WorldWideScience

Sample records for access tariffs non-tariff

  1. Addressing non-tariff measures in ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Pasadilla, Gloria O.

    2013-01-01

    Intra-ASEAN trade has increased six-fold since 1993 but greater integration challenge looms in addressing non-tariff measures. The paper discusses the various ASEAN work programs on NTMs and assesses the incidence of Members' NTMs on various products. Various ways of accelerating the reduction of non-tariff barriers are discussed, including dispute settlement mechanisms. The paper highlights the importance of a unilateral approach in addressing NTMs and the use of regulatory impact analysis t...

  2. Non-tariff Protectionism in EU Countries and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses positions of the European Union as an integration association in international trade, studies the system of non-tariff regulation in EU countries and identifies key problems of harmonisation of the Ukrainian legislation to the European one in the sphere of non-tariff regulation of international trade. In order to assess scales of application of non-tariff measures in foreign trade, the article analyses the index of coverage and frequency of use of non-tariff restrictions, dynamics of initiated non-tariff measures and trade structure of their distribution, and also detects reasons of application of non-tariff restrictions. The article characterises the system of technical regulation of EU and assesses main steps of Ukraine on the way of bringing the domestic standards in correspondence with the European ones as a necessary condition for increase of export of domestic products and increase of its competitiveness. The prospect of further scientific studies in this direction lies in forecasting influence of non-tariff restrictions upon volumes of import and export flows in foreign trade.

  3. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers). The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU l...

  4. Effect of the non-tariff barriers in the trade of Colombian mining goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to identify and to provide information on the non tariff barriers NTB to a group of mining products on the excellent international markets for the Colombian case, and to analyze its magnitude and incidence on the external sales of this products, to advance toward this objective is defined which measures they can be considered as non tariff restrictions, its different mensuration methodologies are analyzed and finally a qualitative and quantitative approach of the NTB is made that face the exports of Colombian mining products in their main markets, by means of a survey carried out the managers of the sector in the country. Among the main discoveries, they were evidences of the application of NTB, although they turned out to be not very significant for the sector exporter of mining products; the most frequent are the technical obstacles to the trade, but of relatively moderate incidence

  5. Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Tustanivskyy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

  6. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made. PMID:12180779

  7. A Gravity approach to evaluate the significance of trade liberalization in vertically-related goods in the presence of non-tariff barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazalian, Pascal; Tamini, Lota, D.; Larue, Bruno; Gervais, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    A gravity-based model is developed to explain bilateral trade flows in primary and processed agri-food commodities. It innovates by explicitly accounting for the vertical production linkages between primary and processed agri-food products, tariffs, and subsidies and by estimating the restrictiveness of non-tariff barriers in the upstream sector. Our application focuses on cattle/beef trade flows between forty-two countries. The structural parameters of the model are used to simulate trade fl...

  8. Legal aspects of Brazilian ethanol and non-tariff barriers to import; Aspectos juridicos relativos ao etanol brasileiro e as barreiras nao-tarifarias a sua importacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho

    2010-01-15

    This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.

  9. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long-term applied rates.

  10. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm applied rates.

  11. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will re...

  12. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so....

  13. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules : The Case of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model and calibrating it to the Vietnamese data. The model pays careful attention to the fact that Vietnam has many state-owned enterprises. The model simulations show that the WTO tariff reductions will reduce overall welfare. Moreover, the biggest loss will take place among the poor rural households in Vietnam. This paper proposes other tariff reforms that will both raise overall welfare and reduce income inequality.

  14. Viet Nam: Small Scale Technical assistance for Capacity Building of Ministry of Finance to Support Tariff, Industry and Subsidy Analysis for the WTO Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague

    2000-01-01

    The present study seeks to provide quantitative tools to carry out industry-level assessments of tariff and subsidy reforms that will both support Viet Nam’s current WTO accession negotiations and provide needed capacity for analyzing alternative policy reforms. To this end, the present study elaborates modeling tools for production shift analysis and the calculations of trade tax revenue effects associated with tariff reform policies. It builds on the recent ADB-assisted study on the structu...

  15. Gravity estimation of non tariff measures (NTMs) on EU-USA agri-food trade: Implications for further analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjuán López, Ana Isabel; Philippidis, George; Resano Ezcaray, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Under development: This year marks the formal opening of trade negotiations between the world's two largest trading partners – the European Union (EU) and the United States of America (USA). It is expected that the transatlantic partnership negotiations will face significant obstacles on both sides, which in turn places the burden on economists to provide plausible impact assessments to inform policy makers. Unfortunately, modelling databases whilst rich with detailed disaggregated representa...

  16. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  17. RUSSIA’S ACCESSION TO THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION: COMMITMENTS, PROCESSES, AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Connolly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two noted British economists survey a range of issues linked to Russia’s forthcoming accession to the World TradeOrganization (WTO and its implications for the Russian economy. They describe the far-reaching commitments Russia has undertakenin the realm of tariffs, non-tariff barriers, and openness to inward investment, identifying factors that tend both to support and challengerealization of these commitments. They follow with a brief historical account of the reasons why the accession process for Russia wasso protracted and an assessment of the likely medium- and long-term economic impacts of accession for the country as well as for itsparticular regions and social groups. The arguments suggest that the likely direct impacts of accession will overall be modest (at leastover the near- to medium- term, and focused in spheres in which a foreign presence may enhance the productivity of Russian firms inthe domestic market (e.g., business services. Potentially, more substantial indirect benefits will largely depend on the scale andseriousness of domestic reform policies launched in support of WTO compliance (i.e., effects of accession on Russia’s politicaleconomy.

  18. Lao PDR Market Access Guide: Trading with ASEAN Dialogue Partners - Australia and New

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    2013-01-01

    Laos benefits from the ASEAN-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area (AANZFTA). The Agreement has eliminated tariffs on 90% of Australia’s and New Zealand’s imports, with the remaining tariff lines to be removed by 2020. For Laos, it provides for a much longer transition period for eliminating tariffs in recognition of the country’s status as a newer ASEAN member having as least developed country status. The Agreement also eliminates non-tariff barriers like licensing requirements; offers ...

  19. Gas Transit Tariffs in Selected ECT Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the strategic aims of the Energy Charter process is to promote and facilitate efficient and uninhibited transit of energy materials and products across the ECT constituency. The Energy Charter process has recently been focusing its attention on the issues related to the transit of natural gas due to the increasing reliance on gas imports into Europe and other regions from more distant sources and across more borders. The transit tariffs (including their levels, structures and associated conditions) are, in addition to the terms of access to the transit infrastructure, one of the key factors affecting the cross-border gas flows. The main objectives of this study are to: review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new gas transit pipeline systems across selected ECT countries; compare transit tariff regimes for gas with those for domestic gas transport in the same countries; and assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs with main provisions of ECT and draft Transit Protocol. The scope of this study is limited to transit tariffs for natural gas. Furthermore the study does not address the issue of access to gas pipelines which sometimes is a more important hurdle for gas flows than the levels of transit tariffs. Geographically, the study covers the following key gas transit countries: EU-25 plus Switzerland, and Non-EU: Belarus, Bulgaria, Georgia, Morocco, Tunisia, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Chapter 3 describes the existing flows of gas trade and transit across the ECT countries and points out potential deviations between physical and contractual flows. Chapter 4 reviews the theoretical approaches used for setting transit tariffs, including: Typical costs for new gas pipelines: construction costs, financing, operation and maintenance costs, country/project risks and their impact on costs; Valuation approaches for existing pipelines; and Treatment of system expansion. Chapter 5 compares the theory and the practice by describing various transport/transit tariff methodologies (i.e. cost-plus, incentive tariff regulation, negotiated tariffs as well as distance-related, stamp, exit/entry model) that are used in the countries examined. Chapter 6 compares available information on transit tariffs by country and by methodology used. It also compares these tariffs with domestic transport tariffs, where appropriate and possible. Finally, chapter 7 attempts to evaluate the consistency of transit tariffs with the obligations of the Energy Charter framework and highlights the areas requiring further analysis

  20. Harmonized Tariff Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) was enacted by Congress and made effective on January 1, 1989, replacing the former Tariff Schedules of...

  1. Application of additive tariffs in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents and discusses a methodology for the calculation and application of tariffs in the electricity sector based on the principle of tariff additivity. It shows how such tariffs can reflect costs and assure the absence of cross subsidies between clients. The methodology presented was adopted in the Portuguese Tariff Code for electricity by the Portuguese Energy Regulator (ERSE). The work presented in this article reflects the experience acquired by ERSE during the preparation, discussion and implementation of that Code. Allowed revenues are determined separately for every regulated activity, assuring that there are no cross subsidies between activities. Additionally, the application of the tariff additivity principle assures the nonexistence of cross subsidies between consumers. Regulated tariffs applicable to end users of electricity are determined by summation, variable by variable, of the different activity tariffs in accordance with the services the costumer uses and in the proportion of that use. The corollary is that if the different activity tariffs are cost reflective and promote efficiency in resource allocation, the tariffs applicable to consumers (access tariffs or integral tariffs) will also reflect costs in the same manner. Therefore, besides economic efficiency, equity between non binding system consumers and binding system consumers is promoted. The examples presented in the article intend to show how additive tariffs reflect costs giving adequate economic price signals for the rational use of the networks and electric energy consumption

  2. Chile Frente a la Regulación sobre Medidas no Arancelarias de la Organización Mundial del Comercio / Chile and OMC's Law on Non Tariff Provisions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sofía, Boza; Felipe, Fernández.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En 1995, como uno de los resultados de la Ronda Uruguay de la Organización Mundial del Comercio, entra en vigor el Acuerdo sobre Obstáculos Técnicos al Comercio (OTC), cuyo objetivo principal es garantizar la potestad de los países de imponer este tipo de medidas, pero sin limitar el comercio más de [...] lo necesario. Para ello, el Acuerdo establece una serie de principios que deben regir los OTC, así como mecanismos para promover una mayor transparencia. El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es exponer cuál ha sido la participación de Chile en estos mecanismos desde la entrada en vigor del Acuerdo hasta la actualidad. Abstract in english In 1995, as one of the results of the Uruguay Round of the World Trade Organization, the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) came into force, whose main objective is to ensure that countries have the power to impose these measures, but without restricting trade more than necessary. The Ag [...] reement establishes a set of principles for the implementation of the TBT, as well as mechanisms to promote transparency. The main objective of this paper is to examine to what extent Chile has participated in these mechanisms from the entry into force of the Agreement to the present.

  3. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential technical and economic features which determine pipeline transport tariffs. Chapter 5 deals with rules of access to cross-border and transit oil pipelines. Chapter 6 touches upon principles of pipeline tariff methodologies applied in the FSU countries. Chapter 7 describes tariff methodologies in place for domestic, cross-border and transit oil pipelines in the FSU countries. Chapter 8 gives an overall comparison of tariffs for transit, cross-border and domestic oil pipelines. Chapter 9 offers conclusions and recommendations

  4. Pricing and tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danish suppliers of electricity and district heating are with a few exceptions either public utilities or cooperatives owned by consumers. The basic tariff regulations for electricity and heat in Denmark state that the tariff has to cover all costs and that only a reasonable interest of invested capital may be included in the tariff. Consequently, all profit has to be used to lower prices. For municipality-owned utilities the consumer prices would be the same if the consumers were the owners. It is typical for the district heating and electricity sector that the technical system, the organizations involved and the tariff levels show the same structure: Plants - transmission - distribution - consumer. E.g. the price of energy from the transmission system includes costs of plants and transmission, but not costs of distribution. Concerning energy saving measures in buildings it is important to note that energy saving measures should not be evaluated on the basis of saved GJ (Giga Joule) thermal energy and GJ electricity because the fuel energy consumption and the share of variable costs depend on the supply system. To find least-cost solutions to satisfy the basic demand for energy services, it is necessary to be aware of the whole chain of elements from fuel to services: fuel - plant - network - consumer installations - building envelope - services. The consumer tariff is the most important link between the supply systems and the buildings. A reasonably designed incentive tariff may work for least-cost solutions, whereas other tariffs may encourage a waste of resources, either waste of fuel energy or waste of investments. (AB)

  5. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  6. New tariffs for transportation networks usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New tariffs of gas transportation networks usage will be enforced on January 1, 2009. They will greatly simplify the access to transportation networks, favorable to the development of competition, and will allow market actors to have a better visibility. They represent a favorable framework for investments on the transportation network and will incite the gas suppliers to improve their quality of service and to control their expenses. (J.S.)

  7. The impact of tariff diversity on broadband diffusion: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haucap, Justus; Heimeshoff, Ulrich; Lange, Mirjam R. J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis how tariff diversity affects broadband uptake, utilizing a new data set with 1497 fixed-line and 2158 mobile broadband tariffs from 91 countries across the globe. An instrumental variable approach is applied to estimate the demand for fixed broadband internet access, controlling for various industry and socio-economic factors. The empirical results indicate that, first, in addition to lower prices and higher income, more tariff diversity additionally ...

  8. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  9. Ilusão de acesso: o modelo ALCA / Delusion of access: the FTAA model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Germán A., de la Reza.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas e [...] m curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental. Abstract in english The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric [...] negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.

  10. Ilusão de acesso: o modelo ALCA Delusion of access: the FTAA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán A. de la Reza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco a estrutura da ALCA e suas implicações nas disparidades econômicas no hemisfério. Analisa, em particular, as possibilidades de satisfação dos objetivos dos países da América Latina e do Caribe de acesso a mercados, levando em consideração as negociações hemisféricas em curso. Suas seções fornecem uma visão geral das contribuições, no sentido de demonstrar as conseqüências da ALCA para as economias pequenas; uma análise do processo de liberalização de tarifas de um ponto de vista fiscal; e, com base na noção de que várias barreiras não-tarifárias usadas pelos Estados Unidos tendem a continuar em operação depois de 2005, a última seção trata do significado de um processo de liberalização desigual nas Américas. No seu todo, pretende evidenciar a idéia de que a ALCA impõe um regime de comércio incapaz de servir como fonte de distribuição igualitária de benefícios econômicos dentro do hemisfério ocidental.The present article focuses on the FTAA framework and its implications on the economic disparities in the Hemisphere. In particular, it analyses the possibilities of satisfaction of the Latin American and Caribbean countries market-access objectives taking into consideration the current hemispheric negotiations. Its sections provide an overview of the contributions made to assert FTAA consequences for the small economies; an analysis of the tariff liberalization process from a fiscal point of view; and based on the finding that several non-tariff barriers used by the United States are likely to remain in operation after 2005, the last section draws on the significations of an uneven liberalization process in the Americas. In its ensemble, it seeks to substantiate the idea that FTAA entails a trade regime unable to serve as a source of equal distribution of economic benefits within the Western Hemisphere.

  11. Ontario feed-in-tariff programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year of their inception, the Ontario Power Authority received applications totaling over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. The overwhelming share of applications is for wind-power (69%) and solar photovoltaic (28%) generating facilities. Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh. The initiative, which responds to Provincial legislation is administratively divided into applications for facilities exceeding 10 kW (the FIT program) and those less than or equal to 10 kW (the microFIT program). This paper describes the programs and their features, compares them to their predecessors in Ontario as well as to programs elsewhere, analyses the reasons for the very strong response, and assesses their efficacy and sustainability. - Research highlights: ? Recent feed-in-tariff (FIT) programs in Ontario, Canada have elicited a very strong supply response. Within the first year, applications totaled over 15,000 MW, equivalent to about 43% of current Ontario electricity generating capacity. ? Most projects are either solar or wind. ? Likely causes of strong supply response-preferred system access and favorable, secure tariffs. (Wind generation is being remunerated at 14-19 cents /kWh. Solar facilities receive from 40 to 80 cents /kWh.) ? Long term political sustainability of present program is in question.

  12. Quality differentiated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flexible delivery reliability (FLP), which is in focus in this report, means that the customer shall be able to choose from a number of different grid tariffs of different qualities. This way he shows his actual willingness to pay for quality. It is an important difference compared with the KILE system, which is based on a surveyed willingness to pay. As it is planned to be implemented, FLP assumes that the customer must choose one of a number of different subscriptions and that he makes his choice based on his own preferences and costs what suits him best. The various subscribers entail different degrees of delivery reliability. For the grid companies, customers and regulatory authorities the FLP represents a challenge. It is assumed that the customers have a conscious attitude or preference with respect to delivery quality. That is not always the case today

  13. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both objectives at the same time.

  14. Chinese networks and tariff evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Rotunno, Lorenzo; Vézina, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we combine the tariff evasion analysis of Fisman and Wei (2004) with Rauch and Trindade's (2002) study of Chinese trade networks. Chinese networks are known to act as trade catalysts by enforcing contracts and providing market information. As tariff evasion occurs outside the law, market information is scant and formal institutions inexistent, rendering networks the more important. We find robust evidence that Chinese networks, proxied by ethnic Chinese migrant populations, incr...

  15. 49 CFR 1312.8 - Identification of tariff publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Identification of tariff publication. 1312.8 Section 1312.8 Transportation...SERVICE TERMS REGULATIONS FOR THE PUBLICATION, POSTING AND FILING OF TARIFFS FOR...1312.8 Identification of tariff publication. (a) Every tariff...

  16. Armington elasticities and tariff regime: an application to European Union rice imports

    OpenAIRE

    Huchet-Bourdon, Maryline; Pishbahar, Esmaeil

    2008-01-01

    Most of the European Union's (EU) import sources for rice are in developing countries and the least-developed countries (LDCs). The EU has moreover made a commitment to allow duty-free and quota-free access to rice imports originating in the LDCs from September 2009 onward. The purpose of this article is to answer two questions # First: Does the inclusion of import tariffs in the specification lead to different estimated Armington elasticities? Second: When a discriminating tariff is introduc...

  17. New tariffs of BKW Energie AG (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tariff increase of BKW Energie AG in October 1994 was, seen as a chance to review the tariff structure. First of all, the different products delivered to the customers were clearly defined, according to the following criteria: quantity of electricity intake at high tariff, degree of freedom at intake as well as supply and measurement point of the intake. In a second step the objectives to be fulfilled with the new structure were set: the tariffs should be customer-friendly easy to understand and to apply, foreseeable, cost-related as well as take into account the new findings in energy economics and finally give the right signals for a sparing use of natural resources. Some more considerations, especially on the allocation of the demand costs on demand and consumption rates were made. The new tariffs of BKW offer more flexibility and choices for the customers: retail customers can choose between single and two-rate tariffs. Moreover, they can choose a tariff for interruptable intake as a supplementary subscription. Big customers can choose among different options according to the utilisation time. The setting up of clear names and good information as well as specific offer of energy advice to the customers at the moment of the tariff increase were considered as highly valuable. The new tariff structure is one step in the right direction. The structure must still be ameliorated in the future. The trend will possibly be in a higher differentiation of tariffs for big customers and a high valuation of simplicity for the tariffs for retail customers. (author)

  18. Tariffs for natural gas, electricity and cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurances, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration, and other tariffs. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, including the alterations in the National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff (abbreviated in Dutch LBR, respectively RBT) per January 1, 1995, the compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 7 refs

  19. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  20. Tariffication Strategy in Telecommunication Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The tariff policy of a telecommunication operator has a strategic importance on achieving of optimal revenues and a fundamental impact on its position in the competition with another operators on the liberalised telecommunication market. The payment for a connection through a telecommunication network is determined by a rate for one call unit, by the duration of the call unit and their count during a call. An operator derives the rate and the duration of the call unit from a detailed analysis of large databases that contain statistical data on counts and duration of particular calls depending on the call type. Only the operator knows these data files and it keeps them confidential. It will be shown in the paper how it is possible to come to an estimation of revenues from telecommunication traffic only knowing a pair of basic parameters. The first considerations handling with this topic can be found in [1], [2],[3].

  1. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; JØrgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two-country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties increases for small tariffs. Firm profits are falling in both tariff and fixed export cost barriers. Tariff revenue falls when fixed export costs increase whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Welfare falls when fixed export costs increase and increases for small tariffs and falls for large tariffs, i.e. there exists a welfare maximizing tariff.

  2. Approaching a feed-in tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-05-01

    New incentive programmes could mean that the Italian solar thermal market will see renewed growth. But instead of the planned feed-in tariff, the incentives will first come in the form of a grant scheme.

  3. Industrial labor productivities and tariffs in South Africa :identification based on multilateral liberalization reform

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Torfinn; Rattsø, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. We seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage of multilateral tariff liberalization using reductions in industrial sector tariffs in other world regions as instruments for sectoral tariff reductions in South Afri...

  4. Carbon tariffs and cooperative outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the absence of an international environmental agreement (IEA) on climate change, a country may be reluctant to unilaterally implement environmental actions, as this may lead to the relocation of firms to other, lax-on-pollution countries. To avoid this problem, while still taking care of the environment, a country may impose a carbon tariff that adjusts for the differences between its own carbon tax and the other country's tax. We consider two countries with a representative firm in each one, and characterize and contrast the equilibrium strategies and outcomes in three scenarios. In the first (benchmark) scenario, in a first stage the regulators in the two countries determine the carbon taxes noncooperatively, and in a second stage, the firms compete à la Cournot. In the second scenario, the regulators cooperate in determining the carbon taxes, while the firms still play a noncooperative Cournot game. In the third scenario, we add another player, e.g., the World Trade Organization, which announced a border tax in a prior stage; the game is then played as in the first scenario. Our two major results are (i) a border-tax adjustment (BTA) mimics quite well the cooperative solution in setting the carbon taxes as in scenario two. This means that a BTA may be a way around the lack of enthusiasm for an IEA. (ii) All of our simulations show that a partial correction of the difference in taxes is sufficient to maximize total welfare. In short, the conclusion is that a BTA may be used as a credible threat to achieve an outcome that is very close to the cooperative outcome. - Highlights: • One of the first studies to consider border-tax adjustment in a strategic context. • Border-tax adjustment can lead to an optimal outcome, in cooperative sense. • Optimal outcome is achieved with partial tax adjustment

  5. Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...

  6. 77 FR 66601 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Change to eTariff Type of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 18, 2012, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC... 1220: ``Rate Extensions''. This code will permit PMAs to file for extensions of rates consistent...

  7. Gas transport networks: Entry–exit tariffs via least squares methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following some of the directives and regulations in the 3rd EU Energy Package, many of the EU members are reconsidering their methodologies to derive the tariffs charged for access and usage of their gas transport systems. Among these methodologies, the use of entry–exit tariffs computed via least squares has received the most attention over the last few years and there is a wide consensus towards the application of this approach. The main contribution of this paper is to raise awareness on the fact that, even after a given methodology has been chosen, there are still important details to be fixed before the final tariffs are computed. Within the context of the least squares methodology we argue that, although many of these details may seem minor, they can have a big impact on the final outcome. The paper also presents proposals on how these details can be handled while still pursuing the goals set by the EU; goals such as being transparent, cost-reflective, and non-discriminatory. Finally, the paper concludes with an illustration of the discussed proposals, applying them to the Spanish gas transport network. - Highlights: • We present a methodological discussion of entry–exit tariffs via least squares. • We discuss some implementation aspects that have to be handled carefully. • We present a series of proposals to handle these aspects. • Illustration with the Spanish Gas Transmission Network

  8. 76 FR 28973 - Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; Order on Rehearing and Accepting Tariff Filing, Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...ER11-2127-001, ER11-2127-002, EL11-37-000] Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC; Order on Rehearing and...access transmission tariff (OATT) submitted by Terra-Gen Dixie Valley, LLC (Terra-Gen), in response to a Commission order...

  9. Promoting Socio-Economic Development through Regional Integration - The Politics of Regional Economic Communities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyirabikali, Gaudence

    2005-01-01

    Regional integration has gained momentum since the 1980s and throughout the world. The new regionalism process prevailing since differs from the old one by its multidimensionality covering economic, political, social, and cultural issues within a regional setting. While the old regionalism focused on market protection using a range of tariff and non tariff barriers, the New Regionalism is reinforced by the globalisation effects and strives for efficiency in production, and market access. Usin...

  10. Feed-in tariff in Ukraine: The only driver of renewables' industry growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to review the recently adopted legislation on feed-in tariffs in Ukraine, focusing on its advantages and drawbacks, as well as on the related challenges. The recommendations listed in the paper will help to change the existing legislation regarding green electricity by means of eliminating its main drawbacks. The best prospects for renewable electricity production are related to the energy from the wind and the sun, nonetheless energy from the sun and biomass is used mostly for heating purposes, whereas the number of plans for the construction of wind farms and solar plants is growing tremendously. Despite policies and legislation being in place for the inclusion of electricity from renewables in the grid, technical and financial obstacles exist. There are plenty of plans to build new generating facilities, but at the same time there is absolutely no information about the construction of power backup. The existing regulatory policy regarding green electricity production and consumption still has significant potential for improvement. Compared to other measures, feed-in tariff implementation has spurred green electricity production in Ukraine, because feed-in tariff rates are high, and grid access is guaranteed by law, a major advantage of the current legislation on renewables in Ukraine. - Highlights: ? The number of wind farms and solar plants construction plans in Ukraine is growing. ? Guarantees to obtain feed-in tariff investors get after completion of construction. ? The definition of the term “biomass” in Ukrainian legislation needs to be reviewed. ? The investments in renewables are mostly commenced by Ukrainian investors. ? Feed-in tariff is the most efficient measure for green electricity production.

  11. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimizationunder Various Electricity Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Firestone; Chris Marnay

    2007-01-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment avai...

  12. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  13. CHANGES EFFECT OF SUGAR IMPORT TARIFF IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Q. Pudjiastuti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of sugar import tariffs changes since the tariff import is the only policy to increase the sugar domestic production. This analysis is performed using a CGE (computable general equilibrium model of Indonesian economy in 2008. Results showed that the increases of sugar import tariff have some different conclusions. If sugar tariff import will rise to 41.6% and to 50%, the domestic output of sugar will increase about 1.89% and 3.77%; and household welfare would increase about 0.52 and 0.76%, respectively. But when the sugar import tariff is removed, domestic output of sugar and sugarcane have not changed, but the agricultural sector would reduce and income of all agents would decrease. Thus, the relevant tariff depends on the purpose of the government whether to increase domestic output and import or export of certain sectors, and the welfare of producers or consumers.

  14. Perception, Choice and Design of Tariffs with Cost Caps

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This thesis studies the impact of innovative nonlinear tariffs that are formed by a cost cap component over and beyond traditional tariff components. Thereby, cost cap components fix an upper cost ceiling, after which consumption is exempt from further costs. The thesis demonstrates the use of different methodologies in order to study the effects of these pricing schemes. Implications for consumers and providers caused by the extension of tariffs by a cost cap component are discussed in detail.

  15. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.818 Section 10.818...States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric, apparel,...

  16. 19 CFR 10.520 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.520 Section 10.520...States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.520 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or...

  17. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.778 Section 10.778...States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A fabric or apparel...

  18. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.421 Section 10.421...States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...

  19. 19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.779 Section 10.779...States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...

  20. 19 CFR 10.420 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Filing of claim for tariff preference level. 10.420 Section 10.420...States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.420 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A cotton or...

  1. 19 CFR 10.819 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... false Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. 10.819 Section 10.819...States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.819 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The following goods...

  2. 46 CFR 520.9 - Access to tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...conferences shall ensure that their Internet service providers provide static Internet addresses. (d) Commission...PSTNs or a connection over the Internet. Connectivity will be provided...fees, hardware rental fees, usage fees or any other...

  3. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  4. Tariff based value of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  5. Tariffs for natural gas, heat, electricity and cogeneration in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of return of the combined generation of heat and power is not only determined by the capital expenditures and the costs of maintenance, control, management and insurance, but also by the fuel costs of the cogeneration installation and the avoided fuel costs in case of separated heat production, the avoided/saved costs of electricity purchase, and the compensation for possible supply to the public grid (sellback). This brochure aims at providing information about the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs to be able to determine the three last-mentioned expenditures. First, attention is paid to the tariffs of natural gas for large-scale consumers, the tariff for cogeneration and horticulture, and natural gas supply contracts. Next, the structure of the electricity tariffs is dealt with in detail, discussing the accounting system within the electric power sector, the tariffs and compensations for large-scale consumers and specific large-scale consumers, electricity sellback tariffs, and compensations for reserve capacity. Also attention will be paid to tariffs for electricity transport. Finally, several taxes, excises and levies that have a direct or indirect impact on natural gas tariffs, are discussed. 9 refs

  6. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  7. INCIDENTAL PROTECTION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE MORRILL TARIFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Flaherty

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican party’s protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress urged revising the Tariff of 1857 to arrest the growth of the federal deficit. However, the bitter rhetoric that accompanied the secession crisis has obscured the true nature of this short-lived, but important, revenue measure. An examination of the Morrill Tariff and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that it re-established the rates from the free trade Tariff of 1846 while providing incidental protection for select industries, a practice accepted, even advocated, by the Democratic party for over a decade.

  8. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation. (author)

  9. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

  10. Market Access and Welfare : Is there a Conflict?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-MØller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market access and consumer welfare will always be weakly compatible, in the sense that reforms based on each objective have the same signed effect on the other objective. For strong compatibility, whereby both objectives increase as a result of a locally optimal tariff reform, we derive both a necessary and sufficient condition and a simple sufficient condition

  11. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  12. A Tariff for Reactive Power - IEEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a suggested tariff or payment for the local supply of reactive power from distributed energy resources. The authors consider four sample customers, and estimate the cost of supply of reactive power for each customer. The power system savings from the local supply of reactive power are also estimated for a hypothetical circuit. It is found that reactive power for local voltage regulation could be supplied to the distribution system economically by customers when new inverters are installed. The inverter would be supplied with a power factor of 0.8, and would be capable of local voltage regulation to a schedule supplied by the utility. Inverters are now installed with photovoltaic systems, fuel cells and microturbines, and adjustable-speed motor drives.

  13. Viability of increasing the tariff of freshwater for irrigation as a tool to stimulate wastewater reuse in the MENA region

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Madi, M; Al-Sa'ed, R.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Alaerts, G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite water scarcity and high agricultural water demand in the Middle East and North Africa region, substantial proportions of treated wastewater are discharged into the environment and seas without proper utilization. All countries of the region, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is a common tool to make reuse attractive. However, low pricing of reclaimed wastewater is ineffectual due to farmers' access to freshwater for irrigation at low tariff. Therefore, increasing the prices of fresh...

  14. Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

  15. 18 CFR 341.3 - Form of tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE TARIFFS: OIL PIPELINE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO SECTION 6 OF THE INTERSTATE...be shown on the lower right side; (vii) The expiration date, if applicable; (viii) The name...

  16. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  17. Higher costs for electricity by new network tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since July 1, 2003, the price for electricity is much higher as a result of higher tariffs for the power network. An overview is given of how the prices for electricity are set for households and small businesses

  18. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing §...

  19. The transmission tariff - the economic tool for the network infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The free access to the transmission network is one of the key elements of the electricity market development both at the national and regional levels. The operation of the electricity market needs the appropriate development of its basic infrastructure, the transmission network. In the frame work of the electricity market, the network ensures the electricity transmission under reliable conditions, from the generators to the suppliers and eligible consumers and creates market opportunities for its users. One of the main market tools, which may influence the optimal development of the network structure, by an efficient location signal of the large consumers and generators, is the pricing system. The overall costs of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) for providing the transmission service may be distinctly focused by categories as follows: - Costs of the existing transmission network (fixed costs), maintenance and operation costs, capital costs; - Costs of electricity losses (variable costs); - Development costs needed to eliminate the network congestion (variable costs). The recovery of all costs involved by the transmission service is based on regulated tariff system approved by ANRE. By the tariff system, the transmission and system operator aims both to cover the transmission service cost and provide locational signals for all market players which should lead to the efficient grid operation as well as to the optimal development of its structure. The tariff values reflect the polarization existing in the Romanian Power System (PS), namely: surplus power in the South area of the PS (4G zone) and a power deficit in the North areas of the PS (2G and 5G zones). Electricity demand is more evenly distributed in the territory than the electricity generated. This assertion is based on the following statement: - the tariffs value range of electricity delivered in the transmission network is wider, between 1.13 and 2.39 USD/MWh (51%) than the one related to the zones of electricity received from the transmission network, between 1.64 and 2.37 USD/MWh (31%); The locational signal provided by the tariff is mitigated in certain respects by the average cost component related to the fixed costs, which represent 70% of the total costs of the transmission system operator

  20. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Cha, Seung-Tae

    2011-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted da...

  1. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff set...

  2. 14 CFR 221.550 - Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public reference room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public... Copies of tariffs made from filer's printer(s) located in Department's public...user at Departmental Headquarters from the printer or printers placed in Tariff Public...

  3. Micro economic evaluations of transferal tariffs and income framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses conditions of transferral tariffs as micro economic measures in the income-regulating frameworks of today. The process from aim to implementation of the tariff measures is described and the conditions as the tariff goal, segmenting of the customers and their price sensitivity are discussed. The report deals specifically with construction grants and connection fees. Connection fees are proposed as measures in order to influence dimensioning, while construction grants may be suitable in certain conditions for influencing the localisation. These measures would have different effects on the network companies' incomes and costs also due to the accounting regulations. A selection of tariff measures is proposed that illuminate the problems of the network companies. ''How shall the present income frames be distributed among the customers in order to stimulate the reduction of the costs and an increase of the income framework.'' The tariff measures are illustrated by specific numeric examples and the influence on incomes and costs are discussed. Examples of tariff measures are: Do not use the connection fee but rather the construction grant or increase the firm power part, only use the energy part, effect part or the firm power part. Solely altering of the tariff parts may result in the following: 1) Altering the firm power part: An increase would give a more stable yearly profit. 2) Altering of the energy part: An increase would promote a reduced consumption and thereby negatively influence a possible increase in the income frames. An increase may on the other hand reduce the costs of loss and delay investments. 3) Altering of the effect part: An increase would promote reduced maximal effects, lower the costs of loss and delay investments. 4) Reducing the connection fee would increase the maximum construction grant that could be applied for. This would result in a larger part of the construction costs could be covered within the income frames and would thereby contribute to a higher profit. The altering of the various tariff parts relative to each other may be regarded collectively as this may reinforce or antagonize the effects depending on the tariff structure design

  4. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

    2008-03-15

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

  5. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig

  6. Tariffs for natural gas, electric power and cogenerated heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost effectiveness of cogeneration is determined by several cost aspects: fuel costs of the cogeneration system and the avoided costs in separated heat generation, avoided or saved costs of the electricity cost price, and sellback. In order to assess these aspects, knowledge of the structure of natural gas and electricity tariffs is an absolute necessity. The brochure aims at informing everybody involved or interested in cogeneration projects. First, attention is paid to the natural gas tariff for large-scale consumers; the tariff for natural gas, used in cogeneration systems; and other special tariffs. Next the structure of electricity tariffs is discussed, focusing on the so-called National Basic Tariff and the Regional Basic Tariff, tariffs for large-scale consumers, sellback and reimbursement for reserve capacity. 7 figs., 5 tabs., 4 appendices

  7. Economic mechanisms of tariff regulation in housing-and-municipal services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svistunov Andrey Valerjevich

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the problem of use of economic mechanisms of tariff formation and regulation in housing-and-municipal services is considered. In a basis of effective system of tariff regulation scientifically proved mechanism of charge of depreciation charges in structure of means for major overhaul is determined. The expediency of introduction of new approaches to tariff definition is shown, they are connected with use of two rates tariffs in housing-and-municipal services.

  8. Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

  9. Proceedings of the Fourth Forum: Energy Day of Croatia, Prices and Tariff Policy in Energy Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle topic of the four Forums ''Croatian Energy Day'' was ''prices and tariff policy in energy supply''. 23 papers were presented, which were subdivided into four groups: 16th World Energy Council Congress, planning and prices in energetics, oil and natural gas prices and tariffs, and electric energy prices and tariffs

  10. Determinants of green electricity tariff uptake in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a ‘green tariff’, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that – to the authors’ knowledge – have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: •Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. •Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. •Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome

  11. Feed-in tariff and tradable green certificate in oligopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) and tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes are studied in a formal model and numerical example using the UK data. We find that if the markets were perfectly competitive, then feed-in tariff and the certificate price would be the same. However, when the markets are imperfect, they are generally different. While both the tariff and certificate price fluctuate around the difference between the costs of green and black energy, the tariff deviates more from the cost difference than the certificate price. The supplies of both black and green energy under FIT are higher than TGC, obviously as a result of subsidies. A troubling outcome is that the total energy supply increases under FIT as the renewables quota increases, which can negate other measures to mitigate climate changes such as demand management. Finally, using the data from the UK market, we find that social welfare under TGC is consistently higher than FIT for a wide range of values of the parameters.

  12. Software for industrial consumers electrical energy tariff optimal selection

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Ardelean; A. Ceclan; L. Czumbil; D. D. Micu; E. Simion

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly presents someelectrical energy management techniques andproposes a software product dedicated forautomatic choose of the optimal tariff structure forindustrial consumers. The optimal choose ofelectrical energy invoicing model proves to be anefficient way to bring quality and economies in anycompanies administration. Advanced description ofthe proposed software is also presented.

  13. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ...tariff filers. The Chief of the Wireline Competition Bureau will be responsible for administering...INFORMATION CONTACT: Pamela Arluk, Wireline Competition Bureau, Pricing Policy Division, 202-418-1520...at least one day's notice. (e) Non-price cap local exchange carriers...

  14. Voluntary transmission access: The PSI proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines a proposal from PSI Energy, Inc. (formerly Public Service Company of Indiana) to allow open access to its power transmission facilities and the response of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's response to that proposal. The topics discussed include transmission tariffs, competition, market share, expansion of transmission capacity and its funding, and reciprocal agreements to provide similar service

  15. Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: ? Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. ? Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. ? Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. ? Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. ? Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

  16. Do feed-in tariffs drive PV cost or viceversa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The distribution of PV installations on the territory is not a function of the solar radiation. • Cost of PV plants were adapted to the FIT framework. • The FIT for PV in Italy was considered an incentive to financial investment. • The FIT for PV in Italy did not stimulate the development of national PV industry. - Abstract: A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake façade of green economy

  17. On Trade Barriers to China’s Textiles Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Ma; Weiquan Yang

    2010-01-01

    Firstly we shall introduce the development situation of China’s textile industry from international tradeperspective, and then analyze the current international trade competition focusing on international trade barrierswhich consist of tariff and non-tariff barriers respectively. Finally we propose that increasing non-tariff barriersto China’s textile exportation are due to lower tariff, trade protection, rapid growth and keen competition of theindustry.

  18. On-grid electricity tariffs in China: Development, reform and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of market-oriented measures in China's power sector in the mid-1980s, electricity sale prices to the grid companies-on-grid electricity tariffs-became the focus of the energy industry, thus affecting all related stakeholders, including fuel suppliers, power generators and end-use consumers. A number of changes have gradually been undertaken in terms of electricity tariff settings and their implementation to address specific requirements of the expansion of the power industry at each stage of its development. On-grid electricity tariffs had been used as a key lever to attract investment in power generation at an early stage of reform and then to encourage competition in the power industry. In response to the rising concerns about environmental protection and the promotion of clean energy utilisation, tariffs have progressively been developed for renewable electricity generation, which has contributed to massive expansion of the renewable power industry in China. This paper reviews key milestones of the development of on-grid electricity tariffs in China, examines the tariff-setting mechanisms of coal-fired power plants and renewable power generation, analyses the factors associated with the adjustments of the tariff levels and discusses the options for further reform and more effective electricity pricing. - Research highlights: ? Pragmatic approaches have been taken to adjust on-grid electricity tariffs. ? Current tariff policies of coal-power led to suboptimal resource utilisation. ? Further market-oriented reforms are needed. ? Feed-in tariffs have gradually been established for renewable electricity.

  19. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Electric power production and distribution equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for electric power production and distribution equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for electric power production and distribution equipment

  20. Electricity tariffs - Part 2: the NOME law stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article follows a previous note about the Understanding of the 'historical' electricity tariffs implemented in France since the 1960's. This tariffing construction has been under severe strain during the market opening era, but paradoxally, it has also influenced this opening and in particular the competition itself. In reality, the basic principles of the power system have been strongly affected. The French 'NOME' (new organization of the electricity market) law aims at finding a solution to this triple problem now, with a useful but probably insufficient text. Regulated prices and opening to competition have encountered strong difficulties since 10 years and can hardly coexist in France. Several decisions taken to try to solve this difficulty have led in fact to terribly complexify the construction of electricity tariffs, finally creating an hybrid situation between the monopoly and the deregulation which satisfies none of the intervening parties and in particular the end-users

  1. Coordinating Tariff Reduction and Domestic Tax Reform under Imperfect Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    A major constraint on trade liberalization in many countries is the prospective loss of government revenue.Recent results, however, have established a simple and appealing strategy for overcoming this difficulty, whilst still realizing the efficiency gains from liberalization, in small, competitive economies: combining tariff cuts with point-for-point increases in destination-based consumption taxes unambiguously increases both national welfare and total government revenue.This note explores ...

  2. The evolution of tariffs in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a natural gas market in Canada is reviewed. Before 1985, natural gas was strictly regulated by governments. Following an agreement in October 1985, the market opened to new sellers, although the transportation and delivery of natural gas continued to be regulated. The advantages and disadvantages of moving from a regulated natural gas marketplace to a fully competitive market are described. Problems and issues regarding supply and demand, tariffs and tolls are also reviewed

  3. The effect of tax-tariff reform: evidence from Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovska, Olena; Sokolovskyi, Dmytro

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines the tax-tariff reform, recommended for Ukraine by donor organization (IMF and the World Bank), which consists in trade liberalization by way of trade tax cuts with simultaneous compensation of state tax revenue losses by VAT base broadening. We developed the mathematical model of evaluation of crossborder taxation influence on commodity flows, on economic agents’ profits and on state tax revenues, which can be considered as extension of “Devarajan” and “Emran–Stiglitz” mode...

  4. Tariff-induced transfer pricing and the CCCTB

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ronald B.

    2013-01-01

    The common consolidated corporate tax base has been suggested as a way to curb tax avoidance by allocating profits across borders via a formula. This paper demonstrates that when transfer pricing occurs both for tariff and tax minimization, that moving from separate accounting to formula apportionment can actually increase transfer pricing. This, combined with arm's length pricing regulations, can result in lower revenues for high-tax countries and lower overall revenues. This casts additiona...

  5. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  6. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  7. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziemele Jelena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution. The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  8. Lao PDR Market Access Guide: Trading with ASEAN Dialogue Partners – India

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    2013-01-01

    Laos benefits from the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement in Goods (AIFTA) by gaining preferential access to the large Indian market. Under the Agreement, India commits to eliminating customs duties on imports for 90% of its tariff lines under two separate lists: one being completed by the end of 2013; the other, by end-of-2016. For products on the sensitive list, India’s tariffs are being reduced to no more than 5% by the end of 2016. For its part, Laos has until 2021 to eliminate tariffs on i...

  9. The Optimum Discriminatory Tariffs under the Cournot-Nash Strategy in International Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Wen Cheng; Shih-Shen Chen

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimum ad valorem tariffs under the Cournot competition. There are three situations that exceptions to most-favored-nation (MFN) principle are made within the GATT framework: free trade agreement, ‘safeguard’ actions and escape clause. Hence, the issue of discriminatory tariffs has important policy implications. Most of the literature concerning the discriminatory tariffs assumes that the objective of the government is to maximize their country’s welfare by choosi...

  10. Comparison of feed-in tariffs and tenders to remunerate solar power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Thilo

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-offs for using feed-in tariffs or tenders to remunerate different scales of solar photovoltaics (PV) projects. In recent years, European countries increasingly combined feed-in tariffs for small renewables systems with tenders for large installations. This study develops an analytic framework to quantify deployment effectiveness of responsive feed-in tariff adjustment mechanisms across project scales and to compare specific cost effectiveness factors of feed-in t...

  11. A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair? (online first)

    OpenAIRE

    Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower risk of shortage. Aggregating to the national level, higher tariffs are correlated with higher GDP and better governance. A different country-level analysis shows that a higher percentage of the po...

  12. The principles of tariff policy and the objectives of economic growth promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko V.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the tariff policy issues serving as the focus of economic discussions, since their solution has a profound effect on the opportunities of the country’s economic development. The tariff policy problems impair the efficiency and competitiveness of national business and lower living standards. The government declares its readiness to limit the growth of tariffs, which, however, suggests “manual operation” and stopgap measures. The author emphasizes the need to reconsider the methodology and principles of public tariff policy.

  13. Moving towards a Common External Tariff Regime in ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Montague J.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an analysis on a range of common external tariff (CET) options that could be adopted by ASEAN. It quantitatively assess their implications for each ASEAN member state and the region as a whole. The results of the study are intended to assist the ASEAN Secretariat and the ASEAN member states in considering options under deliberations by the CCCA, which was presented to the Senior Economic Officials Meeting (SEOM) for its deliberation on the application of a CET as a long te...

  14. Conclusion statement of the 'gas tariffs' Commission works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report recalls some basic aspects of gas economy, notices that gas purchase prices are indexed to oil product prices, compares gas prices among European countries, briefly evokes the competition situation on the gas market in France, indicates the field of application of tariffs fixed by the ministry and the different pricing regimes, briefly discusses the pricing modalities, indicates the different components of gas price for a typical user. Then, recommendations are formulated for a new gas pricing policy based on true prices, transparency and user expectations

  15. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  16. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  17. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes. 1312.10 Section 1312...10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes. Every publication filed...clearly identify such changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in...

  18. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  19. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program...SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program...Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export...

  20. Electricity tariff reform and rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China has implemented increasing-block power tariffs. It might be a breakthrough in the country's stagnant residential power tariff reform. Improving energy efficiency is the primary method adopted by the Chinese government for energy conservation in residential sector. However, negative effects brought by energy rebound would weaken the real effect of efficiency improvement. Therefore, this paper focuses on the impact of residential electricity tariff adjustment on rebound effect of residential electricity consumption in China. We set up an LA-AIDS Model (linear approximation of the almost ideal demand system model) to estimate the rebound effect of urban residential electricity consumption. The results show that the rebound effect is approximately 165.22%. This figure manifests the existence of ‘backfire effect’, indicating that efficiency improvement does not have energy-saving effect in practice. After the implementation of increasing-block electricity tariff policy in China, the rebound is reduced to 132.3%. In addition, we also obtain the electricity tariffs at which the rebound effect is less than 1 or even close to zero. In this regard, for Chinese electricity market, electricity tariff reform might be an effective method for mitigating rebound effect. - Highlights: • LA–AIDS Model was used to estimate price elasticity for residential electricity. • The rebound size of urban residential electricity in China is estimated. • The size of electricity rebound is approximately 165.22%. • The impact of increasing-block power tariffs on rebound is studied. • Electricity pricing reform is an effective method to mitigate the rebound effect

  1. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  2. Per month or per kWh? Assessment of the effects of a different tariff system for small-scale consumers of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of capacity tariffs for small-scale consumers of electricity are assessed with respect to the effects of the implementation on those tariffs: impact on the administration costs of electric utilities, the extent to which a tariff is based on the cost-inducing principle, environmental impact, impact on the competitive strength of electric power companies, impacts on taxes and income. Three capacity tariffs are assessed: a uniform capacity tariff for households, a differentiated capacity tariff for households and a tariff which is based on the reference year consumption

  3. Tax-tariff reform with costs of tax administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Knud JØrgen

    2006-01-01

    As is broadly recognized, the straightforward application of the Diamond-Mirrlees (1971) production efficiency theorem implies that when lump-sum taxation is not available, then it is optimal for the government in a small open economy to rely on taxes on the net demand of ouseholds rather than on border taxes to finance its resource requirements. However, the theorem does not hold when taxation is associated with administrative costs. The present paper explores the implications of taking into account the costs of tax administration for optimal taxation and for desirable directions of tax-tariff reform in countries at different levels of economic development. The paper clarifies the reasons for, and lends support to, the criticism by Stiglitz (2003) of the IMF and the World Bank's recommendation to developing countries to adopt VAT to replace border taxes.

  4. The tariff policy in Romania - strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the guiding lines of the Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs. The main constraints and difficulties of the electricity rates and tariffs designing activity in a transitional economy are analysed, focusing on: financial and economic aspects, such as the dramatic decrease of economic activity, high inflation, scarcity of financial resources...; technical aspects related to the existing metering equipment and obsolete electricity generation, transmission and distribution facilities; social aspects regarding the impact of using energy tariffs designed taking into account the real costs of the electricity company; regulatory policy, legal and administrative aspects

  5. Feed-In Tariff as a Mechanism of Promoting Renewable Energy in the World and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First included into the energy regulations of the USA in 1978, a feed-in tariff (FiT) is a policy mechanism designed to encourage the adoption of renewable energy sources and to help accelerate the move toward grid parity .FiTs typically include three key provisions including guaranteed grid access, long-term contracts for the electricity produced and purchase prices that are methodologically based on the cost of renewable energy generation and tend towards grid parity. Among other renewable energy subsidies, such as income tax deductions, property tax exemptions, tax credits, loans or loan guaranties, investment credit subsidies and depreciation allowances, well-adapted feed-in tariff regimes are generally considered as the most efficient and effective support schemes for promoting renewable electricity. Up to now, close to seventy countries including developed and developing ones have adapted FiT policies and more are expected to come in the near future. Turkey adapted her initial FiT law in 2005 covering wind, hydro and geothermal sectors. In that law, solar electric power was intentionally excluded claiming the rapid development of the technology and potential cost reductions and a future update in the law covering the missing technologies was foreseen in five years. Adoption of the recent amendment at the end of year 2010 took a sluggish parliamentary process of one and a half years and eventually solar (PV and CSP); biogas-bio-mass power technologies were included in the FiT system along with some improvements on the wind, geothermal and hydro-electric sectors. The recent amendment assumed solar power as dominantly photovoltaic in nature and the base tariff of 0.133 USD/kW-h was determined based on the lowest investment options available on the global photovoltaic market. To promote domestic technology and manufacture, additional bonuses are defined for the domestic content of modules, cells, inverters and controllers and mechanical infrastructure. To enable the recently updated renewable energy law, issuing of two main regulations (by-laws) are needed in the following six months. One of them is on equipment standards and determination of the domestic content of the equipment and the other is related to grid connection, metering and auditing rules. For power plants smaller than 500 kWe and roof-top applications to feed electricity to the grid, the unlicensed power producer regulations are already in place since the end of October 2010, and along with the new law and following regulations it will become meaningful in terms of solar energy. Turkey, as a south-eastern Mediterranean country has richer solar resources as compared to Germany, the solar power leader of Europe. In contrast, as a country strong on conventional manufacturing, is not considered as a technology developer in the solar energy sector. Therefore, the Turkish FiT model may be a better example for the MENA countries that will house a large amount of solar power investments in the upcoming years. (author)

  6. Community ideology vs national realism? The tricky problem of electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the authors first outline that regulated electricity tariffs trend to crystallize oppositions between European and national political legitimacies. In this respect, they comment the obviously diverging and incompatible positions of France and of the European Union on the regulation of electricity prices: legal procedures against France exist for a defect of transposition of a European directive; another procedure concerns the control of State subsidies; France has maintained a tariff regulation. The authors outline that these oppositions will have to be solved by national and European judges, and then comment that this opposition is related to the strong attachment of France to a tariff system built as a protection against European harmonisation: tariffs are considered as the most efficient and fairest regulation system

  7. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting : Evidence from German Mobile Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals. Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts.

  8. 76 FR 70448 - Publication of Inaccurate or Inactive Ocean Common Carrier Tariffs; Order to Show Cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...1\\ Journal of Commerce (JOC) Sailings, PIERS, Sea-Web, and SERVCON...tariffs to be kept on file, available for possible use it should suit the narrow purposes of the persons issuing them to quickly...

  9. Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Economic integration has had ambiguous effects on industry concentration. The literature on the topic proposes various explanations for these empirical findings. This paper provides an additional theoretical argument. It shows that in a world of monopolistic competition, integration alone (modelled as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs. The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms and a lower concentration.

  10. Trick or treat ? Development opportunities and challenges in the WTO negotiations on industrial tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Córdoba, Santiago; Laird, Sam; Vanzetti, David

    2004-01-01

    Negotiations on industrial tariffs in the current WTO have turned out to be surpisingly more difficult than expected. On the one hand, developing countries, particularly in Africa, are concerned about the effect on their industrial development of developed country efforts to push them into deep cuts in applied tariffs:after the disillusion of the Urguay Round, promises of welfare gains seem like buying one of Akerloff's lemons. On the other hand, a number of the more complex formula proposals...

  11. TARIFF REDUCTION AND FUNCTIONAL INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN PAKISTAN: A CGE Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Rizwana; Iqbal, Zafar

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses impact of one of the major trade liberalisation policies of Structural Adjustment reforms, tariff rate reduction, on functional income distribution to households in Pakistan through CGE modelling, that is well known for this type of analysis. Using SAM-based CGE model, simulation exercises are undertaken to describe the impact of key adjustment policy i.e., reduction in tariff rate by 80% on industrial imports. Simulation results of CGE model simply show the direction of ...

  12. South Africa's tariff liberalisation policy : an appraisal of developments during the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Rangasamy, L.; Harmse, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Trade liberalization in South Africa has been a characteristic of trade policy since the early 1970s, with the reduction of quantitative restrictions being the main policy instrument as far as imports were concerned. By the early 1990s there was strong support for South Africa’s industrial strategy being spearheaded by comprehensive tariff reductions agreed to under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994, and implemented from 1995 onwards under the auspices o...

  13. Tariff System in General and Its Impact on New Possibilities of Natural Gas Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural gas tariff system in the Republic of Croatia was completed in 1993. This system has not yet been operational, because of some practical problems. Since 1993, many new possibilities of using natural gas have emerged, such as cooling, traffic, cogeneration (still in preparation). This paper analyzes these new possibilities of natural gas usage and considers their position in natural gas tariff system. Further analyses should leave enough space for possible amendments. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs

  14. How will the reduction of tariffs and taxes on insecticide- treated bednets affect household purchases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jonathon L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the steps called for in the fight against malaria is the removal of tariffs and taxes on insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs, netting materials, and insecticides, with a view to reducing the retail prices of ITNs and thus increasing utilization. In this paper we develop an approach for analysing the extent to which reform of tariff and tax policy can be expected to increase ITN purchases. We consider the following questions: (1 How much does the retail price of ITNs change if tariffs and taxes are reduced or eliminated? (2 How responsive is consumer demand to changes in the retail price of ITNs? Data on the price elasticity of demand for ITNs are very limited. Nevertheless, they suggest that ITN demand is not highly responsive to lower prices if household preferences are held constant. The reduction in retail prices associated with the removal of tariffs and taxes depends on the structure of the market in individual countries. In Nigeria, reducing the tariff on insecticides from 42% to zero and the tariff on netting materials from 40% to 5% is expected to increase ITN purchases by 9-27%, depending on the elasticity used. Country-specific information about market structure and cost conditions is needed if predictions are to be made as to how a specific policy change will affect ITN purchases.

  15. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  16. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  17. International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

  18. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...transaction. (3) Non-economy energy coordination agreement...service agreement, except an economy energy coordination agreement...deviation is consistent with the principles of Order No. 888, FERC Stats...energy pursuant to a bilateral economy energy coordination...

  19. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provide a portion of its Web site for marketparticipants to post offers to buy or sell power on a long... organization's behavior may require investigation, including, but not limited to, suspected Market Violations... portion of a customer's bundled wholesale power requirements. (2) Economy energy coordination...

  20. Turning green: Agent-based modeling of the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an agent-based modeling approach we study the temporal dynamics of consumer opinions regarding switching to dynamic electricity tariffs and the actual decisions to switch. We assume that the decision to switch is based on the unanimity of ? past opinions. The resulting model offers a hypothetical, yet plausible explanation of why there is such a big discrepancy between consumer opinions, as measured by market surveys, and the actual participation in pilot programs and the adoption of dynamic tariffs. We argue that due to the high indifference level in today's retail electricity markets, customer opinions are very unstable and change frequently. The conducted simulation study shows that reducing the indifference level can result in narrowing the intention–behavior gap. A similar effect can be achieved by decreasing the decision time that a consumer takes to make a decision. - Highlights: • We propose an agent-based model to study the adoption of dynamic electricity tariffs. • The decision to change the tariff is based on the unanimity of ? past opinions. • The model explains why the empirically observed intention–behavior gap exists. • The adoption of dynamic tariffs is impossible due to the high level of indifference in today's societies. • Reducing the indifference level or decreasing the decision time can result in narrowing the gap

  1. Comparing the feed-in tariff incentives for renewable electricity in Ontario and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of feed-in tariff (FIT) programs to support green electricity in Ontario (the Green Energy and Green Economy Act of 2009) and Germany (the Erneuerbare Energien-Gesetz of 2000) is compared. The two policies are highly comparable, offering similar rates for most renewable electricity technologies. Major differences between the policies include the level of differentiation found in the German policy, as well as the use of a price degression strategy for FIT rates in Germany compared to an escalation strategy in Ontario. The German renewable electricity portfolio is relatively balanced, compared to Ontario where wind power dominates the portfolio. At the federal level, Canada does not yet have a policy similar to the European Directive on Renewable Energy, and this lack may impact decisions taken by manufacturers of renewable technologies who consider establishing operations in the province. Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act could be benefit from lessons in the German system, especially with regard to degression of feed-in tariff rates over time, which could significantly reduce payments to producers over the course of a contract, and in turn encourage greater competitiveness among renewable power providers in the future. - Highlights: ? We compare two jurisdictions that utilize feed-in tariffs to support renewable electricity. ? Complementary policy such as mandated renewable energy use in conjunction with tariffs increases certainty for investors. ? Targeted incentives in the form of adders can deliver more diversity in renewable generation capacity. ? Degression of tariff rates delivers renewable generation capacity at lower cost.

  2. Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.

    2006-06-01

    Conference paper discussing the integration cost of wind. Although specific tariffs for wind generation for ancillary services are uncommon, we anticipate that balancing authorities (control areas) and other entities will move toward such tariffs. Tariffs for regulation and imbalance services should be cost-based, recognize the relevant time scales that correspond with utility operational cycles, and properly allocate those costs to those entities that cause the balancing authority to incur the costs. In this paper, we present methods for separating wind's impact into regulation and load following (imbalance) time scales. We show that approximating these impacts with simpler methods can significantly distort cost causation and even cause confusion between the relevant time scales. We present results from NREL's wind data collection program to illustrate the dangers of linearly scaling wind resource data from small wind plants to approximate the wind resource data from large wind plants. Finally, we provide a framework for developing regulation and imbalance tariffs, we outline methods to begin examining contingency reserve requirements for wind plants, we provide guidance on the important characteristics to consider, and we provide hypothetical cases that the tariff can be tested against to determine whether the results are desired.

  3. Impact of large-scale energy efficiency programs on utility finances and consumer tariffs in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect on utility finances and consumer tariffs of implementing utility-funded demand-side energy efficiency (EE) programs in India. We use the state of Delhi as a case study. We estimate that by 2015, the electric utilities in Delhi can potentially save nearly 14% of total sales. We examine the impacts on utility finances and consumer tariffs by developing scenarios that account for variations in the following factors: (a) incentive mechanisms for mitigating the financial risk of utilities, (b) whether utilities fund the EE programs only partially, (c) whether utilities sell the conserved electricity into spot markets and (d) the level of power shortages utilities are facing. We find that average consumer tariff would increase by 2.2% although consumers participating in EE programs benefit from reduction in their electricity consumption. While utility incentive mechanisms can mitigate utilities’ risk of losing long-run returns, they cannot address the risk of consistently negative cash flow. In case of power shortages, the cash flow risk is amplified (reaching up to 57% of utilities annual returns) and is very sensitive to marginal tariffs of consumers facing power shortages. We conclude by proposing solutions to mitigate utility risks. - Highlights: ? We model implementation of energy efficiency (EE) programs in Delhi, India. ? We examine the impact on utility finances and consumer tariffs from 2012 to 2015. ? We find that average consumer tariffs increase but participating consumers benefit. ? Existing regulatory mechanisms cannot address utilities’ risk of negative cash flow. ? Frequent true-ups or ex-ante revenue adjustment is required to address such risk.

  4. Increasing block tariffs in the water sector: a semi-welfarist approach

    OpenAIRE

    Meran, Georg; von Hirschhausen, Christian R.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the properties of progressive water tariffs that are often applied in the sector in the form of discretely increasing block tariffs (IBT). We are particularly interested in water tarification in a poverty context where a subsistence level of water has to be allocated to each household. Our approach is semi-welfarist to the extent that we analyze second-best pricing schemes that may be applied in practice due to fairness or other, non-welfarist considerations. In our theoretical mod...

  5. The tariff for fire and theft car insurance: analysis with a Cox model

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Scarpa

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle t...

  6. The tariff for fire and theft car insurance: analysis with a Cox model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Scarpa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle typical problems in data available to the companies, like the presence of franchises, which are treated as censored data.

  7. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) ...

  8. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  9. The solar photovoltaic feed-in tariff scheme in New South Wales, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar Photovoltaic (PV) electricity systems are part of Australia's energy supply matrix. In the case of New South Wales (NSW), the state government has had to deal with a complex policy problem. In order to play its role in the federal Small-scale Renewable Energy Scheme, the NSW government initiated the 7 year Solar Bonus Scheme in 2010. However, in attempting to maximise community investment in small-scale solar PV systems, it relied on faulty financial modelling that applied a generous Feed-in Tariff (FiT) and underestimated the level of investor participation and installed capacity. Consequently, the scheme has resulted in very high public costs that will require policy changes that bring investors and energy retailers into conflict, and unpopular electricity retail price adjustments. This paper uses a structured case and stakeholder analysis to critically analyse the FiT policy, while also highlighting important lessons for policymakers engaging in FiT design. - highlights: • Describes the design of a feed-in tariff policy for solar PV electricity exports. • Exposes a A$1 billion payment overrun and weaknesses in policy controls. • Identifies policy design flaws and opportunities to improve future tariff designs. • Discusses the importance of developing nationally integrated feed-in tariff policies

  10. Tariffs, market conduct and government commitment: policy implications for developing countries.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baghdasaryan, D.; Žigi?, Krešimir

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 18, ?. 1 (2010), s. 91-122. ISSN 0967-0750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : optimal tariff protection * innovative (imitative) effort * government non-commitment regime * unit cost heterogeneity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2010

  11. Royal Decree 441/1986 of 28 February 1986 on the establishment of new electricity tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Decree raises electricity tariffs and prescribes the use to be made of the funds obtained from the sale of electricity: electrical/technical R and D, constitution of uranium stocks and work on the terminal part of the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA)

  12. 19 CFR 10.233 - Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles eligible for preferential tariff treatment...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED...Trade Partnership Act Non-Textile Articles Under the United States-Caribbean...

  13. Feed-in tariffs for renewable energies in Europe - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariffs paid for renewable electricity have become the decisive criteria for renewable energy development in Europe. This interdependency has been reflected by the introduction of various legislative schemes for renewable energy sources (RES) in an increasing number of Eu Member States which is being analysed in this paper. The rapidly expanding market for wind power in Europe has been the best example for the success of favourable tariff schemes for renewable energies. Such as supportive framework - especially as in Denmark and Germany - has allowed the emerging industry to develop and expand, with thousands of new jobs created. Taking a closer look at installation rates, it is obvious that many existing regulations and tariff schemes in other Member States do not seem sufficient to allow for an accelerated market introduction of RES. Therefore, favourable framework conditions - especially with regard to financing - are required at European level. This is why this paper proposes the introduction of a common European legislation granting minimum tariffs to renewable energies which are fed into the electricity grids. The proposed directive is in line with several resolutions of the European Parliament and with many documents adopted by the European Commission, the latest the Green Paper on RES. (orig.)

  14. Strategic tariff protection, market conduct, and government commitment levels in developing economies.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ionascu, D.; Žigi?, Krešimir

    -, ?. 249 (2005), s. 1-43. ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : optimal tariff protection * government non-commitment regime * symmetric versus asymmetric information Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp249.pdf

  15. How much do electricity tariff increases in Ukraine hurt the poor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the electricity tariffs for private consumers to cost-covering levels has been a very sensitive issue for all transition countries. The likely negative social consequences are the central argument why the necessary tariff corrections have not yet been implemented in Ukraine by the political decision makers. Since official data is not available, there is insufficient knowledge regarding the electricity consumption behaviour of private households. This makes it difficult to counter the official arguments with hard evidence. A survey was carried out by the authors giving a more detailed picture. Basic data of the survey was used in evaluating the impact of possible tariff increases on the household expenditures of different income groups, using both the compensating (CV) and the equivalent variation (EV) methods. The findings confirm that an electricity tariff increase up to the level which would cover 'officially' measured costs, as defined by the Ukrainian electricity regulatory authority, would not cause severe social problems. However, further increases up to a level, which would cover the 'true' costs, i.e. up to a level comparable to the average OECD level, should only be realised in steps

  16. Maximum and minimum tariffs for transport concessions: a statistic study [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Crispiniano Garcia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is argued that leased public services prices can be calculated endogenously from the rate of return regulation model. In particular, this research extends the work by Rocha, Cavalcante and Oliveira (2009 where a method to price minimum and maximum leased fares to be charged from the users was presented. Moreover, these fares must be published on the public document bidding. Therefore, the value of the leased tariff must be between the minimum and the maximum ones, including the extreme values. The model is grounded upon the rate of return regulation method and, to establish the minimum tariff, it is resorted to the so-called certainty equivalent concept. The Brazilian transport regulatory agencies apply such method of regulation. This paper advances the described method assuming that the needed variables (demand and costs used to determine the minimum and the maximum tariffs of the leased public services have stochastic properties. To show its feasibility, the proposed model is implemented to the leasing of an inter-state bus service, where the values of the minimum and maximum tariffs are obtained, besides making a sensitivity analysis study.

  17. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  18. Estimating the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the option value of a non-firm electricity tariff commonly used by a local distribution company (LDC) in its electricity demand response program. This option value captures the benefit that a LDC enjoys from not serving an end-use load during high-price hours in a wholesale electricity market. It is conservative in that it does not include the cost savings in meeting the LDC's resource adequacy requirement or deferring transmission and distribution (T and D) investments necessary for delivering reliable service. Illustrated by a Northern California example, our two-pronged approach entails (a) a set of summer monthly market price regressions to forecast daily spot price distributions that incorporate uncertainty in natural gas price and weather; and (b) a simulation exercise to quantify the tariff's value under a specific design. The results indicate that a non-firm service tariff can have varying option value estimates that are highly sensitive to the tariff's design, and that an incentive payment based on the option value alone is likely insufficient to attract customer participation in a non-firm service program. (author)

  19. Implementation phase - future price movements guidelines for a new tariff system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas reserves in Slovenia are negligible and, therefore, almost all natural gas has to be imported. The natural gas sources are geographically far from Slovenia, and this fact has a great impact first on costs for providing natural gas, and second, on the possibilities to adjust natural gas prices with other alternative and competitive fuels. Countries that are geographically closer to natural gas sources have lower fixed costs in providing natural gas, while in the case of Slovenia fixed costs could exceed half of total costs. Therefore, those countries may have an essentially different market attitude and behaviour. In Slovenia, there are two levels of supplying customers with the natural gas, i.e.: (a) supplies through the Slovenian natural gas pipeline system to industry and distribution companies; (b) supplies through local distribution networks to households, commercial customers and minor industrial customers. With regard to certain differences existing between those two levels, each level has been using a specific system of setting natural gas price as well as a particular tariff system. This paper refers only to supplying the level mentioned under point a. The new tariff system needs to consider first of all the modes of the natural gas use and possibilities of alternative fuels use. On this basis it shall define competitive conditions, convenient for supplying the natural gas to all categories of customers. The system is going to be introduced in several steps so that all necessary and unavoidable changes shall be gradually implemented. A complete introduction of the new, and to the energy market better adjusted tariff system, depends on a simultaneous introduction of fiscal changes. Due to the great dependence of the introduction of the new tariff system on the appropriate fiscal and tax energy regime, the time necessary for a full introduction may vary. We estimate that the tariff system could be fully introduced in about two-year period, once it is approved

  20. Novel transmission pricing scheme based on point-to-point tariff and transaction pair matching for pool market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)

  1. Method for a national tariff comparison for natural gas, electricity and heat. Set-up and presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups (within distribution companies and outside those companies) have a need for information and data on energy tariffs. It is the opinion of the ad-hoc working group that a comparison of tariffs on the basis of standard cases is the most practical method to meet the information demand of all the parties involved. Those standard cases are formulated and presented for prices of electricity, natural gas and heat, including applied consumption parameters. A comparison of such tariffs must be made periodically

  2. Statistics about transfer tariffs in the regional- and distribution grid 1997; Statistikk over overfoeringstariffer (nettleie) i regional- og distribusjonsnettet 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetrang, Inger [ed.

    1997-02-20

    This report contains statistics of transport tariffs for electricity distribution in Norway in 1997. The transfer tariff is regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) in accordance with the Energy Act. It is defined as the price per kWh collected by the network owner for transporting the energy to the consumer. From 1996 to 1997 the tariffs for business customers and for houshold customers have increased by 5%. For the larger period 1993-1997, however, there is a reduction of 6% for large business customers, 13% for small business customers and 10% for household customers. 6 tabs.

  3. Establishing the Optimal Tariff in Rural Electricity Distribution Networksy.

    OpenAIRE

    Guler, Hazal; Tedgren, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Access to electricity is a key factor of improving the living standard in a country, as it enhances the quality of services such as education, health care and productivity. The rural population of Uganda is however only supplied with electricity to a degree less than three percent. There are large financial issues in extending the national electricity grid why small stand alone systems are sometimes a more valuable option. Even then, there are large investment costs that need to be covered by...

  4. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply-side investments is a way of moving the electricity sector toward a model focused on providing energy services rather than providing electricity.

  5. The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald; Frandsen, Søren E.

    2007-01-01

    The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely re-emerge in some form in the near future. We used the GTAP computable general-equilibrium model and database to simulate trade shock scenarios that mimic WTO's "August 2004 NAMA Framework", which propo...

  6. By-law from January 14, 2005, relative to the tariffs of use of public natural gas distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This by-law defines the tariffing rules for the different French gas utilities according to the delivered quantities or to the subscribed daily capacity. Tariffs increase for overstepping of subscribed daily capacity are detailed. (J.S.)

  7. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups and molasses), specialty sugar, and sugar-containing...TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional...

  8. On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-17

    This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection with the tariffs of domestic contracts; - Proposals for tariffing the international transports. The sixth section presents the efficiency of the short and medium term access. The following issues are tackled: - Regulation of access and transmission; - Short term treating of the bottlenecks; - De-congestion investments; - Tariffs for lead-in and reinforcement operations; - the case of proximity production, direct lines and self-production. Finally, the last section titled 'Inciting the GRT internal efficiency and tariffing evolution, displays the subject matters: - The GRT behaviour guide; - Evolution of tariffing; - Benchmarking possibilities. In the concluding section the basic ideas of the report i.e., improving the market functioning, developing the network management and inciting the grow in the internal efficiency of GRT are elaborated and entailing recommendations are set down.

  9. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard employment, the company's regional reorganisation involved the loss of hundreds of jobs. Conclusions Regional integration organisations and their member states should be aware of the capacity of TTCs to act in a coordinated transnational manner to influence policy in their own interests, and coordinate their own public health and tax policies in a similarly effective way.

  10. How do solar photovoltaic feed-in tariffs interact with solar panel and silicon prices? An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    De La Tour, Arnaud; Glachant, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Preferential feed-in tariffs (FITs) for solar generated electricity increases the demand for solar photovoltaic systems. They can thus induce price to increase, creating the potential for PV systems producers to collect rents. This paper analyses the interactions between feed-in tariffs, silicon prices and module prices, using weekly price data and FIT values in Germany, Italy, Spain, and France from January 2005 to May 2012. Relying methodologically on the Granger causality tests applied to ...

  11. How can Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Viet Nam Cope with Revenue Lost Due to AFTA Tariff Reductions?

    OpenAIRE

    Lao-Araya, Kanokpan

    2002-01-01

    In joining the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA), the governments of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Viet Nam have agreed to comply with the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Scheme, which reduces intra-ASEAN tariff rates on certain imports and may likely reduce government revenue. This study proposes tax structure and tax administration reforms and other complementary policies that these governments can introduce to safeguard and enhanc...

  12. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  13. Introducing a demand-based electricity distribution tariff in the residential sector: Demand response and customer perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased demand response is essential to fully exploit the Swedish power system, which in turn is an absolute prerequisite for meeting political goals related to energy efficiency and climate change. Demand response programs are, nonetheless, still exceptional in the residential sector of the Swedish electricity market, one contributory factor being lack of knowledge about the extent of the potential gains. In light of these circumstances, this empirical study set out with the intention of estimating the scope of households' response to, and assessing customers' perception of, a demand-based time-of-use electricity distribution tariff. The results show that households as a whole have a fairly high opinion of the demand-based tariff and act on its intrinsic price signals by decreasing peak demand in peak periods and shifting electricity use from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: ? Households are sympathetic to demand-based tariffs, seeing as they relate to environmental issues. ? Households adjust their electricity use to the price signals of demand-based tariffs. ? Demand-based tariffs lead to a shift in electricity use from peak to off-peak hours. ? Demand-based tariffs lead to a decrease in maximum demand in peak periods. ? Magnitude of these effects increases over time.

  14. Pressure in the natural gas pipe. Coherence between tariffs for natural gas transport, and congestion in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using GASTALE (Gas mArket System for Trade Analysis in a Liberalizing Europe), a comprehensive computational game theoretic model of the European gas market, the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) conducted at the request of Gas Transportation Services (GTS) a study on the relationship between gas transport tariffs, the demand for gas transport and possible re-routing of gas flows in Northwestern Europe. We find that lowering the average Dutch transport tariff compared to the average German transport tariff induces a re-routing of gas flows from the German network to the Dutch network. In periods of high gas demand, such as the peak winter season, the lower transport tariffs lead to a high potential demand for gas transport which cannot be fulfilled by the limited capacity of the Dutch gas transport network. This will probably even lead to congestion in the Dutch network as a 'first-come first-served' regime is currently applied in the Netherlands. So Dutch gas transport tariffs being out of line with the gas transport tariffs neighbouring countries, implies that there is a real chance that transit flows are crowding-out gas flows destined for Dutch final consumers of gas. Hence, the security of gas supply for the Netherlands is seriously threatened. These findings are robust for variations in the model assumptions as shown by a number of sensitivity analyses

  15. A model to assess water tariffs as part of water demand management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JJ, Hoffman; JA, du Plessis.

    Full Text Available Water Conservation and Water Demand Management (WC/WDM) forms part of integrated water resource management and can be used as an economically viable alternative to the upgrade of infrastructure to balance supply and demand. In order to enable effective decision-making, a model was developed in this [...] study to estimate expected water savings and the financial impact of a change in water tariff as a WC/WDM measure. This paper describes a model that was developed for municipalities to calculate the predicted change in water use and the associated income. The model takes into account variation in price elasticity per tariff block. The effectiveness of the model as a planning tool is illustrated through an appropriate example.

  16. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2013-01-01

    The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners’ behaviour and also the impact in load diagram. The paper proposes the energy price variation according to the relation between wind generation and power consumption. The proposed strategy was tested in two different days in the Danish power system. January 31st and August 13th 2013 were selected because of the high quantities of wind generation. The main goal is to evaluate the changes in the EVs charging diagram with the energy price preventing wind curtailment.

  17. A Classroom Experiment on Import Tariffs and Quotas Under Perfect and Imperfect Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript develops a classroom experiment on international trade that is suitable for undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics, international trade, and international finance courses. Students representing buyers, in a small home country and foreign country, and sellers, both home and foreign, participate in a double-oral-auction to determine the price and level of international trade. By imposing tariffs and quotas and altering the structure of the home market from one of perfect comp...

  18. Report on the behalf of the Commission of inquiry on electricity tariffs. Nr 2618

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This huge report first proposes a critical overview of the current French electricity tariff system and a new arrangement. In this overview, the authors indicate the various objectives of this tariff: to cover the costs of electricity providers, to cover the costs of grid managers, to ensure the geographical equalization of electricity price, to preserve the household purchasing power, to favour enterprise competitiveness, to implement energy transition, to influence user energy consumption, to make available financial resources for local communities and State, and to finance pensions of staff of electricity and gas industries. They describe the current situation which can be defined as an end of a monopoly without any actual competition: salami slicing of the electricity sector, a marginal and costly competition (limited opening to competition, price increase instead of decrease). They also describe the situation of EDF, its evolution from a golden age to a critical situation, a financial situation on a razor's edge, an incoherent and disturbing State. They present the European legal framework as unanimously contested, and the main challenges of energy transition. Then, the authors describe how to introduce coherence in the tariff system again: by giving means to EDF to face future challenges (by clarifying the State's position, by decreasing EDF's costs, by enabling EDF to play leading role in the world in the field of low-carbon energies), by supporting an integrated vision of a Europe of electricity (by developing a more ambitious European framework), and by revising the electricity tariff structure. The many hearings of various actors of the electricity and energy sectors are reported (these actors belong to public bodies, energy companies, professional associations, consumer associations, and so on)

  19. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  20. Estimating demand for quadruple-play tariffs: The impact on consumer surplus

    OpenAIRE

    Grzybowski, Lukasz; Liang, Julienne

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates demand for quadruple play mobile tariffs using a database of subscribers to a single mobile operator from a single town in a European country which has full coverage with both ADSL and FTTH broadband technologies. Based on the demand estimation we find that consumer valuation of FTTH broadband in 2013 increased over time while ADSL lost on attractiveness relative to FTTH but also in absolute terms, which suggests that consumers increasingly care about the speed of connect...

  1. Comparing Feed-In-Tariffs and Renewable Obligation Certificates - a Real Option Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mennel, Tim; Scatasta, Sara

    2010-01-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in total energy production is a stated goal of environmental and industrial policy in many developed countries. Governments adopt regulation to support the investment into renewable energy infrastructure, in particular in power generation. Two main policy instruments emerge: renewable quotas and feedin-tariffs. Quota systems, such as the British ROCs, oblige an electricity producer to certify that a fixed share of his electricity is 'green', i.e. ...

  2. Analysis of tariff levels from electric company in relation to financing request

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic-financial model of the Brazilian electric sector is discussed, considering the compatibility of the practiced tariff levels to the demand of consumption market and the production and operation costs. Some institutional actions are identified as solutions for emergency questions and subsides to the big strategies. The economic-finance indicators are also presented, showing the performance of the electrical companies. (C.G.C.)

  3. Responsive adjustment of feed-in tariffs to dynamic PV technology development

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the adjustments of the feed-in tariff for new solar photovoltaics (PV) installations in Germany. As PV system prices declined rapidly over the last years, the German government implemented automatic mechanisms to adjust the support level for new installations in response to deployment volumes. This paper develops an analytic model to simulate weekly installations of PV systems ?30 kW (35% market share in 2010) based on project profitability and duration. The model accuratel...

  4. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; SØrensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard heterogeneous-firms-trade model with Pareto distributed productivities. We derive analytical welfare rankings of all four liberalization channels for an equal effect on two openness measures, for any trade cost level and while all four barriers are simultaneously present, i.e. for any initial equilibrium. We show that when openness is measured at retail prices, not border prices, the welfare rankings are sensitive to the degree of efficiency in revenue redistribution, e.g. the share of tariff revenues wasted on rent-seeking activities. As a result, multilateral tariff reductions can switch from the least to the most preferred mode of liberalization. Among the other three barriers we etablished a universal welfare rankingfor any strictly positive level of revenue redistribution and for either measure of openness.

  5. Long-term effect of feed-in tariffs and carbon taxes on distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario's deregulated energy sector promotes the production of clean or renewable energy by small power producers through distributed generation (DG). This presentation examined the policies that could be utilized to encourage DG investment and incorporated them into a mathematical model that was used to develop scenarios for examining the economic and environmental supply-side effects of policies on a distribution system over a ten year period. The policies that were analyzed included a combination of feed-in-tariffs; a carbon dioxide tax; and cap-and-trade schemes. The presentation discussed the results in terms of the Ontario electricity market and the standard offer program, implemented on a 32-bus radial distribution system. In addition, the presentation described a distribution system planning model that was suitable for examining the impact of regulatory policies on DG unit investments by small power producers (SPP) or the local distribution company (LDC). Three major policy cases representing a SPP-inclusive environment, a SPP-friendly environment incorporating feed-in tariffs, and a tightly regulated system with only the LDC participating were applied to the 32-bus radial distribution system using market and incentive rates currently in place. It was concluded that without additional incentives, DG units are close to being viable. Feed-in-tariffs, such as that in Ontario, are necessary to increase investments in combined heat and power and solar-photovoltaic units. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Revised feed-in tariff for solar photovoltaic in the United Kingdom: A cloudy future ahead?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United Kingdom (UK) started implementing a national Feed-In Tariff (FiT) mechanism on the 1 April 2010, which included specific payment tariffs for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. However, a revised FiT rate has been put in place starting from 1 April 2012, applicable to any installations with an eligibility date of on or after 3 March 2012. This paper presents, first, an overview of solar PV installation in the UK. This followed by a general concept of the FiT in the UK before analyzing the financial impact of the new FiT rate on the consumers. Similar financial analysis is conducted with selected countries in Europe. The financial analysis investigates the total profit, the average rate of return and the payback period. It is found that the new FiT rate generates very low profit, minimum rate of return and a longer payback period, suggesting a downward trend of solar PV uptake in the future. - Highlight: ? Overview of solar PV installation in the UK until present time is discussed. ? Financial analysis is presented using previous, new and degression FiT tariff. ? Comparative analysis with other European countries is evaluated. ? The new FiT rate in the UK generates very low return than other countries. ? This could suggest a downward trend of UK's solar PV uptake in the future

  7. The doping effect of Italian feed-in tariffs on the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In less than six years, Italy has become one of the leading markets for PV power plants and one of the countries in the world with the largest number of installations and installed peak power. Such a quick and large growth is due to a series of feed-in tariff schemes that have been uncapped until 2012. As a matter of fact, any size or any number of PV power plants could be installed during a period of three years. Since the feed-in tariffs are not paid by national taxes but are charged on the electricity bills, Italian energy users are now due to pay each year a surcharge of 9 billion euros on their energy bills. This paper aims at discussing this development by highlighting the benefits but also some significant drawbacks that the application of uncontrolled feed-in tariffs has produced. - Highlights: • Italy has had a booming PV development due to uncapped FIT schemes for 4 years. • The RES development has disrupted the utilization of all programmable power plants. • The financial burden will exceed 7 billion euros for the next 20 years. • The market prices were driven by the incentives and not viceversa. • The installation was not based on available solar radiation

  8. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  9. Proposal of October 26, 2005 from the Commission of energy regulation about the tariff of use of natural gas distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each manager of a natural gas distribution network has its own tariff for the use of its network. This document recalls the general tariffing principles: delivery point invoicing, services included, structure and choice of tariff options, metering frequency, monthly or daily subscriptions of daily capacity, penalties for daily capacity excess, regrouping of delivery points, supply of a delivery point by several suppliers. The tariffs of the different French gas utilities are given in appendix. (J.S.)

  10. Season custom tariff analysis for electric power use in an agro-industry; Analise da tarifa horo-sazonal no uso da energia eletrica em uma agroindustria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, L.G.C.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation about the season custom tariffs in Brazil, and the research to achieve the electric parameters involved in its utilization is shown, analyzing the change of the conventional custom tariff for the blue and green season custom tariffs. This analysis made in a agro-industry where manioc flour is produced, located in Garca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A comparison between the blue and green custom tariff was accomplished in order to the better advantage in the system introduction, considering the use schedule and electric parameters involved. (author). 26 refs, 31 figs, 41 tabs, 3 apps

  11. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  12. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN TARIFF BILL-BASED THEORIES OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 USING EVENT STUDY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C. Beaudreau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jude Wanniski (1978 argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005, on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated higher revenues and profits from the anticipated increase in sales and revenues. The Stock Market Crash, he argued, came on the heels of the defeat of the Thomas Recommittal Plan which foretold of lower, not higher as Wanniski contended, tariffs on manufactures. Using Event Study data from January 14, 1929 to October 29, 1929, this paper attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses. The results show that “good” tariff bill news as reported in the New York Times contributed to stock price appreciation, and vice-versa, supporting the latter theory.

  13. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. PMID:26048700

  14. Assessing the strength and effectiveness of renewable electricity feed-in tariffs in European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last two decades, feed-in tariffs (FIT) have emerged as one of the most popular policies for supporting renewable electricity (RES-E) generation. A few studies have assessed the effectiveness of RES-E policies, but most ignore policy design features and market characteristics (e.g. electricity price and production cost) that influence policy strength. We employ 1992–2008 panel data to conduct the first econometric analysis of the effectiveness of FIT policies in promoting solar photovoltaic (PV) and onshore wind power development in 26 European Union countries. We develop a new indicator for FIT strength that captures variability in tariff size, contract duration, digression rate, and electricity price and production cost to estimate the resulting return on investment. We regress this indicator on added RES-E capacity using a fixed effects specification and find that FIT policies have driven solar PV development in the EU. However, this effect is overstated without controlling for country characteristics and is concealed without accounting for policy design. We do not find robust evidence that FIT policies have driven wind power development. Overall, we show that the interaction of policy design, electricity price, and electricity production cost is a more important determinant of RES-E development than policy enactment alone. - Highlights: ? This is the first econometric study of feed-in tariff (FIT) efficacy in Europe. ? We test the impact of FIT's on photovoltaic (PV) and wind power from 1992 to 2008. ? We calculate country- and year-specific return on investment provided by each FIT. ? FIT policies increased PV installations by ?0.5% per ROI percentage point. ? Policy design, market traits, and ROI are more important factors than policy alone.

  15. Gaining entry, gaining confidence: a study of the Glasgow access to Primary Education project

    OpenAIRE

    McPhee, A.D.; Skelton, F.

    2002-01-01

    In spite of strenuous efforts to improve the take-up rate of higher education places by students from non-traditional backgrounds, some communities remain relatively isolated from the national trend to increased participation. Located in discourses of access and community, this paper describes a two year project run in partnership between Glasgow City Council Department of Education and the University of Glasgow, which concentrated not on changing entry tariffs, but on increasing the motivati...

  16. Clothes without an emperor: analysis of the preferential tariffs in ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Manchin, M.; Pelkmans-Balaoing, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of intra-ASEAN trade under the preferential regime of the AFTA. It partly addresses some data problems and employs a gravity model to arrive at alternative ways of gauging the importance of preferences in the absence of data on the actual utilisation of AFTA preferential tariffs. Our results confirm the wide-spread notion that the AFTA preferential scheme is of very little consequence to intra-regional trade. However, in that limited range of products whe...

  17. Australian Residential Solar Feed-in Tariffs: Industry Stimulus or Regressive Form of Taxation?

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Nelson; Paul Simshauser; Simon Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Feed-in Tariffs (FiT) for residential photovoltaic solar technologies are available inmost Australian jurisdictions. Financial incentives under FiT are in addition to those provided by the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme which forms part of the national 20% Renewable Energy Target. Little attention has been paid to the welfare impacts of FiT on retail electricity prices and social policy objectives. Our analysis indicates that current FiT are a regressive form of taxation. By providing e...

  18. Volatility of world rice prices, import tariffs and poverty in Indonesia: a CGE-microsimulation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh, Dartanto

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at measuring the impact of world price volatility and import tariffs on rice on poverty in Indonesia. Applying a Computable General Equilibrium-Microsimulation approach and the endogenous poverty line, this study found that the volatility of world rice prices during 2007 to 2010 had a large effect on the poverty incidence in Indonesia. The simulation result showed that a 60 per cent increase in world rice price raises the head count index by 0.81 per cent which is equivalent t...

  19. On the role of government regulation in creating conditions for the development of Russian regions: the case of tariff policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimenko V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The elimination of disparities in the economic conditions of regional development is an important task of government regulation. The tariff policy influences the economic development of Russia and different regions. The market incentives for innovation are not sufficiently strong. The rise in prices and tariffs has a negative impact on cost structure and production efficiency. The research conducted shows the degree of variation in the level and dynamics of prices and rates in each region and provides a basis for analyzing the conditions of economic development and their comparison at a regional level. The paper shows the impact of tariff policy on the development of regional markets and the creation of conditions for economic development.

  20. The effect of feed-in tariffs on the production cost and the landscape externalities of wind power generation in West Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although wind power is currently the most efficient source of renewable energy, the cost of wind electricity still exceeds the market price. Subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs (FIT) have been introduced in many countries to support the expansion of wind power. These tariffs are highly debated. Proponents say they are necessary to pave the way for decarbonising energy production. Opponents argue they prevent a welfare-optimal energy supply. Thus, in a case study we try to shed light on the welfare economic aspect of FIT by combining spatial modelling and economic valuation of landscape externalities of wind turbines. We show for the planning region West Saxony, Germany, that setting FIT in a welfare optimal manner is a challenging task. If set too high the production costs are overly increased, lowering social welfare. If set too low energy production targets may not be reached and/or external costs are overly increased, again lowering social welfare. Taking a closer look at the tariffs offered by the German Renewable Sources Energy Act we find for West Saxony that the tariffs quite well meet economic welfare considerations. One should note, however, that this finding might apply only to the present data set. - Highlights: ? We analyse the effect of feed-in tariffs on the cost of wind power production. ? Low tariffs imply low production costs but high external costs. ? High tariffs imply high production costs but low external costs. ? Optimal tariff is a delicate balance between opposing policy goals.

  1. Proposal of tariffs of the Commission of the Energy Regulation (CRE) at the 10 November 2006 for the use of the natural gas transport networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRE proposes new tariffs of the natural gas transport networks. With the preservation of the main today tariffs, the new proposal takes into account the environmental economic and financial regulation evolution and introduces new dispositions to favor the competition development. The proposals are presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

  3. Can premium tariffs for micro-generation and small scale renewable heat help the fuel poor, and if so, how? Case studies of innovative finance for community energy schemes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the UK, the introduction of micro-generation Feed in Tariffs (FiTs) and a proposed Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) for domestic and small scale schemes have re-energised the market for investment in domestic scale renewable energy. These incentives may provide financial opportunities for those with capital to spend but for the record numbers with low incomes in ‘fuel poverty’, these benefits may seem out of reach. This paper shows that with appropriate financial intermediaries it is possible for renewable energy incentives to be used to alleviate fuel poverty. Simple financial analysis demonstrates the theoretical potential of FiTs to help those in fuel poverty. Two case studies of renewable energy projects in low income areas investigate how the incentives may be used in practice, what barriers exist and what success factors are evident. The analysis shows that local energy organisations (LEOs) are key if the poor are to access benefits from premium tariff schemes. Low interest finance mechanisms, good information sharing and community involvement are found as key success factors. - Highlights: ? This paper researches the potential for FiTs and RHIs to help those in fuel poverty. ? Simple financial modelling shows the potential benefit of FiTs to the fuel poor. ? Original case study research investigates how these benefits can be realised. ? The action of local energy organisations (LEOs) is important to optimise outcomes. ? Financing and dynamics between the community and LEOs are key to success.

  4. Willingness to pay for renewable energy: implications for UK green tariff offerings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although financial support for renewable electricity sources has existed via the non-fossil fuel obligation since 1990, the UK 'green power' market is still in its infancy. This paper looks at attitudes to tariffs for 'green power' in light of the proposed phase-out of the non-fossil fuel obligation. The hypothesis tested was the consumer's willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewable energy sources and to see if this was related to income and attitude. Data for analysis were taken from replies to a questionnaire sent to an energy-aware subpopulation of Leicester which were analysed by a variety of statistical tests. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that whether someone was willing to pay more was significantly correlated with attitude, experience (whether they had visited an environmental centre) and the purchasing power placed on GBP 5.00. This finding has implications for the methods by which support for green tariffs can be increased. Education and raising people's awareness through experience should be able to change attitudes and so increase their willingness to pay. (author)

  5. Energy saving in energy market reform—The feed-in tariffs option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of feed-in tariffs (FITs) is now widespread for renewable energy and under discussion for other low carbon electricity generation, but not for energy efficiency. There is a small literature on FITs for electricity demand reduction, but not energy efficiency more generally. This paper considers the general application of FITs on the demand side and sets out the economic arguments in the context of changing energy markets. It then discusses the implications of some practical issues, including the definitional problems arising from the difference between energy efficiency and demand reduction. Using experience from historical energy efficiency programmes, it considers the public benefits, payment methods and policy scope that need to be considered and how these might affect policy design. It makes some provisional estimates of economically justified payments in the context of the proposed UK energy market reform. It concludes that FITs for energy saving might be a powerful tool for incentivising energy efficiency. - Highlights: ? The concept of an energy saving feed-in tariff (ESFIT) is introduced and analysed. ? ESFITs are potentially an alternative to supplier energy efficiency obligations. ? To maximise effectiveness, ESFITs should be paid as capital grants. ? ESFITs are justifiable if there are premium prices for low carbon generation. ? Higher rates of ESFIT may be justified to overcome barriers to energy efficiency.

  6. Potentials and challenges in implementing feed-in tariff policy in Indonesia and the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Located in Southeast Asia, Indonesia and the Philippines are characterized by a tropical climate and high amounts of rainfall that render their high potential for hydro-power and wind energy deployment. The volcanic geography of both countries also indicates their high geothermal potential compared with that of other countries, and their high solar radiation level makes them suitable areas to establish power plants. The present study is an archival-statistical overview of the potential generation of renewable energy in Indonesia and the Philippines and the implementation of the Feed-in-tariff (FiT) policy. This research focuses on the challenges encountered by politicians and policymakers and confirms the insufficient production of energy from wind, solar, and bio-gas sources despite the potential and the attempts to deploy FiT. Results show that the role of the government in providing support to investors is not clear in both countries. In addition, inflation rates have not been calculated. However, FiT has benefitted both countries by preventing degression during the primary years. - Highlights: • Both countries are unsuccessful in finalizing a fixed Feed-in-tariff payment. • Both have the same aims from FiT but they have different mechanisms. • The Philippines has shown good ability in managing geothermal energy. • Indonesia's energy generation from biomass is better managed than the Philippines. • Both do not have significant energy production from the wind, solar and biogas

  7. Generating renewable energy from oil palm biomass in Malaysia: The Feed-in Tariff policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable energy (RE) industry in Malaysia began in 2001 in the context of the growing concern about future depletion of conventional fuels and the global environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. The Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) is a tool that was first designed to drive the development of the industry based on the abundance of oil palm biomass reserves and other identified renewable energy resources. Due to the slow uptake of this scheme, a new system, the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) was introduced in 2011 to stimulate the industry. By considering the deficiencies of the previous scheme, this paper examines the sustainability of the FiT policy framework in steering the future expansion of small-scale biomass renewable energy businesses in Malaysia. Resulting from the evaluation of the current policy settings and a market based appraisal, this work outlines strategies for enhancing the scheme and suggests future studies aimed at improving the flaws in the present system. - Highlights: • Extend the FiT bandwidth capacity restrictions to all of the eligible renewable technologies under the FiT systems. • Differentiate the tariff level by considering the location and local conditions of the plant site. • Modify the revenue streams from the renewable fund. • Revise the quota system

  8. Web Accessibility and Accessibility Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ravonne A.; Huprich, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Section 508 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) mandates that programs and services be accessible to people with disabilities. While schools of library and information science (SLIS*) and university libraries should model accessible Web sites, this may not be the case. This article examines previous studies about the Web accessibility of…

  9. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  10. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs. Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, Scott [National Regulatory Research Inst., Silver Spring, MD (United States); Elefant, Carolyn [Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant, Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.

  11. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... United States Trade Representative in Presidential Proclamation 6763 (60 FR 1007). On September 13, 2013... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and...-containing products. ] Section 404(d)(3) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Uruguay Round Agreements...

  12. 76 FR 72696 - Electronic Tariff Filings; Notice of Changes to Etariff Refund Report Type of Filing Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... of Filing Codes Take notice that, effective November 27, 2011, the list of available eTariff Type of Filing Codes (TOFC) will be modified as follows: (1) The addition of a new TOFC 1190: ``Refund Report''. This code is applicable to public utilities registered with the Commission under the market based...

  13. Proposal of October 26, 2005 from the Commission of energy regulation about the tariff of use of methane terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document defines the tariff of use of the methane gas terminals of Fos Tonkin and Montoir, managed by Gaz de France company: re-gasification services, tariffing principle, penalties, LNG trade point, secondary market of re-gasification capacities. (J.S.)

  14. African agricultural trade : recent and the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional cooperation that does not need the long and drawn-out processes associated with FTA negotiations.

  15. Tarifa binômia para o custo de água pressurizada em perímetros irrigados Water tariffs in irrigation districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos distritos de irrigação, a tarifa de custo variável tem dependido exclusivamente da quantidade de água consumida e não, da energia e da demanda de potência elétrica para o fornecimento de água na pressão e na vazão recomendadas pelo sistema de irrigação. Essa forma de tarifação da água de irrigação é um contrassenso em que os irrigantes mais eficientes subsidiam os irrigantes menos eficientes. Este trabalho propõe que as tarifas de água considerem não somente a quantidade de água consumida no mês, mas também a pressão, já que a demanda de potência hidráulica é função do produto da vazão pela pressão de serviço. O estudo comparou o custo de água de irrigantes que consomem o mesmo volume mensal para a situação atual e pela metodologia proposta. Verificou-se, também, o efeito de irrigações isoladas ou simultâneas e sua implicação no custo da água. Os resultados mostraram que a implementação de tarifa binômia para a água pode reduzir o custo da água para o irrigante de baixa pressão em até 66%. Já para os irrigantes com alta pressão, poderá ter acréscimo de até 133%. A simultaneidade de uso da água também influencia seu custo devido à variação na demanda de potência de energia elétrica.In irrigation districts, the variable cost tariff have being depended only on the amount of water consumed, and not in the energy and the demand for electric power to supply the water pressure and flow rate recommended by the irrigation system. This way of charge the irrigation water is nonsense, since the less efficient participants subsidized the more efficient ones. Thus, this work proposes that the water tariffs not only consider the amount of water consumed in the month, but also the pressure, since the hydraulic power demand is a function of the product of flow rate times the pressure. The study compared the water cost for participants that consume the same amount monthly for the present situation and the proposed methodology. It was verified, also, the effect of isolated irrigations or simultaneous ones and their implications on the water costs. The results showed that the implementation water tariff that charges the volume of water may reduce the costs for the participants at low pressures up to 66%. On the other hand, high pressure participants may have their water bill increased up to 133%. The simultaneity on the water use also influences its cost due to electrical power demand variation.

  16. Compliance with technical codes becomes obligatory for receipt of feed-in tariff and ancillary services bonus for wind power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boemer, Jens. C. [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Electrical Power Systems Group; Burges, Karsten [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Kumm, Thomas [VDE, Network Technology and Operation Forum (FNN), Berlin (Germany); Poeller, Markus [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The German government aims at a share of electricity generation based on renewable sources (RES-E) of more than 30% by 2020. A major part of this share will be reached by the use of wind power plants (WPP). Therefore, when amending the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in June 2008, the German government acknowledged the importance of enhanced technical requirements for WPP and announced the development of a respective technical ordinance. For all WPP that go into operation after June 2010, full grid code-compliance becomes a precondition for privileged network access, receipt of feed-in tariff, and extra payments (''ancillary services bonus''). The basis for the technical requirements in the EEG has been laid down by Medium-Voltage (MV)-Directive 2008 and the TransmissionCode 2007. However, the work of the authors - consulting the German government during the development of the technical ordinance - showed that the TransmissionCode 2007 needed careful review and some clarifying specifications were proposed. Eventually, the so called ''Ancillary Services Ordinance'' for wind power plants went into power in July 2009. The interrelation between all three grid codes as well as their specifications and implications for renewable energy sources generators, with special regard to wind power plants, are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  17. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowl...

  18. The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Li, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost. LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply analyzed and discussed. A modified test system (RBTS) illustrates the proposed method.

  19. Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments-Some observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint.

  20. An analysis of feed-in tariff remuneration models: Implications for renewable energy investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experience from around the world suggests that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most effective policy to encourage the rapid and sustained deployment of renewable energy. There are several different ways to structure a FIT policy, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. This paper presents an overview of seven different ways to structure the remuneration of a FIT policy, divided into two broad categories: those in which remuneration is dependent on the electricity price, and those that remain independent from it. This paper examines the advantages and disadvantages of these different FIT models, and concludes with an analysis of these design options, with a focus on their implications both for investors and for society.

  1. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy

  2. Electricity tariffs in Hong Kong: what went wrong and what can we do about it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Stephen [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., School of Accounting and Finance, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-05-01

    The Hong Kong economy has undergone radical changes over the past two decades and as a result profoundly affected the electricity supply industry. The level of excess capacity maintained by the two vertically integrated utilities and the tariffs they charged are both one of the highest among all developed countries, and they are the adverse results of the Scheme of Control regulation. What happened in the local electricity market has drawn much criticism among researchers and consumer groups, and major reform of the entire market is being suggested. This paper outlines the structure of the electricity supply industry and its regulatory arrangement in Hong Kong, and discusses the problems and inefficiencies caused by the specific type of regulation. Without compromising efficiency, a number of policy alternatives are proposed with a view to rectifying the current problems. (Author)

  3. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  4. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Rogers, Jennifer [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate the congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distribute energy resources (DERs). Sensitivity analysis of the DT method is crucial because of its decentralized control manner. The sensitivity analysis can obtain the changes of the optimal energy planning and thereby the line loading profiles over the infinitely small changes of parameters by differentiating the KKT conditions of the convex quadratic programming, over which the DT method is formed. Three case studies were conducted to demonstrate the impact of small and big changes of parameters on the line loading profiles and the effectiveness of the DT method.

  6. Electricity tariffs in India: an assessment of consumers' ability and willingness to pay in Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample of electricity consumers covering agricultural, residential and industrial consumers, in the Indian State of Gujarat was surveyed in 1997 to investigate the consumers' ability and willingness to pay for electricity supplied from the grid. The ability to pay was estimated using the weight of the cost of electricity to meet at least the basic household needs in relation to the overall income or expenditure. The willingness to pay was estimated using the costs of meeting the needs by alternative sources of energy, namely diesel in the case of farmers to pump water for irrigation and captive power generation using diesel generators in the case of industrial users. Survey results reveal the proportion of consumers in different categories, which do not have the ability to pay more or are even not willing to pay more for electricity. The survey findings have been used as a guideline in the proposed adjustment of tariffs charged by the Gujarat Electricity Board. (author)

  7. Features of Formation of Tariff Policy in the Sphere of Housing and Communal Services at the Present Stage on an Example of the Kharkiv Region ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ??????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filatov Vladimir M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of formation of tariff policy in the sphere of housing and communal services of Ukraine. The main directions of state regulation of functioning of housing sector were highlighted. It was theoretically grounded and developed recommendations of the market environment in the reform of the tariff policy in the housing and communal services. The current state of security settlements of Ukraine centralized water supply and the basic problems of development in this field was analysed. The methodical approach to the formation of tariffs for public utilities example of Kharkiv region was offered.? ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ? ????? ???????-????????????? ????????? ???????. ???????? ???????? ??????????? ???????????????? ????????????? ???????????????? ????? ???. ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????????????? ???????? ???????? ? ???????-???????????? ?????????. ???????? ?????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ???????????????? ???????????????? ? ???????? ???????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?????. ????????? ???????????? ?????? ? ???????????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????? ???????.

  8. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  9. Combining tariffs, investment subsidies and soft loans in a renewable electricity deployment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policy combinations and interactions have received a considerable attention in the climate and energy policy realm. However, virtually no attention has been paid to the analysis of the combination of different deployment instruments for the same renewable energy technology. This neglect is all the more striking given the existence in current policy practice of combinations of deployment instruments either across technologies or for the same technology, both in the EU and elsewhere. What renewable electricity support policies to use and, therefore, how to combine them in order to promote the deployment of renewable energy technologies cost-effectively is a main concern of governments. The aim of this paper is to provide insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. A financial model is developed for this purpose, whereby feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. The results show that the policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. Therefore, combining deployment instruments is not a cost-containment strategy. However, combinations may lead to different inter-temporal distributions of the same amount of policy costs and, thus, differently affect the social acceptability and political feasibility of renewable energy support. - Highlights: • Insight on the cost-effectiveness of combinations of deployment instruments for the same technology. • A financial model is developed. • Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are combined with investment subsidies and soft loans. • The policy costs of combinations are the same as for the FITs-only option. • Therefore, combining deployment measures is not a cost-containment strategy

  10. Progress of feed-in tariff in Malaysia: A year after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia enacted the Renewable Energy Act in April 2011. One of its important components is the feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme—launched in December 2011. The scheme is managed and administered by the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) of Malaysia. This paper analyses the impact of the FiT mechanism in Malaysia a year after its implementation; particularly on the installation and economical aspects. First, the history of the scheme is presented before summarising the application process for the scheme. Next, a detailed evaluation on the implication of the scheme is discussed. Some of the key findings from the analysis include: (i) the uptake for renewable energy installations has been extremely high, particularly for solar photovoltaic installation; (ii) the foreign and domestic direct investment related to renewable sectors have increased significantly; (iii) more ‘green’ jobs have been created, particularly in the manufacturing and installation sectors, and (iv) there are plans to include wind and thermal energy in the FiT scheme. It can be concluded that the FiT scheme in Malaysia has produced significant impact during the first year of its implementation. With a proper monitoring by SEDA and more awareness among the people, renewable energy will most likely flourish in Malaysia. - Highlights: • Malaysia launched the feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme in December 2011. • The one year progress is evaluated in terms of installation and economical aspects. • The uptake for renewable energy installations has been extremely high. • Investment related to renewable sectors has increased significantly. • More ‘green’ jobs have been created in the country

  11. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    Consumers regularly forgo purchases of high efficiency appliances that appear to be cost effective at a reasonable rate of return. While some argue that this is a true revelation of preferences for appliance features, this 'efficiency gap' can be largely explained by a combination of market and behavioral failures that reduce consumers ability to evaluate the relative value of appliances and skew preferences toward initial cost savings, undervaluing future reductions in operating costs. These failures and barriers include externalities of energy use, imperfect competition between manufacturers, asymmetric information, bounded rationality, split incentives, and transaction costs (Golove 1996). Recognizing the social benefit of energy conservation, several major methods are used by policymakers to ensure that efficient appliances are purchased: minimum efficiency standards, Energy Star labeling, and rebates and tax credits. There is no single market for energy services; there are hundreds of uses, thousands of intermediaries, and millions of users, and likewise, no single appropriate government intervention (Golove 1996). Complementary approaches must be implemented, considering policy and institutional limitations. In this paper, I first lay out the rationale for government intervention by addressing the market and behavioral failures and barriers that arise in the context of residential energy efficiency. I then consider the ways in which some of these failures and barriers are addressed through major federal programs and state and utility level programs that leverage them, as well as identifying barriers that are not addressed by currently implemented programs. Heterogeneity of consumers, lack of financing options, and split incentives of landlords and tenants contribute significantly to the under-adoption of efficient appliances. To quantify the size of the market most affected by these barriers, I estimate the number of appliances, and in particular the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...and Used Controlled Substances Description of commodity or chemical Commodity code from harmonized tariff schedule CFC-11 2903.41.0000 CFC-12 2903.42.0000 CFC-113 2903.43.0000 CFC-114 2903.44.0010...

  13. Forbidden Access

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Colloca TS/FM

    2004-01-01

    TS/FM group informs you that, for the replacement of the door of the main entrance at bldg. 500, the access will be closed to the public between 19 and 30 July 2004. Access to the Main Building complex will be assured at any time through both of the side doors and from bldg. 64. For more information, please contact 73273. C. Colloca TS/FM

  14. Managing tariff risks in cogeneration: the example of La Doua; La maitrise des risques tarifaires en cogeneration: exemple de la Doua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lartigue, D. [SLEC / Prodith (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1996-07-01

    Combined to a district heating system based on a coal burning plant, a cogeneration unit has been installed in Villeurbanne, near Lyon, France, with a gas engine using natural gas for power production and complementary heat production. Electric power surplus is sold back to the national grid, EDF. Costs and tariffs for power, heat and natural gas have been evaluated and the tariff evolutions are considered for price indexing and adapted financial coverings. Results after one year of operation are discussed

  15. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs...

  16. Impacts of the transition of the purchase tax for passenger cars into a tariff per driven kilometre [in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of 2007, the Dutch government decided to implement a road pricing scheme in the Netherlands, called 'Anders Betalen voor Mobiliteit' (Paying differently for mobility). Major goal is to start with a full operational system in 2016 in which every car user will pay a tariff per driven kilometre. Starting point is that for the average car user, the car mobility will not be more or less expensive. In order to accomplish this, the fixed car and road taxes will be abolished. Point of departure is to convert the road tax (MRB) into a tariff per kilometre. In this report it is examined what the impacts are in case the purchase tax for private cars (BPM) will be incorporated into a price per kilometre as well.

  17. LA REGULACIÓN DE TARIFAS EN EL SECTOR DE LA SALUD EN COLOMBIA / TARIFF REGULATION IN THE COLOMBIAN HEALTH SECTOR

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    David, Bardey; Ramón, Castaño.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la regulación de las tarifas en el sector de la salud en Colombia. El objetivo de la regulación es evitar una guerra de precios que lleve a la disminución de la calidad. Se presentan los antecedentes de la regulación de precios y los esquemas de tarifas del sector de la salud. [...] Utilizando las herramientas de la teoría de la regulación y de la organización industrial se analiza la eficiencia de la regulación y algunos de sus problemas de implementación. Abstract in english This article studies the tariff regulation of the Colombian Health Sector. The aim of regulation is to avoid a price war that could produce quality reductions. It presents the background of price regulation and the health sector tariff system. Using regulation and industrial organization theories, t [...] his paper analyses the efficiency of regulation and its implementation problems.

  18. Product differentiation under the WTO; An analysis of labelling and tariff or tax measures concerning farm animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Bourgeois, J; Achterbosch, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the possibility of giving preferential treatment to imports of meat products that meet improved standards in terms of animal welfare in production. Three specific forms of preferential treatment are considered here as possible measures for increasing levels of animal welfare in meat production in the EU and its exporting partners: labelling of products (either voluntary or compulsory), differentiated import tariffs and differentiated consumer taxes. The likely admissibili...

  19. Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (?2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not predict any outcome of interest on its own. Keywords: hip fractures, best practice tariff, mortality

  20. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  1. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ? 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ? Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ? Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  2. Access French

    CERN Document Server

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  3. Lin, B., Jiang, Z, 2012. Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China. Energy Policy 42, pp. 164–173: How biased is the measurement of household’s loss?

    OpenAIRE

    Salies, Evens

    2012-01-01

    The three-tier inclining block tariff (‘‘IBT’’) issued by the Chinese government in 2010 is focusing attention of energy economists, among whom Lin and Jiang (2012. Designation and influence of household increasing block electricity tariffs in China. Energy Policy 42, 164–173) who assert that the issued tariff is unsuited to meet the social and environmental objectives it was designed for. These authors offer an alternative four-tiered IBT, the performance of which they show by evaluating it...

  4. Tariffs and investments at the Brazilian electric sector; Tarifas e investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)

  5. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison: The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price

  6. Feed-in tariff and market electricity price comparison. The case of cogeneration units in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2007, the Government of the Republic of Croatia instituted a feed-in tariff system, requiring the Croatian Electricity Market Operator (HROTE) to off-take the electricity produced from renewable energy sources or cogeneration units fueled by natural gas. Analysis of the off-take electricity price range, which depends on the net electrical output and electricity market trends, indicates that it is more cost effective for cogeneration units greater than 1 MW to sell their electricity on the exchange market. This was confirmed by developing a mathematical model to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of a cogeneration unit. This ratio represents the relation between the profit spread, i.e. the difference between the profit generated from selling the electricity on the exchange market and the profit made from dispatching the electricity to HROTE, as well as the total investment costs. The model can be applied for changes in certain parameters, such as the net electrical output, volatility and spot electricity price. The Monte Carlo method is used to obtain the most probable cost-effectiveness ratio and average future electricity price. Together with these two economic parameters and market price analysis, it is possible to calculate and calibrate an acceptable off-take electricity price. (author)

  7. Tariff regulation and profitability of energy networks. A model analysis for TenneT TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse the impact of the regulatory framework for the new regulatory period (2011-2013) on the long-term profitability of TenneT TSO, the operator of the high-voltage electricity network in the Netherlands. Long-term profitability is a key component of the financeability of a firm. In the long run, the return on capital should be at least equal to the opportunity costs of capital in order to finance investments. As the ultimate indicator for the long-term profitability, we use the net present value of economic profit, which is the difference between total revenues and total costs, including a normal return on capital. In order to simulate the future financial development of the TSO, we developed a model. On the basis of the model analysis, making a number of methodological assumptions, we conclude that the tariff regulation results in a positive long-term profitability, implying that the regulatory framework enables TenneT TSO to finance its investments in replacement and network expansion. In the long run all costs, including the normal costs of capital, will be fully compensated by the revenues, resulting in a (slightly) positive net present value of economic profit. This conclusion is subject to the condition that the TSO eliminates the existing inefficiencies in the network and that it is able to annually improve its overall efficiency. If this condition is not met, the shareholder might face a loss of more than one hundred million Euros.

  8. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Wai Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: Itâ??s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

  9. Evaluation of feed-in tariff-schemes in African countries

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M, Meyer-Renschhausen.

    Full Text Available Almost all African countries are planning to increase their power supply capacities and to diversify the resource base of the electricity sector. In sharp contrast to the ambitious objectives, grid connected power plants, based on renewable energies, are very rare except large scale hydropower in Af [...] rican countries. The small number of renewable energy (RE)-plants in Africa shows that a quick diffusion of these technologies cannot be expected from the dynamic of market forces alone. Political support is necessary. By now, feed-in tariffs (FIT) is the most prominent economic instrument promoting renewable energy technologies in the power sector. They are applied in more than 50 countries, among them several African countries like Algeria, Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Tanzania. The objective of the paper is to investigate the outcome and effectiveness of African FIT-schemes. It is assumed that most of the FIT-schemes in Africa are poorly working because of unfavourable institutional design, insufficient level of FIT rates or obstacles in the process of implementation. Deficiencies in the design of FIT-schemes and the implementation process can be explained by conflicting policy targets like affordable power prices and grid stability but also with an unclear allocation of property rights that can lead to time-consuming negotiations of Power Purchase Agreements.

  10. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular the congestion cost component of the LMP. A step-wise congestion management structure has been developed whereby the distribution system operator (DSO) predicts congestion for the coming day and publishes DTs prior to the clearing of the day-ahead market. EV fleet operators (FOs) optimize their EV charging schedules with respect to the predicted day-ahead prices and the published DTs, thereby avoiding congestion while still minimizing the charging cost. A Danish 400V distribution network is used to carry out case studies to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed concept for the prevention of distribution grid congestion from EV charging. The case study results show that the concept is successful ina number of situations, most notably a system over-load of 155% can be successfully alleviated on the test distribution network.

  11. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

  12. Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)

  13. A Policymaker’s Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williams, Emily [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker’s guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation.

  14. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  15. Challenges facing the European power transmission tariffs: The case of inter-TSO compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws attention to problems important for all EU power consumers-the unfairness in individual payments for power transmission and in the cross-border subsidy element in the mechanism of Inter-Transmission System Operators (TSO) Compensation (ITC). A brief review of power transmission tariffs brings out the structure of the problems. A short retrospection explains their growth. The essence of the ITC mechanism is explained and existing shortcomings are illustrated. The deficiencies of existing regulations for transmission pricing are analyzed. In the light of this analysis, the ITC problem is reconsidered and defined more precisely. The basic prerequisites to an ITC reformulation process are presented. The main principles of a new simple, transparent and equitable approach are suggested, in accordance with the contemporary legal positions and functions of the TSOs. - Highlights: ? Investigations in the mechanism known as Inter-TSO Compensation (ITC). ? Deficiencies in European regulations for cross-border power transmission payments. ? Main principles of a new approach avoiding the existing cross-subsidies. ? Appeal for reconsideration and a more precise definition of the ITC problem. ? Public welfare enhancement by fairness in payment for power transmission.

  16. Easy Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettelman, Alan

    2009-01-01

    School and university restrooms, locker and shower rooms have specific ADA accessibility requirements that serve the needs of staff, students and campus visitors who are disabled as a result of injury, illness or age. Taking good care of them is good for the reputation of a sensitive community institution, and fosters positive public relations.…

  17. Policy Fiasco: The Sabotage of Cabotage Policy Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdausi Suffian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Cabotage policy as a non-tariff barrier has harmed the domestic economy and is inconsistent with the premise of trade liberalisation agenda. The effect of Cabotage policy limits market access and has formed monopoly in the shipping industry. The policy might increase efficiency in term of technology and consolidating resources in one participant of the industry but does not improve the overall welfare the industry. This paper proposes a mid-way-out approach by taking incremental steps towards change and requires a committee system to review and streamline the Cabotage policy. We named the committee as logistic committee that envisioned working on towards liberalizing the transportation and logistics industry. It is proposed that the committee decision as binding and as primary source of policy making input.

  18. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.

  19. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ? Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ? Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ? Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ? Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ? Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  20. Setting the price for PV for the Advanced Renewable Tariffs program in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key considerations for the pricing of photovoltaic (PV) energy in an advanced renewable tariff (ART) program in Ontario were presented. This paper addressed solar industry fears concerning a financing mechanism for on-site solar generation in Ontario and its potential to fail if markets are not sufficiently prepared in advance. The mechanism could result in the creation of an unsustainable demand for solar products. It was suggested that in addition to building capacities in the industry, training and public education are important issues that the first phase of an ART's program must address. A 5 year pilot program was recommended in order to build industry infrastructure and capacity, before moving to rates based on the model developed by the Ontario Sustainable Energy Association. An initial price of 0.42 kWh was recommended to stimulate early adopters and to build capacity. It was noted that PV supplied power coincides with peak demand, and that its ART rate should reflect this premium cost value. Ontario ratepayers are already paying millions of dollars for electricity at rates higher than $0.42 per kWh. It was estimated that the average cost of the ART program for PV in the introductory stage would cost ratepayers under $10 million per year. While there have been no Canadian studies done on the value of PV's benefits to the power grid, Californian studies have indicated that benefits for Ontario should range between $0.20-$0.38 CAN per kWh. It was concluded that the price for PV in Ontario's ARTs program needs to be set at a high enough rate to stimulate the sustainable growth of the industry in the province. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Do distribution companies loose money with an electricity flexible tariff?: A review of the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can get an (energy efficiency) EE improvement if we produce a flatter daily load curve, leading to a higher efficiency of the power system, making better use of the generation and transport electricity chain, thus avoiding over-investment in equipment used just few hours a year. Tariff flexibility of the (Time of Use) TOU type is one of these measures. Generally, TOU systems are designed to minimize total system cost, which may cause losses in distribution companies (DISCOs), generating opposition. On the contrary, the present paper proposes a TOU system for electricity consumption in Chile where optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of DISCOs. In this manner, the proposed TOU system is, by definition, beneficial for DISCOs and it may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. In particular, we show that such a system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of 811.7 millions of dollars for the 3-year study period (2005–2007), considering initiatives that promote a 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours, obtained by the spread or difference between the proposed and the current systems. - Highlights: • We propose a TOU (Time of Use) system for electricity consumption in Chile. • In this system the optimal prices are obtained in order to maximize total income of (distribution companies) DISCOs. • The proposed TOU system may lead to a win–win situation among DISCOs and consumers. • This system, implemented in a country like Chile, would allow for DISCOs a total potential benefit of M$811.7. • Benefit obtained for 3-year study period with initiatives that promote 5% savings in real consumption during on-peak hours

  2. Determining appropriate feed-in tariff rates to promote biomass-to-electricity generation in Eastern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-site data collection, interviews, and financial models were used to determine the feed-in tariff (FIT) rate required to encourage investment in the generation of electricity from currently unused biomass from the Eastern Ontario forest industry. A financial model was adapted and run to determine the net present value, internal rate of return, and payback period associated with a 15 MW biomass-to-electricity facility. The analysis suggests that Ontario should consider a stronger incentive than the recently-offered CDN$ 0.13 kW?1 h?1 for biomass-to-electricity. If no customer for heat generated from the plant can be found, FIT rates between CDN$ 0.17–0.22 kW?1 h?1 are necessary to achieve a 15% internal rate of return and a simple payback of approximately 5 yr; achieving a price of CDN$ 0.013 kW?1 of thermal output still requires elevated FIT rates between CDN$ 0.15–0.21 kW?1 h?1 to meet economic performance criteria. Other barriers, particularly regulations regarding the use of operating engineers in steam plants, should also be addressed to facilitate development of biomass-to-electricity. Without these changes, it is likely that biomass will be significantly under-used and will not contribute to the renewable energy goals of Ontario. - Highlights: • Economic performance of biomass-to-electricity generation in Ontario is assessed. • Feed-in tariffs needed to meet industrial payback and IRR targets are determined. • Existing feed-in tariff rates for biomass must be raised to meet industrial targets. • Incentives that adjust feedstock price might be explored to increase biomass use

  3. The too expensive invoice of the wind energy. The electric power regulation commission criticizes the State tariff; La facture trop lourde des eoliennes. La commission de regulation de l'electricite critique le tarif fixe par l'Etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan, E.; Delbecq, D.; Coroller, C.; Cori, N.; Bernard, C.

    2001-07-01

    After the order of the 12 june, fixing the purchase tariffs of the wind energy, the CRE (electric power regulation commission) contested this tariff: this wind energy development policy is too expensive for the collectivity. (A.L.B.)

  4. Open auctioning of nuclear drawing rights: a fair way out from regulated tariffs on the mass market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a tariff approach which will consider the nuclear assets of the French operator as a property belonging to the French citizens who accepted the development of these equipment and who, as consumers, have already largely paid these assets. He describes this market mechanism which would assign drawing rights to all competitors. This mechanism is inspired by the VVP Spanish instrument, bidding or auctioning instruments implemented in different countries, and the EDF's drawing right assignment mechanism. He highlights and discusses the benefits and drawbacks of such an instrument

  5. Examining the financial performance of micro-generation wind projects and the subsidy effect of feed-in tariffs for urban locations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to evaluate the effect of the upcoming 2010 UK Feed-in Tariff (UK FIT) on decentralised small wind-energy installations at the household and building level in urban locations. It is projected that the UK FIT will stimulate an unprecedented surge in building-mounted turbine installation. The tariff amount must stimulate incentive but mitigate the likelihood of distortions in the competitive electricity market. To analyse these issues, measured energy output from sites in the Warwick Wind Trials Project (WWTP) is converted into revenue in a net-present-value (NPV) framework for assessing commercial purchases of small wind systems. Variances in project variables are examined through NPV simulations using Monte Carlo analysis to capture permutations of small wind-project performance in the UK-with and without the UK FIT. Our research concludes that the proposed tariff amount of 30.5 p/kWh will not significantly boost the economic attractiveness of mildly selective (WWTP-based) sites in the UK. Furthermore, the fixed-tariff rate ( Pounds /kWh generated) could cause inefficiencies applied across uneven wind-resource distribution. The results of this study suggest further examination of policy related to micro-generation, in particular decentralised small wind projects. - Highlights: ? Feed-in tariff (FIT) policy for urban UK small wind projects. ? Determination of economic attractiveness (NPV) of projects. ? Application of performance data from Warwick Wind Trials. ? Need for higher tariff rate to provide average project with NPV>0. ? Recommend reconsideration of FIT policy for urban small wind projects.

  6. The EU's Antidumping Actions Against Chinese Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As the importance of tariffs in international trade has declined with the reduction of tariff rates under the GATT/WTO programs of multilateral trade liberalization, most governments prefer to protect domestic industries from foreign competitors through a variety of non-tariff barriers. Antidumping actions have recently become the world's biggest trade impediment due to their specific features and the antidumping activity of new users. Since China has become the major engine of world trade growth in recent years, it also has become the largest anti-dumping target in the world. However, the present world competition situation implies that world trade liberalization might arouse regional trade friction. The objective of this research is to identify whether China's WTO accession changed China's situation with regard to EU antidumping actions. The research analysis empirically proved that trade liberalization could partly affect the EU's antidumping actions against Chinese exports and the higher degree of industrial concentricity becomes a motive to increase the EU's antidumping activities against China.

  7. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  8. An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

  9. IMPACT OF MAIZE IMPORT TARIFF POLICY CHANGES ON PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIA: A MULTIMARKET MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintya Jummoni Krissanty Umboh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study is at analyzing the impact of maize import tariff policy changes on production and consumption in Indonesia. Three groups of households were assessed in this studi, namely: (1 large scale broiler farming, (2 small scale broiler farming, and (3 other households. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income, (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. The abolishment of the import tariff policy on maize had an impact on increased maize imported and decreased maize price. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by maize farmer through lessing maize planted area and fertilizer input uses that had impact on the declining in maize production. On the other hand, this policy had positive impact on production of rice, chicken meat, and eggs which led to increase incomes of small scale broiler farming and agricultural sector, as well as national. It furthermore increased the consumption for maize, chicken meat, and eggs in Indonesia.

  10. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated wit...

  11. Welfare effects of trade liberalisation in distorted economies :a dynamic general equilibrium assessment for Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Fæhn, Taran; Holmøy, Erling

    1999-01-01

    A disaggregated intertemporal CGE model is used to simulate the welfare effects in Norway of the recently implemented trade reforms including the WTO agreement, the EEA treaty, the EFTA fishery agreement and an anticipated EEA resolution on shipbuilding. These reforms affect the Norwegian economy through changes in tariffs, Non Tariff Barriers (NTBs), government procurement and subsidy policy as well as shifts in world prices and demand. Reduction of such import barriers that represent real c...

  12. Trade Costs Algorithm in Manoilescu Generalised Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Dogaru, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    The study of the comparative advantage’s scheme, using the modified prices because of the trade costs in terms of a real two product barter, brings us on a “previous” position towards the merchandise exchange using the currency. In this new algorithm of scheme, the remarks include in the formal analytical plan the prices’ increase cases, determined by the tariff and non-tariff measures and also by the reduction ones through subventions or other similar measures of these. Through the national/...

  13. Does Anti-dumping Enforcement Generate Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Bagchi, Sagnik; Bhattacharyya, Surajit; Narayanan, Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed that countries across the world are guided by the rules and regulations of multilateral trading institutions (for example, World Trade organization [WTO], International Monetary Fund [IMF]) in order to promote free and fair trade through gradual reduction in trade barriers. The World economy has noticed significant reduction in tariffs, yet we find a rise in non-tariff barriers (NTBs). However, we still find dumping and few other trade strategies of the exp...

  14. Trade liberalisation and the balance of payments in selected developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia U. Santos-Paulino

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the reduction of tariff and non-tariff barriers on the trade balance and the current account of the balance of payments of 22 selected developing countries from Africa, Latin America, East Asia, and South Asia. The study presents estimates of dynamic panel data models and time-series/cross-section models. The main findings are that trade liberalisation has worsened the balance of trade and the balance of payments, because imports have increased more rapidly t...

  15. Completing the EU Customs Union. The Effects of Trade Procedure Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Yves; Persson, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A main component of customs unions is a common trade policy on imports from non-member countries. Trade policy covers both tariff and non-tariff barriers like trade procedures. We argue that since trade procedures vary markedly across EU countries, the EU is not, strictly speaking, a customs union. To illustrate this, we estimate the impact of trade procedures on exports from non-EU countries and find a highly statistically significant and negative effect. Simulating what the effects would be...

  16. Trade related business climate and manufacturing export performance in Africa: A firm-level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Lawrence; Balchin, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Africa continues to be marginalised in world trade of manufactured goods, despite reductions in tariffs and non-tariff barriers. This paper investigates whether high business and trade costs associated with Africa’s trade-related infrastructure, trade institutions and the regulatory environment have contributed towards its mediocre trade performance. The paper focuses on eight African countries - Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia - using the World...

  17. The stakes of gas and electricity transport: the fixing of access charges; Les enjeux du transport pour le gaz et l'electricite: la fixation des charges d'acces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percebois, J.; David, L.

    2001-05-01

    The goal of opening of network industries to competition is the lowering of the tariffs paid by the end-user. This opening is accompanied by a bookkeeping separation and sometimes a legal un-bundling between the different segments of activities (production, transport, distribution, commercialization). When natural monopolies exist, a system of access to the network by third parties must be implemented and controlled by an independent regulation authority. The main question remains the fixing of a just, efficient, transparent and non-discriminatory tariff of access which allows a long-term viability of this network activity. This paper presents first, the lessons of the economical theory and then, the practical experience in France, UK and the USA and the difficult arbitrations with their perverse side effects. (J.S.)

  18. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  19. Strategic trade policy: how important is the informational constraint? The case of optimal tariff when technological innovations spill over to the foreign competitor.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigi?, Krešimir

    New York : Nova Science Publishers, 2007 - (Barnes, P.), s. 21-49 ISBN 1-60021-239-5 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : optimal tariff * Bertrand and Cournot competition * strategic trade Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  20. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  1. Dermination of tariffs for electric energy. A critical analysis from the economic point of view; Die Tarifierung elektrischer Energie. Eine kritische Analyse aus oekonomischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werbeck, T.

    1995-12-31

    Electricity price formation is increasingly being determined by the conflict between traditional energy-economic aims and the ecological requirements of natural resource conservation and energy saving. In practice, households and small consumers are usually charged on the basis of a two-part tariff system despite the criticism this system receives for giving an incentive to waste energy. Based on a production- and cost-theoretical analysis of electricity production the present study develops a theoretical foundation of a tariff determination system that complies to the aims of Paretian welfare economics as well as the legal requirements of `cost-orientedness`. Furthermore it examines the most important implementation tools with regard to their efficacy. The study reveals that price formation according to marginal cost, which is preferable from the viewpoint of allocation theory, leads to a time-dependent tariff structure, while block tariffs and two-part tariffs should be rejected for reasons of welfare theory as well as on account of their lack of cost-orientedness. Current models on peak load price determination have been examined here with regard to the present situation in electricity production and a price structure appropriate to this has been developed taking demand interdependencies into account. The study concludes with an analysis of two topical examples, the `96 hour tariff` and the time-variable tariff of the municipal works of Saarbruecken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Preissetzung fuer elektrische Energie steht in zunehmender Weise im Spannungsfeld zwischen traditionell energiewirtschaftlichen Zielen und oekologischen Gesichtspunkten der Schonung der natuerlichen Ressourcen und der Energieeinsparung. In der Praxis der Stromtarifierung kommen bei Haushalten und Kleinverbrauchern weitgehend zweiteilige Tarife zur Anwendung, obwohl diese in besonderem Masse als Anreize zur Energieverschwendung kritisiert wurden. Auf der Grundlage einer produktions- und kostentheoretischen Analyse der Stromerzeugung entwickelt die vorliegende Arbeit die theoretischen Grundlagen einer Stromtarifierung vor dem Hintergrund von Zielsetzungen gemaess der paretianischen Wohlfahrtsoekonomik bzw. der gesetztlichen Vorgabe der `Kostenorientierung`. Darueber hinaus werden die wichtigsten Implementationen hinsichtlich ihrer Zieladaequanz untersucht. Hierbei zeigt sich, dass eine aus allokationstheoretischer Sicht zu praeferierende Grenzkostenpreissetzung zu einer zeitabhaengigen Tarifstruktur fuehrt, waehrend Blocktarife und zweiteilige Tarife dagegen sowohl unter wohlfahrtstheoretischen Aspekten als auch hinsichtlich des Grades der Kostenorientierung abzulehnen sind. Die vorhandenen Modelle zur Spitzenlastpreissetzung wurden bezueglich der Situation in der Stromerzeugung untersucht und eine hierzu adaequate Preisstruktur unter Beruecksichtigung von Nachfrageinterdependenzen entwickelt. Abschliessend werden als aktuelle Beispiele der `96-Stunden-Tarif` und der zeitvariable Tarif der Stadtwerke Saarbruecken analysiert. (orig.)

  2. A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugénia, Mata; Joseph L., Love.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países [...] , este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese estabelecida. A Primeira Guerra Mundial, contudo, foi um momento decisivo para o Brasil. Ao fazer-se este estudo, usaram-se os melhores dados disponíveis, partindo-se ocasionalmente dos usados por Clemens e Williamson. As nossas conclusões prevalecem com dados alternativos. Abstract in english This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countr [...] ies, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.

  3. A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domiciano, Jose Antonio

    2002-07-01

    The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

  4. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of underinvestment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  5. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel, E-mail: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  6. Feed-in tariff vs. renewable portfolio standard: An empirical test of their relative effectiveness in promoting wind capacity development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the relative effectiveness of feed-in tariff (FIT) and Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) in promoting wind capacity development using panel data. Conservative estimates suggest that, on average across countries, FIT increases total wind capacity more than RPS by a magnitude of about 1800 MW. When using time variant policy indicators, the difference between the two policies increases to nearly 2000 MW, roughly 8% of 2009 cumulative capacity in Germany. As for annual wind capacity since 2005, this paper has found no significant difference between FIT and RPS. It is also found that wind energy development responds to high electricity demand and high oil dependence. - Highlights: ? Examined the relative effectiveness of FIT and RPS in promoting wind capacity. ? FIT increases total wind capacity more than 1800 MW than RPS across counties. ? RPS is catching up with FIT for annual wind capacity in recent years. ? Wind development also responds to high electricity demand and oil dependence.

  7. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  8. Method for a national tariff comparison for natural gas, electricity and heat. Set-up and presentation; Methode voor een nationale tariefvergelijking voor gas, elektriciteit en warmte. Opzet en wijze van presentatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Several groups (within distribution companies and outside those companies) have a need for information and data on energy tariffs. It is the opinion of the ad-hoc working group that a comparison of tariffs on the basis of standard cases is the most practical method to meet the information demand of all the parties involved. Those standard cases are formulated and presented for prices of electricity, natural gas and heat, including applied consumption parameters. A comparison of such tariffs must be made periodically.

  9. Feed-in tariff design for domestic scale grid-connected PV systems using high resolution household electricity demand data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of large samples of smart metering data allows policymakers to design Feed-in Tariffs which are more targeted and efficient. This paper presents a methodology which uses these data to design FITs for domestic scale grid-connected PV systems in Ireland. A sample of 2551 household electricity demand data collected at 1/2-hourly intervals, electricity output from a 2.82 kWp PV system over the same time interval as well as PV system costs and electricity tariffs were used to determine the required FIT to make it worthwhile for the households to invest in the PV system. The methodology shows that it is possible to design single, multiple and continuous FITs. Continuous FITs are the most efficient and result in no overcompensation to the housholder while single and multiple FITs are less efficient since they result in different levels of overcompensation. In the PV case study considered, it was shown that the use of three FITs (0.3170, 0.3315 and 0.3475 €/kW h) resulted in a 59.6% reduction in overcompensation compared to a single FIT of 0.3475 €/kW h; assuming immediate and complete uptake of the technology, this would result in NPV savings of over €597 m to the Irish government over a 25 year lifetime. - Highlights: • Targeted and efficient FITs can be designed for domestic grid-connected PV systems. • The design is based on household electricity demand data at 1/2-hourly intervals. • Designs consist of single, multiple and continuous FITs. • Continuous FITs are most efficient with no overcompensation. • Multiple FITs result in lower overcompensation compared to a single FIT

  10. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  11. The large-scale solar feed-in tariff reverse auction in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed-in tariffs (FiTs) offer renewable energy developers significant investor certainty but sometimes at the cost of being misaligned with generation costs. Reverse FiT auctions, where the FiT rights for a predetermined capacity are auctioned, can overcome this problem but can be plagued by non-delivery risks, particularly of competitively priced proposals. In 2012 and 2013 the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government in Australia conducted a FiT reverse auction for 40 MW of large-scale solar generating capacity, the first such auction undertaken in the country. The auction was highly competitive in relation to price and demonstrating low delivery risks. Proposal capital costs, particularly engineering, procurement and construction costs, as well as internal rates of return, were lower than expected. The auction process revealed limited land availability for large-scale solar developments in the ACT as well as a significant perceived sovereign risk issue. The auction process was designed to mitigate non-delivery risk by requiring proposals to be pre-qualified on the basis of delivery risk, before considering FiT pricing. The scheme is likely to be used by the ACT Government to support further large-scale renewable energy development as part of its greenhouse gas reduction strategy which is underpinned by a 90-per cent-by-2020 renewable energy target. - Highlights: • Evolution of the reverse auction process in the Australian Capital Territory. • Analysis of the outcomes of the first Australian feed-in tariff reverse auction. • Identification of the major drivers of the low FiT prices achieved in the auction. • Identification of major issues that emerged in the auction

  12. A Quasi-Feed-In-Tariff policy formulation in micro-grids: A bi-level multi-period approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Quasi-Feed-In-Tariff (QFIT) policy formulation is presented for micro-grids that integrates renewable energy generation considering Policy Makers' and Generation Companies' (GENCOs) objectives assuming a bi-level multi-period formulation that integrates physical characteristics of the power-grid. The upper-level problem corresponds to the PM, whereas the lower-level decisions are made by GENCOs. We consider that some GENCOs are green energy producers, while others are black energy producers. Policy makers incentivize green energy producers to generate energy through the payment of optimal time-varying subsidy price. The policy maker's main objective is to maximize an overall social welfare that includes factors such as demand surplus, energy cost, renewable energy subsidy price, and environmental standards. The lower-level problem corresponding to the GENCOs is based on maximizing the players' profits. The proposed QFIT policy differs from the FIT policy in the sense that the subsidy price-based contracts offered to green energy producers dynamically change over time, depending on the physical properties of the grid, demand, and energy price fluctuations. The integrated problem solves for time-varying subsidy price and equilibrium energy quantities that optimize the system welfare under different grid and system conditions. - Highlights: • We present a bi-level optimization problem formulation for Quasi-Feed-In-Tariff (QFIT) policy. • QFIT dictates that subsidy prices dynamically vary over time depending on conditions. • Power grid's physical characteristics affect optimal subsidy prices and energy generation. • To maximize welfare, policy makers ought to increase subsidy prices during the peak-load

  13. Wind power merit-order and feed-in-tariffs effect: A variability analysis of the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • M5P algorithm-based model determines influence of wind power on Spanish spot market. • Assessment of the wind power influence for different levels of wind resource. • Cost-benefit analysis is developed, accounting feed-in-tariffs and merit order effect. • The worst and best levels of wind power production for the system are determined. - Abstract: The incipient large-scale energy-storage technologies are not sufficiently developed yet, which means that the wind power production depends on the wind speed at every moment. This, along with the fact that the wind resource is not constant over time, makes wind power production quite variable. Therefore, an artificial intelligence-based technique (M5P algorithm) is applied to empirical hourly data to determine the influence of wind power technology on the spot market for different levels of wind resource in 2012. It concludes that wind power depressed the spot prices between 7.42 and 10.94 €/MW h for a wind power production of 90% and 110% of the real one, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the important presence of wind power in the Spanish generation mix, the above range has been extended up to 0% in order to determine the worst and best level of wind power production for the Spanish electrical system (from an economical point of view). To do so, both feed-in-tariffs and wind power impact on spot market (merit order effect) have been accounted in accordance with the different levels of wind power production. Since empirical data from 2012 have been used to conduct the research, the results presented in this paper may provide policy makers with a worst and best-case scenario to discuss about the convenience of the last cutting expenses over wind power technology in Spain

  14. A New Measure of Tariff Preference Margins Adjusted for Import and Domestic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Carrere, Céline

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new theoretically-derived measure of preference margins at the product level, that takes into account competition across exporters as well as competition with domestic producers on a given market. This indicator is derived for differentiated goods under imperfect competition, in a frame-work extended from Ottaviano, Tabuchi and Thisse (2002). We compute our theoretically-based preference margin measure for the European Union market access over 5,000 products (HS-6 digits...

  15. Towards a competitive european market of the natural gas: uncertainties and tariff choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reveals that, by reason of external supply and contract pregnancy, the gas market deregulation will not present the same effects as for the electricity market. The first part deals with the competition in Europe in the natural gas sector (prices policy, transportation prices, administrative procedures). The second part deals with the tariffing in France and the access to the LNG networks and installations. (A.L.B.)

  16. Renewable energies in the EU-Accession States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to discuss obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources in the EU-Accession States and to compare them with the framework in the EU-15. Besides the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. Most of these countries have had a century-long tradition in the utilisation of RES, primarily in biomass and hydropower. However, the communist regimes were convinced of the superiority of large-scale systems and converted the energy sectors into centralised units. Due to this dominating belief system more decentralised applications such as installations using renewable energies had to close. One crucial driving force for future renewable energy development in the Accession States comes from the stipulations set by the EU. The EU-Directive on the promotion of electricity produced from RES gives the new EU-members targets for their RES-development until 2010. Due to the Directive many Accession States have already begun to pay more attention to the topic and to introduce more systematic policies. Six of the Accession States have introduced minimum tariffs which were one of the main success conditions (besides a stable and sound investment programme as well as favourable background conditions) in the leading wind energy countries Germany and Spain. Beside the external pressure by the EU and other international obligations other driving forces such as the path dependencies in the national energy policies (degree of coal, oil and gas exploitation, nuclear power use, import dependency), the political support schemes for renewable energies, possibilities of obtaining external financial support and the cognitive environment are discussed. Finally similarities and differences between EU-15 and Accession States are worked out

  17. Open Access Policy Update

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This presentation explores the status of open access policy developments internationally, and particularly in Canada, as of April 2007. While open access resources are substantial, and growing rapidly, the primary issue for open access archives (institutional repositories) is content acquisition, and few researchers fully understand open access, illustrating an ongoing need for policy. Open access policy initiatives are happening around the world. Sherpa Juliet lists more than 20 funding a...

  18. CERN Access Cards and Access Authorisations

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    From the 01/05/2003, all problems relating to access cards and refusal of access to any zone, building or experiment within CERN must be addressed to the Centrale de Surveillance des Accès (CSA building 120) on 78877 or send an e-mail to Access.Surveillance@cern.ch. The responsibles for CERN access control have put into place a procedure with the CSA, Service Enregistrement and the Technical Control Room, to make sure that all problems get resolved in a proper and timely manner.

  19. Analysis of the methodology coherence of the new tariffs reviewing at ANEEL; Analise da coerencia da metodologia de revisao tarifaria da ANEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, Claudia De Rosa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cpeano@superig.com.br; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao. Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: fanuatti@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work analyses the methodology adopted by ANEEL in electricity distribution companies' tariff revision. The theoretical approach assumes that the institutional endowment and existing regulatory framework restricts the regulators choice of tariff revision mechanism design. Regulators choice of methodology can contribute to the creation of a good reputation, reducing uncertainties and promoting efficiency. We evaluate how the chosen methods satisfy the aspect of internal coherence among them and with the commitments found in the basic legal framework of the industry. We conclude that the adoption of a Reference Firm as a benchmark presents some coherency and transparency, but the methodology has consistency problems and is not suitable to the maturity level and administrative capacity of the regulatory system. (author)

  20. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS TARIFF POLICY IN FOREST FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT BORDER TO CHINA REGION (FOR EXAMPLE ZABAYKALSKY KRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vladimirovna Kolesnikov?

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of large amounts of forest resources in Russian Federation, as well as existence of the general border between Russia and China causes export orientation in the development of timber industry in regions of Russia, which have borders with China. On the basis of the actual material is considered the impact of ongoing customs and tariff policy on the development of the forestry sector toChina's border regions (for example, Zabaykalsky Kray.During the studies it was concluded that despite the ongoing customs and tariff policy in the Russian Federation is now forestry development of border regions is at an early stage. In addition, despite the existing flow of investment, including foreign investment it is by far not sufficient to change the current export-oriented raw timber industry complex border regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-23

  1. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Different support instruments for renewable energy expose investors differently to market risks. This has implications on the attractiveness of investment. We use mean-variance portfolio analysis to identify the risk implications of two support instruments: feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same attractiveness for investment, because they expose investors to less market risk. These risk implications should be considered when designing policy schemes.

  2. Unlocking the Euro 53 billion savings from smart meters in the EU: How increasing the adoption of dynamic tariffs could make or break the EU's smart grid investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate the cost of installing smart meters in the EU to be Euro 51 billion, and that operational savings will be worth between Euro 26 and 41 billion, leaving a gap of Euro 10-25 billion between benefits and costs. Smart meters can fill this gap because they enable the provision of dynamic pricing, which reduces peak demand and lowers the need for building and running expensive peaking power plants. The present value of savings in peaking infrastructure could be as high as Euro 67 billion for the EU if policy-makers can overcome barriers to consumers adopting dynamic tariffs, but only Euro 14 billion otherwise. We outline a number of ways to increase the adoption of dynamic tariffs.

  3. The new Swedish Regulation of Power Distribution System Tariffs : A Description and an Initial Evaluation on its Risk and Asset Management Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Sabina; Wallnerström, Carl Johan; Hilber, Patrik; Hansson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    From 2012, a new tariff regulation has been introduced in Sweden. A reasonable revenue framework for the distribution system operators (DSOs) is determined before the regulatory period of four years. The aim of this paper is to overall describe the new regulation, especially reliability aspects, including an approach to superficially perform an initial investigation/evaluation on its incentives of risk and asset management. A recently performed M.Sc. thesis by one of the authors shows that th...

  4. Economic feasibility of large community feed-in tariff-eligible wind energy production in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova Scotia, Canada's community feed-in tariff (COMFIT) scheme is the world's first feed-in tariff program specifically targeting locally-based renewable energy projects. This study investigated selected turbine capacities to optimize electricity production, based on actual wind profiles for three sites in Nova Scotia, Canada (i.e., Sydney, Caribou Point, and Greenwood). The turbine capacities evaluated are also eligible under the current COMFIT-large scheme in Nova Scotia, including 100 kW, 900 kW and 2.0 MW turbines. A capital budgeting model was developed and then used to evaluate investment decisions on wind power production. Wind duration curves suggest that Caribou Point had the highest average wind speeds but for shorter durations. By comparison, Sydney and Greenwood had lower average wind speeds but with longer durations. Electricity production cost was lowest for the 2.0 MW turbine in Caribou Point ($0.07 per kWh), and highest for the 100 kW turbine located in Greenwood ($0.49 per kWh). The most financially viable wind power project was the 2.0 MW turbine assumed to operate at 80 m hub height in Caribou Point, with NPV=$251,586, and BCR=1.51. Wind power production for the remaining two sites was generally not financially feasible for the turbine capacities considered. The impact of promoting local economic development from wind power projects was higher in a scenario under which wind turbines were clustered at a single site with the highest wind resources than generating a similar level of electricity by distributing the wind turbines across multiple locations. -- Highlights: •Wind energy production was highest at Caribou Point than at Sydney and Greenwood. •Estimated energy production increased with hub-height, for two of the three sites. •Cost of energy production was lowest at Caribou Point and highest at Greenwood. •In general, benefit–cost ratios increased with wind turbine capacity. •Pay-back period tended to decrease with increase in size of the wind turbine

  5. Market structure and market access

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Joseph F.; Wooton, Ian

    2008-01-01

    We examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries vis-´a-vis 69 exporters. Competition in services affects the volume of goods trade. Additionally, because of interaction between tariffs and competition, the mar...

  6. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  7. Access 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

  8. Decision regarding Gazifere Inc.'s request to maintain current tariffs, its distribution plan and energy efficiency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 2002 Gazifere Inc. applied to Quebec's Regie de l'energie for approval to maintain its current gas tariffs in its area of operation, the Outaouais region of Quebec. Gazifere also presented its program for energy efficiency and its distribution program with a request to extend its distribution network in the Outaouais. The energy efficiency program includes the rental of residential water heaters, water and gas savings, high efficiency furnaces, rental of commercial water heaters, and a program for low income families. The Regie reviewed the application and declared that the current fees could remain in effect until October 1, 2002. It also approved the modifications proposed by Gazifere to the adjustment of rates. The Regie reviewed the objectives of the energy efficiency programs and approved a volumetric budget for the plan and authorized that the deferred rate be kept in the energy efficiency program. The Regie approved that the energy efficiency plan should extend over 3 years with the exception of the residential inspection program until more information could be gathered on the energy savings in the residential sector. The Regie made a request to Gazifere to provide data on industrial consumption before authorizing $3,730,200 for extension of their distribution network. It approved the amount $5,306,400 as exploitation charges for the year 2002-2003. refs., tabs

  9. The influence of a Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff on the decision to produce biomass crops in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target of 30 per cent substitution of biomass for peat in the three peat fired power stations from 2015 has been set by the Irish Government. However, a knowledge gap exists on the extent to which Irish farmers would actually choose to grow these crops. An extension of the Renewable Energy Feed in Tariff (REFIT) scheme to include the co-firing of biomass with peat in electricity generation would enable the power stations to enter into Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs). These offer a fixed price to farmers for biomass feedstock. The decision to adopt biomass is represented as a constrained problem under certainty with the objective of profit maximisation. The results showed that the price offered under a PPA has a large effect on the economic returns from biomass crops. The price that the power stations previously estimated they would be able to pay, at €46 and €48 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively, was used as a starting point. At this price the number of farmers who would choose to adopt biomass production is insufficient to achieve the national co-firing target. The target could be achieved at €70 and €65 per tonne for willow and miscanthus, respectively. - Highlights: ? We model the decision of Irish farmers to produce biomass crops. ? Current prices will lead to insufficient adoption to achieve policy targets. ? REFIT mechanism can succeed in meeting policy goals. ? Willow prices need to increase by approximately 27 per cent. ? Miscanthus prices need to increase by approximately 8 per cent.

  10. Reasons for decision in the matter of Enbridge Pipelines Inc. Alberta Clipper expansion project : facilities and tolls and tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 2007, Enbridge Pipelines Inc. applied for approval to construct the Alberta Clipper Expansion Project which consists of 1074 km of oil pipeline and associated facilities between its Hardisty, Alberta terminal and the Canada/United States border near Gretna, Manitoba. The purpose of the project is to increase the takeaway capacity out of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and into PADD 2 and eastern Canadian markets. The pipeline would have an initial capacity of 71,500 cubic metres per day. The estimated cost of the project is $2 billion with a targeted in-service data for July 2010. Public hearings into the Alberta Clipper project began in November 2007 and included an oral hearing. The Board was presented with evidence from intervenors on many issues including impacts to Aboriginal peoples and the impact of the project on domestic interests. The Board reviewed the design and operation of the proposed facilities as well as routing and land requirements. Issues regarding the environment, socio-economic matters, tolls, tariffs and economics were also addressed. The Board was satisfied from the evidence that the proposed facilities are, and will be, required by the present and future public convenience and necessity. In approving the project, the Board attached several conditions, including one that requires Enbridge to conduct an emergency response exercise at its South Saskatchewan River crossing. This condition is in response to public concerns raised during the hearing process. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs., 4 appendices

  11. Usability and accessibility curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Luján Mora, Sergio (coord.); Cachero Castro, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of existing curricula connected with usability and accessibility at the University of Alicante for the Leonardo da Vinci project "GUI Usability and Accessibility: Exchanging Knowledge and Experiences" (Grenoble, France, 27 November 2012).

  12. United States Access Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that promotes equality for people with disabilities through leadership in accessible design and the development of accessibility guidelines and standards for the built environment, transportation, communication, medical diagnostic equipment, and information technology. Communications & IT ...

  13. International Symbol of Access

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Moshe, Liat; Justin J. W. Powell

    2009-01-01

    The International Symbol of Access (ISA), when integrated into signage, is meant to designate spaces and facilities made accessible to persons who otherwise would face barriers to their mobility. Since 1969, when this symbol was chosen and defined as the ISA, it has become ubiquitous throughout the world. Attempting to communicate issues of physical access, the (wheelchair) mobility symbol—and related access symbols for vision, hearing, and information—have become among the most widely recogn...

  14. Irradiation from a phytosanitary treatment perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recognizing that with the advent of globalisation and initiatives towards liberalization of trade through the elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers, the challenge towards gaining international market access will hinge primarily on quality of agricultural commodities. Besides aiming for efficiency in production it is crucial to emphasise on quality so that it not only provide a competitive edge but also enables them to penetrate markets that have stringent phytosanitary requirements. The need for an alternative quarantine treatment against agricultural pests has been pressing as according to the Montreal Protocol, fumigation with methyl bromide, the most widely used fumigant, will be globally phased out due to environment reasons. Irradiation is a relatively new technology and lately it has been accepted as one of the phytosanitary measures by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC). It provides one of the alternative technologies available to the food industries to control organisms that cause food borne diseases, to reduce food losses due to spoilage and deterioration, and to overcome barriers in food trade. Taking cognizance that irradiation has potential as a treatment technology for the disinfestation of pests of agricultural commodities, efforts have been stepped up to ensure the pre-requisites are in place for its implementation. (Author)

  15. Pro Access 2010 Development

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Pro Access 2010 Development is a fundamental resource for developing business applications that take advantage of the features of Access 2010 and the many sources of data available to your business. In this book, you'll learn how to build database applications, create Web-based databases, develop macros and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) tools for Access applications, integrate Access with SharePoint and other business systems, and much more. Using a practical, hands-on approach, this book will take you through all the facets of developing Access-based solutions, such as data modeling, co

  16. Access 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    The easy guide to Microsoft Access returns with updates on the latest version! Microsoft Access allows you to store, organize, view, analyze, and share data; the new Access 2013 release enables you to build even more powerful, custom database solutions that integrate with the web and enterprise data sources. Access 2013 For Dummies covers all the new features of the latest version of Accessand serves as an ideal reference, combining the latest Access features with the basics of building usable databases. You'll learn how to create an app from the Welcome screen, get support

  17. Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control

    CERN Document Server

    Kayem, Anne V D M; Martin, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Cryptographic access control (CAC) is an approach to securing data by encrypting it with a key, so that only the users in possession of the correct key are able to decrypt the data and/or perform further encryptions. Applications of cryptographic access control will benefit companies, governments and the military where structured access to information is essential. The purpose of this book is to highlight the need for adaptability in cryptographic access control schemes that are geared for dynamic environments, such as the Internet. "Adaptive Cryptographic Access Control" presents th

  18. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EkstrØm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc.

  19. A new methodology for establishing a system for cross-border transmission tariffication in the internal electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several organisations are working on a scheme for cross-border tariffication as the so-called Florence forum indicates. So far, a provisional concept created by ETSO (European Transmission System Operators) evolved which is oriented towards covering costs but is not quite cost-reflective and does not produce economic signals for the market players. In the present project a flow-oriented model and a corresponding methodology have been developed which derive compensations within super nodes standing for aggregated networks of the countries along transit and domestic paths. Specific fees are derived from overall network costs but may be applied in a flexible way to represent the realistic usage of the horizontal network for transits and domestic supply. Charging of costs can be oriented towards consumers or generators. A combination of shares of costs originally determined for consumers and generators is also possible. In such a way the model is flexible to fulfill the requirements of regulators, operators and the European Commission. Measured flow data of the UCTE network have been provided to check the concept in various directions, i.e. based on different parameters such as uniform and individual postage stamps, compensations for transits only and more elaborate networks of super nodes. The concept is also able to cope with circular flows within the real UCTE network. The methodology is suited for an application in a decentralised fashion as the transmission system operator needs to communicate with its neighboring operator only, i.e. there is no need for a centralised clearing office. (author)

  20. The suitability of a feed-in tariff for wind energy in New Zealand—A study based on stakeholders' perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New Zealand (NZ) aims to expand the deployment of wind energy as one means to achieve 90% of electricity generation from renewables by 2025 and in addition to reduce green house gas (GHG) emissions. Due to electricity market regulations that inhibit market entry for independent developers, New Zealand's wind energy development has been limited to primarily large wind farms developed by a handful of electricity utilities. In contrast to many other countries, NZ lacks policy support for entry of smaller investors into the wind generation sector. In order to gage the acceptability of a feed in tariff (FIT) for wind energy in New Zealand, a survey questionnaire (366 respondents) with land owning farmers and semi structured interviews with wind energy stakeholders was conducted. Although international literature suggests that a FIT would be the most suitable policy support scheme to accelerate wind energy deployment, this conclusion was not reached by many influential stakeholders in NZ. However, a majority of the surveyed farmers supported the introduction of a FIT for wind energy. The study also revealed that farmers' acceptance of wind energy in their local area increases with their awareness about climate change issues. - Highlights: ? Of countries in the world with a good wind regime, NZ has a low level of policy support for wind energy. ? A survey of landowning farmers in NZ (366 respondents) indicated support for a feed in tariff for wind energy. ? The major electricity generators, however, did not indicate support for a feed in tariff. ? A low level of recognition of climate change being anthropogenic was found among landowning farmers.

  1. Access Interface Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Fager, Susan; Beukelman, David R.; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Jakobs, Tom; Baker, John

    2011-01-01

    Individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices to support their communication often have physical movement challenges that require alternative methods of access. Technology that supports access, particularly for those with the most severe movement deficits, have expanded substantially over the years. The purposes of this article are to review the state of the science of access technologies that interface with augmentative and alternative communication devices...

  2. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in m...

  3. Web Accessibility Checking Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Tripti Singh; Nitish Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater) entered. Then it reads ...

  4. OGIS Access System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The OGIS Access System (OAS) provides case management, stakeholder collaboration, and public communications activities including a web presence via a web portal.

  5. Access 2013 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to the updated and new features of Access 2013 As the world's most popular database management tool, Access enables you to organize, present, analyze, and share data as well as build powerful database solutions. However, databases can be complex. That's why you need the expert guidance in this comprehensive reference. Access 2013 Bible helps you gain a solid understanding of database purpose, construction, and application so that whether you're new to Access or looking to upgrade to the 2013 version, this well-rounded resource provides you with a th

  6. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  7. Agent-based model for electricity consumption and storage to evaluate economic viability of tariff arbitrage for residential sector demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Storage-based demand response (loadshifting) is underutilized in residential sector. • Economics (arbitrage savings versus equipment cost) are not well understood. • Stochastic demand models and real-life tariffs can illuminate economic viability. • A range of available storage options provide economically viable DR. • Daily/seasonal stochastic demand variations crucial to understanding optimum capacity. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) is one of many approaches to address temporal mismatches in demand and supply of grid electricity. More common in the commercial sector, DR usually refers to reducing consumption at certain hours or seasons, thus reducing peak demand from the grid. In the residential sector, where sophisticated appliance-level controls such as automatic dimming of lights or on-demand lowering of air conditioning are less common, building-based electricity storage to shift grid consumption from peak to off-peak times could provide DR without requiring consumers to operate their appliances on shifted or reduced schedules: Storage would be dispatched to appliances as needed while still shaving peaks on the grid. Technologically, storage and two-way-inverters are readily available to enable such residential DR. Economically, however, the situation is less clear. Specifically, are time-varying electricity tariffs available such that electricity cost reduction via arbitrage could offset manufacturing, financing, and installation costs of the required storage? To address this question we (i) devise an agent-based appliance-level stochastic model to simulate the electricity demand of an average U.S. household; (ii) loadshift the demand via simple dispatch strategies; and (iii) determine potential profits to the building owner, i.e. reduced electricity cost of the modified demand with realistic tariffs (Con Edison, NY) minus storage cost. We determine the economic viability for a range of traditional and advanced storage technologies as well as their optimum storage capacities to maximize profits. We find that (i) profits can range from <1% to 48% of annual electricity costs of a typical household; and (ii) optimum capacities, while approximately equal to households’ kWh consumption during peak hours, is affected by stochastic variations in daily and seasonal consumption. Future improvements to storage technology, arbitrage strategies, and tariffs are discussed. Details of the storage technologies, agent-based model, testing, and benchmarking are supplied as Supplementary Data

  8. Improving School Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  9. Access to mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Bouguettaya, Athman

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on methods for accessing broadcast based M-services from multiple wireless channels. This book presents a novel infrastructure that provides a multi-channel broadcast framework for mobile users to effectively discover and access composite M-services. It is suitable for those who work in the general area of mobile services.

  10. ATLAS Data Access Policy

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ATLAS has fully supported the principle of open access in its publication policy. This document outlines the policy of ATLAS as regards open access to data at different levels as described in the DPHEP model. The main objective is to make the data available in a usable way to people external to the ATLAS collaboration.

  11. The Open Access Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfeng Xia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to review various aspects of the open access divide regarding the difference between those academics who support free sharing of data and scholarly output and those academics who do not. It provides a structured description by adopting the Ws doctrines emphasizing such questions as who, what, when, where and why for information-gathering. Using measurable variables to define a common expression of the open access divide, this study collects aggregated data from existing open access as well as non-open access publications including journal articles and extensive reports. The definition of the open access divide is integrated into the discussion of scholarship on a larger scale.

  12. Employment effects of regional climate policy. The case of renewable energy promotion by feed-in tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, Peter; Voigt, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the local impacts of renewable energy carrier promotion by the German feed-in tariffs scheme ''Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz'' for the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg by using an input-output approach. The local impacts are of particular interest as in Baden-Wuerttemberg the manufacturing industries are highly important compared to the rest of Germany. We analyze the effects of the policy actions on the production as well as the employment of several sectors. We construct a regional input-output table of Baden- Wuerttemberg and introduce the construction and the operation of installations for seven renewable energy types in order to examine different paths to achieve the state government's targets. We consider two scenarios with different sources funding the investments in the construction and operation of renewable energy installations. In the first scenario, all the necessary investments are funded completely by internal sources. Hence, the scenario is driven by the assumption that these investments either crowd out investments in other industries of the regional economy or the investments are paid by the government, i.e. by taxes which are borne by all other industries and by the households. Therefore, the final demand of all other sectors decreases. In this scenario, we have a slightly positive total turnover effect, although in many sectors the turnover effect is negative. In addition, the total employment effect is negative since the more labour-intensive industries are affected more heavily from the policy than the less labour-intensive industries. The second scenario considers the case of a partly external funding by taking into account that the installations may be demanded from ''abroad'', i.e. the rest of Germany and the rest of the world. Therefore, investments in other industries are not completely crowded out in this scenario. We find positive production and employment effects also for most industries besides the energy sector. Our findings suggest that policy actions promoting renewable energy types do not necessarily create new jobs and additional turnover for the whole economy. They rather induce a structural change of the economy since other investments might be crowded out by investments in installations of renewable energy and the demand in other sectors might decrease. However, if the producers of the installations are able to export parts of their products to the rest of Germany and the rest of the world, these crowding out effects can be attenuated and turnover and employment effects might be positive in total.

  13. Efecto de los aranceles en la competitividad de la porcicultura mexicana / Effect of the tariffs in the competitiveness of the mexican pork industry

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G., Gómez-Tenorio; S., Rebollar-Rebollar; J., Hernández-Martínez; E, Guzmán-Soria.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los porcicultores nacionales demandan la aplicación de aranceles a las importaciones de carne cerdo provenientes de los EUA argumentando un daño grave a la industria en tanto que las autoridades gubernamentales desechan esta opción, por lo que se justifica la evaluación del impacto de su implantació [...] n como una alternativa que propicie mejorar la competitividad de la porcicultura nacional. Para analizar este efecto se utilizó un modelo de equilibrio parcial tipo Armington, utilizando datos de 2006 del comercio internacional de carne de cerdo. Los resultados indican que si se hubiera aplicado un arancel del 20.0 % a la carne proveniente de Estados Unidos de América y Canadá en 2008 la demanda por México de su carne habría bajado 9.6 y 27.5 %, mientras que la demanda de carne nacional habría aumentado 6.4 %. Además, la producción se habría elevado en 4.5 % y el precio interno subido 12.5 %. Por otra parte, si el arancel solamente se hubiera aplicado a los Estados Unidos, la demanda en México de carne proveniente de este país habría bajado 23.4 %, la de Canadá y la nacional habrían aumentado 5.4 y 3.4 %, mientras que la producción se habría incrementado 2.4 % y el precio 6.6 %. Se espera que el arancel de 5.0 % impuesto por México en 2010 a las compras de carne de cerdo de Estados Unidos de América genere cambios poco significativos al mercado nacional. Por lo que, si se aplican aranceles a la carne de cerdo de EUA y Canadá cuando su precio es menor a los costos de producción nacionales, el incremento en el precio interno ayudaría a la porcicultura nacional a ser competitiva. Abstract in english The national pork producers demand the application of tariffs to the imports of originating meat pig of the EUA arguing a serious damage to the industry whereas, on the other hand, the governmental authorities reject this option, reason why the evaluation of the impact of its implantation like an al [...] ternative is justified that it causes to improve the competitiveness of the national pork industry. In order to analyze this effect a model of partial balance was used Armington type, using the data of 2006 of the international trade of pig meat. The results indicate that if a tariff of 20 % to the originating meat of the United States of America and Canada in the 2008 had been applied the demand by Mexico of its meat would have lowered 9.6 and 27.5 %, whereas the demand of national meat would have increased 6.4%. In addition, the production would have risen in 4.5 % and the internal price raised 12.5 %. By another part, if the tariff had been only applied to the United States, the demand in Mexico of originating meat of this country would have lowered 23.4 %, the one of Canada and the national would have increased 5.4 and 3.4 % respectively, whereas the 2.4 % production would have been increased and price 6.6 %. It is expected that the 5.0% tariff imposed by Mexico in 2010 to purchases of pork from the United States of America generate changes few significant to the domestic market. Reason why, if tariffs are applied to the meat of EUA pig and Canada when its price is smaller to the national production costs the increase in the internal price would help the national pork industry to be competitive.

  14. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  15. Multiple access trade study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-09-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  16. Multiple Access Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  17. Access 2010 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ulrich Fuller, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    A friendly, step-by-step guide to the Microsoft Office database application Access may be the least understood and most challenging application in the Microsoft Office suite. This guide is designed to help anyone who lacks experience in creating and managing a database learn to use Access 2010 quickly and easily. In the classic For Dummies tradition, the book provides an education in Access, the interface, and the architecture of a database. It explains the process of building a database, linking information, sharing data, generating reports, and much more.As the Micr

  18. Corporate Remote Access

    OpenAIRE

    Eronen, Erpo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to find a suitable, cost efficient and easy-to-use secure remote access solution for the Andritz Group. Currently these secure re-mote connections are provided using Check Point IPsec VPN connections. How-ever, there is a need for more precise access restriction and a cut in management costs. Because of these reasons Andritz Group piloted products of the Juniper Networks Secure Access series. Secondary reasons for choosing Juniper SSL VPN were the market leadi...

  19. Web Accessibility Checking Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Singh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Web accessibility tool checks whether a particular website is easily accessible to the disabled persons or not. This tool compares the Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG 2.0 standard guidelines with the content of any website or any html page and report the corresponding error. The content is tested automatically via computer programs. This program contains a crawler which navigates from the tools home page to the home page of the URL (uniform resource locater entered. Then it reads the page line by line, compare it with WCAG standard and report the corresponding error.

  20. From tariffs to prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It looks like that all over the World things are changing. Many countries, Spain among them, where electricity regulations were usual, are changing their regulatory mainframe. Since January 1, 1998, electricity production is a deregulated activity in Spain. There has to be open market competition. Prices that are very important for the time coming, have to cover the production cost plus some profits in order to maintain the company profitability. This cultural change applies to all our production facilities, including nuclear power plants. Taking into account this new situation and the nuclear competitiveness, it is important for all of us to understand this issue. As it is well known, nuclear energy is capital intensive, that means it has to compete as base load units due to their low operating costs and their large capital ones. For that reason it is important to reduce as much as possible the operating and maintenance cost as well as the fuel one, which will allow nuclear plants to compete in marginal costs with others units. Nuclear energy, in Spain, is not going to fix the pool price but it has to recover some depreciation through it, the remaining being recovered by the recognition of an important part of the stranded cost. (author)

  1. Access denied; invalid password.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2006-11-01

    Progress addressing access to oral health is difficult to evaluate because it is unclear what access means. Ozar's proposal that access should be defined by dentists as true dental need is criticized. It is proposed that four different types of treatment are currently identifiable in dentistry: 1) traditional oral health care, 2) oral care that has minimal or no health component, 3) episodic care, and 4) oral health outcomes not resulting from dentist interventions such as fluoridation. Each of these models has a different definition of care and of access. The profession is becoming segmented--including growing disparities among dentists in earning potential--to the point where a single model may no longer be able to cover all needs for oral health. PMID:17106025

  2. Interference multiple access communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, L. Reggie; DeBardelaben, James A.; Niedzwiecki, Joshua; Learned, Rachel E.; Eisenberg, Yiftach; Cooper, David M.

    2007-04-01

    The implementation of network centric warfare on the battlefield has driven the growing demand for high capacity warfighter communication systems. Although new high capacity SATCOM systems such as WGS are being introduced in the near term, these systems use the interference avoidance paradigm, which fundamentally limits overall network performance. This paper introduces a new wireless networking paradigm called Interference Multiple Access (IMA), developed under the auspices of DARPA. The interference multiple access paradigm exploits multi-access interference to enable revolutionary improvements in wireless communication capacity and latency without the need for infrastructure, coordination, or spectrum preplanning. Simulation and over-the-air test results suggest that greater than 3X increases in network throughput (especially in low SNR scenarios) can be achieved over traditional contention and scheduled-based spectrum access approaches when applied to WIN-T NCW terminals communicating in a mesh topology over the WGS constellation.

  3. Healthy Access Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Healthy Access Locator map can be used to view schools that have received a Healthier US Schools Challenge Award (HUSSC). To get started, click on Search Awards and...

  4. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Shuiming; Luo Ying; Zhao Jian; Cheung Sen-ChingS

    2009-01-01

    Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC) system to protect user anonymity. The AB...

  5. Sprawl and Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Bruegmann

    2008-01-01

    This essay argues that many of the assumptions that have been made about sprawl are misleading or just wrong. Nowhere has this been more the case than in debates about transportation and access. Because of this, it is not surprising that a good many of the policies advocated by proponents of Smart Growth would almost certainly lead to reduced mobility and impaired accessibility for a large part of the population. At very least, the debates over sprawl have pitted private vs. public transporta...

  6. Access to physiotherapy services

    OpenAIRE

    Partridge, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of community physiotherapy services operating within the National Health Service throughout England and Wales in 1980 showed a considerable increase in the availability of physiotherapy outside hospital, with 159 health districts (75 per cent) having some form of community physiotherapy. Additional information obtained about access by general practitioners to hospital physiotherapy departments showed that in 140 districts (66 per cent), some direct access was available.

  7. The Accessible Lasso Models

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Naftali; Sepehri, Amir

    2015-01-01

    A new line of research on the lasso exploits the beautiful geometric fact that the lasso fit is the residual from projecting the response vector $y$ onto a certain convex polytope. This geometric picture also allows an exact geometric description of the set of accessible lasso models for a given design matrix, that is, which configurations of the signs of the coefficients it is possible to realize with some choice of $y$. In particular, the accessible lasso models are those ...

  8. Support open access publishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen (www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo) med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante tidsskriftsinformationer (faglig disciplin, BFI niveau, Impact Factor, Open Access) vil kunne danne sig et hurtigt overblik, for derved at kunne træffe et kvalificeret valg om, hvor og hvordan man skal publicere sine forskn...

  9. Complication with intraosseous access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel; Folkestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intraosseous access (IO) is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real-life emergency situations might differ from the results in the controlled environment of model studies and small patient series. We performed a survey of IO use in real-life emergency situations to assess users' e...

  10. Access For All

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove Kjeld; Hjulmand, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the Danish population has severe problems in reading everyday text. In the light of the increasing amount of text available on the Internet this poses a democratic challenge to ensure “equal access” to information. The Talking Internet service - Access For All (AFA) - offers a free Internet-based tool for reading aloud any marked text with a synthetic voice. The only requirements are a standard equipped PC running a recent Windows OS and an Internet connection. Experiences g...

  11. The universal access handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Stephanidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Universal Access has made significant progress in consolidating theoretical approaches, scientific methods and technologies, as well as in exploring new application domains. Increasingly, professionals in this rapidly maturing area require a comprehensive and multidisciplinary resource that addresses current principles, methods, and tools. Written by leading international authorities from academic, research, and industrial organizations and nonmarket institutions, The Universal Access Handbook covers the unfolding scientific, methodological, technological, and pol

  12. CERN access cards

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Holders of CERN access cards are reminded that the card is an official document. It is important to carry it with you at all times when you are on the site. This applies also to those on standby duty who are called out for emergency interventions. As announced in Weekly Bulletin 13/2006, any loss or theft of access cards must be declared to the competent external authorities.

  13. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  14. Spain's solar industry is holding its breath. Fear of a reduction of reimbursement tariffs with reverse effect governs the Spanish solar industry; In Atem gehalten. Das Gespenst einer rueckwirkenden Tarifsenkung beherrscht die spanische Solarbranche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco de Saravia, Christina

    2010-06-15

    While the Spanish solar industry is already in a state of apprehension, the Minister of Industry made things even worse by hinting at a reduction of reimbursement tariffs, with reverse effect. Since then, the industry isholding its breath, and a new forum has been founded to promote the interests of the solar industry. (orig.)

  15. Trade creation and residual quota protection in a free trade area with domestic monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, David; Richardson, Martin

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of discriminatory trade liberalization in the presence of quota-protected single-firm industries. In recent years, trade liberalization among developing nations increasingly has occurred outside of the multi-lateral, GATT-based, negotiating rounds. Instead we have discriminatory “mini-lateral” arrangements like NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Andean Pact, or ASEAN. At the same time, protection often takes the form of quantitative restraints and other non-tariff barri...

  16. Risks and Countermeasures of Chinese Corporations Participation in Global Sourcing as Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    DU Jing-yi

    2013-01-01

    On the ground of entering into the WTO, more and more Chinese corporations participate in global sourcing. Summarize the condition of Chinese corporations’ participation as suppliers in global sourcing and analyze the potential risks, such as risk of holding inventory, receivable accounts, capital locked up, incomplete contracts and other risks such as non-tariff barriers and so on. And on the base, discuss countermeasures to them, such as giving the extend...

  17. Chinese Small and Medium Enterprises Transnational Operation Strategies in the Post Crisis Era

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Implementing transnational management strategy is the important way of Chinese small and medium enterprises development that get rid of excessive competition in domestic, bypass the non-tariff barriers, and expand overseas markets. At present, the international operation of Chinese small and medium enterprises is in an early stage, when they face the narrow financing channels, the non-perfect foreign investment enterprises management mechanism and many other factors, how to overcome the inter...

  18. Road to EU - Enlargement and Competitiveness of Western Balkan Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhlich, Zlatan

    2005-01-01

    Non-tariff barriers limit trade within South East Europe, and many Western Balkan companies fear a negative impact of the recent EU enlargement. At the same time, companies in the Western Balkans can reap the benefits of further integration, provided they are better informed about relevant legislation. This is a key finding that will be discussed in the paper, based on Eurochambers survey. Survey has covered Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYR of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro....

  19. Model Penilaian Risiko Berbasis Kinerja untuk Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit Berkelanjutan di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Ampuh Hadiguna

    2012-01-01

    As the country's largest palm oil producer in the world, Indonesian palm oil production is still encounter political barriers or non-tariff economy of several countries. Sustainable development policies have a role to overcome these obstacles. The research problem is how to build policies through the performance based risk assessment for sustainable palm oil supply chain in Indonesia. The research objective is to recommend policies that supported by performance-based risk assessment models fo...

  20. IVOA Simple Image Access

    CERN Document Server

    Dowler, Patrick; Bonnarel, François

    2016-01-01

    The Simple Image Access protocol (SIA) provides capabilities for the discovery, description, access, and retrieval of multi-dimensional image datasets, including 2-D images as well as datacubes of three or more dimensions. SIA data discovery is based on the ObsCore Data Model (ObsCoreDM), which primarily describes data products by the physical axes (spatial, spectral, time, and polarization). Image datasets with dimension greater than 2 are often referred to as datacubes, cube or image cube datasets and may be considered examples of hypercube or n-cube data. In this document the term "image" refers to general multi-dimensional datasets and is synonymous with these other terms unless the image dimensionality is otherwise specified. SIA provides capabilities for image discovery and access. Data discovery and metadata access (using ObsCoreDM) are defined here. The capabilities for drilling down to data files (and related resources) and services for remote access are defined elsewhere, but SIA also allows for dir...

  1. Access control system operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method for the control and monitoring of personnel movement throughout the site was developed under contract to the Department of Energy by Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). These automated features provide strict enforcement of personnel access policy without routine patrol officer involvement. Identification methods include identification by employee ID number, identification by voice verification and identification by physical security officer verification. The ability to grant each level of access authority is distributed over the organization to prevent any single individual at any level in the organization from being capable of issuing an authorization for entry into sensitive areas. Each access event is recorded. As access events occur, the inventory of both the entered and the exited control area is updated so that a current inventory is always available for display. The system has been operated since 1979 in a development mode and many revisions have been implemented in hardware and software as areas were added to the system. Recent changes have involved the installation of backup systems and other features required to achieve a high reliability. The access control system and recent operating experience are described

  2. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  3. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs; Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien mit Schwerpunkt auf kostenbasierter Einspeiseverguetung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.

  4. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectivel

  5. Governing community energy—Feed-in tariffs and the development of community wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the development of community energy in the UK by comparing it to Germany in relation to decentralisation, scales and ownership structures particularly of wind energy. Varying approaches to energy generation at the community scale provide interesting insights into the impact of policy innovation as well as the capacity of national energy frameworks to foster socially innovative engagement practices beyond the purely technological diffusion of innovations. By examining interactions between technological and social innovations with the help of a qualitative analysis, opportunities for potential generators not traditionally engaged in energy generation to tap into these innovation systems are analysed. This paper suggests that greater commitment to diversification beyond the implementation of policy measures such as the feed-in tariff is required to provide communities with the capacity to develop new generation practices in terms of scale and ownership. The UK in particular is struggling to protect these new generation practices which allow communities to derive benefits facilitated by specific energy policy measures according to their potential. It concludes by indicating areas where niche protection might need to be expanded if community energy is to play a greater role in the UK?s ambitious transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • Scalar path-dependency and lock-in are inhibiting the development of community energy in the UK. • Feed-in tariffs alone do not provide greater opportunities for multi-scalar energy transitions. • Multi-scalar approaches to technological diffusion allow new engagement potentials to develop in the community energy niche

  6. Disruption - Access cards service

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    We would like to inform you that between 10 November and 15 December 2014, the access cards service in Building 55 will be disrupted, as the GS Department has decided to improve the facilities for users of this building. During the work, you will find the registration, biometric registration and dosimeter exchange services on the second floor of Building 55 and the vehicle sticker service on the ground floor along with the access cards service. We thank you for your understanding and apologise for any inconvenience caused.

  7. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Devavrat; Shin, Jinwoo; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among int...

  8. Migrants' access to healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie

    2011-01-01

    There are strong pragmatic and moral reasons for receiving societies to address access to healthcare for migrants. Receiving societies have a pragmatic interest in sustaining migrants' health to facilitate integration; they also have a moral obligation to ensure migrants' access to healthcare according to international human rights principles. The intention of this thesis is to increase the understanding of migrants' access to healthcare by exploring two study aims: 1) Are there differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy I and II); and 2) Why are there possible differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants? (substudy III and IV). The thesis builds on different methodological approaches using both register-based retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional design and survey methods. Two different measures of access were used to explore differences: 1) cancer stage at diagnosis as a clinical outcome and 2) emergency room (ER) contacts as a utilisation measure. Both informal and formal barriers to access were studied to explore why possible differences existed including: 1) motivation for using ER; and 2) asylum seekers' healthcare entitlements. Different definitions of migration and ethnicity were investigated including: country of birth and residence status. Substudy I showed a tendency towards more advanced stage at diagnosis or unknown stage among most subgroups of migrant women with a history of cancer compared to non-migrant women. Sub-study II found that some migrants (those born in Somalia, Turkey and Ex-Yugoslavia) use ER services more frequently than do non-migrants whereas others have the same or lower utilisation levels. As a consequence, substudy III was undertaken, which documented that more migrant within all subgroups had considered contacting a primary caregiver before visiting the ER compared to non-migrants, but that migrants experienced communication problems herein. Additionally, more migrants had irrelevant ER visits as evaluated by caregivers. Substudy IV addressed formal and informal barriers to access and screening. According to the law asylum seekers are entitled to emergency care only in 10 out of 24 countries. Medical screening was carried out in all but one of the 24 EU countries; however, the content and extent of screening programmes vary. The thesis aimed to explore if there are differences in migrants' access to healthcare compared to that of non-migrants. Differences in utilisation and clinical outcome were identified between migrants and non-migrants. Reasons why disparities exist were also identified in relation to communication with primary care and on policy level. The thesis shows that various perspectives and scientific problems are important to get a full understanding of the process of access to healthcare for different migrant groups. Moreover, various complementary methodological approaches are needed when studying problems of migrants' access to healthcare.

  9. Funding scientific open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the knowledge divide, more Open Access Journals (OAJ) are needed in all languages and scholarly subject areas that exercise peer-review or editorial quality control. To finance needed costs, it is discussed why and how to sell target specific advertisement by associating ads to given scientific keywords. (author)

  10. Efficient Distributed Medium Access

    CERN Document Server

    Shah, Devavrat; Tetali, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Consider a wireless network of n nodes represented by a graph G=(V, E) where an edge (i,j) models the fact that transmissions of i and j interfere with each other, i.e. simultaneous transmissions of i and j become unsuccessful. Hence it is required that at each time instance a set of non-interfering nodes (corresponding to an independent set in G) access the wireless medium. To utilize wireless resources efficiently, it is required to arbitrate the access of medium among interfering nodes properly. Moreover, to be of practical use, such a mechanism is required to be totally distributed as well as simple. As the main result of this paper, we provide such a medium access algorithm. It is randomized, totally distributed and simple: each node attempts to access medium at each time with probability that is a function of its local information. We establish efficiency of the algorithm by showing that the corresponding network Markov chain is positive recurrent as long as the demand imposed on the network can be supp...

  11. College Access Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  12. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  13. Would MERCOSUR's exports to the EU profit from trade liberalisation? Some general insights and a simulation study for Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak-Lehmann D., Felicitas; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada

    2003-01-01

    In this study, MERCOSUR\\'s past exports to the EU under the protectionist environment of the period between 1988 and 1996 are examined and an attempt is made to determine MERCOSUR\\'s exports\\' growth potential in a liberalised EU market. A sectoral study is considered indispensable since tariff and non-tariff trade barriers vary strongly among sectors. The influence of the macroeconomic environment on MERCOSUR\\'s exports is examined in a dynamic panel analysis. A simulation study based on a q...

  14. Vietnam’s Accession to the WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements and compares subsequent outcomes with predictions from existing computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. Those model based assessments have greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements. Tariff reform is not the main factor driving economic adjustments, and market imperfections mean there is potential for greater output and trade expansion. The key questions to ask in future research are what critical new institu...

  15. The Accessibility Quotient: A New Measure of Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew A. Willmott; Katharine H. Dunn; Ellen Finnie Duranceau

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Accessibility Quotient (AQ), a new measure for assisting authors and librarians in assessing and characterizing the degree of accessibility for a group of papers, is proposed and described. The AQ offers a concise measure that assesses the accessibility of peer-reviewed research produced by an individual or group, by incorporating data on open availability to readers worldwide, the degree of financial barrier to access, and journal quality. The paper reports on the context fo...

  16. Kinds of access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one’s own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent ex...

  17. Kinds of Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Sandberg, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    In experimental investigations of consciousness, participants are asked to reflect upon their own experiences by issuing reports about them in different ways. For this reason, a participant needs some access to the content of her own conscious experience in order to report. In such experiments, the reports typically consist of some variety of ratings of confidence or direct descriptions of one’s own experiences. Whereas different methods of reporting are typically used interchangeably, recent ex...

  18. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the desi...

  19. Public Access Defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Hansen, Marco Bo; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Wissenberg, Mads; Folke, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Copenhagen, a volunteer-based Automated External Defibrillator (AED) network provides a unique opportunity to assess AED use. We aimed to determine the proportion of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) where an AED was applied before arrival of the ambulance, and the proportion of OHCA-cases where an accessible AED was located within 100m. In addition, we assessed 30-day survival. METHODS: Using data from the Mobile Emergency Care Unit and the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry, we ...

  20. Counterpoint: Accessibility and Sprawl

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Crane

    2008-01-01

    This essay provides a counterpoint to Robert Bruegmann's perspective on accessibility and sprawl in this journal volume. Bruegmann's recent work on the history of urban form situates contemporary discussions of sprawl in a well-researched historical context; however, this essay takes a different perspective on several key points in Bruegmann's analysis, particularly in relation to cost-benefit analysis for transportation-disadvantaged populations.

  1. Editorial: Accessibility (July 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Dru Lavigne

    2008-01-01

    Much has changed since the term "open source" was coined ten years ago. The idea of sharing code, once relegated to research institutions and hobbyists, is starting to reach ubiquity in the consciousness of both government and business. More recently, this concept has extended beyond software. Everything from hardware to data to knowledge is becoming "open". Despite this trend towards openness--or perhaps due to the stark contrast openness provides--accessibility remains a difficult obstacle ...

  2. Accessing naïve human pluripotency

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Loh, Yuin-Han; Tesar, Paul J.; Daley, George Q.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotency manifests during mammalian development through formation of the epiblast, founder tissue of the embryo proper. Rodent pluripotent stem cells can be considered as two distinct states: naïve and primed. Naïve pluripotent stem cell lines are distinguished from primed cells by self-renewal in response to LIF signaling and MEK/GSK3 inhibition (LIF/2i conditions) and two active X chromosomes in female cells. In rodent cells, the naïve pluripotent state may be accessed through at least ...

  3. Access and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Granly

    2012-01-01

    Like many other major European media corporations the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) has begun the digitisation of its audio-visual archives. This transformation from analogue to digital archives raises a number of questions regarding the archive specific character, history and content of the broadcast material. Furthermore, the digitisation process renders visible a number of problems. This includes possible access for researchers, general availability of the content, permission to presen...

  4. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give a detailed ethnographic description of five different fishing operations and then compare them on a number of different fronts. This will direct us to some general differences in their modes of operation in...

  5. Dialysis access related infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, S Q; Kaveh, K

    2000-01-01

    Infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. Unintentional pathogens are introduced into an immunocompromised host during hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis by means of the access (arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous graft, central venous catheter, or peritoneal dialysis catheter). Gram positive organisms are most common with Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus predominating. Preventive measures are mandatory and the key to decreasing infection rates. PMID:11110287

  6. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of ...

  7. High Speed Packet Access

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Santosh G. Bari1 , Mr. Kishor P. Jadhav2 Mr. Vishal P. Jagtap

    2013-01-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.Thi...

  8. ADOPT Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Are you writing a theoretical paper? An experimental one? Or one about instrumentation? You can publish it in Open Access. Now. Read how... You might have heard about Open Access, the next big thing in scientific publishing. The idea is to make the results of your (publicly funded) research free to read for everyone out there ... not only those lucky ones who work in places where libraries can afford to purchase the expensive subscriptions to scientific journals. CERN, DESY and other particle physics institutes have accepted an offer by one of the leading journals in High Energy Physics, JHEP: our libraries will pay a special subscription fee, and, in exchange, all articles with at least one author from our institutes will be published in Open Access. Anyone, anywhere and anytime will be able to read them, without any financial barrier! If you are writing an instrumentation paper, you can submit it to JINST and benefit from the same offer. This is a major step forward in the planned conversion of existi...

  9. Remote access thyroid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  10. Remote access thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Kandil, Emad; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2015-10-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  11. Open-Access Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Fran?ula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature, one of the most prominent scientific journals dedicated one of its issues to recent changes in scientific publishing (Vol. 495, Issue 7442, 27 March 2013. Its editors stressed that words technology and revolution are closely related when it comes to scientific publishing. In addition, the transformation of research publishing is not as much a revolution than an attrition war in which all sides are buried. The most important change they refer to is the open-access model in which an author or an institution pays in advance for publishing a paper in a journal, and the paper is then available to users on the Internet free of charge.According to preliminary results of a survey conducted among 23 000 scientists by the publisher of Nature, 45% of them believes all papers should be published in open access, but at the same time 22% of them would not allow the use of papers for commercial purposes. Attitudes toward open access vary according to scientific disciplines, leading the editors to conclude the revolution still does not suit everyone.

  12. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  13. Open Access and Horizon 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Ronan, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the open access and open data requirements for proposals for the European Horizon 2020 Funding, 2014. This presentation outlines what open access is, how the Glucksman library can facilitate researchers and advises on publication strategy. Recommended text to researchers: In line with Ireland’s National Principles for Open Access Policy Statement, the project team will apply the ‘green’ Open Access model for this Horizon 2020 funded project. The project team will: • Deposit ...

  14. ACCESSIBILITY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF CELLULOSE

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Ioelovich,

    2009-01-01

    The accessibility of cellulose samples having various degrees of crystallinity was studied with respect to molecules of water, lower primary alcohols, and lower organic acids. It was found that small water molecules have full access to non-crystalline domains of cellulose (accessibility coefficient ? = 1). Molecules of the lowest polar organic liquids (methanol, ethanol, and formic acid) have partial access into the non-crystalline domains (?

  15. Internet Authentication for Remote Access

    OpenAIRE

    Pagliusi, Paulo Sergio

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that future IP devices will employ a variety of different network access technologies to gain ubiquitous connectivity. Currently there are no authentication protocols available that are lightweight, can be carried over arbitrary access networks, and are flexible enough to be re-used in the many different contexts that are likely to arise in future Internet remote access. Furthermore, existing access procedures need to be enhanced to offer protection against...

  16. Role-Based Access Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraiolo, David F.; Kuhn, D. Richard

    2009-01-01

    While Mandatory Access Controls (MAC) are appropriate for multilevel secure military applications, Discretionary Access Controls (DAC) are often perceived as meeting the security processing needs of industry and civilian government. This paper argues that reliance on DAC as the principal method of access control is unfounded and inappropriate for many commercial and civilian government organizations. The paper describes a type of non-discretionary access control - role-based...

  17. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.

    1994-05-01

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

  18. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer's interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided

  19. Some self-access principles

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy Cooker

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I will describe how the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC) at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS) was established, and discuss some of the personal philosophies of self-access centres (SACs) and self-access learning that I have developed over the eight years of being associated with this centre.

  20. Some self-access principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Cooker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will describe how the Self-Access Learning Centre (SALC at Kanda University of International Studies (KUIS was established, and discuss some of the personal philosophies of self-access centres (SACs and self-access learning that I have developed over the eight years of being associated with this centre.

  1. Conscious access overflows overt report

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sergent; Rees, G

    2007-01-01

    Block proposes that phenomenal experience overflows conscious access. In contrast, we propose that conscious access overflows overt report. We argue that a theory of phenomenal experience cannot discard subjective report and that Block's examples of phenomenal "overflow" relate to two different types of perception. We propose that conscious access is more than simply readout of a preexisting phenomenal experience.

  2. 47 CFR 52.107 - Hoarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...rebuttable presumption that the toll free subscriber is hoarding or brokering toll free numbers. (b) Tariff Provision...included in the Service Management System tariff and in the local exchange carriers' toll free database access tariffs:...

  3. Electrification of the Galapagos island, Floreana, using a PV hybrid system and innovative tariff model; Elektrifizierung der Galapagosinsel Floreana mit einem PV Hybridsystem und innovativem Tarifmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosseler, I.; Vallve, X.; Ramirez, E.; Gavalda, O. [TRAMA TECNOAMBIENTAL, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The Galapagos islands in Ecuador are Natural Park since 1959. Four of these are inhabited and about 5 million litres of diesel per year are shipped 1000km from the mainland to generate electricity. This could be representative of other parts of the world. Floreana, the smallest inhabited island has 173km2 and about 200 inhabitants; a diesel genset microgrid was operating in the only village of the island (Puerto Velasco Ibarra), 13h per day. The operating scheme for the electric service is representative of a situation where the users pay a standard grid tariff, and the electric utility (EEPG) is sustained through a cross-subsidy of 25.000 US$ per year. Some users in the island are far from the grid and not connected. Small businesses have to operate their own gensets to complement the existing schedule. With funding mainly from the Parque Nacional Galapagos of Ecuador and support to the European NGO SEBA from AECI and the EC, a project for the implementation of Sustainable infrastructures in Floreana has been executed with the objective to reduce substantially the operational deficit, to offer electricity service to ALL potential users 24 hours a day and to reduce substantially the dangerous fuel transports. So, in the late 2003 a MSG (Multi User Hybrid Grid) was commissioned in Puerto Velasco Ibarra which gives electricity service to 54 users by an 18 kWp PV generator backed by the existing diesel gensets. The scattered houses are supplied with individual stand-alone PV systems with a total of 5,9 kWp. This new service approach with PV hybrid technology is supposed to create yearly savings of nearly 20.000 US$ based on a life-cycle analysis compared with the previous generation scheme by genset. The most important aspects of project implementation are that all users are contractually linked to the energy operator in a unified tariff scheme with segmented flat rated monthly fees (whether connected to the MSG or supplied by individual systems), standard grid-equivalent electricity service for everybody 24 hrs/day and that energy dispenser/meters assure demand side management. (orig.)

  4. Chemists, Access, Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    2000-06-01

    New JCE Internet Feature at JCE Online Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists is a new JCE Internet feature on JCE Online. Edited by Barbara Burke, this feature provides biographical information on leading chemists, especially women and minority chemists, fostering the attitude that the practitioners of chemistry are as human as those who endeavor to learn about it. Currently, the column features biographical "snapshots" of 30 chemists. Each snapshot includes keywords and bibliography and several contain links to additional online information about the chemist. More biographical snapshots will appear in future installments. In addition, a database listing over 140 women and minority chemists is being compiled and will be made available online with the snapshots in the near future. The database includes the years of birth and death, gender and ethnicity, major and minor discipline, keywords to facilitate searching, and references to additional biographical information. We welcome your input into what we think is a very worthwhile resource. If you would like to provide additional biographical snapshots, see additional chemists added to the database, or know of additional references for those that are already in the database, please contact JCE Online or the feature editor. Your feedback is welcome and appreciated. You can find Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists starting from the JCE Online home page-- click the Features item under JCE Internet and then the Chemist Bios item. Access JCE Online without Name and Password We have recently been swamped by libraries requesting IP-number access to JCE Online. With the great benefit IP-number authentication gives to librarians (no user names and passwords to administer) and to their patrons (no need to remember and enter valid names and passwords) this is not surprising. If you would like access to JCE Online without the need to remember and enter a user name and password, you should tell your librarian about our IP-number access. Current subscriptions can be upgraded to IP-number access at little additional cost. We are pleased to be able to offer to institutions and libraries this convenient mode of access to subscriber only resources at JCE Online. JCE Online Usage Statistics We are continually amazed by the activity at JCE Online. So far, the year 2000 has shown a marked increase. Given the phenomenal overall growth of the Internet, perhaps our surprise is not warranted. However, during the months of January and February 2000, over 38,000 visitors requested over 275,000 pages. This is a monthly increase of over 33% from the October-December 1999 levels. It is good to know that people are visiting, but we would very much like to know what you would most like to see at JCE Online. Please send your suggestions to JCEOnline@chem.wisc.edu. For those who are interested, JCE Online year-to-date statistics are available. Biographical Snapshots of Famous Chemists: Mission Statement Feature Editor: Barbara Burke Chemistry Department, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona, Pomona, CA 91768 phone: 909/869-3664 fax: 909/869-4616 email: baburke@csupomona.edu The primary goal of this JCE Internet column is to provide information about chemists who have made important contributions to chemistry. For each chemist, there is a short biographical "snapshot" that provides basic information about the person's chemical work, gender, ethnicity, and cultural background. Each snapshot includes links to related websites and to a biobibliographic database. The database provides references for the individual and can be searched through key words listed at the end of each snapshot. All students, not just science majors, need to understand science as it really is: an exciting, challenging, human, and creative way of learning about our natural world. Investigating the life experiences of chemists can provide a means for students to gain a more realistic view of chemistry. In addition students, especially women and minorities, need more scientist role models. When teache

  5. Sandia Access Delay Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been involved in security systems development and application for approximately twenty years. This involvement has included the development of physical security system elements such as detection, assessment, access delay, and response. SNL has continued to be very active in access delay design, development, and application including fixed barriers, deployable barriers, and activated dispensables. Access delay is becoming increasingly important in physical security systems designs as threat capabilities increase and security personnel operational costs escalate. SNL is presently developing two access delay systems incorporating multiple access delay features. The first is the Intra- site Secure Transport Vehicle (ISTV) which is being developed to address security and safety vulnerabilities during transportation. The second is a Rapid Deployment Access Delay System (RAPADS) that provides enhanced security for temporary storage or contingency operations. This paper includes a brief history of SNL involvement in access delay hardware development and the basic design features and capabilities of the ISTV and RAPADS

  6. Effects of the regulating energy levy and energy tariffs on the cost effectiveness of energy efficient production of heat and cold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With respect to the title subject collective and stand-alone systems for house and office buildings were analyzed. For houses a high-efficiency boiler as reference system, and individual micro-cogeneration unit, an individual electric heat pump with a collective aquifer as heat source, an individual gas heat pump with outside air as a heat source, a collective cogeneration system, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. For office buildings a high-efficiency boiler and a cooling machine as a reference system, an individual electric heat pump with an individual aquifer as a heat source, cold storage, collective cogeneration, and a collective energy plant with cogeneration and an electric heat pump. Also an overview is given of the changes that are taking place in the tariffs for natural gas, e.g. the use of so-called Commodity Services. Finally, the impact on prices of natural gas and electricity of the fact that the tax-free threshold of the regulating energy levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) will disappear is investigated. 5 refs

  7. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  8. Accessibility and inclusion informational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sena de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Discusses the role of information professionals in meeting the informational demands of people with disabilities in the information society. The librarian is crucial for the effectiveness and success in the informational inclusion of people with disabilities, considering also continuing education for their professional qualification.Objective: To provide reflections on the role of the librarian in serving users with disabilities, highlighting the need for improvement in information units, identified in the scientific literature with regard to accessibility.Methodology: Literature search, based on a review of literature in books and scientific papers, highlighting the main authors: Adams (2000, Mazzoni (2001 and Sassaki (1997, 2002, 2005.Results: The lack of informational access for people with disabilities hampers their social and political participation, hence, reduces its condition of citizenship.Conclusion: The librarian responsible for seeking continuing education, greater involvement in the events of the area and the constant search for job training, which will reflect on the best service the information needs of users with disabilities.

  9. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Shuiming

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the -Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  10. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiming Ye

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  11. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all. Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set of credentials needed to reach a certain location in a system. This knowledge allows to identify a set of (inside) actors who have the possibility to commit an insider attack at that location. This has immediate applications in analysing log files, but also nontechnical applications such as identifying possible suspects, or, beyond cyber crimes, picking the “best” actor for a certain task. We also sketch an online analysis that identifies where an actor can be located based on observed actions.

  12. Access Management for Digital Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zahid Hossain Shoeb

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Access management illustrates the process of providing controlled, and secure access to resources. It involves both authentication—the process of determining the validity of a user who claims to be, and autorisation—the process of determining what resources a user is permitted to access. Access management is significant as an important as well as one of the key services for the network infrastructure of digital repository activities for a wide range of audiences. Like the digital collection of digital repository, it also requires that the content be accessed and distributed as widely as possible to valid users around the globe. Access management and control is one of the major concerns for digital content authority over the Internet. Confidentiality and integrity of information cannot be ensured without a proper access management mechanism. Though most of the Institutional Repositories or Open Access Repositories are satisfied with the current mechanisms of the Open Source Software, which they use to build the repositories, restricted repositories or digital libraries demand more security and authenticity. The paper discusses the current practices and issues of access management for digital repositories including user authentications, user authorisation, authentication, and the technology of secured digital communication of digital materials. This paper also gives a basic idea about access management practices in Bangladesh by the digital content providers.

  13. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter seeks to reframe the reductionist historical narrative explaining problems of overfishing with a combination of human economic behavior, technological innovations, and lack of property rights. Instead, contemporary Danish commercial fisheries are seen as part of a more complex long-term development, with close attention paid to the actions of state, management, organizational politics, private companies, fishers, and their communities. The aim is to show the interplay of a broad range of factors, structures, and actors that influence fisheries management. Thus, the chapter seeks to avoid reducing the history of quota privatization to a simple and deterministic narrative of technological development and the tragedy of open access. The history of fishing is much more nuanced than this. This inquiry therefore looks more closely at, behind, and around the axioms of fisheries management narratives.

  14. A quantum access network

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Bernd; Lucamarini, Marco; Sharpe, Andrew W; Yuan, Zhiliang; Shields, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The theoretically proven security of quantum key distribution (QKD) could revolutionise how information exchange is protected in the future. Several field tests of QKD have proven it to be a reliable technology for cryptographic key exchange and have demonstrated nodal networks of point-to-point links. However, so far no convincing answer has been given to the question of how to extend the scope of QKD beyond niche applications in dedicated high security networks. Here we show that adopting simple and cost-effective telecommunication technologies to form a quantum access network can greatly expand the number of users in quantum networks and therefore vastly broaden their appeal. We are able to demonstrate that a high-speed single-photon detector positioned at the network node can be shared between up to 64 users, thereby significantly reducing the hardware requirements for each user added to the network. This shared receiver architecture removes one of the main obstacles restricting the widespread application...

  15. Accessible nonlinear entanglement witnesses

    CERN Document Server

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Verification of entanglement is an important tool to characterize sources and devices for use in quantum computing and communication applications. In a vast majority of experiments entanglement witnesses (EW) are used in order to prove the presence of entanglement in a quantum state. EWs can be constructed from available measurement results and do not require a reconstruction of the whole density matrix (full tomography), which is especially valuable for high-dimensional systems. We provide a method to construct {\\it accessible nonlinear EWs}, which incorporate two important properties. First, they improve on linear EWs in the sense that each non-linear EW detects more entangled states than its linear counterpart and therefore allow the verification of entanglement without critical dependence on having found the 'right' linear witness. Second, they can be evaluated using exactly the same data as for the evaluation of the original linear witness. This allows a reanalysis of published experimental data to stren...

  16. Accessibility Long Term Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Axhausen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Improved accessibility and its correlate lower generalized cost of contact, travel and transport have been sought by dynamic human societies for their economic and social benefits through- out recorded history. The paper will reflect about this process at a number of different spatial and temporal scales based on a conceptual model. Looking back at European history, it will trace the interaction between Christaller's logic of local market areas and the idea of (low contact cost network cities. Focusing on Switzerland since 1950 it will show how network investment changed the relative distribution of population and employment and how this interacted with changes in the preferences of the travelers. Using a recent snapshot of how a substantial sample of Swiss maintain their social networks over often very large areas, it will try to answer the question of what will happen in the future, if the current trend of ever lower costs of contact will persist.

  17. High Speed Packet Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Santosh G. Bari1 , Mr. Kishor P. Jadhav2 Mr. Vishal P. Jagtap

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS with High Speed Packet Access (HSPA technology and its evolution to beyond 3G is becoming the primary global mobile broadband solution. Building on the phenomenal success of GSM, the GSM/UMTS ecosystem is becoming the most successful communications technology family ever. UMTS/HSPA, in particular, has many key technical and business advantages over other mobile wireless technologies which providing customers mobile broadband service today.This paper review brief Advantages, futures of different technology against HAPA, Like CDMA2000/UMB, IEE802.16e Wi-MAX and the evolution of HSPA (HSPA+. HSPA offers operators a single network for multiple services, with a sound business case built on revenues from voice, SMS, MMS, roaming customers and mobile broadband.

  18. Open Access: Basics and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Heather; Waller, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    “Open Access” has emerged in recent years as a major development in the world of scholarly communication. It may have the potential to greatly alter the university publishing environment and change the ways in which everyone accesses research material, particularly scholarly journals. This article will take a look at the basics of Open Access (or OA) as well as some direct and indirect benefits of OA inside and outside of academe.

  19. Patent Funded Access to Medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Tom

    2015-12-01

    Instead of impeding access to essential medicines in developing countries, the essay explores why and how patents can serve as a source of funding for the much needed access to medicine. Instead of a weakening of patents, prolonged protection periods are suggested in circumstances where there is widespread lack of access. The revenues from extended patents are seen as a source of funding for drug donations to the least developed countries. PMID:24750573

  20. Disabled Access for Museum Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Jonathan P.

    2003-01-01

    Physical disabled access is something that most museums consider very seriously. Indeed, there are normally legal requirements to do so. However, online disabled access is still a relatively novel field. Most museums have not yet considered the issues in depth. The Human-Computer Interface for their websites is normally tested with major browsers, but not with specialist browsers or against the relevant accessibility and validation standards. We consider the current state of...

  1. The oil and gas market in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economy of the People's Republic of China has more than quadrupled in size since 1978 because of the implementation of market liberalization policies and economic reform. This growing economy has triggered a high demand for energy. China has become one of the world's largest consumer markets for energy, particularly in the oil sector where consumption has widened the gap between supply and demand. This gap has forced China to become an important oil importing country. In addition, the consumption of coal in China is the highest in the world and its use in industrial regions has caused significant environmental damage. For that reason, China is focusing on the development of cleaner fuels and renewable energy sources for electric power generation. The energy policy in China is aimed at securing the supply of oil to fuel the growing economy. It is also aimed at capitalizing on the extensive natural gas resources within the country through the development of a natural gas infrastructure. Foreign investors can now control majority stakes in the $7.4 billion, 4,200 km east-west natural gas transportation pipeline. Canadian companies can take advantage of this significant opportunity by forming partnerships for both upstream and downstream projects. China is also focusing on exploration and development of oil fields in the western regions of China, presenting an additional opportunity for Canadian oil and gas companies with expertise in enhanced oil recovery methods and advanced oil technologies. China's expected accession to the WTO is set to lower tariff and non-tariff barriers to permit freer competition in the oil and gas sector. It is recommended that a local agent be used to conduct business in China. refs., tabs

  2. The energy market in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Western exporters that are looking to distribute their products and services in mainland China can do so through the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). Hong Kong's proposed upgrade to their electrical power industry will result in a strong demand for specialized power equipment and services. A total of $15.9 billion will be invested from 2000 to 2005 by the China Light and Power Holding Limited and Hong Kong Electric Company. The planned projects include the construction of a liquefied natural gas pipeline, the expansion of power transmission and distribution networks, plus the installation of gas fired generators at power plants. Canadian companies have the opportunity to form strategic alliances with the above mentioned electric utilities to pursue projects in other countries. Currently, the most significant environmental issue in Hong Kong is air pollution. The HKSAR is introducing strict standards for vehicle emissions, and is promoting cleaner fuels for the automotive industry, such as electric-powered vehicles and liquefied petroleum gas as a substitute for diesel and gasoline. The increased demand for clean technology for pollution prevention and environmental control presents new opportunities in the power sector. Currently, there are no tariff and non-tariff barriers inhibiting imports of power equipment into the HKSAR. Distributors in Hong Kong are ready to promote foreign products both in the HKSAR and mainland China. The most effective method for foreign distributors to market technology products and services is through a local agent or through joint ventures with domestic companies. In addition to providing legal advantages, such partnerships can help sort through import regulations and provide access to local staff and facilities. refs., tabs

  3. Atomic memory access hardware implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J

    2015-02-17

    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  4. Development of an economical model to determine an appropriate feed-in tariff for grid-connected solar PV electricity in all states of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia is a country with a vast amount of natural resources including sun and wind. Australia lies between latitude of 10-45 S and longitude of 112-152 E, with a daily solar exposure of between less than 3 MJ/(m2 day) in winter and more than 30 MJ/(m2 day) in summer. Global solar radiation in Australia varies between minimum of 3285 MJ/(m2 year) in Hobart to 8760 MJ/(m2 year) in Northern Territory. As a result of this wide range of radiation level there will be a big difference between costs of solar PV electricity in different locations. A study we have recently conducted on the solar PV electricity price in all states of Australia. For this purpose we have developed an economical model and a computer simulation to determine the accurate unit price of grid-connected roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity in A$/kWh for all state of Australia. The benefit of this computer simulation is that we can accurately determine the most appropriate feed-in tariff of grid-connected solar PV energy system. The main objective of this paper is to present the results of this study. A further objective of this paper is to present the details of the unit price of solar PV electricity in the state of Victoria in each month and then to compare with electricity price from conventional power systems, which is currently applied to this state. The state Victoria is located south of Australia and in terms of sun radiation is second lowest compared with the other Australian states. The computer simulation developed for this study makes it possible to determine the cost of grid-connected solar PV electricity at any location in any country based on availability of average daily solar exposure of each month as well as economical factors of the country. (author)

  5. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  6. "Accessions": Researching, Designing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    This brief viewpoint piece depicts educational (dis)engagements apparent in researching and (re)designing higher education in and through "Accessions". "Accessions", a collaborative research-design project, probed at how cultures, climates and conditions of higher education may be reproducing or reshaping social inequalities and divisions. Here,…

  7. Accessible Multimedia for the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaparyniuk, Nicholas; Code, Jillianne

    With the Internet taking a dominant role in corporate training, education, retail, and customer based product exploration, authors of Web-based information need to ensure that the media they deliver is accessible to the widest possible audience. Whether users have a visual, auditory, physical, or developmental disability, accessible multimedia can…

  8. Accessible Information and Quantum operations

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    The accessible information decreases under quantum operations. We analyzed the connection between quantum operations and accessible information. We show that a general quantum process cannot be operated accurately. Futhermore, an unknown state of a closed quantum system can not be operated arbitrarily by a unitary quantum operation.

  9. Editorial: Next Generation Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Marco; Cincotti, Gabriella; Pizzinat, Anna; Vetter, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade we have seen an increasing number of operators deploying Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) solutions in access networks, in order to provide home users with a much needed network access upgrade, to support higher peak rates, higher sustained rates and a better and more uniform broadband coverage of the territory.

  10. Open access and medicinal chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Swain Chris

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Chemistry Central is a new open access website for chemists publishing peer-reviewed research in chemistry from a range of open access journals. A new addition, Chemistry Central Journal, will cover all of chemistry and will be broken down into discipline-specific sections, and Im delighted that Medicinal Chemistry will be a key discipline in this new journal.

  11. StatFund | Accessibility Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site has been designed to be accessible to all users, compliant with the Section 508 standards, and compatible with screen readers and other assistive technologies. However, this is an ongoing process and it is possible that some users may encounter problems accessing some pages.

  12. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Alvaro; Eljack, Nasma D

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the ?-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the membrane was found. Therefore, the most likely mechanism whereby the cysteine residue could become glutathionylated is via a loosening of the ?-? subunit association, creating a hydrophilic passageway between them to allow access of glutathione to the cysteine residue. By such a mechanism, glutathionylation of the protein would be expected to anchor the modified cysteine residue in a hydrophilic environment, inhibiting further motion of the ?-subunit during the enzyme's catalytic cycle and suppressing enzymatic activity, as has been experimentally observed. The results obtained, therefore, suggest a possible structural mechanism of how the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase could be regulated by glutathione.

  13. Making Astronomy Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2011-05-01

    A new semester begins, and your students enter the classroom for the first time. You notice a student sitting in a wheelchair or walking with assistance from a cane. Maybe you see a student with a guide dog or carrying a Braille computer. Another student gestures "hello” but then continues hand motions, and you realize the person is actually signing. You wonder why another student is using an electronic device to speak. Think this can't happen in your class? According to the U.S. Census, one out of every five Americans has a disability. And some disabilities, such as autism, dyslexia and arthritis, are considered "invisible” disabilities. This means you have a high probability that one of your students will have a disability. As an astronomy instructor, you have the opportunity to reach a wide variety of learners by using creative teaching strategies. I will share some suggestions on how to make astronomy and your part of the universe more accessible for everyone.

  14. Transmission access review - interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim report of the Transmission Access Review, announced in the UK government's Energy White Paper, examines the present technical, commercial and regulatory framework for delivery of new transmission infrastructure and management of the grid to ensure it is fit for purpose as the proportion of renewables generation on the system grows. Progress made in removing the barriers to grid access, the need for measures to improve the efficiency and timely connection of new generation, and better use of existing transmission assets and capacity in support of the government's targets for renewable energy are discussed. The background to the study is traced, and the challenges for transmission access, access reform, delivering and operating infrastructure, and initial recommendations are examined along with implementing changes to transmission access arrangements. A summary of responses to the call for evidence is presented

  15. Get the right access rights!

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2015-01-01

    On 11 May, a major change concerning the requirements to access the CERN beam facilities was put in place and implemented in ADaMS in order to reduce the number of courses that people who need access to multiple installations have to follow. This revision includes dedicated safety training courses that replace, in particular, the “Safety during LS1” e-learning course, which is now to be considered obsolete.   CERN’s Access Distribution and Management System (ADaMS). As of 11 May, an important improvement was implemented in ADaMS (CERN’s Access Distribution and Management System) regarding the requisites to access safety zones. This change is closely related to the introduction of a generic e-learning course ("CERN Beam Facilities") covering the common risks and systems present in CERN's beam facilities. Two e-learning courses are no longer valid, nor available on the SIR (Safety Information Registration) catalogue: the &ld...

  16. Distance-based accessibility indices

    CERN Document Server

    Csató, László

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to develop a suitable accessibility index for networks where each link has a value such that a smaller number is preferred like distance, cost, or travel time. A measure called distance sum is characterized by three independent properties: anonymity, an appropriately chosen independence axiom, and dominance preservation, which requires that a node not far to any other is at least as accessible. We argue for the need of eliminating the independence property in certain applications. Therefore generalized distance sum, a family of accessibility indices, will be suggested. It is linear, considers the accessibility of vertices besides their distances and depends on a parameter in order to control its deviation from distance sum. Generalized distance sum is anonymous and satisfies dominance preservation if its parameter meets a sufficient condition. Two detailed examples demonstrate its ability to reflect the vulnerability of accessibility to link disruptions.

  17. Optimal accessing and non-accessing structures for graph protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Gravier, Sylvain; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

    2011-01-01

    An accessing set in a graph is a subset B of vertices such that \\existsD \\subseteq B, \\forallv \\in V \\B,|N(v)\\capD| = 0 mod2. In this paper, we introduce new bounds on the minimal size {\\kappa}'(G) of an accessing set, and on the maximal size {\\kappa}(G) of a non-accessing set of a graph G. We show strong connections with perfect codes and give explicitly {\\kappa}(G) and {\\kappa}'(G) for several families of graphs. Finally, we show that the corresponding decision problems are NP-Complete.

  18. Optimal accessing and non-accessing structures for graph protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Gravier, Sylvain; Javelle, Jérôme; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

    2011-01-01

    An accessing set in a graph is a subset B of vertices such that there exists D subset of B, such that each vertex of V\\B has an even number of neighbors in D. In this paper, we introduce new bounds on the minimal size kappa'(G) of an accessing set, and on the maximal size kappa(G) of a non-accessing set of a graph G. We show strong connections with perfect codes and give explicitly kappa(G) and kappa'(G) for several families of graphs. Finally, we show that the corresponding...

  19. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  20. General conditions applicable to the contract for access to the public power transportation network for an eligible consuming site; Conditions generales applicables au contrat d'acces au reseau public de transport d'electricite pour un site consommateur eligible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    On 1 November 2002, the new tariffs for the utilisation of the public power transmission and distribution networks, defined by decree no 2002-1014 of 19 July 2002, will come into effect. A new contract for access to the transmission network has been drawn up in co-operation with the Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) so as to be able to include these new tariffs. This new contract also takes into account the expectations expressed by the users of the transmission network concerning the energy delivery agreement used since the coming into effect of the European Directive on the opening of the electricity market in February 1999. On 31 October 2002, RTE is publishing a new version of the contract for access to the Public Transmission Networks. This document reproduces the general conditions of this contract. It comprises the following parts: preamble; definitions; connection to the public transportation network; metering and deductions; subscribed power; development, exploitation and maintenance of facilities; power continuity and quality; liability; tariffing and conditions of payment; declaration of the balancing actor; general dispositions.

  1. Three essays on access pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydee, Ahmed Nasim

    In the first essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price in the telecommunications industry. Determining the optimal access price is an important issue in the economics of telecommunications. Setting a high access price discourages potential entrants; a low access price, on the other hand, amounts to confiscation of private property because the infrastructure already built by the incumbent is sunk. Furthermore, a low access price does not give the incumbent incentives to maintain the current network and to invest in new infrastructures. Much of the existing literature on access pricing suffers either from the limitations of a static framework or from the assumption that all costs are avoidable. The telecommunications industry is subject to high stranded costs and, therefore, to address this issue a dynamic model is imperative. This essay presents a dynamic model of one-way access pricing in which the compensation involved in deregulatory taking is formalized and then analyzed. The short run adjustment after deregulatory taking has occurred is carried out and discussed. The long run equilibrium is also analyzed. A time path for the Ramsey price is shown as the correct dynamic price of access. In the second essay, a theoretical model is developed to determine the time path of optimal access price for an infrastructure that is characterized by congestion and lumpy investment. Much of the theoretical literature on access pricing of infrastructure prescribes that the access price be set at the marginal cost of the infrastructure. In proposing this rule of access pricing, the conventional analysis assumes that infrastructure investments are infinitely divisible so that it makes sense to talk about the marginal cost of investment. Often it is the case that investments in infrastructure are lumpy and can only be made in large chunks, and this renders the marginal cost concept meaningless. In this essay, we formalize a model of access pricing with congestion and in which investments in infrastructure are lumpy. To fix ideas, the model is formulated in the context of airport infrastructure investments, which captures both the element of congestion and the lumpiness involved in infrastructure investments. The optimal investment program suggests how many units of capacity should be installed and at which times. Because time is continuous in the model, the discounted cost -- despite the lumpiness of capacity additions -- can be made to vary continuously by varying the time a capacity addition is made. The main results that emerge from the analysis can be described as follows: First, the global demand for air travel rises with time and experiences an upward jump whenever a capacity addition is made. Second, the access price is constant and stays at the basic level when the system is not congested. When the system is congested, a congestion surcharge is imposed on top of the basic level, and the congestion surcharge rises with the level of congestion until the next capacity addition is made at which time the access price takes a downward jump. Third, the individual demand for air travel is constant before congestion sets in and after the last capacity addition takes place. During a time interval in which congestion rises, the individual demand for travel is below the level that prevails when there is no congestion and declines as congestion worsens. The third essay contains a model of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines, both when pipeline operators are regulated and when they behave strategically. The high sunk costs involved in building a pipeline network constitute a serious barrier of entry, and competitive behaviour in the transmission pipeline sector cannot be expected. Most of the economic analyses of access pricing for natural gas transmission pipelines are carried out from the regulatory perspective, and the access price paid by shippers are cost-based. The model formalized is intended to capture some essential characteristics of networks in which components inte

  2. Increasing Access to Special Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Erway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an environment where we increasingly have access to a collective collection of digitized books, special collections will become increasingly invisible if they are not accessible online. In an era of increasing expectations and decreasing budgets, finding ways to streamline some of our processes is the best way to enable us to do more with less. This report details a number of investigations into how access to special collections can be increased. It includes guidance running the gamut from digitization and rights management to policies and procedures.

  3. Access control system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An access system based on the one now in operation at the CERN ISR is recommended. Access doors would presumably be located at the entrances to the utility tunnels connecting the support buildings with the ring. Persons requesting access would insert an identity card into a scanner to activate the system. The request would be autologged, the keybank adjacent to the door would be unlocked and ISABELLE operations would be notified. The operator would then select the door, activating a TV-audio link. The person requesting entry would draw a key from the bank, show it and his film badge to the operator who would enable the door release

  4. Network Access Control For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Jay; Wessels, Denzil

    2009-01-01

    Network access control (NAC) is how you manage network security when your employees, partners, and guests need to access your network using laptops and mobile devices. Network Access Control For Dummies is where you learn how NAC works, how to implement a program, and how to take real-world challenges in stride. You'll learn how to deploy and maintain NAC in your environment, identify and apply NAC standards, and extend NAC for greater network security. Along the way you'll become familiar with what NAC is (and what it isn't) as well as the key business drivers for deploying NAC.Learn the step

  5. SM18 Visits and Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

  6. 20 CFR 655.550 - Public access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Public access. 655.550 Section...Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY...Activities in U.S. Ports Public Access § 655.550 Public access. (a) Public...

  7. Open Access Publishing in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothkopf, U.; Meakins, S.

    2012-08-01

    Open Access (OA) in scholarly literature means the "immediate, free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles". The Open Access movement has been made possible thanks to the wide-spread availability of internet access and has received increasing interest since the 1990s, mostly due to the fast rising journal subscription prices. This presentation will review the current situation of Open Access in astronomy. It will answer the question why it makes sense to publish in an OA journal and will provide criteria to judge the quality of OA journals and publishers, along with suggestions how to identify so-called predatory publishers.

  8. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  9. Water Access Sites in Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data shows the approximate locations of boat accesses in the state. This is not a comprehensive list but one that was generated through a cooperative effort....

  10. Achieving universal access to broadband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure...

  11. Encryption in Delocalized Access Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlström, Henrik; Skoglund, Karl-Johan

    2008-01-01

    The recent increase in performance of embedded processors has enabled the use of computationally heavy asymmetric cryptography in small and power efficient embedded systems. The goal of this thesis is to analyze whether it is possible to use this type of cryptography to enhance the security in access systems. This report contains a literature study of the complications related to access systems and their functionality. Also a basic introduction to cryptography is included. Several cryptograph...

  12. Metadata-driven multimedia access

    OpenAIRE

    Van Beek, P.; Smith, J. R.; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Suzuki, T; Askelof, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the growing ubiquity and mobility of multimedia-enabled devices, universal multimedia access (UMA) is emerging as one of the important components for the next generation of multimedia applications. The basic concept underlying UMA is universal or seamless access to multimedia content, by automatic selection and adaptation of content based on the user's environment. UMA promises an integration of these different perspectives into a new class of content adaptive applications that could all...

  13. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Iosue; Alec Roy; Costanza Andrisano; Marco Sarchiapone; Laura Mandelli

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, ...

  14. Access With(out) Anonymity

    OpenAIRE

    Schepman, Tessie; Koren, Marian; Horvat, Aleksandra; Kurtovic, Dejana; Grgi?, Ivana Hebrang

    2008-01-01

    Access to information is one aspect; collecting and retaining data of people accessing information is another aspect of library services in modern times. Users can benefit from new technologies applied in library services, such as user profiles, based on loan history; tailor made services through advanced marketing based on customer segmentation etc. Searching history on library internet computers, films with pictures of persons on security cameras are other data which may reveal a perso...

  15. Accessibility and visually impaired users

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Ant??nio Ramires; Pereira, Jorge; Campos, J. Creissac

    2004-01-01

    Internet accessibility for the visually impaired community is still an open issue. Guidelines have been issued by the W3C consortium to help web designers to improve web site accessibility. However several studies show that a significant percentage of web page creators are still ignoring the proposed guidelines. Several tools are now available, general purpose, or web specific, to help visually impaired readers. But is reading a web page enough? Regular sighted users are able to scan a web pa...

  16. Textual information access statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gaussier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This book presents statistical models that have recently been developed within several research communities to access information contained in text collections. The problems considered are linked to applications aiming at facilitating information access:- information extraction and retrieval;- text classification and clustering;- opinion mining;- comprehension aids (automatic summarization, machine translation, visualization).In order to give the reader as complete a description as possible, the focus is placed on the probability models used in the applications

  17. Personalizing Access to Learning Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Simon, Bernd; Nejdl, Wolfgang; Klobucar, Tomaz

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe a Smart Space for Learning™ (SS4L) framework and infrastructure that enables personalized access to distributed heterogeneous knowledge repositories. Helping a learner to choose an appropriate learning resource or activity is a key problem which we address in this framework, enabling personalized access to federated learning repositories with a vast number of learning offers. Our infrastructure includes personalization strategies both at the query and the query resul...

  18. Increasing access to medical abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp Kallner, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Unsafe abortion kills approximately 47000 women per year. However, women in high resource settings may also have difficulties in accessing safe abortion facilities due to high cost, a large number of visits required or difficulty in finding an abortion provider. The object of this thesis was to examine ways to increase access to medical abortion. Materials, methods and results: Study I: Home use of misoprostol may decrease cost, the number of required visits and b...

  19. Quantum spread spectrum multiple access

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We describe a quantum multiple access scheme that can take separate single photon channels and combine them in the same path. We propose an add-drop multiplexer that can insert or extract a single photon into an optical fibre carrying the qubits of all the other users. The system follows the principle of code division multiple access, a spread spectrum technique widely used in cellular networks.

  20. Security in Unlicensed Mobile Access

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) provides transparent access to 2G and 3G networks for Mobile Stations over the unlicensed radio interface. Unlicensed radio tehnologies such as Bluetooth or WLAN technology connects the Mobile Station to the fixed IP network of the home or office and delivers high bandwith to the Mobile Station. The purpose of this report is to examine if subscribers can feel as secure using UMA as they do when using any of the alternetive mobile technologies that UMA supports. ...

  1. Open Access in Biomedical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Syka, Josef; Bernal, Isabel; Clement-Stoneham, Geraldine; Duchange, Nathalie; McEntyre, Jo; Soderqvist, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    In recognition of the importance of open access to the biomedical sciences, the European Medical Research Councils (EMRC) of the European Science Foundation (ESF),launched an activity to investigate what, if any, steps EMRC could usefully take to improve the open access landscape in the biomedical field across Europe. EMRC task force meetings held in September and November 2011 led to the identification of a number of issues and the drafting of a preliminary document. ...

  2. Accessibility of adolescent health services

    OpenAIRE

    S Richter

    2000-01-01

    Adolescents represent a large proportion of the population. As they mature and become sexually active, they face more serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility and multiple barriers to accessing health care. A typical descriptive and explanatory design was used to determine what the characteristics of an accessible adolescent health service should be. Important results and conclusions that were reached indi...

  3. Database Access through Java Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae MERCIOIU; Lungu, Ion

    2010-01-01

    As a high level development environment, the Java technologies offer support to the development of distributed applications, independent of the platform, providing a robust set of methods to access the databases, used to create software components on the server side, as well as on the client side. Analyzing the evolution of Java tools to access data, we notice that these tools evolved from simple methods that permitted the queries, the insertion, the update and the deletion of the data to adv...

  4. The continental free trade area : a GTAP assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially impressive results were forecast by simulating a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with the particular African problem of transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. These gains are significantly above both just intraAfrican tariff elimination and what may be thought of as the more traditional non-tariff barriers that we modelled individually and separately. Although we have not modelled a combined approach which incorporates all three components of tariff elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time-in-transit cost reductions, the final combined outcome from all three are likely to be cumulative and generate very large gains to Africa. The overall results from especially time-in-transit costs support the current emphasis on projects such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) infrastructural supports to Africa. In addition, the World Bank and others have produced a dataset of constraints in trade-related services for Africa and others that we are examining, adding these simulations to our portfolio. Again, the results here are likely to be significant and additive to reductions in the other three constraints (tariff barriers, more traditional non-tariff barriers, and time in transit costs). Our simulations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with a selected group of African countries show that this is very much a second-best option, and the inclusion of most of the significant economies in Africa generates the best results. Only in the event of a failure to achieve integration across the continent with all or most African countries should partial integration be pursued. The policy implications from our research are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional cooperation that does not need the long and drawn-out processes associated with FTA negotiations. However, against this background the concept of ‘governance’ must be emphasised, as must the crucial importance of a rules-based structure. In addition, provided African countries are willing to play their part, global funds seem to be available for these reforms.

  5. Enhanced Access Design Alternative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste Packages (WP) are provided with sufficient material to satisfy long-term performance objectives but do not attempt to satisfy radiation shielding needs that allow personnel access. As such, the current Viability Assessment (VA) design provides for remote handling for fuel loading and transfer to the emplacement drift. Inspection and maintenance of the drift environment is either performed remotely within the emplacement drift or by access to Performance Confirmation (PC) and observation drifts adjacent to the emplacement drifts. Any retrieval operations would be performed in a similar remote manner. This alternative investigates the possibility and outcome of providing sufficient radiation shielding of WP to allow for personnel access during handling and inspection operations and in so doing, simplifying component design and operations. The objective of this report is to review the possible use of additional shielding of the WP to allow for increased personnel access for emplacement and confirmation activities. The effect of enhanced access design on post-closure performance, pre-closure safety, operations, maintenance, licensing, schedule, risk, and cost are reviewed. The possibility of using the enhanced access design with other Design Alternatives (DA) is also considered. The results reported in this technical document are to be used for making decisions about selecting features and alternatives for the License Application (LA) Reference Design. The results are not to be used for procurement, construction, or fabrication activities

  6. Comportamiento de las tarifas de referencia de los tres exámenes de laboratorio clínico más solicitados en Medellín, Colombia. 1990-2003 / BEHAVIOR OF THE REFERENCE TARIFFS OF THREE FREQUENTLY REQUESTED LABORATORY TEST IN THREE INSTITUTIONS IN COLOMBIA, 1990-2003

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERMÁN, CAMPUZANO MAYA; SAMUEL ANDRÉS, ARIAS VALENCIA.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir el comportamiento en los últimos años de las tarifas de referencia de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica (SCPC), el Instituto de Seguros Sociales (ISS) y el Ministerio de Salud (MS), de los tres exámenes de mayor demanda en el laboratorio clínico: la glicemia, el citoquí [...] mico de orina y el hemograma. Metodología: Se tomó la tarifa propuesta para las tres pruebas por las tres instituciones desde su inicio hasta el 2003. Las de la SCPC fueron ajustadas también por el índice de precios al consumidor y el salario mínimo. Se realizó una comparación año a año. Resultados: Las tarifas propuestas por la SCPC fueron muy similares a los ajustes por indicadores económicos. Las tarifas de la glicemia fueron en promedio un 61,3% más bajas en el ISS y un 45,2% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas del citoquímico de orina fueron en promedio un 58,9% más bajas en el ISS y un 49,4% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas de los hemogramas fueron en promedio un 36,5% más bajas en el ISS y un 31,8% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC Conclusión: en las tres pruebas evaluadas la diferencia entre las tarifas del ISS y el MS se va haciendo mayor año a año comparadas con las de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To describe the tendency of reference tariffs in recent years in three colombian institutions (Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica -SCPC-, Instituto de Seguros Sociales -ISS- and Ministry of Health), for the three laboratory tests with greater demand, namely: glucose test, urine analys [...] is and blood count. Methodology: The tariffs for these tests in the aforementioned institutions were analyzed since first available until 2003. Tariffs of the SCPC are adjusted according to official price indexes and the minimum salary. A comparison year after year was carried out. Results: The proposed tariffs of the SCPC were very closely similar to the adjustments by economic indicators. Prices of the glucose test were on the average 61,3% lower in the ISS and 45,2% lower in the Ministry of Health as compared with the SCPC. Prices of the urine analysis were on the average 58,9% lower in the ISS and 49,4% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Prices for the blood count were on the average 36,5% lower in the ISS and 31,8% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Conclusion: Tariffs for the three evaluated tests are lower in the ISS and the Ministry of Health and the gap with those of the SCPC becomes wider every year.

  7. Behavior of the reference tariffs of three frequently requested laboratory test in three institutions in Colombia, 1990-2003 Comportamiento de las tarifas de referencia de los tres exámenes de laboratorio clínico más solicitados en Medellín, Colombia. 1990-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Andrés Arias Valencia

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the tendency of reference tariffs in recent years in three colombian institutions (Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica —SCPC—, Instituto de Seguros Sociales —ISS— and Ministry of Health, for the three laboratory tests with greater demand, namely: glucose test, urine analysis and blood count. Methodology: The tariffs for these tests in the aforementioned institutions were analyzed since first available until 2003. Tariffs of the SCPC are adjusted according to official price indexes and the minimum salary. A comparison year after year was carried out. Results: The proposed tariffs of the SCPC were very closely similar to the adjustments by economic indicators. Prices of the glucose test were on the average 61,3% lower in the ISS and 45,2% lower in the Ministry of Health as compared with the SCPC. Prices of the urine analysis were on the average 58,9% lower in the ISS and 49,4% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Prices for the blood count were on the average 36,5% lower in the ISS and 31,8% lower in the Ministry of Health than in the SCPC. Conclusion: Tariffs for the three evaluated tests are lower in the ISS and the Ministry of Health and the gap with those of the SCPC becomes wider every year. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento en los últimos años de las tarifas de referencia de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica (SCPC, el Instituto de Seguros Sociales (ISS y el Ministerio de Salud (MS, de los tres exámenes de mayor demanda en el laboratorio clínico: la glicemia, el citoquímico de orina y el hemograma. Metodología: Se tomó la tarifa propuesta para las tres pruebas por las tres instituciones desde su inicio hasta el 2003. Las de la SCPC fueron ajustadas también por el índice de precios al consumidor y el salario mínimo. Se realizó una comparación año a año. Resultados: Las tarifas propuestas por la SCPC fueron muy similares a los ajustes por indicadores económicos. Las tarifas de la glicemia fueron en promedio un 61,3% más bajas en el ISS y un 45,2% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas del citoquímico de orina fueron en promedio un 58,9% más bajas en el ISS y un 49,4% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC. Las tarifas de los hemogramas fueron en promedio un 36,5% más bajas en el ISS y un 31,8% más bajas en el MS comparadas con las de la SCPC Conclusión: en las tres pruebas evaluadas la diferencia entre las tarifas del ISS y el MS se va haciendo mayor año a año comparadas con las de la Sociedad Colombiana de Patología Clínica.

  8. Open Access for Indian Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Swan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available India’s scholarship has ancient roots and a glorious heritage. Over the last few decades in particular, due to the way the scholarly communication system overall has developed in that time, India’s academic output has suffered from low visibility and poor dissemination. At the moment, global visibility is good for Indian articles that are published in the best ‘western’ journals and in Indian journals indexed by the major abstracting/indexing services, such as ISI’s Web of Science. Moreover, for Indian articles deposited in open access collections in India or those that are co-authored with scientists in other parts of the world who have deposited them in Open Access repositories outside the continent, visibility is maximal. This still leaves a lot of Indian output—most of it in fact— virtually invisible to the rest of the world. India’s investment—intellectual, effort and cash—can never hope to gain a good return this way. The article focuses on how open access can help resolve the problems of maximising the visibility, and thus the uptake and use, of Indian research outputs. The mechanisms to provide open access to scholarly communications, impediments to Open Access in India, and how self archiving can provide a boost to open access movement has been highlighted in this document. The author argues that it is important to emphasise that only mandatory policies work well. Policies that just encourage or even request authors to make their work open access do not result in a size able level of compliance.

  9. Accessing patient-centered care using the advanced access model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantau, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Waits and delays for healthcare are legendary. These delays are not only frustrating and potentially hazardous for patients and providers but also represent significant cost to office practices. The traditional medical model that defines urgent care versus routine care is a vain and futile attempt to sort demand. This approach is at constant odds with patients' definition of urgency. Trusting patients to determine when and how they want to access care makes sense from a customer service perspective. If approached systematically using the principles of Advanced Access, patient demand patterns can be tracked to forecast demand. These demand patterns become the template for deploying the resources necessary to meet patients' needs. Although not a simple journey, the transformation to Advanced Access provides an entree to patient-centered care where patients can say, "I get exactly the care I want and need, when I want and need it." PMID:19104292

  10. Tariffication Strategies and Charging Effectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gustav Cepciansky; Ladislav Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    The effort of all service providers is to maximize their revenues. The ideal case would be, when a service provider obtained payment for entire services provided. But it is not always possible. Some services may not be paid for. Distribution companies (electricity power, gas, and water), transport companies (airlines, railways, buses, and taxis), telecommunication companies and companies established by the government (e.g. cash of road tax) represent such type of enterprises. Their clients pa...

  11. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce system losses, increase circuit capacity, increase reliability, and improve efficiency. Reactive power is theoretically available from any inverter-based equipment such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, fuel cells, microturbines, and adjustable-speed drives. However, the installation is usually only economical if reactive power supply is considered during the design and construction phase. In this report, we find that if the inverters of PV systems or the generators of combined heat and power (CHP) systems were designed with capability to supply dynamic reactive power, they could do this quite economically. In fact, on an annualized basis, these inverters and generators may be able to supply dynamic reactive power for about $5 or $6 per kVAR. The savings from the local supply of dynamic reactive power would be in reduced losses, increased capacity, and decreased transmission congestion. The net savings are estimated to be about $7 per kVAR on an annualized basis for a hypothetical circuit. Thus the distribution company could economically purchase a dynamic reactive power service from customers for perhaps $6/kVAR. This practice would provide for better voltage regulation in the distribution system and would provide an alternate revenue source to help amortize the cost of PV and CHP installations. As distribution and transmission systems are operated under rising levels of stress, the value of local dynamic reactive supply is expected to grow. Also, large power inverters, in the range of 500 kW to 1 MW, are expected to decrease in cost as they become mass produced. This report provides one data point which shows that the local supply of dynamic reactive power is marginally profitable at present for a hypothetical circuit. We expect that the trends of growing power flow on the existing system and mass production of inverters for distributed energy devices will make the dynamic supply of reactive power from customers an integral component of economical and reliable system operation in the future.

  12. Modern Subject Access in the Online Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Pauline A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    In this fifth course installment, the impact of technological developments on subject access is discussed. Expert opinions concerning trends in online catalogs, information storage, information generation, the user interface, library use of computer technology, subject access to pictorial materials, user friendly access sytems, and quicker access

  13. Advanced Placement: Access Not Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne J. Camara

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Lichten (2000 argues that increased access to AP courses in high schools has led to a decline in AP quality. He uses a mix of actual data, inaccurate data, and fabricated data to support this hypothesis. A logical consequence of his argument is that a reduction in the availability of AP courses will lead to an improvement in AP quality. In this paper, we maintain that his thesis is flawed because he confounds quality with scarcity. In contrast to his narrow conception of quality, quality in the AP context is subject- specific and multifaceted, embracing course content, the teacher, the student as well as the exam. Increased access will not diminish quality. Instead, increased access exposes students to college-level course material, encourages teachers to expand their knowledge domains, serves as a lever for lifting curriculum rigor, and provides students with the opportunity to experience the challenges associated with advanced placement in college.

  14. Entanglement assisted random access codes

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlowski, Marcin

    2009-01-01

    (n,m,p) Random Access Code (RAC) allows one party to encode n bits in m in such a way that the second party upon receiving these m bits can guess any of the initial n bits with probability p>1/2. We introduce Entanglement Assisted Random Access Codes (EARACs) and show that their performance is better than that of the best known Quantum Random Access Codes (QRACs). We also derive the bounds on the performance of both EARACs and QRACs, which happen to be the same. The family of codes presented in this paper is showed to have an infinite number of members that saturate this bound. We also point out that, contrary to QRAC, (n,1,p) EARAC exists for any n even if the parties do not make use of shared randomness.

  15. Utilisation of prehospital intravenous access

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B H, Bester; S, Sobuwa.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of intravenous (IV) therapy in the South African (SA) prehospital setting, and to determine the proportion of prehospital IV cannulations considered unnecessary when graded against the South African Triage Score (SATS) chart. METHODS: The study was conducted in the pre [...] hospital emergency medical care setting in the Western Cape Province, SA. Using a descriptive research design, we looked at the report forms of patients treated and transported by personnel currently employed in the public sector, serving the urban and rural areas stipulated by the municipal boundaries. All medical and trauma cases in which establishment of IV access was documented for the month of April 2013 were included. Interhospital transfers, unsuccessful attempts at IV access and intraosseous cannulation were excluded. RESULTS: When graded against the SATS, prophylactic IV access was not justified in 42.3% of the total number of cases (N=149) in which it was established, and therefore added no direct benefit to the continuum of patient care. It is worth noting that 18.8% (n=39) of the IV lines were utilised for fluid administration, as opposed to 9.2% (n=19) for the administration of IV medications. CONCLUSION: In view of the paucity of studies indicating a direct benefit of out-of-hospital IV intervention, the practice of precautionary, protocol-driven prophylactic establishment of IV access should be evaluated. Current data suggest that in the absence of scientific evidence, IV access should only be initiated when it will benefit the patient immediately, and precautionary IV access, especially in non-injured patients, should be re-evaluated.

  16. Network Access and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, Ekaterina; Hubert, Franz

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of the liberalization of EU natural gas markets on the balance of power between `local champions', customers, and outside producers. We distinguish between two steps of the reform: 1. opening access to transit pipes and 2. opening access to distribution systems, hence customers. Using the Shapley value as a power index, we find a modest and rather heterogeneous impact from the first step. The impact of the second step is much larger and yields a clear pattern: all local ch...

  17. Code division multiple access (CDMA)

    CERN Document Server

    Buehrer, R Michael

    2006-01-01

    This book covers the basic aspects of Code Division Multiple Access or CDMA. It begins with an introduction to the basic ideas behind fixed and random access systems in order to demonstrate the difference between CDMA and the more widely understood TDMA, FDMA or CSMA. Secondly, a review of basic spread spectrum techniques are presented which are used in CDMA systems including direct sequence, frequency-hopping and time-hopping approaches. The basic concept of CDMA is presented, followed by the four basic principles of CDMA systems that impact their performance: interference averaging, universa

  18. SCOAP3 and Open Access

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Salvatore; D'Agostino, Dan; Dyas-Correia, Sharon; 10.1016/j.serrev.2009.08.015

    2009-01-01

    SCOAP3 is an innovative Open Access initiative for publishing in high-energy physics. The model is viewed by many as a potential solution to multiple issues related to the financial crisis, the peer review system, scholarly communication, and the need to support institutional repositories. This installment of “The Balance Point” presents articles written by three Open Access advocates, outlining the SCOAP3 proposal, benefits of participation, and some of the roles libraries, publishers and scientists can play in making important changes to scholarly communication. Contributors discuss scalability and transferability issues of SCOAP3, as well as other matters of concern.

  19. A Case for Restricted Access

    OpenAIRE

    Gosseries, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Many Freedom of Information (FoI) regimes share two features. People requesting access to documents detained by a public authority are generally not required to demonstrate an interest. And once the document is made available to one applicant, it becomes virtually available to the whole world. Both features may appear to further the goal of openness. This is not necessarily so, as we shall see. Admittedly, most of us find it desirable to have both equality in access to State-detained document...

  20. Achieving Universal Access to Broadband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten FALCH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses appropriate policy measures for achieving universal access to broadband services in Europe. Access can be delivered by means of many different technology solutions described in the paper. This means a greater degree of competition and affects the kind of policy measures to be applied. The paper concludes that other policy measure than the classical universal service obligation are in play, and discusses various policy measures taking the Lisbon process as a point of departure. Available policy measures listed in the paper include, universal service obligation, harmonization, demand stimulation, public support for extending the infrastructure, public private partnerships (PPP, and others.

  1. Selective access and editing in a database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A. (Inventor); Gawdiak, Yuri O. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for providing selective access to different portions of a database by different subgroups of database users. Where N users are involved, up to 2.sup.N-1 distinguishable access subgroups in a group space can be formed, where no two access subgroups have the same members. Two or more members of a given access subgroup can edit, substantially simultaneously, a document accessible to each member.

  2. The Inevitability of Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Open access (OA) is an alternative business model for the publication of scholarly journals. It makes articles freely available to readers on the Internet and covers the costs associated with publication through means other than subscriptions. This article argues that Gold OA, where all of the articles of a journal are available at the time of…

  3. How Accessible Are Your Concerts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith P.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines strategies for making school band concerts accessible to the visually, aurally, and mobility impaired, as well as to limited English speaking audiences. Recommends continuing these efforts in the production of programs and promotional materials. Discounts and transportation could be provided for elderly patrons. (MJP)

  4. Category Accessibility and Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, E. Tory; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The present study examined the immediate and delayed effects of unobtrusive exposure to personality trait terms (e.g., "reckless,""persistent") on subjects' subsequent judgments and recollection of information about another person. The implications of individual and situational variation in the accessibility of different categories for judgments…

  5. Website Accessibility - Nanotechnology Characterization Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is committed to providing access to all individuals--disabled or not--who are seeking information on its Web site. To provide this information, the NCI Web site has been designed to comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (as amended).

  6. Browsing Access to Visual Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gecsei, Jan; Martin, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Discusses browsing in the particular context of visual and multimedia (e.g., videodisc) information databases and describes a working prototype system based on a fisheye view of documents in their context. Topics discussed include selecting and presenting information, exploratory access to information, artificial intelligence, user needs, and…

  7. 75 FR 11528 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...Pool, Inc. submits revised pages to its Open Access Transmission Tariff intended to implement rate changes for KCP&L and GMO, which are transmission owners and pricing zones under SPP Tariff. Filed Date: 03/03/2010. Accession Number:...

  8. Automated Computer Access Request System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  9. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  10. Access to emergency number services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkins, Judith E; Strauss, Karen Peltz

    2008-01-01

    Access to emergency services is mandated by Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The Department of Justice oversees the accessibility of public safety answering points (PSAPs), popularly called 9-1-1 centers. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has at least two roles in emergency number access: (1) as regulator of the ADA's Title IV on telecommunications access, and (2) as regulator of communications companies with regard to support of and interconnection with PSAPs. The rules of both agencies contributed significantly to the improvement during the 1990s of access to 9-1-1 for people who are deaf, hard of hearing, or speech disabled. However, as new technologies for text wireless communications and relay services have moved quickly to Internet protocol (IP)-based technologies over the past 5-8 years, the use of traditional wireline telephones and text telephones among deaf, hard of hearing, and speech-disabled people has declined. PSAPs cannot be contacted via the newer forms of telecommunications, such as e-mail, instant messaging, and IP-based forms of relay services, including video relay services. The gap between the technology supported by policy and the technologies currently being used by deaf and hard of hearing people has become a serious problem that is difficult to solve because of the separate jurisdictions of the two agencies, the need for coordination within the FCC, technological challenges, and funding issues. In this article, the key policy and technology challenges will be analyzed and recommendations made for short-and long-term solutions to this dilemma. PMID:18751576

  11. Enforcement of supplier's right to obtain information about transmission tariffs in the context of public procurement and electricity supply contracts; Oeffentliche Vergabe von Stromlieferauftraegen und Durchsetzung der Ansprueche auf Nennung der Netznutzungsentgelte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L. [Landeskartellbehoerde Sachsen-Anhalt (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Electricity suppliers wishing to submit a bid in response to a public invitation to tender for electricity supply contracts very much depend on prompt information from the transmission utilities about their transmission tariffs. The article describes the supplier's situation as a competitor in the event of such information being delayed and explains the legal aspects of enforcement of his entitlement to information, elaborating on public procurement contracts and cartel law. (orig./CB) [German] Anbieter von Stromlieferungen, die auf Ausschreibungen von oeffentlichen Auftraggebern hin Angebote abgeben wollen, sind darauf angewiesen, dass ihnen Netzbetreiber kurzfristig auf Anfrage ihre Netznutzungsentgelte mitteilen. Thema der Untersuchung ist die schnelle Durchsetzung der Ansprueche auf Nennung der Netznutzungsentgelte bei der Vergabe von Stromlieferauftraegen durch oeffentliche Auftraggeber unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Kartellrechts und des oeffentlichen Vergaberechts. (orig./CB)

  12. Predicting Hemodialysis Access Failure with the Measurement of Dialysis Access Recirculation

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi Javad; Razeghi Effat; Karjalian Hossein; Meysamie Alipasha; Dahhaz Moosa; Dadmehr Majid

    2008-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend regular monitoring of hemodialysis (HD) vascular access using methods such as vascular access recirculation (AR), for early detection and correction of access dysfunction. We measured access recirculation using low blood flow method in 51 chronic HD patients. Of these patients, 42 had arteriovenous fistulas and nine had synthetic arteriovenous grafts. The mean access recirculation rate was 8.75%. We conclude that AR reflects the access blood flow ...

  13. Accessing opportunistic resources with Bosco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco is a software project developed by the Open Science Grid to help scientists better utilize their on-campus computing resources. Instead of submitting jobs through a dedicated gatekeeper, as most remote submission mechanisms use, it uses the built-in SSH protocol to gain access to the cluster. By using a common access method, SSH, we are able to simplify the interaction with the cluster, making the submission process more user friendly. Additionally, it does not add any extra software to be installed on the cluster making Bosco an attractive option for the cluster administrator. In this paper, we will describe Bosco, the personal supercomputing assistant, and how Bosco is used by researchers across the U.S. to manage their computing workflows. In addition, we will also talk about how researchers are using it, including an unique use of Bosco to submit CMS reconstruction jobs to an opportunistic XSEDE resource.

  14. Accessing knowledge through narrative context

    OpenAIRE

    Dettori, Giuliana; Morselli, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how narrative may contribute to create meaningful learning contexts. Starting from a socio-constructivist and situated learning perspective, we acknowledge the crucial role of context in accessing knowledge. Then we point out the potential of narrative in education and discuss the positive role it can play in the creation of meaningful learning contexts. To this end, we focus on different examples of narrative contexts within technology-enhanced learning environments,...

  15. Information Access for Disabled Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien , Justina; Rudžionien e, Jurgita

    2008-01-01

    Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...

  16. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  17. Transcription factor access to chromatin.

    OpenAIRE

    BEATO, M; Eisfeld, K

    1997-01-01

    The question of how sequence-specific transcription factors access their cognate sites in nucleosomally organized DNA is discussed on the basis of genomic footprinting data and chromatin reconstitution experiments. A classification of factors into two categories is proposed: (i) initiator factors which are able to bind their target sequences within regular nucleosomes and initiate events leading to chromatin remodelling and transactivation; (ii) effector factors which are unable to bind regul...

  18. Telerehabilitation Technologies: Accessibility and Usability

    OpenAIRE

    Linda van Roosmalen; Michael Pramuka

    2009-01-01

    In the fields of telehealth and telemedicine, phone and/or video technologies are key to the successful provision of services such as remote monitoring and visits. How do these technologies affect service accessibility, effectiveness, quality, and usefulness when applied to rehabilitation services in the field of telerehabilitation? To answer this question, we provide a overview of the complex network of available technologies and discuss how they link to rehabilitation applications, services...

  19. Social Innovation: Access and Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Roseann O'Reilly Runte

    2008-01-01

    We live in an age where the rapid pace of technological innovation and the ability to disseminate knowledge far exceed our capacity to ensure that all members of society receive their benefits. The challenges in providing access to technology have been largely solved in this globally connected world. How to best use that technology to increase social value and alleviate lack of education, poverty, and other societal problems is an ongoing question with no easy answers. This article explores t...

  20. Evaluating Accessible Synchronous CMC Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Fernando G.; Zacarias, Marielba; Condado, Paulo A.; Romão, Teresa; Godinho, Rui; Moreno, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a more comprehensive evaluation methodology to measure the usability and user experience qualities of accessible synchronous computer-mediated communication applications. The methodology goes beyond current practices by evaluating how the interaction between a user and a product influences the user experience of those at the other endpoint of the communication channel. A major contribution is given with the proposal of a user test where one of the partici...