and review articles. It is not sufficient to re...

  9. Access to IEEE Electronic Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From 2007, the CERN Library now offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This new licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET (previously IEE) journals and proceedings as well as all current IEEE standards and selected archived ones. Some of the titles offer volumes back to 1913. This service currently represents more than 1,400,000 full-text articles! This leading engineering information resource replaces the previous service, a sub-product of the IEEE database called 'IEEE Enterprise', which offered online access to the complete collection of IEEE journals and proceedings, but with limited features. The service had become so popular that the CERN Working Group for Acquisitions recommended that the Library subscribe to the complete IEEE Electronic Library for 2007. Usage statistics for recent months showed there was a demand for the service from a large community of CERN users and we were aware that many users h...

  10. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  11. 77 FR 26213 - Access Authorization Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...Information Access Authority Program (IAAP). The amended cost is due to an increase...Information Access Authority Program (IAAP) is considered reimbursable work representing...periodically reviews the fees charged for IAAP and makes recommendations on revising...

  12. Energy access. Assessment of energy reforms: Case studies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozulj, R.; di Sbroiavacca, N.; Bouille, D.

    2004-04-01

    Access to comfortable, clean and efficient energy sources on the part of the poor has been defined as one of the highest political priorities in various world forums and analyses of this issue (RISOe-UNEP, 2002; WEC, 2000; FB, 2001). In this context, the GNESD Network Access project has focused its research, as a first priority in this phase, on the analysis of the impact of electricity sector reforms on energy access for the poor. The differences in average energy consumption levels per individual between developed and developing countries have to do With the growth of the horizontal component of the demand (access of new users to energy sources) as well as with the growth of the vertical component, that is, growth depending on higher levels of household equipment ownership that characterises modem life styles. In LA and C, the average electricity consumption level per individual lies below the world average. This reflects both problems: the lack of access by a large segment of the population, especially in rural areas, and the low consumption level of poor households who, in many cases, cannot afford the cost of electricity service in urban as well as rural areas. In spite of important reforms carried out in several countries of the region, such a trend has been impossible to revert so far. The analysis of reform impacts has been approached using a set of basic indicators suggested for the purpose in the Final Common Approach Paper preceding the project. These refer to the access and affordability as expressed by: national electrification levels, national electrification rates, electricity consumption per capita, electricity tariffs, and household electricity expenditure as a percentage of total household income. The Argentine, Peruvian and Salvadoran cases are analysed alter discussing the limitations of those indicators from the viewpoints of data availability and their interpretation in terms of causal relations. In approaching the analysis, the indirect impacts of reform have also been identified, that is, those emerging from the linkages between energy and macro-economic policies. This has been useful to understand what happened with reforms aimed at bringing domestic energy prices close to international values by means of sudden monetary appreciation, since this practice has disrupted and de-structured the productive system to such an extent that it can be considered the main cause of worsening structural poverty conditions in the region. In each of the three cases studied, the indicators of system coverage and growth rate of new connections were not entirely adequate to measure the impacts of reforms in the region. This was because, on the one hand, the dynamics of such indicators depends on the relative development level of the system prior to the reforms, as well as on the characteristics, pace and modality of the urbanization process. On the other hand, data distinguishing between poor and non-poor users is not available, which prevents the drawing of more definite and direct conclusions against the objective of the analysis. In spite of those shortcomings, available data on system coverage and growth rate of new connections shows a marked decline in system expansion after the reforms, irrespective of the causes. Where this was accompanied by a significant decline in technical losses due to illegal connections, the access already existed before the reforms. The three cases show a noticeable decrease in the amount of losses as a result of the regularization of such connections alter the privatisation. However, if overall macro-economic reforms fail to solve the problem of poverty but, in fact, make it worse - as in Argentina and El Salvador -, then this improvement may be threatened by a setback in real tariff collection, since users do not have enough income to afford the true cost of the service. Average per capita electricity consumption levels in households shows a decline in Peru, stagnation in El Salvador and an increase in Argentina. In Argentina, the increase has to do with the existence of a low price

  13. Multilateral market-access reforms of the Doha Round : a preliminary assessment of implications for EU agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    2005-01-01

    The July package of the Doha Round of trade negotiations stipulates that a tiered-formula approach should be used to significantly reduce market access barriers across countries, implying that the EU would have to make larger cuts to its high external tariffs, in comparison with many other WTO members such as the US. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of the likely impact of the tiered-formula reform approach on EU agricultural sectors. Numerical simulations of a multilateral market-access reform scenario show that such cuts would lead to across-the-board decreases in intra-EU trade flows, as compared with a baseline projection. While intra-EU trade flows would decrease, the EU’s trade with the rest of the world would increase. Yet such increases would not be symmetric – imports into the EU would increase more than exports, resulting in larger external trade deficits or smaller external trade surpluses in many EU agricultural products. Further, the resulting adjustments in member states’ production and net trade positions are not equal: the new member states would generally lose part of their export shares in the EU market to external competitors, as highlighted in the cases of bovine meat and dairy products. Finally, simulation results show that although EU welfare as a whole improves, the distribution of such gains across EU member states is uneven. EU-15 countries generally gain from improved efficiency as a result of the reform. The new member states, however, will only experience marginal efficiency improvements but will likely suffer terms-of-trade losses, thereby losing some of the related benefits of joining the EU (as projected in the baseline case.)

  14. Economic consequences of Croatian EU Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Šárková

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the Croatian economy and discover how it might be affected by the EU Accession of 2013. The paper describes Croatian integration path in the last decades and reviews the country’s main economic indicators and foreign trade. Moreover, it focuses on the economic changes related to the EU accession. We show that the EU accession will most likely be beneficial for the Croatian economy. With regard to the accession, adaptability...

  15. The ethics of open access publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, M.

    2013-01-01

    Should those who work on ethics welcome or resist moves to open access publishing? This paper analyses arguments in favour and against the increasing requirement for open access publishing and considers their implications for bioethics research. In the context of biomedical science, major funders are increasingly mandating open access as a condition of funding and such moves are also common in other disciplines. Whilst there has been some debate about the implications of open-access for the s...

  16. Equity for Open-Access Journal Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Shieber, Stuart M.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars write articles to be read--the more access to their articles the better--so one might think that the open-access approach to publishing, in which articles are freely available online to all without interposition of an access fee, would be an attractive competitor to traditional subscription-based journal publishing. But open-access journal publishing is currently at a systematic disadvantage relative to the traditional model. I propose a simple, cost-effective remedy to this inequity...

  17. Access control in cloud computing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Raouf Khan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is one of the emerging technologies. The cloud environment is a large open distributed system. It is important to preserve the data, as well as, privacy of users. Access Control methods ensure that authorized user’s access the data and the system. This paper discusses various features of attribute based access control mechanism, suitable for cloud computing environment. It leads to the design of attribute based access control mechanism for cloud computing.

  18. Access control in cloud computing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Raouf Khan

    2012-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the emerging technologies. The cloud environment is a large open distributed system. It is important to preserve the data, as well as, privacy of users. Access Control methods ensure that authorized user’s access the data and the system. This paper discusses various features of attribute based access control mechanism, suitable for cloud computing environment. It leads to the design of attribute based access control mechanism for cloud computing.

  19. University Access, Inclusion and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlalele, D.; Alexander, G.

    2012-01-01

    University access programmes inherently and inevitably provide students with a "label". Firstly, students are generally segregated and stigmatised as they are treated as a separate group that accessed university somewhat "illegitimately". Access programmes generally place more emphasis on academic development and in so doing seem to undermine the…

  20. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12 Public...AND UTILITY SYSTEMS IN AND ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For the purposes of this...

  1. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education...RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL ACCESS TO PUBLIC SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR THE BOY...DESIGNATED YOUTH GROUPS § 108.6 Equal access. (a) General. Consistent...

  2. 44 CFR 6.32 - Granting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Granting access. 6.32 Section 6.32 Emergency Management...IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Individual Access to Records § 6.32 Granting access. (a) Upon receipt of a request...

  3. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  4. The tariffs deadlock. Agreements and disagreements. Auctions make disappointments. Congestion: the auctions way. Energy in Switzerland. The fortnight of energy prices. Patrick Pierron: 'inverting steam'. Pierre Lepetit: 'the power has waken up'. Green electricity: is it necessary to establish a voluntaristic contribution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of 'Energies News' makes comments about the worldwide events of the moment in the domain of energy. Four articles concern the production, transportation and distribution of electricity after the transposition of the European directive and deal with the electricity tariffs, auctions and transit capacities. One short article summarizes the key-energy data of Switzerland in a couple of tables and graphs and a brief note presents the situation of the oil market after the September 11, 2001 terror events. One interview (P. Pierron, federal secretary of the CFDT syndicate) makes an analysis of the competition in the French and European energy market, while another interview (P. Lepetit, IFRI) analyzes the possible impacts of the September 11 events on the US energy policy. A last article analyzes the different solutions for the financing of the development of electricity produced from renewable energy sources and the opinion of the public with respect to an increase of electricity tariffs accordingly. (J.S.)

  5. Self-Access Centers: Maximizing Learners’ Access to Center Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W. Tanner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Originally published in TESL-EJ March 2009, Volume 12, Number 4 (http://tesl-ej.org/ej48/a2.html. Reprinted with permission from the authors.Although some students have discovered how to use self-access centers effectively, the majority appear to be unaware of available resources. A website and database of materials were created to help students locate materials and use the Self-Access Study Center (SASC at Brigham Young University’s English Language Center (ELC more effectively. Students took two surveys regarding their use of the SASC. The first survey was given before the website and database were made available. A second survey was administered 12 weeks after students had been introduced to the resource. An analysis of the data shows that students tend to use SASC resources more autonomously as a result of having a web-based database. The survey results suggest that SAC managers can encourage more autonomous use of center materials by provided a website and database to help students find appropriate materials to use to learn English.

  6. Enterprise wide transparent information access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information management needs of the Department of Energy (DOE) represents a fertile domain for the development of highly sophisticated yet intuitive enterprise-wide computing solutions. These solutions must support business operations, research agendas, technology development efforts, decision support, and other application areas with a user base ranging from technical staff to the highest levels of management. One area of primary interest is in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Branch of DOE. In this arena, the issue of tracking and managing nuclear waste related to the long legacy of prior defense production and research programs is one of high visibility and great concern. The Tank Waste Information Network System (TWINS) application has been created by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the DOE to assist in managing and accessing the information related to this mission. The TWINS solution addresses many of the technical issues faced by other efforts to provide integrated information access to a wide variety of stakeholders. TWINS provides secure transparent access to distributed heterogeneous multimedia information sources from around the DOE complex. The users interact with the information through a consistent user interface that presents the desired data in a common format regardless of the structure of the source information. The solutions developed by the TWINS project represent an integration of several technologies and products that can be applied to other mission areas within DOE and other government agencies. These solutions are now being applied to public and private sector problem domains as well. The successful integration and inter-operation of both commercial and custom modules into a flexible and extensible information architecture will help ensure that new problems facing DOE and other clients can be addressed more rapidly in the future by re-use of existing tools and techniques proven viable through the TWINS efforts

  7. [Direct access to physical therapy services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, Ayala; Jacobson, Eyal; Afek, Arnon

    2014-07-01

    This article presents findings from professional and scientific articles written on the subject of direct access to physical therapy services. Direct access is sometimes referred to as "self-referral"--the patient does not require a physician's referral prior to receiving physiotherapy treatment. The article provides insight from the experience of countries where direct access is accepted practice, which will serve as a theoretical and scientific basis for the use of direct access in Israel. Findings include the influence of direct access on the health care system: cost-benefit analysis, advantages and challenges, as well as the perspective of main stakeholders: physicians, physical therapists and patient-clients. . PMID:25189034

  8. Open Access Journal and Scholarly Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Chun Wu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continually raising of scholarly journal's price, the economic pressure on library is getting hard and to cause the "Serial Crisis". For against the crisis, the concept of Open Access is born. Open Access is not only new journal business model, but also has close relationship with the working of scholarly communication system. This article discuses the economic environment of scholar journal, analysis reasons those make the Serial Crisis, introduces opinions those support or oppose the concept of Open Access. Finally, discuses what conditions Open Access should have when Open Access works in scholarly communication system from scholarly communication system's function, components and communication channel.

  9. Teach yourself visually Access 2013

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The easy, visual way to learn this popular database program Part of the Office 2013 productivity suite, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data on a network or over the web. With this Visual guide to show you how, you'll master the fundamentals of this robust database application in no time. Clear, step-by-step instructions are illustrated with full-color screen shots that show exactly what you should see on your screen. Learn to enter new records; create, edit, and design tables and forms; develop queries that generate specific reports; add smart tags to y

  10. Accessing and using chemical databases.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Pavlov, Todor

    2013-01-01

    Computer-based representation of chemicals makes it possible to organize data in chemical databases-collections of chemical structures and associated properties. Databases are widely used wherever efficient processing of chemical information is needed, including search, storage, retrieval, and dissemination. Structure and functionality of chemical databases are considered. The typical kinds of information found in a chemical database are considered-identification, structural, and associated data. Functionality of chemical databases is presented, with examples of search and access types. More details are included about the OASIS database and platform and the Danish (Q)SAR Database online. Various types of chemical database resources are discussed, together with a list of examples.

  11. The index of rural access: an innovative integrated approach for measuring primary care access

    OpenAIRE

    McGrail Matthew R; Humphreys John S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The problem of access to health care is of growing concern for rural and remote populations. Many Australian rural health funding programs currently use simplistic rurality or remoteness classifications as proxy measures of access. This paper outlines the development of an alternative method for the measurement of access to primary care, based on combining the three key access elements of spatial accessibility (availability and proximity), population health needs and mobil...

  12. Nosocomial infections in dialysis access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Alexander; Trevino, Sergio; Marschall, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections in patients requiring renal replacement therapy have a high impact on morbidity and mortality. The most dangerous complication is bloodstream infection (BSI) associated with the vascular access, with a low BSI risk in arteriovenous fistulas or grafts and a comparatively high risk in central venous catheters. The single most important measure for preventing BSI is therefore the reduction of catheter use by means of early fistula formation. As this is not always feasible, prevention should focus on educational efforts, hand hygiene, surveillance of dialysis-associated events, and specific measures at and after the insertion of catheters. Core measures at the time of insertion include choosing the optimal site of insertion, the use of maximum sterile barrier precautions, adequate skin antisepsis, and the choice of catheter type; after insertion, access care needs to ensure hub disinfection and regular dressing changes. The application of antimicrobial locks is reserved for special situations. Evidence suggests that bundling a selection of the aforementioned measures can significantly reduce infection rates. The diagnosis of central line-associated BSI (CLABSI) is based on clinical signs and microbiological findings in blood cultures ideally drawn both peripherally and from the catheter. The prompt installation of empiric antibiotic treatment covering the most commonly encountered organisms is key regarding CLABSI treatment. Catheter removal is recommended in complicated cases or if cultures yield Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Pseudomonas or fungi. In other cases, guide wire exchange or catheter salvage strategies with antibiotic lock solutions may be acceptable alternatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25676304

  13. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query results level. Query rewriting is based on learning and language preferences; rule-based and ranking-based personalization improves these results further. Rule-based reasoning techniques are supported by formal ontologies we have developed based on standard information models for learning domains; ranking-based recommendations are supported through ensuring minimal sets of predicates appearing in query results. Our evaluation studies show that the implemented solution enables learners to find relevant learning resources in a distributed environment and through goal-based personalization improves relevancy of results. Udgivelsesdato: February 2008

  14. Lexical semantic access and letter access are involved in different aspects of reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of lexical access speed and letter access speed on reading fluency and reading comprehension. We hypothesized that 1) letter access speed would correlate with reading fluency but not comprehension, while 2) lexical access speed would influence reading comprehension. For readers who are struggling with recoding, most of the reading effort is probably tied up with recoding, leaving little to be explained by lexical access. Therefore we expected that 3) lexical access speed would primarily predict reading fluency for readers who were no longer struggling with recoding. Method: 85 Grade 5 students completed tasks of reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. In addition they were tested on isolated letter naming and isolated picture naming tasks as measures of letter and lexical access speed. All items in both naming tasks were unique. Parallel serial rapid automatized naming measures with letters and objects were also taken. Results: In the full sample letter access speed, but not lexical access speed, accounted for unique variance in reading fluency. The reverse was true for reading comprehension. Half the sample were at-ceiling recoders (95% accuracy). In this subset sample, both letter access and lexical access accounted for unique variance in reading fluency. The pattern of effects for lexical access did not change by controlling for serial rapid naming (RAN). Conclusions: The results suggest that letter access and lexical access are important for different aspects of reading. In addition, the influence of lexical access on reading appears to change with reading development.

  15. Microsoft access data analysis unleashing the analytical power of access

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Go beyond Excel(r) with Access''s more powerful analysis capabilitiesGet better visibility into your data with custom viewsScale up your data pool without limitationMaster the four fundamentals of data analysisDiscover shortcuts with the helpful Input Mask WizardIntegrate your data with the web and enterprise data sourcesAvoid the common pitfalls of data crunchingHarness VBA to improve data analysisLeverage information from the field with real-world scenarios Companion web siteSee examples from this book firsthand, in our companion web site at www.wiley.com/go/accessdataanalysis. The site also includes templates and tools to get you started.

  16. 32 CFR 806b.16 - Denying or limiting access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Denying or limiting access. 806b.16 Section 806b.16 National...ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Giving Access to Privacy Act Records § 806b.16 Denying or limiting access. System managers process access...

  17. 32 CFR 310.18 - Denial of individual access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Denial of individual access. 310.18 Section 310.18 National... PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Access by Individuals § 310.18 Denial of individual access. (a) Denying individual access....

  18. SDO Data Access And Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, A.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Cheung, C.; Freeland, S. L.; Slater, G. L.; Seguin, R.; Timmons, R.; Green, S.; Chang, L.; Kobashi, A.; Jaffey, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK), Event Detection System (EDS), iSolSearch, Panorama, Event Viewer and Control Software (EVACS), and a variety of SolarSoft routines all work together to provide a suite of tools to facilitate access and analysis of SDO data. The HEK, which consists of the Heliophysics Event Registry (HER) and the Heliophysics Coverage Registry (HCR), uses XML formats built upon the IVOA VOEvent specification to ingest, store, and search events. Web services and SolarSoft routines are available to make use of these functions. The EDS is one of the sources that provides events for ingest into the HEK. The EDS continuously runs feature finding modules on SDO data. It's a distributed system that allows it to keep up with SDO's data rate. iSolSearch allows the user to browse the events in the HER and search for events given a specific time interval and other constraints. Panorama is the software tool used for rapid visualization of large volumes of solar image data in multiple channels/wavelengths. With the EVACS front-end GUI tool, Panorama allows the user to, in real-time, change channel pixel scaling, weights, alignment, blending and colorization of data. The user can also easily create WYSIWYG movies and launch the Annotator tool to describe events and features the user observes in the data. Panorama can also be used to drive clustered HiperSpace walls using the CGLX toolkit. Panorama harnesses the power of the GPU and OpenGL fragment shaders to enable stunning visualization. EVACS provides a JOGL powered GUI that the user can search both the HER and HCR with. EVACS displays the searched for events on a full disk magnetogram of the sun while displaying more detailed information for events. EVACS can also be used to launch Panorama with a selected set of FITS or PRGB files, as well as control many aspects of Panorama. A host of SolarSoft routines are available to not only access functions of the HEK, but to also access metadata and/or image data from the Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC). Routines are also provided to create cutout images and movies of SDO data. A data order web page is provided to allow a casual user to order cutouts or full disk images. This page will make use of both the SSW cutout service as well as the JSOC cutout service.

  19. Architecture for Accessing Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Kamir Yusof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture for accessing heterogeneous databases. Two major processes in this architecture which are extracting SQL statement and ontology. The algorithms for extracting SQL statement was created and tested in order to improve time performance during searching and retrieving process. Ontology approach was implemented and combined with these algorithms. In ontology approach, web semantic was implemented in order to retrieve only relevant data from database. A prototype based on this architecture was developed using JAVA technology. JAVA technology was chosen because this technology have Jena library. This library is provide API and support SPARQL. Several experiments have been executed and tested. The result indicates this architecture able to improve web query processing in term of time. The result also indicates this architecture able to retrieve and displayed more relevant data to web users.

  20. Preserving Access to Digital Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growing concern over how best to preserve information in digital form continues to be of special interest to a number of federal library systems around the world, and the National Library of Australia is no exception. On its Preserving Access to Digital Information homepage, interested parties will find a very diverse set of materials related to these challenges, and a fairly broad set of topics are also covered here, including digital libraries, data documentation, digitization, and content management. Clicking on any of these topics from the homepage reveals a brief topical essay, which is followed by a number of timely articles culled from various sources for general consideration. The site also offers a number of annotated resource lists which include coverage of glossaries, digital projects, and electronic mailing lists of note.