WorldWideScience

Sample records for access roads

  1. 25 CFR 170.122 - Can a tribe close a cultural access road?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe close a cultural access road? 170.122 Section... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.122 Can a tribe close a cultural access road? (a) A tribe with jurisdiction over a...

  2. 25 CFR 170.121 - What is a cultural access road?

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a cultural access road? 170.121 Section 170.121 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads §...

  3. Opportunities of forest roads usage as emergency access road for natural disaster

    Can Vatandaşlar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the applicability of forest roads as emergency access and evacuation corridor for an alternative to motorways following a prospective earthquake in İstanbul. For this purpose, various disaster scenarios were created in the district of Beykoz and the shortest routes between critical points were determined through network analysis in Geographic Information System (GIS. Results indicated that access was possible between Beykoz city center and shelter, hospital, fire station, disaster management center, and military area via forest roads even if motorways became unusable. However, distance generally got longer and time of arrival increased on the routes of forest road. The increase in time of arrival was attributed to decrease in average cruising speed in addition to the increase in distance. This limitation can be overcome by enhancing the geometric standards of forest roads and completing superstructure operations. Results are important for revealing that forest roads can be used in other fields besides forestry activities, they can strengthen decision support system of managers, and enable first aid crew to reach the scene in the minimal time.

  4. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    2012-12-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  5. PAH Accessibility in Particulate Matter from Road-Impacted Environments.

    Allan, Ian J; O'Connell, Steven G; Meland, Sondre; Bæk, Kine; Grung, Merete; Anderson, Kim A; Ranneklev, Sissel B

    2016-08-01

    Snowmelt, surface runoff, or stormwater releases in urban environments can result in significant discharges of particulate matter-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into aquatic environments. Recently, more-specific activities such as road-tunnel washing have been identified as contributing to contaminant load to surface waters. However, knowledge of PAH accessibility in particulate matter (PM) of urban origin that may ultimately be released into urban surface waters is limited. In the present study, we evaluated the accessibility of PAHs associated with seven distinct (suspended) particulate matter samples collected from different urban sources. Laboratory-based infinite sink extractions with silicone rubber (SR) as the extractor phase demonstrated a similar pattern of PAH accessibility for most PM samples. Substantially higher accessible fractions were observed for the less-hydrophobic PAHs (between 40 and 80% of total concentrations) compared with those measured for the most-hydrophobic PAHs (wash waters, first-order desorption rates for PAHs with log Kow > 5.5 were found in line with those commonly found for slowly or very slowly desorbing sediment-associated contaminants. PAHs with log Kow wash waters when surfactants are used. The implications of total and accessible PAH concentrations measured in our urban PM samples are discussed in a context of management of PAH and PM emission to the surrounding aquatic environment. Although we only fully assessed PAHs in this work, further study should consider other contaminants such as OPAHs, which were also detected in all PM samples. PMID:27312518

  6. Title III Evaluation Report for the Access Road System

    The objective of this evaluation is to provide recommendations to ensure consistency between the technical baseline requirements, baseline design, and the as-constructed Access Roads. Recommendations for resolving discrepancies between the as-constructed system, the technical baseline requirements, and the baseline design are included in this report. Cost and Schedule estimates are provided for all recommended modifications. This report does not address items which do not meet current safety or code requirements. These items are identified to the CMO and immediate action is taken to correct the situation. The report does identify safety and code items for which the A/E is recommending improvements. The recommended improvements will exceed the minimum requirements of applicable code and safety guide lines. These recommendations are intended to improve and enhance the operation and maintenance of the facility

  7. 76 FR 41323 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    2011-07-13

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug.13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal Transit... Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized by Section 3038 of the Transportation...

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of an Optimal Access Road Location in HillyForest Area: A GIS Approach

    Mohd I. Hasmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various models for establishing the efficient forest road allocation and evaluating optimum density of forest roads network for the transport of timber commodity. Most of them are based on the calculation of common timber transport costs and costs for forest roads. Today, forest road design from traditional method continues to be transformed by remote sensing technology and advancement of GIS. It is now possible for a forester to analyze many different road location alternatives over a large geographic area in a minimal amount of time. A computer programming using GIS, digital terrain data and sensitivity analysis for locating optimal forest road access in a hill area is presented. The optimal access road location specifies destination (starting point and target (ending point of the desired path. These paths were allocated by calculated each individual criteria by given weights placed on each cell. Therefore, the objective of this work is to describe an attempt to compute the optimal allocation of forest road corridor in hilly area of Peninsular Malaysia using GIS approach and sensitivity analysis to satisfy the result. Finally, the model minimizes total cost of construction and forest environmental impacts resulting from a specific access road. Sensitivity analysis should be explored further to understand the effects of uncertainty in derivation of model parameter on model outputs. It is concluded that the location of optimal access path were established in the area can reduce the cost and environmental impact to the forest ecosystem.

  9. On the golden road Open access publishing in particle physics

    CERN. Geneva; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    The particle physics community has over the last 15 years achieved so-called full green open access through the wide dissemination ofpreprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green open access does not alleviate the economical difficulties of libraries as these still are expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold open access by converting a set of the existing core journals to open access. A working party works now to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open access Publishing in Particle Physics). This consortium will engage with publishers towards building a sustainable model for open access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced with contracts with publishers of open access journals where the SCOAP3 consorti...

  10. On the golden road : Open access publishing in particle physics

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The particle physics community has over the last 15 years achieved so-called full green open access through the wide dissemination ofpreprints via arXiv, a central subject repository managed by Cornell University. However, green open access does not alleviate the economical difficulties of libraries as these still are expected to offer access to versions of record of the peer-reviewed literature. For this reason the particle physics community is now addressing the issue of gold open access by converting a set of the existing core journals to open access. A working party works now to bring together funding agencies, laboratories and libraries into a single consortium, called SCOAP3 (Sponsoring Consortium for Open access Publishing in Particle Physics). This consortium will engage with publishers towards building a sustainable model for open access publishing. In this model, subscription fees from multiple institutions are replaced with contracts with publishers of open access journals where the SCOAP3 consort...

  11. Winter road access to projected works in the diversion of the Little Whale River

    The Great Whale hydroelectric complex in northern Quebec will require diversion of the Little Whale River, involving construction of dams 40 m and 30 m high and a canal 600 m long. The main mode of access to the construction sites will be a winter road, supplemented by an airfield designed for large-capacity aircraft. The method used by Hydro-Quebec in its environmental assessment of the winter road project is described. This method comprises five steps: delimitation of the study zone; establishment of a road corridor of choice by successively eliminating territory according to given constraints; description of the physical and biological environment; determination and optimization of the road route; and evaluation of potential impacts, along with establishment of measures to mitigate those impacts. The optimal routing is determined on the basis of criteria such as the presence of permafrost, the nature of the soils, avoidance of slopes steeper than 10%, and the depth and width of ice crossings

  12. Spatial Impact of the Road Infrastructure Development in Romania. An Accessibility Approach

    TITUS MAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the spatial structure of accessibility in Romania before and after the implementation of some major national and/or European road infrastructure projects. This study suggests a new index for accessibility measurement by combining gravity-based models with Place Rank and adapting it to the Romanian system of settlements. Based on the GIS estimation of travel time, this index evaluates not only the geographical position of a specific community relative to the road network, but also the level of accessibility of rural and urban communities to the social services located in central places. The GIS-based maps indicate the existing disparities (between well-connected and isolated regions in terms of accessibility to the central places and the impact of new infrastructure projects on these disparities. The resulting maps can be used as efficient tools for transport planning and development at different scales (international, national, regional and local.

  13. Parent-School Partnerships: Forked Roads to College Access

    Sil, Susmita

    2007-01-01

    This article utilizes a social capital perspective to explore the benefits and harmful effects of strong ties between parents and schools in enhancing college access for students. While focusing on social capital in the form of parental participation, the article goes beyond a functionalist approach of the social capital theory as adopted by…

  14. Computation of the hydravlic conditions in the area of the non-level full access road of the main road Škofljica - Šmarje to highway

    Tičar, Tomaž

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on testing the impact of building the non-level full access road of the main road Škofljica - Šmarje regarding the hydraulic condition in this area. It had to be tested if building the access road caused conditions to worsen and give a solution to eliminate the impact. The calculation was made for flood waves of a few different hourly downpours with return periods of 10, 100 and 500 years. With this calculation, the critical flood wave was determined, and flood risk...

  15. Fast-Forward on the Green Road to Open Access: The Case Against Mixing Up Green and Gold

    Harnad, Stevan

    2005-01-01

    This article is a critique of: "The 'Green' and 'Gold' Roads to Open Access: The Case for Mixing and Matching" by Jean-Claude Guedon (in Serials Review 30(4) 2004). Open Access (OA) means: free online access to all peer-reviewed journal articles. Jean-Claude Guedon argues against the efficacy of author self-archiving of peer-reviewed journal articles (the "Green" road to OA). He suggests instead that we should convert to Open Access Publishing (the "Golden" road to OA) by "mixing and matching...

  16. REDUCTION IN PROBABILITY OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON HIGH-CLASS ROAD USING RAMP ACCESS CONTROL

    R. Yu. Lagerev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queuing traffic flow on main road the “turbulence” component can result in formation of an impact blow in the main traffic flow. It has been proved that an impact of the ramp traffic flow on congestion probability is higher in comparison with main road traffic flow. The paper makes it possible to establish that some transport facilities moving along a high-way simul taneously occupy two lanes in the merging traffic zones and they reduce capacity of the used road section. It is necessary to take into account this specific feature and it is necessary to pay attention to it in the zones of “turbulence” effect formation. The paper presents main approaches, methodology, principles and stages required for access control of high-class roads which are directed on higher quality of their operation including improvement of road traffic safety. The paper proposes a methodоlogy that allows to evaluate and optimize ramp control in the context of a transport queue length minimization at adjoining ramps for the purposes of probability reduction in transport congestion.

  17. Rockfall hazard assessment for access road to dam 'Sveta Petka' using rockfall hazard rating system (RHRS)

    Large number of roads in our country are constructed in mountainous and hilly terrains. Execution of cuts in the hard rock masses is inevitable. In light of the geological nature of the rocks, processes like rockfalls and landslides in different forms and magnitude are very usual. They occur during construction activities and afterwards in exploitation of the roads. Correct protective measures must be undertaken in order to secure the safety of traffic and people using this roads. One such case is the access road to Dam “Sv.Petka”, where constant rockfalls, result of great rupture tectonics and steep cut angles built in marbly limestones, endanger the safety of traffic and construction workers using this road. In order to stress out the hazard invoked by rockfalls and the need of protective measures, we used the well established Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS). Posted speed limit has great influence. Along other possibilities that this method offers is the planning of annual programs for protection measures, with separation of most dangerous zones according the classification, before any undertaking of geotechnical analyses of slope stability. Further software modeling is needed in order to get a better understanding of the nature of rockfalls.(Author)

  18. Roads

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows the roads within and near Delaware Water Gap NRA taken from 1:4800 scale mapping that was done for the original land acquisition period (1967)...

  19. Statement of Basis/Proposed Plan for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G)

    The purpose of this plan is to describe the preferred remedial alternative for addressing the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at SRS in Aiken, SC, and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  20. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980`s, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit.

  1. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (631-24G) - March 1996

    Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit is located in the northeast corner of SRS. In the mid 1980's, sparse vegetation, dead trees, and small mounds of soil were discovered on a portion of the road leading to Gunsite 113. This area became the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit (Gunsite 113). The unit appears to have been used as a spoil dirt and / or road construction debris disposal area. There is no documentation or record of any hazardous substance management, disposal, or any type of waste disposal at this unit. Based upon the available evidence, there are no potential contaminants of concern available for evaluation by a CERCLA baseline risk assessment. Therefore, there is no determinable health risk associated with Gunsite 113. In addition, it is also reasonable to conclude that, since contamination is below risk-based levels, the unit presents no significant ecological risk. It is recommended that no further remedial action be performed at this unit

  2. Viability of a New Road Infrastructure with Heterogeneous Users in Madrid Access

    Pedro Cantos-Sanchez; Rafael Moner-Colonques; Jose J. Sempere-Monerris; Oscar Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of heterogeneity in value of time when assessing the viability of a new road infrastructure to alleviate congestion problems. The Spanish government has developed a congestion pricing demonstration entering Madrid city centre, where road users have to choose between a free but highly congested road and a priced free-flowing road. We consider a continuum of users who di¤er in their value of time. Users dislike congestion and this is more so the more a user va...

  3. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit

  4. REDUCTION IN PROBABILITY OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON HIGH-CLASS ROAD USING RAMP ACCESS CONTROL

    R. Yu. Lagerev; D. V. Kapsky

    2016-01-01

    Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queui...

  5. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: → A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. → Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. → INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  6. Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams

    Jin Li, E-mail: li.jin@ouce.ox.ac.uk [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Whitehead, Paul [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Siegel, Donald I. [Earth Sciences Department, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Findlay, Stuart [Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 2801 Sharon Turnpike, Millbrook, NY 12545 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A new integrated catchment model for salinity has been developed to assess the transport of road salt from upland areas in watersheds to streams using readily accessible landscape, hydrologic, and meteorological data together with reported salt applications. We used Fishkill Creek (NY) as a representative watershed to test the model. Results showed good agreement between modeled and measured stream water chloride concentrations. These results suggest that a dominant mode of catchment simulation that does not entail complex deterministic modeling is an appropriate method to model salinization and to assess effects of future applications of road salt to streams. We heuristically increased and decreased salt applications by 100% and results showed that stream chloride concentrations increased by 13% and decreased by 7%, respectively. The model suggests that future management of salt application can reduce environmental concentrations, albeit over some time. - Highlights: > A new Integrated Catchment Model (INCA-Cl) is developed to simulate salinity. > Road salt application is important in controlling stream chloride concentration. > INCA-Cl can be used to manage and forecast the input and transport of chloride to the rivers. - A newly developed integrated catchment model for salinity can be used to manage and forecast the inputs and transport of chloride to streams.

  7. Der grüne Weg zu Open Access: institutionelle und fachliche Repositorien / The Green Road to Open access: institutional and subject repositories

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent issue 1/2009 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information has a focus on „The green road to open Access: institutional and subject repositories“. Self-archiving and storing scholarly publications on a print server were also central topics in many presentations at the 9th International Bielefeld Conference in February 2009. The authors in this issue are Birgit Schmidt and Karin Ilg-Hartecke (Open Access in Deutschland – erweiterte Perspektiven für die Wissenschaft, Christoph Bruch and Anja Lengenfelder (Unterstützung des Grünen Weges zu Open Access an der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Ulrich Herb and Matthias Müller (Nuancen in Grün: Betrieb eines institutionellen und disziplinären Repositoriums – Erfahrungen und Entwicklungen an der Saarländischen Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, Timo Borst and Jan B. Weiland (EconStor: ein fachliches Repositorium für die Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Antonella de Robbio and Michael Katzmayr (The management of an international open access repository: the case of E-LIS and Christian Gumpenberger (The EPrints story: Southampton as the cradle of institutional self-archiving.Furthermore this focus issue features an interview of a representative of a research funding organisation (Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation. 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds and an interview of a publisher (Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive der International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs bei STM.

  8. The 'green' and 'gold' roads to open access : the case for mixing and matching

    Guédon, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Recent discussions on Open Access (OA) have tended to treat OA journals and self-archiving as two distinct routes. Some supporters of self-archiving even suggest that it alone can bring about full Open Access to the world's scientific literature. In this paper, it is argued that each route actually corresponds to a phase in the movement toward Open Access; that the mere fact of self-archiving is not enough; that providing some branding ability to the repositories is needed. However, doing so...

  9. Roads (Johnson City)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  10. Cyclical and Structural Deficits on the Road to Accession: Fiscal Rules for an Enlarged European Union

    Coricelli, Fabrizio; Ercolani, Valerio

    2002-01-01

    The Paper is one of the first attempts to compute cyclical and structural deficits for a set of countries candidate to accession to the EU. Three main results are derived: first, the high deficits observed in candidate countries in recent years have a structural nature. Second, the fiscal stance has been pro-cyclical in candidate countries. Finally, because of higher volatility of output in these countries, the risks of surpassing the 3% budget limit that applies to all members of the EU are ...

  11. Views on access road design of waste landfill%垃圾填埋场进场道路设计的几点体会

    邓飞

    2014-01-01

    对垃圾填埋场进场道路的特点进行了分析,并对进场道路平、纵、横断面,路基设计要点进行了介绍,给出了环境保护措施,指出在路线设计过程中要综合考虑纵、横断面设计,借助辅助设计工具反复试线,以确定出满意的线位。%The oaoer analyzes characteristics of access road of waste landfill,introduces horizontal and vertical access road subgrade design ooints,shows environmental orotection measures,and ooints out that:it is necessary to comorehensively design vertical and horizontal section and reoeats it again and again with auxiliary design tools,so as to determine satisfied location.

  12. Unterstützung des Grünen Weges zu Open Access an der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft / Support of the Green Road to Open Access within the Max Planck Society

    Lengenfelder, Anja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Max Planck Society (Max-Planck-Gesellschaft; MPG with equal weight supports both the Golden and Green Road to Open Access in practice and politically in a sustainable way.In the context of the Green Road it runs with eDoc a central institutional repository for the MPG. The software of the same name is an in-house development. Based on the experiences and wishes of the users, currently, a new application (PubMan which is built upon the eSciDoc framework is introduced within the institutes. eSciDoc is a co-operation with the FIZ Karlsruhe and is funded until 2009 by the BMBF. All applications and services are Open Source and can therefore be re-used and be further developed. Apart from the development and maintenance of technical infrastructures, the Green Road within the MPG is furthered via direct and indirect personal support for scientists during the publication process. In this regard the close exchange between single Max Planck Institutes, the Max Planck Digital Library and other national and international partners plays an important role. With the Berlin Declaration in 2003 and currently in the Priority Initiative “Digital Information” of the Alliance of the German Research Organizations this commitment for Open Access is also politically represented.In this article are introduced and explained both eDoc and PubMan respectively as well as the Open Access Policy of the MPG with a special focus on the activities within the Green Road.

  13. Analysis of the Accessibility Facilities Design of Mountainous City Road%山地城市道路无障碍设施设计研究

    李量

    2013-01-01

      近年来,无障碍设施建设在国内长足发展,并取得了可喜的收获。但山地城市道路无障碍设施设计研究,却仍是国内无障碍设施研究中的空白。在有限的道路界限和特殊的地形条件下,如何铺设并满足障碍人群使用的无障碍设施仍然是一大难题。%In recent years, the construction of accessibility fa-cilities developed rapidly in China and achieved gratifying har-vest. But the design research of accessibility facilities in the mountainous city road are stil gaps in the domestic, how to sa-tisfy the disabled persons by using the accessibility facilities u-nder the condition of limited road boundaries and special land-form condition is stil the major problem.

  14. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  15. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  16. 浅谈城市道路的无障碍设计%A Brief Talk On Accessible Design Of City Road

    胡晓丰

    2012-01-01

    According to the background and actuality of accessible design of city road,this paper states the problems and solving approach and points out the importance of it in municipal construction engineering.%通过对城市道路无障碍设计的背景及现状论述,阐明了城市无障碍道路设计存在的问题及解决途径,并强调指出完善和建设无障碍设施在市政建设工程中的重要性。

  17. Hill Air Force Base: Archaeological Monitoring of Target and Access Road Development for the TS-5-2 Target Area, Utah Test and Training Range, Tooele County, Utah

    Duke, Daron

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth District, contracted with Geo-Marine, Inc., to conduct archaeologial monitoring for a U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) project on the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), which is under the jurisdiction of Hill Air Force Base and located in Tooele County, western Utah. Monitoring of ground disturbing activities associated with ACC development of Target TS-5-2 and a 2.5-mile dirt access road on the TS-5 (Wild Isle) area of UTTR was undertake...

  18. From road obsolescence to contemporary European scenic roads

    Cervera Alonso de Medina, Marina; Mercadé Aloy, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Object: European non-motorway roads nearby natural and cultural heritage overlapping cross border regions in the European Union. Subject: Redundant roads as an Opportunity for land- use change, landscape identity disclosure and reducedspeed access network for the promotion of cultural tourism. The paper sustains a methodology to alleviate road redundancy by reconverting them into a reduced-speed access network. The aim would be to recreate historical access and circulation flow...

  19. State Forest Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  20. The road to open access : a guide to the implementation of the Berlin Declaration [Roadmap for implementation

    Friend, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    Steps along the roadmap to OA: first steps already taken (e.g. the announcement of the Berlin Declaration together with an invitation to other research organizations to declare their support); raising awareness (e.g. encouragement to learned societies to support open access through permissions to deposit articles in repositories or through the conversion of journals to an open access business model); creating a sustainable infrastructure (e.g. the repository should be compliant with internati...

  1. Curecanti-Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines access roads rehabilitation, maintenance, and construction project. Environmental Assessment

    1993-07-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is a power marketing agency of the US Department of Energy, with jurisdiction in 15 western states. The Salt Lake City Area (SLCA) of Western performs the agency`s mission in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, and Nevada. As part of its mission, Western owns, operates, and maintains a system of transmission lines for transmitting bulk electrical energy from points of generation to and between delivery points. Part of that system in southwestern Colorado includes the Blue Mesa-Curecanti and Blue Mesa-Salida 115-kV transmission lines. Western proposes to conduct maintenance and improve its access roads for these two transmission lines. This paper discusses the impacts to the existing environment as well as the environmental consequences resulting from the maintenance and construction that is proposed.

  2. Accessibility Analysis of Road Network Supported by Isochrone Model%等时线模型支持下的路网可达性分析

    何亚坤; 艾廷华; 禹文豪

    2014-01-01

    An isochrone is a visual representation of time accessibility which refers to a particular point in the road network .Features of road network and traffic conditions should be considered when generating isochrones .Accessibility rules can be found through analyzing the morphological features of isochrones .This article systematically studied the definition ,characteristics and generation methods of isochrones T.he flow method was proposed to generate isochrones ,which was analogous to the process of water drop spreading along the wood texture .Accessibility expansion paths were obtained on the basis of the network rasteriza‐tion model , considering unique constraints of isochrones extension , such as road conditions , moving criteria and time sections .Then we used the extending convex hull and angle bisector displacement to generate isochrones .Since the algorithm was based on field theory , we could flexibly load space constraints for any part of interested zones .This advantage made it convenient to generate real‐time isochrones .Similar to extracting geomorphic traits from contour lines ,accessibility rules were found by analyzing the arrangement form , density , bending form , bending direction and stretching direction of isochrones which was generated by the above approach .After that ,accessibility rules were inferred .%等时线是道路网中参考于某特定点位的系列时间可达性的可视化表达,其生成需要分析道路网络特性及通行状况,其形态可以反映可达性规律。本文对等时线进行了定义、特性分析及生成方法研究;通过类比水滴沿木板的纹理扩散的过程,提出水流扩展算法生成等时线,在网络栅格化模型的基础上,考虑等时线扩展独特的约束条件,如道路状况、移动条件及时间分段等获得可达性扩展路径,通过扩展凸包和角平分线移位生成等时线。水流扩展算法基于场论思想,可以针对网络空间中任

  3. Model and Algorithm for Urban Transportation Discrete Network Design Based on Road Network Accessibility%基于路网可达性的城市交通离散网络设计模型及算法

    邓克涛

    2012-01-01

    根据城市交通路网分区理论,把分成的子区看成一个节点,考虑所有节点的可达性,以此度量整个路网的可达性,设计了基于路网可达性最大为目标的城市交通离散网络设计模型.采用粒子群算法,并给出一个简单的算例,算例表明,合理的添加路段,能使城市路网可达性达到最大.%Based on the division theory of urban transportation network, this paper divided urban network into sub-district as a node, and considered the accessibility of all the nodes to measure the accessibility of the entire road network. A model for urban transportation discrete network was designed to maximize the road network accessibility. Moreover, a particle swarm optimization algorithm was proposed. A simple numerical example was presented. The numerical results show that reasonable added segment of road will maximize the urban road network accessibility.

  4. Miscellaneous Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  5. EPA GHG Certification of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: Development of Road Grade Profiles Representative of US Controlled Access Highways

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duran, Adam [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burton, Evan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-12

    This report includes a detailed comparison of the TomTom national road grade database relative to a local road grade dataset generated by Southwest Research Institute and a national elevation dataset publically available from the U.S. Geological Survey. This analysis concluded that the TomTom national road grade database was a suitable source of road grade data for purposes of this study.

  6. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  7. Private Toll Roads: A Dynamic Equilibrium Analysis

    Lindsey, Robin; De Palma, André

    1997-01-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for a variety of reasons, including theirpotential to alleviate traffic congestion, shrinking public funds for road construction and maintenance,and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle.This paper takes the profitability of private toll roads as given, and focuses on their allocativeefficiency. The model features on...

  8. 北京交通网络拓扑结构及可达性格局历史变化研究%The Change Analysis of Topology Structure and Accessibility Pattern of Beijing Road Network in Historical Period

    王少华; 钟耳顺; 张小虎; 郑怀海; 张珣

    2014-01-01

    基于过去800年(1160~2000年)北京城市交通网络时间序列数据,研究了北京交通网络的发展变化。主要从交通网络的拓扑结构、可达性等角度分别对网络直径、平均最短路径长度、平均聚集指数、相对可达性等指标进行了定性定量分析。研究结果表明:第一,北京交通网络扩张呈“两段式”特点:前数百年只加密路网,近53年网络直径扩张了2.62倍;第二,从网络拓扑结构的角度分析,北京过去800年交通网络度分布结构呈现良好的一致性,交通网络中顶点与路段的比例保持不变,网络内部联系日趋紧密;第三,北京交通网络可达性格局趋于有序:从金元时期的不规则格局发展为明清时期的椭圆形格局,建国后呈圆盘形格局扩张,但可达性中心由天安门向西北方向偏移至阜成门处。通过搜集研究北京过去800年的交通网络数据,本文记录了北京交通网络演化的全过程,并揭示了其演化过程中蕴含的宏观规律。%Based on road network time series datasets of Beijing (1160-2000 AD), this paper studies the development pattern of road network .From the perspectives of network size , topology structure and accessibility pattern , the study chooses several measure-ments, including network diameter , average length of shortest paths , average degree, average clustering coefficient , relative accessi-bility index, and has carried out both quantitative and qualitative analysis .The results of the study mainly lead to three conclusions . First, from the perspectives of network size , the road network development process of Beijing in past 800 years can be devised into two stages:the road network diameter keep stable in several hundred years , and suddenly expend 2.62 times in just 53 years.Second, from the perspectives of topology structure , the average degrees and degree distribution of the road networks show a high degree of

  9. Auctioning Concessions for Private Roads

    Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily interested in maximizing profits, which ??ven the market power they will have ??ll typically not lead to welfare maximizing tolls and capacities. An important question is whether these discrepancies can ...

  10. Auctioning Concessions for Private Roads

    Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily interested in maximizing profits, which – given the market power they will have – will typically not lead to welfare maximizing tolls and capacities. An important question is whether these discrepancies ...

  11. Mitigation Options to Reduce Icing and Thaw Instability Problems on the Denali Park (Alaska) Access Road%阿拉斯加德纳里国家公园公路沿线冰椎和融化失稳问题的减灾备选方案

    Ted S. Vinson

    2005-01-01

    Only one access road leads into Denali Park. The serviceability and safety of this gravel road is obviously of paramount importance to the National Park Service (NPS). Since the late 1950s and mid-1960s major icings and a landslide, respectively, have occurred along the Denali Park access road. During the summer of 1990 the landslide activity intensified. The central section of the Park through which the access road traverses is designated as a wilderness area. Consequently, off road field exploration required to quantify the hazards and remediation activities that may be proposed to mitigate icings and stabilize the landslide, are severely restricted and closely scrutinized by the NPS. The results of an evaluation of (1) the current state-of-the-practice to control icings, and (2) thaw stabilization techniques that could be applied to the northwest corner of the landslide are presented herein. The recommendations which followed, respecting the wilderness area designation for the Park, are also presented.

  12. Road density

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  13. 山区集散二级公路接入口安全处置对策研究%Safe Disposal of Countermeasures Research on Access for Mountain Distribution of Secondary Road

    刘唐志; 闵强; 梅子俊; 唐伯明

    2013-01-01

    It is extremely easily caused traffic accident for distributed secondary roads in mountain areas,because of its complex traffic composition,a mass of access along the road,intensive roadside traffic interference,and disordered crossroads access.Paper makes a deep analysis about the influencing factors for the traffic safety of the access.The access are divided into three types according to the traffic characteristics,put forward some safe countermeasures.In addition,this article makes a effectiveness e-valuation of the improvement measures based on a secondary road in yunnan province.Finally,the dis-posal countermeasures of access safety in this paper are not only applied to the construction and mainte-nance management for the distributed secondary road in mountain areas,but also have the role of guiding for access disposal of other grade road.%山区集散二级公路交通组成复杂,沿线开口多,路侧行车干扰大,支路口无序接入极易引发交通事故。对接入口交通安全的影响因素进行了深入分析,按照交通特征等将接入口分为3种类型,提出了接入口安全保障对策,并以云南某二级公路为依托工程,对接入口改善措施进行效果评价。采用的接入口安全处置对策,对山区集散二级公路接入口的建设、管养均能适用,对于其他等级公路接入口处置同样具有指导作用。

  14. Road Safety

    2005-01-01

    Every day we all use roads. We walk on them. We walk eitheralong the pavement (人行道)or across the road. If we are careless, wecan cause accidents.Accidents often happen when people arecrossing the road. Here is some advice.

  15. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the FWF Austrian Science Fund's point of view: 10 questions to Falk Reckling, Austrian Science Fund, by Bruno Bauer

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author. At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archiving of sholarly papers in institutional repositories. The current interview with Falk Reckling gives an account of the FWF Austrian Science Fund (http://www.fwf.ac.at and their point of view towards Open Access. The interview hits the Golden Road as well as the Green Road to open access and their costs. Preconditions for a paradigm shift towards Open Access Publishing are brought up and prospects of sholarly publishing in 2020 were discussed with a look on libraries and their possible role within this setting

  16. Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Road Network Accessibility in Anhui Province%安徽省公路网络可达性空间格局及其演化

    蒋晓威; 曹卫东; 罗健; 朱胜清; 唐云云

    2012-01-01

    Based on the road network maps in 1996, 2004, and 2010, choosing weighted average travel time as an indicator, the spatial pattern and evolution of major cities' road accessibility in Anhui Province are studied. Results are shown as follows: In the study period (1996-2010), the spatial structure of accessibility in Anhui Province shows little change; Hefei area is the center with the lowest accessibility level; the value increases from the center to the surrounding areas, and its distribution is alongside with the directions of traffic arteries. The improvement of road networks greatly increases the accessibility of major cities in the region, and the acces- sibility increase in the first period (1996-2004) is greater than that in the second period (2004-2010). The extent of accessibility change is related to the initial level. In the first period, the rate of the accessibility change decreases from the "T-shaped" region, covering the areas along the "Xu-He", "He-Wu-Xuan" highway and the Yangtze River, to periphery areas. However, the second period sees a multi-core spatial pattern in which the rate of accessibility change decreases from the areas with newly constructed highways to the surrounding areas. Dif- ferent areas benefit from the access to the road network differently, with Jiangnan area benefiting the most, Huaibei and Jianghuai areas the second. With the improvement of road networks, the accessibility gets optimized from a center to periphery in layered circles with the accessibility levels evenly and smoothly distributed. Among the cities, the difference of accessibility gradually narrows, and accessibility coefficient gradually reaches an equilibrium distribution.%以1996、2004、2010年为时间断面,加权平均旅行时间为指标,探讨安徽省公路网络中节点城镇可达性空间格局及其演化规律。结果表明:1996-2010年,安徽省公路网络可达性总体空间格局变动不大,其值大体以合肥地区为中心向外围

  17. Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes

    AndrÊ de Palma; Robin Lindsey

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for various reasons, including a dearth of public funds for road construction and maintenance, increasing traffic congestion, and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle in general, and road pricing in particular. This paper focuses on allocative efficiency of private toll roads. The model features one origin and one destination linked by two parall...

  18. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  19. 珠三角公路网络可达性空间格局及其演化%Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Road Network Accessibility in the Pearl River Delta

    梅志雄; 徐颂军; 欧阳军

    2014-01-01

    基于1990、2000和2009年公路网数据,选择空间距离、时间距离和经济潜能3个指标及在此基础上构建综合评价指标,在GIS支持下,探讨1990-2009年珠三角公路网可达性空间格局及其演化规律。研究显示:单一指标不能完整反映公路网综合可达性特征,存在一定局限性。综合评价结果表明:1)研究期内,公路可达性总体上呈现以广-佛核心都市区为最高向外围逐渐递减的圈层结构,可达性最优的核心区范围不断扩大,东西向的可达性递减态势明显快于南北向;2)区域内节点县域可达性等级差异趋于缩小、整体可达性显著提高,但第一阶段(1990-2000年)可达性提高较第二阶段(2000-2009年)更为显著;3)随着路网的逐步完善,东部和南部县市可达性提高明显,中部区域提高幅度低于东、南部县市,西部县市提高较慢。三大地带可达性空间差异明显,中部最高,东部次之,但与中部差异趋于缩小,西部相对最低且与中、东部的差异进一步扩大。%Based on the road network data of 1990, 2000 and 2009, choosing minimum spatial distance , minimum time distance, economic potential and a comprehensive evaluation index based on those three indices, supported by the GIS software, this paper elaborates the spatial structure and evolution of the road network accessibility in the Pearl River Delta. The research reveals that there are certain limitations in the evaluation of road accessibility based on single evaluation index, which cannot fully reflect the comprehensive accessibility characteristics of road network. Some conclusions from the comprehensive evaluation are obtained as follows:1) During the study periods, the road network accessibility shows an obvious circle-layer structure and core-periphery structure, and the core area which enjoys the highest accessibility has expanded. The accessibility of Guangzhou

  20. 关中—天水经济区路网空间通达性分析%Spatial Accessibility of Road Network in Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Region

    白永平; 陈博文; 吴常艳

    2012-01-01

    rings de- rived from calculation of feature points, the spatial patterns of accessibility of road network are evaluated syn- thetically from a multi-angle. The results are shown as follows: (1) The system of road network is better and the concentration of road network is obvious. The spatial pattern of segment type stretches along the"point-axis" style while the spatial pattern of axis type stretches along the "trunk-branch" shape. Core ring, middle ring and periphery ring of the three-grade level as well as "Britain flag-shaped" road network are preliminary forms. It is shown that there exists a strong reciprocal-coordinate relationship between the regional accessibility pattern and the entire development level of Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region. (2) Urban accessibility, to a great extent, depends on the regional geometric centre and the development level of the surrounding road network. The phe- nomena of single-center polarization of regional road network is obvious. And the control effects of Xi' an city to the road network is too outstanding. (3) The spatial distribution of regional accessibility is different, the conti- nuity of the core plate is better, and the fragmentation of the extended plate is obvious. It is different between Guanzhong area and Tianshui area, so that the area with medium and high values is broken between Guanzhong and Tianshui areas. Considering tha fact that the regional geometric center is partial in the western part of Xi' an city, Yangling city or Baoji city should be treated as a sub-center city of the regional road network. Promoting the construction of Guanzhong-Tianshui high-grade rapid transit is quite useful for the regional integration of Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region.

  1. Road disasters? Modeling and assessment of Swedish roads within crucial climate conditions

    Nickman, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    An efficient maintenance of roads to ensure high accessibility and durability of the transport capacity requires an understanding of how the hydrological response depends on both the road and the landscape characteristics. New methods and data were used to identify and explain interaction between roads and surrounding environment and their influence on hydrologic responses both in watershed scale and road-section scale. In the watershed scale, flood hazard probability was made with reference ...

  2. Color-Based Road Detection and Its Evaluation on the KITTI Road Benchmark

    Wang, Bihao; Fremont, Vincent; Rodriguez Florez, Sergio Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Road detection is one of the key issues of scene understanding for Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Recent approaches has addressed this issue through the use of different kinds of sensors, features and algorithms. KITTI-ROAD benchmark has provided an open-access dataset and standard evaluation mean for road area detection. In this paper, we propose an improved road detection algorithm that provides a pixel-level confidence map. The proposed approach is inspired from our former wor...

  3. Major Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  4. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  5. Distributed road assessment system

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  6. Celtic Roads

    Kinney, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Building upon lessons learned is relevant to art and life. As an art teacher dealing with teens, the author tries to give her students an understanding of art as a window to the "big picture" as well as a practical, relevant skill. She developed this lesson plan, "Celtic Roads," with that objective in mind. The success rate is high, the product is…

  7. Road works

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  8. Open Access Publishing

    Morrison, Heather

    2007-01-01

    An overview of open access publishing, for college faculty. Presents a definition of open access, the two roads to open access (OA publishing and self-archiving), overview of business models for open access, and examples of open access journals, with a focus on journals developed in British Columbia, including one (Topics in Scholarly Communication) developed by graduate students as a class assignment, and another developed by high school students (The Pink Voice). Includes a handout of res...

  9. 广东区域公路网络的城市通达性度量及空间特征分析%Regional Accessibility Measurement and Spatial Characteristics Analysis Based on Road Networks in Guangdong Province

    陈少沛; 李勇; 庄大昌; 丘健妮

    2014-01-01

    以广东省各地级市辖区和县域中心点为公路网络节点,通过对各节点城市的中心职能强度指数分析及其相互之间在公路网络的连通关系为基础,综合应用日通达性模型、通达性度量模型和潜力模型,对广东区域通达性进行分析,并以不同指标和度量模型的广东区域通达性的空间格局和分异特征进行GIS分析。结果表明,广东省的城市通达性空间格局,总体上呈现出一种圈层空间分布结构,以广州市核心区域和佛山市中心区域(禅城区和顺德区)为中心向外辐射。其影响通达性区域差异的主要因素包括城市经济水平、交通条件和地理区位等,其中,在交通条件影响下的通达性区域差异,在空间上表现出高等级公路网络指向性。研究结果反映出广东省省域公路网络通达性的空间分异规律,诠释了城市的经济发展水平、交通条件和地理区位对通达性的综合作用,从而为广东省城镇网络体系发育、区域经济协调及珠三角产业转移规划优化提供科学支撑。%The adjustment of industrial structure and layout optimization in Guangdong Province is significant, as China is at a critical stage with an impressive acceleration of economic globalization and regional integration process. In order to support the regional economic coordination and the industrial transfer planning, as well as lay out optimization in Guangdong Province, this paper studied and qualified the regional accessibility based on the road networks, and characterized the spatial patterns of regional accessibility with different measurement models. Firstly, cities in Guangdong Province are represented by the nodes in road networks. Secondly, the urban function indices of all cities are introduced to represent their size and economic level, respectively. Then, accessi-bility measurement models, including daily accessibility model, accessibility

  10. Kansas Non-State Road System

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a single centerline road network representation of 120,000 miles of the Kansas non-state highway system with limited attribution. It includes rural...

  11. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive der International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs bei STM / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers' (STM point of view: 10 questions to Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs at STM, by Bruno Bauer

    Bauer, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author.At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archiving of sholarly papers in institutional repositories. The current interview with Barbara Kalumenos gives an account of the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM; http://www.stm-assoc.org/ and their point of view towards Open Access. The interview hits the Golden Road as well as the Green Road to open access and their costs. Preconditions for a paradigm shift towards Open Access Publishing are brought up and prospects of sholarly publishing in 2020 were discussed with a look on libraries and their possible role within this setting.

  12. Article Details Copyright Statement: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0 license, which permits unrestricted non-commerical use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Realistic Rescue Simulation Method with Consideration of Road Network Restrictions

    Kohei Arai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A realistic rescue simulation method with consideration of road network restrictions is proposed. Decision making and emergency communication system play important roles in rescue process when emergency situations happen. The rescue process will be more effective if we have appropriate decision making method and accessible emergency communication system. In this paper, we propose centralized rescue model for people with disabilities. The decision making method to decide which volunteers should help which disabled persons is proposed by utilizing the auction mechanism. The GIS data are used to present the objects in a large-scale disaster simulation environment such as roads, buildings, and humans. The Gama simulation platform is used to test our proposed rescue simulation model. There are road network restrictions, road disconnections, one way traffic, roads which do not allow U-Turn, etc. These road network restrictions are taken into account in the proposed rescue simulation model. The experimental results show around 10% of additional time is required for evacuation of victims.

  13. Environment and Road Construction in Wind Farm Projects

    Kulju, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was written for the wind power company PROKON Wind Energy Finland Oy. The aim of this thesis was to create a guide for road construction in wind farm projects and related environmental issues. This thesis deals with relevant legislation as well as possible challenges and solutions regarding the road construction. In this thesis construction of roads refers to construction of those access roads which are required in order to transport components of wind power plant and maintain pow...

  14. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  15. TransRoad_RDS

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The centerlines were originally developed under...

  16. 36 CFR 228.12 - Access.

    2010-07-01

    ... Minerals § 228.12 Access. An operator is entitled to access in connection with operations, but no road... other means of access, including but not limited to off-road vehicles, be used until the operator has... forest surface resources, including measures to protect scenic values and to insure against erosion...

  17. 25 CFR 170.120 - What restrictions apply to the use of an Indian Reservation Road?

    2010-04-01

    ... Reservation Road? 170.120 Section 170.120 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Use of Irr and Cultural Access Roads § 170.120 What restrictions apply to the use of an...

  18. Road pricing: An overview

    M. Rouhani, Omid

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a general overview of the road pricing concept. It first examines the common objectives used in road pricing, namely (a) congestion reduction; (b) raising profits; (c) social welfare maximization; etc. Then, it explores various types of road pricing, including two major ones: (1) road tolls and (2) congestion pricing charges. Next, general modeling approaches used for estimating the impacts of road pricing are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with a checklist explaini...

  19. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Future Road Density

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  1. Roads Near Streams

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...

  2. Future Roads Near Streams

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...

  3. Mount Davis Road Extension

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of Mt Davis Road Extension. The Mount Davis Road Extension was part of the Smithfield Extension and Associated Roadworks which was completed by the Highways Department (Hong Kong S.A.R. ) in December 1997. The considerable increase in traffic volume necessitated the construction of a road link between Smithfield and Pokfulam Road. The construction of an elevate...

  4. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  5. 基于空间句法的武汉城市圈城乡道路网通达性演化分析%The Evolution of Spatial Accessibility of Urban-rural Road Network Based on the Space Syntax in Wuhan Metropolitan Area

    刘承良; 余瑞林; 段德忠

    2015-01-01

    The spatial accessibility has been a prerequisite to the linkage and development of regional integra-tion. The relationship between the spatial evolution of metropolitan area and the development of transport net-work is a kind of spatial interaction. The transport network becomes a material basis and essential prerequisite to the foundation of metropolitan area, and the transport accessibility determines material flow, energy flow and information flow between city and region, and it’s an important gene to the development of metropolitan area. With taking Wuhan metropolitan area as example, this article explores the spatio-temporal evolution of the road network accessibility with the support of space syntax model, GIS technology and statistical analysis method. The basic conclusions are obtained as follows: 1) Pyramid structure shows that the overall level of high-grade road network topology connectivity is relatively low. The above structures and patterns of the road network have a great impact on the transportation system of the city. For instance, some roads with very low accessibility are easy to have traffic jam and low efficiency for distributing traffic flow to the entire road net-work. 2) Caused by the hierarchy of the road network topology links, the spatial differentiation of urban-rural road network traffic axes is significant, showing a typically composite structure of center-marginal and rank circle, two banded city corridors were formed around the east-west roads along the Yangtze River and the north-south roads along the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. At the same time, the centrality advantages of Wuhan have been strengthened and a number of different levels orderly integrated“node –spoke”network system were developed. 3) The spatially uneven accessibility pattern of road network has a close relationship with the city and town system, transportation facilities and social-economic development of the area. It should also be noted that there is a

  6. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  7. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

    Lenore Fahrig

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  8. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  9. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  10. 1980~2010年中国集中连片特困地区公路可达性演化研究%Evolution of Road Accessibility of Concentrated Contiguous Areas with Particular Difficulties in China from 1980 to 2010

    王武林; 黄晓燕; 曹小曙

    2016-01-01

    The State Council Leading Group Office of Poverty Alleviation and Development ever defined the 14 concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties in China as a crucial battleground for poverty alle-viation. Basing on the road network in 1980, 1995 and 2010, this article elaborates the evolution of road net-work and road accessibility of the 14 concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties in China quanti-tatively, explores the spatial pattern evolution trend of road accessibility of the 14 concentrated contiguous ar-eas with particular difficulties in China through spatial autocorrelation analysis. The results indicates that the road network structure of the 14 concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties in China optimized continuously from 1995 to 2010, and the merit rating kept a steady inheritance. The network accessibility of the 14 concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties in China improved at different levels from 1980 to 2010, also the merit rating of network accessibility of the 14 concentrated contiguous areas with partic-ular difficulties in China kept steadily. Luoxiao mountainous areas, Lüliang mountainous areas and Dabie mountainous areas etc. got a relatively well situation on raster accessibility, but Tibet, Tibetan areas of four provinces and southern three states in Xinjiang are just the opposite. Then, according to the spatial agglomera-tion relationship of network accessibility of the 14 concentrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties in China from 1980 to 2010, this article divides the evolution treads of accessibility spatial pattern of the 14 con-centrated contiguous areas with particular difficulties in China into 3 types, which are“maintaining the same”,“tending to agglomeration”, and“tending to equilibrium”. It summarizes road network characteristics and tem-poral and spatial pattern of accessibility evolution, explores some rules of road accessibility of the 14

  11. Tire Road Friction Estimation

    DELANNE, Y; DO, MT; M'SIRDI, NK

    2005-01-01

    Two main approaches for tire road friction estimation : the "cause based" and the "effect based" are generally dealt with in the literature. The slip-based method seems to be the most promising and is, consequently, a very popular current subject. LCPC, a french research body in civil engineering has been working for several years on the relationship between road texture parameters and road surface condition (dry, damp, wet) and tire friction performance. In this framework, the two methods ha...

  12. Road Repair Deficit Reduction

    Astrīda Rijkure

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation Annotation. The aim of the dissertation is to explore resource allocation problems for motor roads, reveal positive aspects and drawbacks in road maintenance and resource allocation scheme, as well as elaborate proposals for decreasing the deficit of motor road repairs in Latvia. The paper is composed in three large sections, according to the tasks. In the first section the Author considers number of basic issues related to the meaning of the motor transport ...

  13. Fei Tsui Road Landslide

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data of the Fei Tsui Road Landslide. In the early morning of 13 August 1995, a landslide occurred on the slope opposite the Chai Wan Baptist Church, Fei Tsui Road, Chai Wan. A 90m long section of Fei Tsui Road was buried by approximately 14,000 m3 of rock/soil materials from the landslide.

  14. Measuring road congestion

    Panayotis CHRISTIDIS; IBANEZ RIVAS Juan Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The methodology presented here allows to measure and monitor road congestion across Europe using data from TomTom in-vehicle navigation systems. The approach is based on the analysis of a large number of real vehicle speeds that have been measured on each road link and the application of algorithms that allow the estimation of congestion indicators for specific types of roads during selected time periods. The results include the detailed mapping of recurrent congestion both geographically and...

  15. Accuracy assessment of GPS and surveying technique in forest road mapping

    Ehsan Abdi; Saeed Rahbari Sisakht; Leila Goushbor; Hamid Soufi

    2012-01-01

    Forest road networks provide access to the forest as a source of timber production and tourism services. Moreover, it is considered the main tool to protect forests from fire and smuggling. The prerequisite of road management and maintenance planning is to have spatial distribution and map of the roads. But newly constructed or some other forest road segments are not available in national maps. Therefore, mapping these networks is raised as a priority for a forest manager. The aim of this stu...

  16. Wildlife Use of Open and Decommissioned Roads on the Clearwater National Forest, Idaho

    Switalski, T. Adam; Broberg, Len; Holden, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of roads on wildlife are extensive and can be especially harmful on U.S. National Forest lands where ecosystems are relatively intact. Access allowed by wildland roads can increase poaching, over-hunting, and over-trapping. Roads also increase negative edge effects, cause fragmentation, and facilitate or hinder wildlife movement. Forest Service managers are removing some roads to mitigate these impacts on wildlife, but few studies have addressed the effectiveness of this strategy....

  17. The role of roads on hydrological response : Modeling and assessment for Swedish watersheds

    Nickman, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of road networks in alteration of hydrological responses is crucial for maintaining the accessibility and durability of road infrastructures. Road construction is one of the most common man made disturbances to a landscape. However, still the quantitative role of road topographical and geo-morphological properties on the hydrological response of storms in catchments is only partially understood. The aim of this study was to use new methods to estimate and quantify the f...

  18. Automatic contour-based road network design for optimized wind farm micrositing

    Gu, H.; Wang, J.; Lin, Q; Gong, Q

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Constructing the access roads between wind turbines requires a significant cost when a wind farm is built in hills or mountains. An optimized design of road network can substantially reduce construction costs and increase investment returns. In this paper, we consider a challenging problem of the road network design for a wind farm with complex topography. An automatic contour-based model is developed for road network design, and is incorporated into the optimization of wind farm...

  19. Celje road network development

    Uranjek, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    In my graduation thesis I deal with development of road network of town Celje. In the first part of my graduation thesis I introduce a few studies and projects that dealt with problems in road traffic network in the past and a complete road traffic network study of town Celje that foresaw individual measures and group of measures for the next 20 years. In the second part of the dissertation I check, if the suggested measures of road traffic study from 1995 where made. I also check if the meas...

  20. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  1. MONITORING AND CONTROL OF RISKS FOR THE EXECUTION PROCESS OF FOREST ROADS

    Cristian SLINCU; Valentina Doina CIOBANU; Dumitrascu, Adela-Eliza; Stelian Alexandru BORZ

    2013-01-01

    In the context of sustainable forest management, full forest accessibility by a permanent network of forest roads, represents an imperative of our time, because the forest mechanization and use of modern working processes, both in tending and cultural interventions, as well as in timber harvesting. Most forest roads are primarily industrial roads but many are also a public benefit by providing access for recreation activities, to utilities and facilities. The case study details a probabilisti...

  2. Optimal Environmental Road pricing

    Johansson-Stenman, Olof

    2005-01-01

    An optimal first-best road charge should not only be differentiated with respect to factors that affect the direct external environmental and time costs from the road-user himself. Indirect effects, such as the fact that other cars will be more polluting when congestion increases, should also be taken into account.

  3. Corrugation of roads

    Both, Joseph A.; Hong, Daniel C.; Kurtze, Douglas A.

    2001-12-01

    We present a one dimensional model for the development of corrugations in roads subjected to compressive forces from a flux of cars. The cars are modeled as damped harmonic oscillators translating with constant horizontal velocity across the surface, and the road surface is subject to diffusive relaxation. We derive dimensionless coupled equations of motion for the positions of the cars and the road surface H( x, t), which contain two phenomenological variables: an effective diffusion constant Δ( H) that characterizes the relaxation of the road surface, and a function a( H) that characterizes the plasticity or erodibility of the road bed. Linear stability analysis shows that corrugations grow if the speed of the cars exceeds a critical value, which decreases if the flux of cars is increased. Modifying the model to enforce the simple fact that the normal force exerted by the road can never be negative seems to lead to restabilized, quasi-steady road shapes, in which the corrugation amplitude and phase velocity remain fixed.

  4. Characteristics of road network forms in historic districts of Japan

    Ze Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the structure and the platform of the road space of historic districts. We analyzed the road networks of 16 historic districts in Japan from the perspectives of circularity, accessibility and indirection based on graph theory. By calculating and comparing the indexes of each road network (NW1 and NW2 forms, we quantitatively describe the effects of the main prefectural roads (more than 4 m in width and narrow streets (less than 4 m in width on the spatial characteristics. And it turned out that we could divided the 16 objective historic districts into 4 types. Moreover, we qualitatively studied the characteristics of each type of historic districts based on their development background and the structure of road network.

  5. USING OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES IN DESIGNING FOREST ROADS AND ROAD NETWORKS

    AKAY, Abdullah E.; Aruga, Kazuhiro; Bettinger, Pete; Sessions, John

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in using modern optimization techniques in forest road design due to advancements in computer hardware, optimization algorithms, and remote sensing technologies. These techniques allow one to automate many of the time consuming tasks involved in road design process and improve the efficiency of road design managers in identifying road alignment alternatives. This paper presents the main road design stages to indicate the possibilities of using optimizatio...

  6. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive einer Forschungsförderungsorganisation: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Falk Reckling, Mitarbeiter des FWF Der Wissenschaftsfonds / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the FWF Austrian Science Fund's point of view: 10 questions to Falk Reckling, Austrian Science Fund, by Bruno Bauer

    Bauer, Bruno; Reckling, Falk

    2009-01-01

    Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author. At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archiv...

  7. A Holographic Road Show.

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  8. Township Administered Roads

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  9. Taos County Roads

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  10. Rural Roads and Agricultural Development in Swaziland

    Lindsay A. K.; Mukole Kongolo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of managing and maintaining the quality of rural roads to support agricultural and rural development in the Kingdom of Swaziland, to facilitate the distribution of agricultural products and its accessibility to the population. A structured questionnaire survey was used to collect both secondary and primary data sources, to fill the key information gaps through random sampling method. The data collected were tabulated and analysed throu...

  11. Promoting road safety

    Esbester, Mike Owen

    2015-01-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure—“Africanization” in the first decade of Kenya’s political independence from Britain, 1963–75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an “epidemiological turn” influenc...

  12. EARTH ROADS ARE EASY

    David O. Whitten (ed.)

    2000-01-01

    The earliest European immigrants in America traveled on waterways and on pathways worn into the earth by animals and Native Americans. Once their communities began to thrive, settlers widened paths and cleared new roads and streets then began experimenting with inexpensive surfacing to reduce dust in dry weather and mud in wet. “Earth Roads Are Easy” investigates materials and techniques used to maintain primitive thoroughfares with a minimum of effort and expense. The options range from the ...

  13. Road Transportation of Fuel

    Skopalová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with road transportation of fuel. In theoretical part there are described the legal clauses that are related to this issue. The most detailed regulations can be found in the European Agreement on the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (so called Agreement ADR). Hence the biggest part of the theoretical section is devoted to these regulations. Instructions for transportation of diesel and petrol have been chosen from this international agreement and expla...

  14. Surveying and Modeling Road Kill

    Lin, Shyh-Chyang

    2007-01-01

    Transportation is the backbone of developing regional economies and the evolution of our civilization. Well planned road systems are essential to connect dispersed communities or cities. However, roads are one of the major destructive forces to regional ecosystems and the natural environment. The effects of roads on their adjacent ecosystems may include road kills, habitat fragmentation, barrier effect to animal movement, road edge effects, introduction of exotic species, pollution and noise,...

  15. Road Gregory closed between 18 and 22 August

    2003-01-01

    A first intervention in the refurbishment of the "Château d'Eau" (bldg. 227) on Meyrin site will be carried out between the 18th and 22nd August. The work requires the use of a mobile crane to be installed in the Road Gregory and therefore this road shall be closed to traffic during the works. Please use the roads Fermi and Rutherford. Buildings 606 and 598 will be accessible as usual. We apologize for the inconvenience. M. Nonis / Tel. 72701

  16. Arrive alive: road safety in Kenya and South Africa.

    Lamont, Mark; Lee, Rebekah

    2015-04-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure-"Africanization" in the first decade of Kenya's political independence from Britain, 1963-75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an "epidemiological turn" influenced by public health constructions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. African states' framing of road safety in behaviorist terms has obscured larger debates around redressing the historical legacies of racialized access to roads and the technopolitics of African automobility. Civic involvement in road safety initiatives has tended to be limited, although the specter of road carnage has entered into the public imagination, largely through the death of high profile Africans. However, some African road users continue to pursue alternative, and often culturally embedded, strategies to mitigate the dangers posed by life "on the road." PMID:26005088

  17. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by...

  18. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Chuqing Cao; Ying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data....

  19. Road crash costs.

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  20. Roads, lands, markets, and deforestation : a spatial model of land use in Belize

    Chomitz, Kenneth M.; Gray, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Rural roads promote economic development but also facilitate deforestation. To explore the tradeoffs between development and environmental damage posed by road building, the authors develop and estimate a spatially explicit model of land use. This model takes into account location and land characteristics and predicts land use at each point on the landscape. They find that: (a) market access and distance to roads strongly affect the probability of agricultural use, especially for commercial a...

  1. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE FOREST ROAD PLANNING AND ROAD GROUND

    Hafız Hulusi ACAR

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It is required that the capital used for construction of road must be technical, economical and used in its location. For this reason, the projects must be prepared for forest roads and all operations belong to roads must be guided according to these projects. In this investigation, available forest road network plan and constructed forest roads were investigated at the point of view technical and forest transportation. After this, it were studied to reach the highest exploitation rate as can as possible. Available forest road density were found as 11.9 m/ha in forest areas for Yesiltepe District. In this condition, exploitation rate was 78 %. After that, optimum forest road network were planned and road density were reached to 22 m/ha and exploitation rate to 86 %. Directed sample method were used from taking soil sample methods and samples were took in mixed system. According to results of the experiments, available forest roads were found in a good degree at the point of view endurance, pressing and transportation capacity. With these results, it is aimed to reach higher exploitation rate with given attention to landslide areas during planning of forest roads on the mountain areas such as Black Sea Region. For this reason, required importance must be given to planning of truck and logging roads. Ground analysis must be done and took care before during planning process of forest road network.

  2. Road polishing assessment methodology 'TROWS'

    Gothie, Michel; Do, Minh Tan

    2003-01-01

    Both tire wear and road polishing are complex phenomenon, which are obviously strongly related; the energy that polishes the road is the energy that wears the tire. They both depend non-linearly on numerous parameters, like materials used, vehicle and road usage, environmental conditions (e.g., temperature) and many others. Due to their many economic and ecological implications, including those concerning the road users safety, the possibility to predict them is of major importance to tire ma...

  3. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova; Alibek Kossumov; Nurbek Igissinov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accid...

  4. Road-Cleaning Device

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  5. On the Road

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  6. The great West Road

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  7. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negative...

  8. A road to trust

    Labonne, Julien; Chase, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore the relationship between transaction costs and generalized trust. Using panel data from 2,100 households in 135 rural communities of the Philippines, the paper shows that where transaction costs are reduced (proxied by road construction), there is an increase in generalized trust. Consistent with the argument that generalized trust is built through repeated interactions...

  9. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  10. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer

  11. Tweets on the road

    Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...

  12. Assessing road traffic expression

    Fábio Silva; Cesar Analide; Paulo Novais

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Inte...

  13. August: Road Movies

    2011-01-01

    Eldorado France, 2008 85' Road movie Directed by: Bouly Lanners Cast: Bouly Lanners, Fabrice Adde Philippe Nahon Yvan is an auto salesman who makes a good living dealing in American luxury cars. One evening, Yvan comes home to discover a burglar has made his way into his home, and a quick search reveals the criminal, Elie is hiding under his bed, and when the thief finally emerges he turns out to be a junkie who is feeling the first stages of withdrawal.

  14. The road coloring problem

    Trahtman, A. N.

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest comm...

  15. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  16. Optimal Road Capacity Building : Road Planning by Marginal Cost Pricing

    Nemoto, Toshinori; Misui, Yuki; Kajiwara, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a new road planning and financing scheme based on short-term social marginal cost pricing that facilitates the establishment of optimal road standards in the long term. We conducted a simulation analysis based on the proposed planning scheme and observed that the simulation calculated the optimal road capacity in the future, and thus proved that the new planning scheme is feasible.

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE LANDSLIDES ON A RURAL ROAD

    Mădălina - Cristina Marian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following heavy rains, a landslide took place on a rural road which connects two national roads in Argeş County. The platform of the road has been destroyed to a great length, because of the heavy rains with high intensity and duration. The analyzed road is of great interest to the local population as it provides the access road of people from several villages. The current study aimed at the proposal of restoration works in order to diminish the effects of the natural disaster on this road. The area was firstly studied topographically, then from a climatic, geological and even cadastral point of view (legal and economic. According to the undertaken studies, a series of works were proposed in order to deal with the current situation, but also to reduce the risk of landslide reactivation. The proposed works were classical works of land reclamation, such as gabions. It is important for the solutions to be simple, found in due time and have logical directions to be followed in the future.

  18. Information technology road map 2015

    This book introduces information technology road map 2015 with presentation, process, plan and conclusion of it. It also has introduction of IT road map by field : information technology road map 2015 on the next-generation of semiconductor, display, light emitting diode and light industry, home network and home electronic appliances, digital TV and broadcasting, radio technology, satellite communications, mobile communication for the next-generation, BcN field, software, computer for the next-generation and security of knowledge information.

  19. Improving the road planning process

    Hylmö, Kajsa

    2005-01-01

    Two Swedish road projects were studied to find ways to shorten the time spent in the road planning process. The results indicated that the road projects developed very differently. One planning project developed rather smoothly, while the other received an escalating flood of letters. Concerns about the environment and landscape were present in the majority of these letters, pointing to the importance of involving the expertise of landscape planners or environmentalists in the management of r...

  20. Road pricing. Discussion; Rekeningrijden. Discussie

    Gommers, M. [Divisie Transport, Nederlands Economisch Instituut NEI, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Glasius, E.H. [RAI Vereniging, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verhoef, E. [Afdeling Ruimtelijke Economie, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Ruyter van Steveninck, M.A. [ed.

    1999-02-12

    Each of the authors as mentioned in this record is responsible for one column, discussing road pricing. The first author discusses the use of road pricing in countries other than the Netherlands with special attention for the experiences in Singapore. The second author pays attention to the effects of road pricing on the drivers of cars: no less traffic jams but higher costs. The fourth author discusses the price elasticity of highway use and how levies can be reimbursed. The third author deals with the question whether road pricing works or not. 9 refs.

  1. Road Traffic Injuries

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  2. The Road Ahead

    Willenbrock, S S

    2004-01-01

    I describe the surrounding landscape on the road to the CERN Large Hadron Collider. I revisit the milestones of hadron-collider physics, and from them draw lessons for the future. I recall the primary motivation for the journey - understanding the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking - and speculate that even greater discoveries may await us. I review the physics that we know beyond the standard model - dark matter, dark energy, and neutrino masses - and discuss the status of grand-unified theories. I list the reasons why the Higgs boson is central to the standard model as well as to physics beyond the standard model.

  3. Road Works Ahead

    Gertrude; Majyambere

    2011-01-01

    China to invest $532 million in Rwanda in 2011 CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year,mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools,said Shu Zhan,Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda,in early February. "We need to have adequate field surveys,wide consultation and detailed ’homework,’ in order to come up with tailor-made solutions that meet local needs," Shu said in an interview with ChinAfrica.

  4. Environmental sensitive road planning and transportation techniques in forest engineering

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forestry management has activities dealing with technical, economic, social and environmental services. Forestry operations which are carried out on forest areas , an important part of the ecosistem are materialized in open space. This forestry activities on large areas and high sloping generally, include many different techniques. It is needed primarily to the forest road network in terms of forest management. Determining the approriate route in the natural environment, planning and road construction affairs for forest roads which are necessary accessing in forest areas, is also of great importance from an environmental viewpoint as well as technical and economic manner. Forest road planning which can not be changed later and left a permanent mark on the natural environment carries much more importance to the environment especially on sloping land. This is because, it is important choosing correct type of roaf structure, and doing periodic maintenance of the roads. Skidding activities, after wood production, is important in terms of its impact on forest soil and by means of effects on saplings and trees on the releated forest areas.The development of environmental sensitive techniques is difficult, limited or expensive for this wood extraction works which are made more difficult conditons in the sloping terrain. Therefore, especially in using some silvicultural methods wood extraction damages are even greater. In this study; some road planning, road construction and wood extraction techniques which performed by me have been made to examine the environmental aspects. Environment-friendly forest roads and primary transport techniques on the forest ecosystem are briefly explained and discussed in the frame of the environmental aspects.

  5. Systematic Development of Intelligent Systems for Public Road Transport.

    García, Carmelo R; Quesada-Arencibia, Alexis; Cristóbal, Teresa; Padrón, Gabino; Alayón, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture model for the development of intelligent systems for public passenger transport by road. The main objective of our proposal is to provide a framework for the systematic development and deployment of telematics systems to improve various aspects of this type of transport, such as efficiency, accessibility and safety. The architecture model presented herein is based on international standards on intelligent transport system architectures, ubiquitous computing and service-oriented architecture for distributed systems. To illustrate the utility of the model, we also present a use case of a monitoring system for stops on a public passenger road transport network. PMID:27438836

  6. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  7. Emissions of road transport

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NOx, particulates, SO2, CO2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  8. Teale Major Roads

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  9. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  10. Road traffic noise and stroke

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  11. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. A...

  12. Using Accession to investigate accessibility induced social exclusion in Edinburgh and the Lothians

    Weir, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    An exploratory analysis of accessibility-based social exclusionary mechanisms in Edinburgh and the Lothians is presented, with the aim of highlighting the benefits of a technique that incorporates socio-geodemographic variables. Accession software is used to produce accessibility times to three different types of services. Postcode centroids are used to represent centres of population, while the Navteq road network and latest public transport timetables are used to model the transport network...

  13. Overview and perspectives for Open Access development in Argentina

    Sandra Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and perspectives for development of the Open Access movement in Argentina, within the global and regional (Latin American context. It outlines the evolution and current state of initiatives around the two main approaches to Open Access, the golden and green roads. The main Open Access policies and support of OA movement by governments in Latin American region, and particularly in Argentina, are highlighted, while recent studies on publishing practices and authors’ positions regarding Open Access are presented. The paper concludes that the prospects for development of OA in Argentina, both through golden and green roads are favorable, with their strengths and shortcomings

  14. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI. PMID:23268762

  15. Coal transportation road damage

    Heavy trucks are primarily responsible for pavement damage to the nation's highways. In this paper we evaluate the pavement damage caused by coal trucks. We analyze the chief source of pavement damage (vehicle weight per axle, not total vehicle weight) and the chief cost involved (the periodic overlay that is required when a road's surface becomes worn). This analysis is presented in two stages. In the first section we present a synopsis of current economic theory including simple versions of the formulas that can be: used to calculate costs of pavement wear. In the second section we apply this theory to a specific example proximate to the reference environment for the Fuel Cycle Study in New Mexico in order to provide a numerical measure of the magnitude of the costs

  16. Climate Change and Roads

    Chinowsky, P.; Arndt, Channing

    2012-01-01

    Decision-makers who are responsible for determining when and where infrastructure should be developed and/or enhanced are facing a new challenge with the emerging topic of climate change. The paper introduces a stressor–response methodology where engineering-based models are used as a basis...... to estimate the impact of individual climate stressors on road infrastructure in Mozambique. Through these models, stressor–response functions are introduced that quantify the cost impact of a specific stressor based on the intensity of the stressor and the type of infrastructure it is affecting. Utilizing...... four climate projection scenarios, the paper details how climate change response decisions may cost the Mozambican government in terms of maintenance costs and long-term roadstock inventory reduction. Through this approach the paper details how a 14% reduction in inventory loss can be achieved through...

  17. Weather and road capacity

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  18. Road safety in practice

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  19. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  20. Ice Roads in the Northwest Territories: The Intersection of Climate, Economics, and Transportation Policy (Invited)

    Huntington, H.; Sturm, M.; Goldstein, M.; Douglas, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    Ice roads would seem to be an obvious, and potentially sensitive, point of interaction between climate and human activity. An interdisciplinary study of ice roads in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, suggests that the real story is more complex. The feasibility of ice roads clearly has basic climatic requirements: there has to be enough cold weather to form enough ice to support vehicles. Beyond that basic requirement, though, lie a host of technical innovations in the construction and management of ice roads, extending the “natural” life of ice roads and providing more reliable and consistent transportation than climate alone would allow. In addition, the use of ice roads involves on economic need (for example, in re-supplying diamond mines), public policy (for example, providing access to remote communities), and funding (roads may cost thousands of dollars per kilometer, each year). In this paper, we explore the various factors that affect ice road viability, identifying key variables for monitoring and modeling to provide researchers and ice road managers with information to help determine optimal courses of action in a variable and changing climate.

  1. Delimitating central areas of cities based on road density: a case study of Guangzhou City

    Zhang, Qingnian; Lu, Xueqiu

    2009-10-01

    The central area of a city is an important functional unit in many urban studies. It is a region where business concentrates and municipal facilities densely distribute. Traditionally, statistics of economic and social phenomena can be used to delimitate their boundaries. However, traditional methods based on economic and social investigation are labor-intensive and sometimes inaccurate. Alternatively, road networks acting as a kind of infrastructure reflect the association of locations. Thus the concentration of road networks indicates the congestion of social-economic activities and municipal facilities to some extent. Based on density analysis of road networks, the area where roads densely distribute is recognized as the central area of a city. Taking Guangzhou City as an example, the road network was studied on a set of spatial scopes, and the central area was delimitated and analyzed. Results showed that the road-density-based delimitation had to be adjusted according to the road system, and the delimitated area was consistent to the real central area to some extent. Since road data is much accessible, road-based method is useful and practical when short of socialeconomic data.

  2. Road and Street Centerlines, roads, Published in 2003, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'roads'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM coordinate system; in...

  3. Road and Street Centerlines - Five Year Road Program (Arcs)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....

  4. Freedom Road: Colonial Life

    Auerbach, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    While historical fiction by Jean Fritz as well as titles like Robert Lawson's "Ben and Me" (1939) or "Mr. Revere and I" (1954) and Esther Forbes's "Johnny Tremain" (1943) are widely known classics that bring this period to life, recent years have yielded a wealth of new offerings--many of which are accessible picture books or read-alouds. These…

  5. Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road fatalities in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. As was the case in 2013, the Netherlands counted 570 road fatalities in 2014. Nearly a third of the fatalities are car occupants (187), another near third are cyclists (185). Measured by the population size, relatively many fatalities occur among young people and young ...

  6. Effects of road axis parameters on road safety

    Maršič, Uroš

    2007-01-01

    Researches throat the world has shown that two-way rural highways are the most dangerous among the other types of roads. It was identified that the most notable cause for immerging fatal and other crashes are unbalanced and excessive speeds, which occur mainly in the region of the curve. Every combination of horizontal curves has its own unique distribution of real driving speed, which leads in a verity of resulting dynamics effects. To be able to provide adequate safety, road pavement struct...

  7. New Highways, House Prices, and Urban Development: A Case Study of Toll Roads in Orange County, CA

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Chalermpong, Saksith

    2003-01-01

    We examine the link between highways and urban development by employing both hedonic analysis and multiple sales techniques to study the impact of the construction of toll roads in Orange County, California, on house prices. Urban economic theory predicts that if highways improve accessibility, that accessibility premium will be reflected in higher land prices. Our empirical analysis of house sales prices provide strong evidence that the toll roads, the Foothill Transportation Corrid...

  8. Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads

    Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Christopher R. Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of th...

  9. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    2010-07-01

    ... road construction. (d) Drainage control. In accordance with the approved plan— (1) Each primary road... this section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified... State which authorizes land surveyors to certify the construction or reconstruction of primary roads,...

  10. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal...

  11. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  12. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  13. Torrance County E-911 Roads

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Torrance County digital road network wa created as part of the State of New Mexico Enhanced 911 Addressing Grant. The original primary function was to lay the...

  14. Price Competition between Road Side Units Operators in Vehicular Networks

    FUX, Vladimir; Maillé, Patrick; Cesana, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Vehicular networks, besides supporting safety- oriented applications, are nowadays expected to provide effec- tive communication infrastructure also for supporting leisure- oriented application including content sharing, gaming and In- ternet access on the move. This work focuses on Vehicle to Infras- tructure (V2I) scenarios, where multiple content providers own a physical infrastructure of Road Side Units (RSUs) which they use to sell contents to moving vehicles. Content provider/RSU owners...

  15. Influence of solid noise barriers on near-road and on-road air quality

    Baldauf, Richard W.; Isakov, Vlad; Deshmukh, Parikshit; Venkatram, Akula; Yang, Bo; Zhang, K. Max

    2016-03-01

    Public health concerns regarding adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near high traffic roadways has increased substantially in recent years. Roadside features, including solid noise barriers, have been investigated as potential methods that can be implemented in a relatively short time period to reduce air pollution exposures from nearby traffic. A field study was conducted to determine the influence of noise barriers on both on-road and downwind pollutant concentrations near a large highway in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, and black carbon were measured using a mobile platform and fixed sites along two limited-access stretches of highway that contained a section of noise barrier and a section with no noise barrier at-grade with the surrounding terrain. Results of the study showed that pollutant concentrations behind the roadside barriers were significantly lower relative to those measured in the absence of barriers. The reductions ranged from 50% within 50 m from the barrier to about 30% as far as 300 m from the barrier. Reductions in pollutant concentrations generally began within the first 50 m of the barrier edge; however, concentrations were highly variable due to vehicle activity behind the barrier and along nearby urban arterial roadways. The concentrations on the highway, upwind of the barrier, varied depending on wind direction. Overall, the on-road concentrations in front of the noise barrier were similar to those measured in the absence of the barrier, contradicting previous modeling results that suggested roadside barriers increase pollutant levels on the road. Thus, this study suggests that noise barriers do reduce potential pollutant exposures for populations downwind of the road, and do not likely increase exposures to traffic-related pollutants for vehicle passengers on the highway.

  16. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  17. 2013 CERN Road Race

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  18. 2013 CERN Road Race

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  19. Repositorien: Der grüne Weg zu Open Access Publishing aus der Perspektive der International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM): 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs bei STM / Repository: The Green Road to Open Access Publishing and the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers' (STM) point of view: 10 questions to Barbara Kalumenos, Director of Public Affairs at STM, by Bruno Bauer

    Bauer, Bruno; Kalumenos, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Advocates of Open Access call to substitute the established scholarly publication model, in particular subscriptions and licences, by an Open Access Publishing model. Scholarly papers should be immediately accessible without paying and leave the copyright to the author.At the beginning the Open Access movement focused on and demanded for the publication of original scientific articles in Open Access journals. Meanwhile they moved on to support a form of secondary publication, the self-archivi...

  20. Estimating Urban Road Congestion Charges

    Newbery, David M G; Santos, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...

  1. Estimating Urban Road Congestion Costs

    Newbery, David M.; Georgina Santos

    2002-01-01

    Economists wishing to analyse road congestion and road pricing have usually relied on link-based speed-flow relationships. These may provide a poor description of urban congestion, which mainly arises from delays at intersections. Using the simulation model SATURN, we investigate the second-best proportional traffic reduction and find that linear speed-flow relations describe network flows quite well in eight English towns, though the predicted congestion costs and charges overstate those app...

  2. Voting on Road Congestion Policy

    Russo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We study the political economy of urban traffic policy. We consider a city and its suburbs. The city decides, by majority voting, on a parking charge in the Central Business District (CBD) and restrictions on road space dedicated to cars. City and suburbs vote on road pricing in the CBD. Results include the following. When the majority of city voters prefers cars to public transport sufficiently more than the average voter, car charges and space restrictions are smaller than optimal. If the s...

  3. China takes to the roads.

    Roberts, I.

    1995-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid motorisation--motor vehicle registrations are growing at a rate of 10%-20% a year. Road trauma is already a major public health problem, and road deaths, officially estimated to be around 50,000 a year, will almost certainly rise with increasing motorisation. China, with its millions of bicycles, currently has one of the most environmentally friendly transportation systems on the planet. However, as the trend towards car travel continues, the problems of congestion a...

  4. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    Do, Minh Tan; Cerezo, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered w...

  5. How designing safer roads for HGV?

    Cerezo, Véronique; Gothie, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The design of a road infrastructure must take into account the type of vehicles, which will use it. Indeed, Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) represent a significant part of the road vehicles, with specific geometrical and dynamic characteristics, which make them more aggressive to road wear and more sensitive to the road profile for stability and safety. This paper investigates geometrical and surface characteristics of the most critical road sections with respect to rollover and knife-jacking of l...

  6. Alleviating Traffic Congestion: Alternatives to Road Pricing

    Richard Arnott

    1994-01-01

    Economists' favorite remedy for traffic congestion is road pricing. Not only is road pricing based on sound economic principles, but also given current technology it could be implemented at reasonable cost and in a flexible and sophisticated manner. But there are serious obstacles to the widespread adoption of road pricing. There are problems of phase-in: the fixed costs of introducing any system of road pricing, as well as the problems of coordinating road pricing across jurisdictions, inclu...

  7. Planning Forest Opening with Forest Roads

    Krč, Janez; Beguš, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the model for determining inaccessible forest areas by density of forest roads. The model is based on the GIS analysis of the distances between the existing network of public and forest roads and inaccessible forest areas, sizes of excluded forest areas, and forest site potentials. In order to increase forest road density, the following must be done: (1) construct connecting roads to the inaccessible forest areas and (2) construct new forest roads with different density i...

  8. Nonlinear Pricing on Private Roads with Congestion and Toll Collection Costs

    Lindsey, Robin; Wang, Judith; Yang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear pricing (a form of second-degree price discrimination) is widely used in transportation and other industries but it has been largely overlooked in the road-pricing literature. This paper explores the incentives for a profit-maximizing toll-road operator to adopt some simple nonlinear pricing schemes when there is congestion and collecting tolls is costly. Users are assumed to differ in their demands to use the road. Regardless of the severity of congestion, an access fee is always p...

  9. Roads Belong In the Urban Landscape

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    , infrastructure is conceptually located elsewhere and thus is not strategically accessible to landscape architects working only in the realm of landscape. As a consequence infrastructure often become something landscape architects work around rather than engage with and alter. If Sawyer is right, how can we as...... infrastructures are conceived ‘outside’ the more visually oriented domain of landscape architecture at a much larger and more abstract territorial scale. This is not to say that infrastructure do not operate within the landscape, it obviously do, but rather that it does not originate there. According to Sawyer...... network of minor roads – the sponge will be described as a platform for site-specific development without ‘fracture’. The potential of each of these sites will be exemplified by particular reference projects working in a cross-disciplinary field between landscape architecture and urban planning....

  10. Modeling Road Traffic Using Service Center

    HARAGOS, I.-M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport systems have an essential role in modern society because they facilitate access to natural resources and they stimulate trade. Current studies aimed at improving transport networks by developing new methods for optimization. Because of the increase in the global number of cars, one of the most common problems facing the transport network is congestion. By creating traffic models and simulate them, we can avoid this problem and find appropriate solutions. In this paper we propose a new method for modeling traffic. This method considers road intersections as being service centers. A service center represents a set consisting of a queue followed by one or multiple servers. This model was used to simulate real situations in an urban traffic area. Based on this simulation, we have successfully determined the optimal functioning and we have computed the performance measures.

  11. Determining effects of an all weather logging road on winter woodland caribou habitat use in south-eastern Manitoba

    Doug W. Schindler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Owl Lake boreal woodland caribou population is the most southerly population in Manitoba. It is provincially ranked as a High Conservation Concern Population. Forestry operations exist in the area and there are plans for further forest harvest and renewal. The Happy Lake logging road is the only main access through the Owl Lake winter range. This logging road is currently closed to the public and access is limited to forestry operations during specific times of the year. An integrated forestry/caribou management strategy for the area provides for the maintenance of minimum areas of functional habitat. Habitat quality along the road was compared to habitat quality in the winter core use areas, within the winter range and outside the winter range. To evaluate the extent of functional habitat near the road, we conducted animal location and movement analysis using GPS data collected from January 2002 to March 2006. Habitat quality in the winter range, core use areas and along the road were assessed and found to be similar. Analysis of caribou locations and movement illustrate less use of high quality habitat adjacent to the Happy Lake Road. Loss of functional habitat is suggested to occur within 1 kilometre of the road. This potential loss of functional habitat should be incorporated into integrated forestry and caribou conservation strategies. Road management is recommended to minimize the potential sensory disturbance and associated impacts of all weather access on boreal woodland caribou.

  12. Public roads in the opening of forests in forest management units of Sarajevo canton

    Sokolović Dževada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary network of forest roads consists of public and forest truck roads. Public roads in one forest area have been mainly built due to needs of local communities, access to rural areas, the development of tourism, recreation and so on. Forest truck roads have been built and maintained by those who manage forests (the forest management, while public roads have been managed by the Directorate for Roads of the Federation of B&H and cantonal and local governments. In the last twenty years, the sector for wood assortments transport in the Federation of B&H is in charge of the private transport operators which use vehicles of large capacities and high axle loads for the purpose of transport of as large as possible quantities of wooden mass per time unit. Due to this fact, the roads have deteriorated faster. The accelerated deterioration of the roads used for the transport of wooden assortments imposes the need for the allocation of larger funds for their maintenance. Due to the increasing damages on the roads the prohibitions of use of some public roads for wooden assortments transport occur more frequently. The aim of the research is to determine the total length of public roads which open Forest Management Units of Sarajevo Canton (FMU of SC and to investigate the possibility of using these categories of roads for forestry. For examination and analysis possibilities of using public roads for wooden assortments transport qualitative research - polls methods have been applied within the framework of the key representatives of the target groups such as forestry and the local community. In the questionnaire, two sets of questions were specified, the first one which is designed to determine the possible existence of problems of using public roads for transport of wooden assortments and possible causes of occurrence of the problems. The second group of questions gives some of the possible solutions for solving the problems of using public roads for

  13. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then turn its attention to:…

  14. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction Contracts C Appendix C to..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  15. 50 CFR 26.34 - What are the special regulations concerning public access, use, and recreation for individual...

    2010-10-01

    ... chapter). (10) We prohibit the use or possession of glass food and beverage containers on lands within the... boat landing, access area, parking lot, structure, road, trail, or other recreation or management..., boat landings, access areas, parking lots, roads, trails, or any other recreation or...

  16. ROAD TRANSPORT IN INDIA: KEY ELEMENT FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH

    V. S. Adigal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available India is the Land of Knowledge and wisdom from the time immemorial even the foreigners Transport industry plays a vital role in the development of a country. In fact, the progress of a nation and progress of its transport industry is complementary to each other. The Road Transport industry has a lion’s share in India’s economic development. Due to easy accessibility, flexibility of operations, door to door service and reliability, Road Transport in India showed an increase in share of both passenger and freight traffic vis-à-vis other modes of transport. Transport sector accounts for 6.4% share in India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP.However, Road Transport has emerged as a dominant segment in India’s transportation sector with a share of 4.8% in India’s GDP comparison to railways that has a meager 1% share of GDP in 2011-12. Though the contribution of Road ansportation in GDP is more than but it still faces many lacunas and have to go a long way. Road Transport infrastructure development needs a good regulatory framework. Such egulations must address licensing, environmental impact, safety, security, pricing, service levels and dispute resolution. This paper analyses the inherent difficulties involved in the development of transport system in India. It gives a comprehensive picture along with different parameter of economic development and the road transport system at a macro angle. At the end researcher tries to bring out some suggestive measures to take care of the different in-built problems.

  17. ROAD TRANSPORT IN INDIA: KEY ELEMENT FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH

    V. S. AdigaL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available India is the Land of Knowledge and wisdom from the time immemorial even the foreigners Transport industry plays a vital role in the development of a country. In fact, the progress of a nation and progress of its transport industry is complementary to each other. The Road Transport industry has a lion’s share in India’s economic development. Due to easy accessibility, flexibility of operations, door to door service and reliability, Road Transport in India showed an increase in share of both passenger and freight traffic vis-à-vis other modes of transport. Transport sector accounts for 6.4% share in India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP.However, Road Transport has emerged as a dominant segment in India’s transportation sector with a share of 4.8% in India’s GDP comparison to railways that has a meager 1% share of GDP in 2011-12. Though the contribution of Road Transportation in GDP is more than but it still faces many lacunas and have to go a long way. Road Transport infrastructure development needs a good regulatory framework. Such regulations must address licensing, environmental impact, safety, security, pricing, service levels and dispute resolution. This paper analyses the inherent difficulties involved in the development of transport system in India. It gives a comprehensive picture along with different parameter of economic development and the road transport system at a macro angle. At the end researcher tries to bring out some suggestive measures to take care of the different in-built problems.

  18. Effect of Road Lighting on the Quality of Dual Carriageway Road Service

    Ben-Edigbe Johnnie; Mashros Nordiana; Raha Rahman

    2014-01-01

    The study is exciting because it introduced a new quality of road service assessment approach. The study explored the effect of road lighting on the quality of dual carriageway road service. Based on the hypothesis that road lighting has no significant effect on the level of road service, an impact study was carried out in Skudai town, Malaysia. Twenty four hours continuous traffic volume, vehicle types and speeds data were collected during daylight, road lighting and dry weather conditions f...

  19. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    A. Hartmann; Ling, F. Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic management activities for the contribution of road infrastructure to the value-creation process of road users is investigated. Road agencies facilitate the value creation of road users by maintaining, up...

  20. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  1. Open access

    Dorch, Bertil Fabricius; Demaio, Alessandro; Hersch, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This week, we celebrate open access week – an event aimed at bringing attention to this rapidly emerging form of scientific publication and its ethical imperatives. Traditionally, knowledge breakthroughs and scientific discoveries are shared through publication in academic journals. Peer...... ideas, break down barriers to science and make knowledge accessible to the masses – but this is not actually the case....

  2. Open Access

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  3. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  4. Encapsulating urban traffic rhythms into road networks.

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  5. Location of Road Emergency Stations in Fars Province, Using Spatial

    Ali Goli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To locate the road emergency stations in Fars province based on using spatial multi-criteria decision making (Delphi method. Methods: In this study, the criteria affecting the location of road emergency stations have been identified through Delphi method and their importance was determined using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP. With regard to the importance of the criteria and by using Geographical Information System (GIS, the appropriateness of the existing stations with the criteria and the way of their distribution has been explored, and the appropriate arenas for creating new emergency stations were determined. In order to investigate the spatial distribution pattern of the stations, Moran’s Index was used. Results: The accidents (0.318, placement position (0.235, time (0.198, roads (0.160, and population (0.079 were introduced as the main criteria in location road emergency stations. The findings showed that the distribution of the existing stations was clustering (Moran’s I=0.3. Three priorities were introduced for establishing new stations. Some arenas including Abade, north of Eghlid and Khoram bid, and small parts of Shiraz, Farashband, Bavanat, and Kazeroon were suggested as the first priority. Conclusion: GIS is a useful and applicable tool in investigating spatial distribution and geographical accessibility to the setting that provide health care, including emergency stations

  6. A Study on Applying GPS Technology to Solve Retrieving Information of Road Parking

    Yung-Chung Tsao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Government setup many road-parking beside roads in metropolis (e.g. Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung for the car-drivers to parking their cars. Under the policy of user payments, the parking fee according different locations is determined by their prosperity and convenience. In general, businessman driving to their customers, personal drivers or family travel-drivers traveling or going to restaurant face the parking problems due to insufficient parking quota of customers' companies or commercial stores. So the road-parking has become a convenient and efficient solution. But the quotas of road-parking are not enough for each driver usually, the drivers always need to drive around the target many times until the road-parking found. If the drivers can query and retrieve the parking information instantly and plan an optimal navigator to parking quickly, it will save oil-cost and time-consuming for driving. The research refers to the previous' A Study on Instant Information Retrieving Device for the Dynamic Road Parking Quota Information Problems', in which the staffs use parking-ticket printing device to scan parking number via barcode of barcode pedestal on the roads to retrieve the parking information and input car number-plate to print the bill of parking fee. Then the staffs put those bills of parking fee on the front glass of the parking cars. After next turns, the staffs can update the bill of parking fee for new parking information or add the new bill of parking fee. The important mechanisms are that all information can be transmitted to parking monitor server via wireless networking, mobile-networking (3G/3.5G or Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wimax. Therefore, the parking monitor server can offer instant parking quota information for any device via Internet. The study finds that the staffs are put in danger when they scan parking number via barcode of barcode pedestal on the roads with bending down themselves, because drivers

  7. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  8. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  9. The angular nature of road networks

    Molinero, Carlos; Arcaute, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Road networks are characterised by several structural and geometric properties. Their topological structure determines partially its hierarchical arrangement, but since these are networks that are spatially situated and, therefore, spatially constrained, to fully understand the role that each road plays in the system it is fundamental to characterize the influence that geometrical properties have over the network's behaviour. In this work, we percolate the UK's road network using the relative angle between street segments as the occupation probability. We argue that road networks undergo a non-equilibrium first-order phase transition at the moment the main roads start to interconnect forming the spanning percolation cluster. The percolation process uncovers the hierarchical structure of the roads in the network, and as such, its classification. Furthermore, this technique serves to extract the set of most important roads of the network and to create a hierarchical index for each road in the system.

  10. Road surface texture and skid resistance

    Do, Minh-Tan; Cerezo, Veronique

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the relationship between road surface texture and skid resistance. Mechanisms underlying the tire/wet road friction are first described. Definitions of road surface irregularities scales are given. The rest of the paper is then focused on the macrotexture and microtexture scales and their respective roles in what happens at the tire/road interface. Existing methods to measure and characterize the road surface texture are presented. On the one hand, problems encountered when using sensors developed for machined surfaces for the measurement of road surface profiles or cartographies are discussed. On the other hand, potential improvements when applying characterization methods developed for machined surfaces to road surfaces are highlighted. The paper presents finally modeling approaches to calculate friction forces from road surface texture. The generalized form of the models is presented from which terms related respectively to the macrotexture and the microtexture are identified. Approaches used to calculate these terms, integrating eventually other variables, are presented.

  11. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  12. Information support for road infrastructure and maintenance

    Ojsteršek, Aleš

    2008-01-01

    The final thesis deals with the usage of information support models in the process of construction and maintenance of the publicly owned roads. The first part of the thesis is dedicated to the management of the road infrastructure; special attention is paid to the process of construction, renewal, and maintenance of roads, as well as to the pertaining legislation. In the following chapters the current progress in construction, renewal and maintenance of roads, as well as the process of monito...

  13. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2

  14. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  15. Road Map for a Dream

    Fenlon, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    The transition into kindergarten is a challenge for any student, but it can be especially difficult for students with disabilities and their families. In this article, Amanda Fenlon suggests that by planning ahead families and schools can smooth that transition and put students on the right road. She encourages families to work with their child's…

  16. Otero County E-911 Roads

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents Otero County roads. The data was collected with the use of GPS equipment during the time period of 7-01-98 thru 6-20-01. Data was verified for...

  17. Nepal : Public Expenditure Review - Roads

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The report, Nepal Public Expenditure Review - Roads, was completed June 2011. The report states that the Government of Nepal has achieved several of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), while maintaining macroeconomic stability and prudent fiscal management. Strengthening public expenditure management is an ongoing reform agenda of the government's Three Year Plan, an inclusive devel...

  18. Road safety education for schoolchildren.

    Thein, M M; Lee, J

    1993-01-01

    In Singapore 6% of mortality of children below the age of 15 years is due to traffic related accidents. Prevention is a function of school educational outreach, modification of driver's behavior, and distancing children from vehicles. Singapore's road safety education program for schoolchildren is described as directed to children aged 7-12 years. Education takes place in al road safety park on a permanent four acre site that models a miniature road setting. The traffic police conduct the sessions among 500 students daily. Lessons involve basic instruction in safety principles and a test of knowledge followed by a traffic game. The objective is use role plays of pedestrians, motorists and cyclists to test skills, to help children identify traffic hazards, and to teach practical safety prevention measures. Secondary school students are trained as marshalls for the road safety park. The traffic police also conduct training among senior citizens and among cyclists. The park is open to the public and private groups on Sundays. During 1981-92 over 600,000 children were trained. Other strategies that indirectly affect the safety of children include drunk driving checks, speed checks, campaigns against drunk driving, education programs for motorists, safety education for cyclists and motorcyclists, and mass media promotion of safety. Since 1991-92 school zones are marked with speed bumps and signs. Pedestrian walkways are improved, and policy are acting against drivers not yielding the right of way to pedestrians. PMID:8185797

  19. Assessment of Road Infrastructures Pertaining to Malaysian Experience

    Samsuddin Norshakina; Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus

    2016-01-01

    Road Infrastructures contribute towards many severe accidents and it needs supervision as to improve road safety levels. The numbers of fatalities have increased annually and road authority should seriously consider conducting programs or activities to periodically monitor, restore of improve road infrastructure. Implementation of road safety audits may reduce fatalities among road users and maintain road safety at acceptable standards. This paper is aimed to discuss the aspects of road infra...

  20. Numerical simulation of tyre/road noise

    Schutte, Jan Henk

    2011-01-01

    In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical

  1. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    2010-07-01

    ... specifically approved by the regulatory authority as temporary routes during periods of road construction. (d... section. (a) Certification. The construction or reconstruction of primary roads shall be certified in a... authorizes land surveyors to certify the construction or reconstruction of primary roads, a...

  2. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link......-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure....

  3. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  4. Data, modelling and inference in road traffic networks.

    Gibbens, Richard J; Saatci, Yunus

    2008-06-13

    In this paper, we study UK road traffic data and explore a range of modelling and inference questions that arise from them. For example, loop detectors on the M25 motorway record speed and flow measurements at regularly spaced locations as well as the entry and exit lanes of junctions. An exploratory study of these data helps us to better understand and quantify the nature of congestion on the road network. From a traveller's perspective it is crucially important to understand the overall journey times and we look at methods to improve our ability to predict journey times given access jointly to both real-time and historical loop detector data. Throughout this paper we will comment on related work derived from US freeway data. PMID:18325872

  5. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    Alma Aubakirova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation.Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied.Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000, which was higher (P<0.05 than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000. High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30-39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50-59 years old and 70-79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Тdec=−2.4%, men (Тdec=−2.3% and women (Тdec=−1.4%. When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000, average (between18.3 and24.00/0000 and high (from 24.00/0000 and above. Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000, Mangistau region (25.90/0000, Zhambyl region (27.30/0000, Almaty region (29.30/0000 and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000.Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents.

  6. Open access

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  7. Road Expansion and Its Influence on Trail Sustainability in Bhutan

    Taiichi Ito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of people from India, benefitting both the Bhutanese and foreign tourists. At the same time, dependence on imported automobiles and fossil fuel has risen, and roadless areas have begun to shrink. This brought an inevitable loss of traditional environmental knowledge, such as the care of mules for packing, and reduction in physical and mental health among the Bhutanese. People who lost jobs as horsemen moved into towns to find jobs. Road extension is also a double-edged sword for visitors. It has resulted in shrinking trekking areas and loss of traditional culture, both of which have been sacrificed for easy access. Protected areas often function as fortifications against mechanical civilization. However, protected-area status or its zoning does not guarantee that an area will remain roadless where there is considerable resident population. An analysis in Jigme Dorji National Park showed the gradual retreat of trailheads and increasing dependence on automobiles among residents and trekkers. B. MacKaye, a regional planner in the Eastern United States, proposed using trails as a tool to control such mechanical civilization. His philosophy of regional planning suggests two measures; one is consolidated trailheads as dams, and the other is confinement of roads by levees, consisting of new trails and wilderness belts. According to case studies, the author proposed six options for coexistence of trails with roads.

  8. Road Safety Perception Towards Sustainable Transport (A Case of Road Safety Programs in Yogyakarta, Indonesia)

    Nurhidayati, Zuni Asih

    2014-01-01

    The number of fatalities due to traffic accidents to date has reached worrying levels. Thus, various research which concern on road safety programs were actively generated. The aims of this study is suggests a set of scheme on road safety policy improvement in Yogyakarta by firstly understanding the road user perception on current road safety programmes related to road safety problems, then analyse it along with other actor’s role in achieving sustainable transport. “The Five Pillars” as curr...

  9. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher traffic volumes and congestion affect road safety. But how and to what extent does this happen? This study aims to gain more insight into the relationship between traffic volume and road safety and...

  10. Road development and the geography of hunting by an Amazonian indigenous group: consequences for wildlife conservation.

    Espinosa, Santiago; Branch, Lyn C; Cueva, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are essential for conservation of wildlife populations. However, in the tropics there are two important factors that may interact to threaten this objective: 1) road development associated with large-scale resource extraction near or within protected areas; and 2) historical occupancy by traditional or indigenous groups that depend on wildlife for their survival. To manage wildlife populations in the tropics, it is critical to understand the effects of roads on the spatial extent of hunting and how wildlife is used. A geographical analysis can help us answer questions such as: How do roads affect spatial extent of hunting? How does market vicinity relate to local consumption and trade of bushmeat? How does vicinity to markets influence choice of game? A geographical analysis also can help evaluate the consequences of increased accessibility in landscapes that function as source-sink systems. We applied spatial analyses to evaluate the effects of increased landscape and market accessibility by road development on spatial extent of harvested areas and wildlife use by indigenous hunters. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, which is impacted by road development for oil extraction, and inhabited by the Waorani indigenous group. Hunting activities were self-reported for 12-14 months and each kill was georeferenced. Presence of roads was associated with a two-fold increase of the extraction area. Rates of bushmeat extraction and trade were higher closer to markets than further away. Hunters located closer to markets concentrated their effort on large-bodied species. Our results clearly demonstrate that placing roads within protected areas can seriously reduce their capacity to sustain wildlife populations and potentially threaten livelihoods of indigenous groups who depend on these resources for their survival. Our results critically inform current policy debates regarding resource extraction and road building near or within

  11. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  12. Necessary Geomorphologic Information For Roads Safety, With Emphasize Soleghan Road In West Of Tehran, Iran

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper review some of the aspects of necessary disciplines of geomorphology and roads, with emphasize Soleghan road. For building this road didn’t consider geomorphology process carefully. so the safety rang of the road is low and with consider to increasing traffic, the rang of danger is high. Specific subjects are related to the description of slops phenomena, including rock fall, block slide, rock creep, talus creep, debris flow, rock avalanches and floods. The river process, sloop steep, joint and fault system are the most important geomorphologic information of the Soleghan road. Soleghan road have been studied in this view and thus provide information which take the basis of stability road. Every road in Iran or world can include one or some important process, so some information is needed. More than half of Iran and world roads have built about before 1970, when the geomorphologic education and research was in the early of stage. Therefore many of Iran and world roads such as Soleghan road haven’t built with new geomorphologic and basic information. Too more damages which in order to geomorphologic process exposed to roads, people and cars in Iran and world such as Soleghan road are increased. Many flood and slumps destroyed built roads, many people and cars, damage or crash to ignoring the geomorphologic information, thus if we use geomorphologic information in road building, damage and crashes will be decreased, so safety will be increase.

  13. Access French

    Grosz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Access is the major new language series designed with the needs of today's generation of students firmly in mind. Whether learning for leisure or business purposes or working towards a curriculum qualification, Access French is specially designed for adults of all ages and gives students a thorough grounding in all the skills required to understand, speak, read and write contemporary French from scratch. The coursebook consists of 10 units covering different topic areas, each of which includes Language Focus panels explaining the structures covered and a comprehensive glossary. Learning tips

  14. Using CART to segment road images

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  15. The Effect of Road Hump in Reducing Speed of Motorcars in a Residential Area in Kuala Lumpur

    Noor Alyani Yaacob

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In its most simple terms, traffic calming is about preserving the functions of local streets. As local streets are intended to provide primarily land-access services, hence, when traffic begins to use local streets for through movements, traffic volume and speed levels become incompatible with this primary function. To respond, a study on the effectiveness of traffic calming measures in reducing vehicles speed at Taman Setapak residential area was undertaken. Field observations and spot speed survey were conducted to collect primary data. The field observation was carried out to collect data on road geometrics and design characteristics of the road humps. The spot speed survey was administered to collect vehicles speed at different points near the road humps. The major findings include first, the road humps proved effective in reducing the speed of the vehicles and second the design characteristics of the road humps is an important factor in reducing the speed of the vehicles. The average speed of the vehicles before approaching the road humps was about 30 km/hr and at the road humps below 10 km/hr. The findings showed that the design profiles of the road humps have an impact on the speed of the vehicles; the gentle the design profiles of the road humps especially in terms of its height and slope, the higher the speed of the vehicles near and at the road hump. The findings also showed a clear difference in the average speed of the motorcars approaching the road hump and at the road hump.

  16. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    informed other road development schemes in Nepal. Geomorphological surveys and robust geo-hazard assessments that factor the spatial and temporal dimensions of the seismic, fluvial and sediment hazards along the road corridor are critical for sustainable development of mountain roads. However, scientific and technical research studies seldom inform mountain road development primarily due to lack of co-ordination between the respective government agencies, access to journal papers in developing countries and unwillingness to adopt novel interventions in rural road construction practices. These challenges are further exacerbated by weak governance and lack of proper policy enforcement that often leads to construction of poorly engineered roads, thereby increasing the risk of rural infrastructural damage from geo-hazards. Though there exists a disconnect between the science-policy-governance interface where information on geo-hazards is neglected in mountain road development due to lack of scientific research and government apathy, there is an opportunity to spur dialogue and sensitize these issues via trans-disciplinary approaches on disaster risk management.

  17. Urban development and road safety.

    Henning-Hager, U

    1986-04-01

    There is still not sufficient in-depth knowledge available concerning the type and extent of the interdependencies between the large number of factors that influence, on the one hand, urban and transport planning, and on the other hand, road safety. If such in-depth knowledge did, in fact, exist this information would make it possible to recommend courses of action to urban planning authorities. The present study aims to remove this data deficit so that planning authorities may be able to assess not only the effects expected from individual measures but also to evaluate, with respect to the level of road safety, an entire planning area. The empirical study is based on 21 typical residential areas for which a total of 56 characteristics (variables) relating to the following sectors have been identified as descriptors of the accident situation: transport; local development structure; infrastructure facilities other than those intended for transport; and population structure. The statistical analysis was undertaken in two steps: correlation analysis of all variables; identification of the determinants of significance for road safety; and establishment of a non-linear regression model based on seven variables to express the relationship between transport provisions and traffic volumes as well as the quality of supply and demand in quantitative terms. By means of the regression model the accident load can, in principle, be assessed for any given residential area. The correlation analysis showed that there are still further influential factors which are of importance for road safety. Attempts were therefore made to identify the variables displaying a significant relationship to the model variables and which could thus, owing to their effects on the latter and the resulting linkage with road safety, be considered as "background variables." Whereas the majority of the model variables are to be ascribed to the transport sector, the so-called "background variables" mainly

  18. The Social Cost of Road Congestion in Ile-de-France Region (and France): Empirical Evidences from the Paris Ring-Road

    Koning, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to assess specific problems concerning traffic congestion access to the city of Paris. First, we attempted to evaluate the evolution of the congestion cost for the Paris Ring-Road (PRR), the major urban highway surrounding the French capital, during the period from 2000-2007. A speed-density methodology was implemented which enabled us to differentiate the external costs of road congestion between speed-classes of 5 km/h. These results were useful to subsequently p...

  19. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Werner Schiehlen

    2006-08-01

    Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations. This paper deals with the influence of random road profiles on the vertical dynamics of road vehicles characterized by stochastic processes. Switching from road profile displacement to road profile velocity results in white noise excitation facilitating mathematical analysis. Some fundamentals of power spectral density analysis and covariance analysis are reviewed. A quarter car model is used to show the advantages of the covariance analysis resulting immediately in standard variations characterizing the vehicle’s performance.

  20. Understanding road usage patterns in urban areas.

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own--surprisingly few--driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  1. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  2. Forestry and Road Development: Direct and Indirect Impacts from an Aboriginal Perspective.

    Tom M. Beckley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest industry is a significant contributor to the development of roads and most are constructed on Aboriginal territories. Many Aboriginal communities are isolated both socially and economically and Aboriginal cultures are often described as having inherent socio-environmental relationships. Aboriginal communities, therefore, may be the most likely to benefit and be most vulnerable to the impacts of road development. We use a case study approach to explore how an Aboriginal community interprets and responds to the increasing development of roads in its territory. The results are interpreted using the theory of access in order to frame the interactions between people and nature within a cohesive system which includes elements which are spatially located, flow, interact, and can be disturbed. The dominant themes discussed as being affected by the influence of roads on access included issues of the following nature: Aboriginal, hunting, foreign, territorial and environmental. Issues pertaining to Aboriginal actors as opposed to foreign actors such as the industry or non-aboriginal hunters and fishers dominated discussions. Although the positive effects provided by roads were alluded to, focus tended towards the affected relationships and ties between the territory, the environment and Aboriginal members. Roads are associated with changes in traditional roles and practices which benefit individualistic behaviors. The access mechanisms mediating and controlling the use of resources through traditional norms and roles such as sharing, asking permission, and helping in the practice of traditional activities no longer apply effectively. Changes in the traditional spatial organization of the territory have minimized the influence of knowledge, identity, and negotiation in mediating access among communities. Results highlight that conflicts have thus resulted between and among Aboriginal communities. Also, perception of the role of the environment

  3. Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Cold Weather On-road Testing of the Chevrolet Volt

    Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report details cold weather on-road testing of a Chevrolet Volt. It quantifies changes in efficiency and electric range as ambient temperature changes. It will be published to INL's AVTA website as an INL technical report and will be accessible to the general public.

  4. Traffic Impact Analysis of the Access to Projects on Traffic Performance of Nearby Roadways

    SONG Fei; CAO Jing; YANG Xiao-kuan

    2010-01-01

    Access to any development is a connection between the buildings and urban roadways. The impact of access on urban roads varies with location of the access. This paper studies the impact of access to large buildings on the surrounding road network by exploring traffic conflicts based on the configuration of the access. The concept of conflict intensity is introduced in this study as a new evaluation indicator to evaluate the traffic conflict triggered by the presence of access. The results show that the greater the speed, the greater the conflict intensity of access. Meanwhile, a similar situation exists when other variables (e.g., conflict angle or the number of conflicts) change. The larger the conflict intensity, the more dangerous the access. Results from this study can help developers and traffic engineers choose suitable locations of access and organize the traffic in a logical manner.

  5. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  6. Effects of a Wildfire on Road-stream Connectivity and Road Surface Erosion

    Sosa-Perez, Gabriel; MacDonald, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Unpaved roads generate large amounts of sediment per unit area, and the impact of these high erosion rates depends on how much of this sediment is delivered to streams. In the western USA typically around 10-30% of the road length is connected to a stream, and this proportion tends to increase with increasing precipitation. Wildfires can greatly increase surface runoff and erosion rates, but we know of no studies that have evaluated how fires affect road surface erosion and road-stream connectivity. Hence the objective of this study was to quantify how: 1) fire severity affects the amount of road surface rilling, sediment deposition, and road-stream connectivity; and 2) how these effects are modified by road segment characteristics. The study area was 6.8 km of the unpaved Old Flowers Road just west of Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, as the forests along this road had burned in the 2012 High Park fire. Detailed data were collected for 141 hydrologically distinct road segments, including the hillslopes above the road, road segment characteristics, and the drainage features leaving the road. Nearly all of the road segments had a planar design, and mean segment length and active width were 50 m and 2.4 m, respectively. The road segments below areas burned at high and moderate severity had significantly more and larger rills than road segments below areas burned at low severity, and this can be attributed to the greater surface runoff from upslope. Road segment slope was an increasingly important control on the amount of rilling as burn severity increased, while the flatter segments tended to capture the sediment eroded from upslope. Three-quarters of the road segments had only a single drainage feature, indicating that the road generally collected and concentrated all of the dispersed runoff from upslope. All of the road segments in areas burned at high and moderate severity and 78% of the segments in areas burned at low severity were connected to the stream. These

  7. TIre/road friction estimation

    DELANNE, Y; VANDANJON, PO

    2006-01-01

    In board tire/road friction estimation is of current interest in two different framework : - optimization of driver assistance systems efficiency : antilock braking system, electronic stability program, adaptive cruise control, lane departure control, advanced automatic driving, etc., - driver instantaneous warning about the available friction and limits for his possible driving actions. This subject has been the objective of many research programs throughout the world. Four main methods have...

  8. The Impact of Rural Roads

    de Vera Garcia, Elma

    1984-01-01

    This article is a product of a nine-month training and application program implemented by the micro component of the Economic and Social Impact Analysis/Women in Development (ESIA/WID) and the Food Systems Program of the East-West Center Resource Systems Institute (RSI). It compares and analyzes the socioeconomic status of the population within the influence areas of the experimental and control group before and after the rural road construction. In particular, it conducts an impact assessmen...

  9. Road Detection through Supervised Classification

    Alkhorshid, Yasamin; Aryafar, Kamelia; Bauer, Sven; Wanielik, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous driving is a rapidly evolving technology. Autonomous vehicles are capable of sensing their environment and navigating without human input through sensory information such as radar, lidar, GNSS, vehicle odometry, and computer vision. This sensory input provides a rich dataset that can be used in combination with machine learning models to tackle multiple problems in supervised settings. In this paper we focus on road detection through gray-scale images as the sole sensory input. Our...

  10. Economics of Road Network Ownership

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the economic impact of centralized and decentralized ownership structures and their corresponding pricing and investment strategies on transportation network performance and social welfare for travelers. In a decentralized network economic system, roads are owned by many agencies or companies that are responsible for pricing and investment strategies. The motivation of this study is two-fold. First, the question of which ownership structure, or industrial organi...