MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA Project is to provide insight into interview requirements and travel budgets for the Civil Engineer Corps accessions team through the use of forecasting. The goal of this project is to provide a forecasting model that can predict interview requirements and form the basis for constructing travel budgets and estimates. The primary tool utilized is spreadsheet modeling to include extensive linear regression analysis. Additional insight is pr...
Koop, C E; Ginzburg, H M
The Public Health Service (PHS) is the second oldest uniformed service of the United States; its tradition commenced with the establishment of the Marine Hospital Service in 1798. Congress, in 1889, established the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps under the aegis of the Treasury. The Corps was created as a uniformed nonmilitary service with a distinct uniform, insignia, and with titles, pay, and retirement protocols that corresponded to those of the uniformed military se...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc.), and Sepragen Corp.; Order...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Recruitment of Sites for Assignment of Corps... Corps, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, 5600 Fishers Lane, Room 8-37, Rockville, MD...
Hue, Pham Thi Bach; Wohlgemuth, Sven; Echizen, Isao; Thuy, Dong Thi Bich; Thuc, Nguyen Dinh
There needs to be a strategy for securing the privacy of patients when exchanging health records between various entities over the Internet. Despite the fact that health care providers such as Google Health and Microsoft Corp.'s Health Vault comply with the U.S Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the privacy of patients is still at risk. Several encryption schemes and access control mechanisms have been suggested to protect the disclosure of a patient's health record especially from unauthorized entities. However, by implementing these approaches, data owners are not capable of controlling and protecting the disclosure of the individual sensitive attributes of their health records. This raises the need to adopt a secure mechanism to protect personal information against unauthorized disclosure. Therefore, we propose a new Fine-grained Access Control (FGAC) mechanism that is based on subkeys, which would allow a data owner to further control the access to his data at the column-level. We also propose a new mechanism to efficiently reduce the number of keys maintained by a data owner in cases when the users have different access privileges to different columns of the data being shared.
Full Text Available Adolescents represent a large proportion of the population. As they mature and become sexually active, they face more serious health risks. Most face these risks with too little factual information, too little guidance about sexual responsibility and multiple barriers to accessing health care. A typical descriptive and explanatory design was used to determine what the characteristics of an accessible adolescent health service should be. Important results and conclusions that were reached indicate that the adolescent want a medical doctor and a registered nurse to be part of the health team treating them and they want to be served in the language of their choice. Family planning, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases and psychiatric services for the prevention of suicide are services that should be included in an adolescent accessible health service. The provision of health education concerning sexual transmitted diseases and AIDS is a necessity. The service should be available thought out the week (included Saturdays and within easy reach. It is recommended that minor changes in existing services be made, that will contribute towards making a health delivery service an adolescent accessible service. An adolescent accessible health service can in turn make a real contribution to the community’s efforts to improve the health of its adolescents and can prove to be a rewarding professional experience to the health worker.
... to Carol Abnathy, National Health and Wellness Manager, Employment and Training Administration... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health Questionnaire... collection of data about Job Corps Health Questionnaire, Form ETA 6-53 which expires on 10/31/2010. A copy...
This podcast is based on the November, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that more than one in four adults 18-64 years old (about 50 million) report being uninsured for at least part of the past 12 months, and focuses on the growing number of middle-income adults and those with a chronic illness or disability who have no health insurance. Created: 11/9/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 11/9/2010.
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Recruitment of Sites for Assignment of Corps... Shortage Designation, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, HRSA, as of January 1, 2013, for... Recruitment and Service, 999 18th Street, Denver, CO 80202. This information will be considered in...
Lange, W R; Frankenfield, D L; Carico, J; Pfeiffer, M B; Snyder, F R; Decker, J
The U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps performs health promotion and disease prevention activities and provides clinical care. The authors examined the epidemiology of deaths among active duty personnel and the hypothesis that, based on the mission, mortality would be less than in the general population, and that deaths would reflect nonpreventable causes. A retrospective record review for the period 1965-89 showed 118 active duty deaths, 26 percent of the number anticipated in a g...
Vincent-Johnson, Nancy A
Even though privately-owned pet care is a lower priority mission than military working dog care, food inspection,and the public health mission, it is still very important,and the one that many Veterinary Corps officers, civil-ian veterinarians, and technicians enjoy the most. The vast majority of veterinarians and technicians went into veterinary medicine because of a love for animals. It is fulfilling to offer guidance to a client with a new puppy or kitten, see a sick pet improve after treatment, and interact with dozens of animals and clients in a day. The services provided by the Army Veterinary Corps in car-ing for pets has expanded over the years and the standard of care has improved as well. It is truly a privilege to serve those who dedicate themselves to the protection of our Nation. The Army Veterinary Corps is indeed proud to provide care to the pets of Warfighters of the Army,Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard; their family members; and our military retirees. PMID:23277448
Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Dolci, Germán Fajardo; Ávila, Mauricio Hernández
Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining fin...
Health literacy, cited as essential to achieving Healthy People 2010's goals to "increase quality and years of healthy life" and to "eliminate health disparities," is defined by Healthy People as "the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions." Accessibility, by definition, the aforementioned "capacity to obtain," thus is health literacy's primary prerequisite. Accessibility's designation as the global gateway to health literacy is predicated also on life's realities: global aging and climate change, war and terrorism, and life-extending medical and technological advances. People with diverse access needs are health professionals' raison d'être. However, accessibility, consummately cross-cultural and universal, is virtually absent as a topic of health promotion and practice research and scholarly discussion of health literacy and equity. A call to action to place accessibility in its rightful premier position on the profession's agenda is issued. PMID:18955546
Kuenburg, Alexa; Fellinger, Paul; Fellinger, Johannes
Access to health care without barriers is a clearly defined right of people with disabilities as stated by the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. The present study reviews literature from 2000 to 2015 on access to health care for deaf people and reveals significant challenges in communication with health providers and gaps in…
Hansen, Miriam; And Others
This manual was developed to help Peace Corps volunteers who are serving as community health workers in developing nations to teach expectant mothers about pregnancy and childbirth. The material is organized in four sections corresponding to four prenatal classes plus a section on labor and delivery information for health care workers. Some of the…
In February 2010, the Delhi High Court delivered its decision in Bayer Corp v Union of India in which Bayer had appealed against an August 2009 decision of the same court. Both decisions prevented Bayer from introducing the concept of patent linkage into India's drug regulatory regime. Bayer appealed to the Indian Supreme Court, the highest court in India, which agreed on 2 March 2010 to hear the appeal. Given that India is regarded as a global pharmaceutical manufacturer of generic medications, how its judiciary and government perceive their international obligations has a significant impact on the global access to medicines regime. In rejecting the application of patent linkage, the case provides an opportunity for India to further acknowledge its international human rights obligations. PMID:21528741
Radis, Molly E.; Updegrove, Stephen C.; Somsel, Anne; Crowley, Angela A.
Access to student health information, such as immunizations, screenings, and care plans for chronic conditions, is essential for school nurses to fulfill their role in promoting students' health. School nurses typically encounter barriers to accessing health records and spend many hours attempting to retrieve health information. As a result,…
Health services research has laid the groundwork for ongoing policy debates over the shortcomings of the American health care system and the need for the expansion of health insurance protection. In the early 1970s, studies of inequality in access to medical care provided the basis for proposals for national health insurance. The examination of the impact of Medicare and Medicaid demonstrated the critical role of these governmental efforts in reducing inequalities in access to care. By the 1980s the focus of investigation turned to the impact of policies designed to contain the cost of health care on access to medical services by vulnerable populations. Documentation of the negative health outcomes that followed from restrictions on access to care has set the stage for a renewed debate over universal health insurance. PMID:1791790
Ferrera, MJ; Sacks, TK; M. Perez; Nixon, JP; Asis, D; Coleman, WL
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an approach that engages community residents with a goal of influencing change in community health systems, programs, or policies. As such, CBPR is particularly relevant to historically marginalized communities that often have not directly benefited from the knowledge research produces. This article analyzes a youth empowerment program, Chicago's Youth Health Service Corps, from a CBPR perspective. The purpose of this work was (1) to discuss Yo...
Full Text Available Abstract Open Access publishing is a valuable resource for the synthesis and distribution of essential health care information. This article discusses the potential benefits of Open Access, specifically in terms of Low and Middle Income (LAMI countries in which there is currently a lack of informed health care providers – mainly a consequence of poor availability to information. We propose that without copyright restrictions, Open Access facilitates distribution of the most relevant research and health care information. Furthermore, we suggest that the technology and infrastructure that has been put in place for Open Access could be used to publish download-able manuals, guides or basic handbooks created by healthcare providers in LAMI countries.
Dykens, Andrew; Hedrick, Chris; Ndiaye, Youssoupha; Linn, Annē
Background: There is abundant evidence of the affordable, life-saving interventions effective at the local primary health care level in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, the understanding of how to deliver those interventions in diverse settings is limited. Primary healthcare services implementation research is needed to elucidate the contextual factors that can influence the outcomes of interventions, especially at the local level. US universities commonly collaborate with L...
The need for health information resources to support climate change adaptation and mitigation decisions is growing, both in the United States and around the world, as the manifestations of climate change become more evident and widespread. In many instances, these information resources are not specific to a changing climate, but have either been developed or are highly relevant for addressing health issues related to existing climate variability and weather extremes. To help address the need for more integrated data, the Interagency Cross-Cutting Group on Climate Change and Human Health, a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program, has developed the Metadata Access Tool for Climate and Health (MATCH). MATCH is a gateway to relevant information that can be used to solve problems at the nexus of climate science and public health by facilitating research, enabling scientific collaborations in a One Health approach, and promoting data stewardship that will enhance the quality and application of climate and health research. MATCH is a searchable clearinghouse of publicly available Federal metadata including monitoring and surveillance data sets, early warning systems, and tools for characterizing the health impacts of global climate change. Examples of relevant databases include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Public Health Tracking System and NOAA's National Climate Data Center's national and state temperature and precipitation data. This presentation will introduce the audience to this new web-based geoportal and demonstrate its features and potential applications.
... Columbia, Job Corps assists students across the nation in attaining academic credentials, including a High... of Management and Budget approval of the information collection request. They will also become a... to ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time...
Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.
E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.
Fournand, Anne; Fricau, Baptiste; Gaugue, Anne; Germon, Olivia; Laplace-Treyture, Danièle; Liégeois, Laurence; Miaux, Sylvie; Nuvolati, Giampaolo; Pleven, Bertrand; Turcot, Laurent
Des corps pressés, affaiblis, rêveurs, avertis, sportifs, danseurs, etc., se croisent, s'évitent, se frôlent et se heurtent parfois dans nos villes. Le mouvement est partout, changeant selon les heures et les lieux. Les piétons, touristes, flâneurs, progressent dans une ville qu'ils observent et qu'ils sentent. Certains espaces s’ouvrent à leurs llents cheminements, d'autres se rétractent pour faciliter le «transit automobile», obligeant les corps à s’adapter aux files continues de véhicules ...
..., or oral health services to a primary medical care, mental health, or dental HPSA of greatest shortage... the age, sex, race/ethnicity of, and provider encounter records for its user population. The UDS... assistants (PAs), or CNMs. Dental No more than 12 dentists and 12 dental hygienists. Mental Health No...
Souliotis, Kyriakos; Hasardzhiev, Stanimir; Agapidaki, Eirini
Research evidence suggests that access to health care is the key influential factor for improved population health outcomes and health care system sustainability. Although the importance of addressing barriers in access to health care across European countries is well documented, little has been done to improve the situation. This is due to different definitions, approaches and policies, and partly due to persisting disparities in access within and between European countries. To bridge this gap, the Patient Access Partnership (PACT) developed (a) the '5As' definition of access, which details the five critical elements (adequacy, accessibility, affordability, appropriateness, and availability) of access to health care, (b) a multi-stakeholders' approach for mapping access, and (c) a 13-item questionnaire based on the 5As definition in an effort to address these obstacles and to identify best practices. These tools are expected to contribute effectively to addressing access barriers in practice, by suggesting a common framework and facilitating the exchange of knowledge and expertise, in order to improve access to health care between and within European countries. PMID:27237814
Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James
To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users. PMID:24901350
... expertise: Working with underserved populations, health care policy, recruitment and retention, site administration, customer service, marketing, organizational partnerships, research, and clinical practice. We...
... with underserved populations, health care policy, recruitment and retention, site administration, customer service, marketing, organizational partnerships, research, and clinical practice. We are...
Vanessa Franco de Carvalho; Nalú Pereira da Costa Kerber; Vanessa Andréia Wachholz; Flávia Conceição Pohlmann; Letícia Amico Marques; Fabiane Ferreira Francioni
Objective: to understand how is the access to the public health service users in the Papanicolaou Test. Methods: qualitative study, with 52 women who have changes in the Pap smear exam, questioning the exam achievement frequency and the difficulties of its access and the consultations. It was developed a thematic analysis based on the Fekete accessibility reference. Results: three categories emerged: access to information on the frequency of Pap smears, highlighting the completion of the exam...
..., and/or oral health services to a primary medical care, mental health, or dental HPSA of greatest... allows the site to assess the age, sex, race/ethnicity of, and provider encounter records for, its user... the assignment of NHSC scholarship recipients who are physician assistants (PAs); (4) dental...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Advisory Council on the National... and time specified above using the following information: Dial-in number: 1-800-857-5081;...
Cárdenas González, José Alejandro; Gutiérrez, Mario Andrés
En el ámbito laboral colombiano, se encuentran múltiples empresas de consultoría organizacional que dan cobertura a varias necesidades de las empresas cliente, es así que a partir de la idea de dar alcance a estas necesidades se crea Spa Corp; la cual es una compañía dedicada al cambio perspectivas de procesos organizacionales en Colombia.
McKirnan, David J.; Du Bois, Steve N.; Alvy, Lisa M.; Jones, Kyle
Men who have sex with men (MSM) appear to experience barriers to health care compared with general population men. This report examines individual differences in health care access within a diverse sample of urban MSM ("N" = 871). The authors examined demographic differences in health care access and the relation between access and health-related…
... Retention and NHSC Communications and Marketing Strategies will also be part of the discussions. For Further Information Contact: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, Health Resources and...
Zhang, Xuanping; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Gregg, Edward W.; Beckles, Gloria L.; Williams, Desmond E.; Barker, Lawrence E; Albright, Ann L.; Imperatore, Giuseppina
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between access to health care and diabetes control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2008, we identified 1,221 U.S. adults (age 18–64 years) with self-reported diabetes. Access was measured by current health insurance coverage, number of times health care was received over the past year, and routine place to go for health care. Diabetes control measures included the proportion of people...
... updates from the Agency and the Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service (BCRS), discuss recruitment and marketing strategies for the NHSC, and address current workforce issues. For Further Information Contact: Njeri Jones, Bureau of Clinician Recruitment and Service, Health Resources and...
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made toward providing health information in Africa, in part because of technological advancements. Nevertheless, ensuring that information is accessible, comprehensible, and usable remains problematic, and there remain needs in many settings to address issues such as computer skills, literacy, and the infrastructure to access information. To determine how librarians might play a more strategic role in meeting information needs of health professionals in Africa, the author reviewed key components of information systems pertinent to knowledge management for the health sector, including access to global online resources, capacity to use computer technology for information retrieval, information literacy, and the potential for professional networks to play a role in improving access to and use of information. The author concluded that, in regions that lack adequate information systems, librarians could apply their knowledge and skills to facilitate access and use by information seekers. Ensuring access to and use of health information can also be achieved by engaging organizations and associations working to enhance access to health information, such as the Association for Health Information and Libraries in Africa. These groups can provide assistance through training, dissemination, information repackaging, and other approaches known to improve information literacy. PMID:22724668
Dândara Nayara Azevêdo Dantas; Bertha Cruz Enders; Rosemary Álvares Medeiros; Rudhere Judson Fernandes Santos; Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira; Ana Angélica Rêgo Queiroz
The objective was to know the evaluation of patients with tuberculosis regarding the access to health care and the diagnosis of the disease. It is a cross-sectional quantitative study made in Natal, RN, Brazil, from February to September 2012, with 60 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Access to health care was considered easy by 80% of patients. Of those, 35% considered it easy because of the short time t...
Sánchez Tarragó, Nancy; Fernández Molina, Juan Carlos
A descriptive, cross-sectional study is presented whose objective was to determine the level of knowledge about and the attitudes toward open access journals among Cuban health researchers. To this end, a printed questionnaire was distributed between March and June 2007 to a group of researchers from Cuban national health institutes, who were chosen through stratified random sampling (160 researchers from 11 institutes). Variables included level of information about Open Access Movement terms...
Niniek Lely Pratiwi; Hari Basuki
Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in...
Full Text Available The Czech government has identified commercial health insurance as one of the major problems for migrants’ access to health care. Non-EU immigrants are eligible for public health insurance only if they have employee status or permanent residency. The present study examined migrants’ access to the public health insurance system in Czechia. A cross-sectional survey of 909 immigrants from Ukraine and Vietnam was conducted in March and May 2013, and binary logistic regression was applied in data analysis. Among immigrants entitled to Czech public health insurance due to permanent residency/asylum, 30% were out of the public health insurance system, and of those entitled by their employment status, 50% were out of the system. Migrants with a poor knowledge of the Czech language are more likely to remain excluded from the system of public health insurance. Instead, they either remain in the commercial health insurance system or they simultaneously pay for both commercial and public health insurance, which is highly disadvantageous. Since there are no reasonable grounds to stay outside the public health insurance, it is concluded that it is lack of awareness that keeps eligible immigrants from entering the system. It is suggested that no equal access to health care exists without sufficient awareness about health care system.
Rittenhouse, Diane R.; Fryer, George E; Phillips, Robert L; Miyoshi, Thomas; Nielsen, Christine; Goodman, David C; Grumbach, Kevin
PURPOSE Community health centers (CHCs) are a critical component of the health care safety net. President Bush’s recent effort to expand CHC capacity coincides with difficulty recruiting primary care physicians and substantial cuts in federal grant programs designed to prepare and motivate physicians to practice in underserved settings. This article examines the association between physicians’ attendance in training programs funded by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Title ...
Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students. PMID:27347257
Mental disorders are the leading cause of non-communicable disability worldwide. Insufficient numbers of psychiatrically trained providers and geographic inequities impair access. To close this treatment gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the integration of mental health services with primary care. A new innovative online program is presented that increases access to mental health education for primary care nurse practitioners in designated mental health professional shortage areas. To create successful and sustainable change, an overlapping three-phase strategy is being implemented. Phase I is recruiting and educating primary care nurse practitioners to become competent and certified psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners. Phase II is developing partnerships with state and local agencies to identify and support the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner education and clinical training. Phase III is sustaining integrated mental health care services through the development of nurse leaders who will participate in interdisciplinary coalitions and educate future students. PMID:27347257
Fernández-Mayoralas, G; Rodríguez, V; Rojo, F
The paper aims to identify the variables that best explain the use of health services by people aged 65 and over in Spain. The data comes from the 1993 Spanish National Health Survey (ENSE 93). The conceptual framework is the model proposed by Andersen, who suggests that utilisation is a function of predisposition to use the services, the ability to use them and of need. A bivariate and multivariate analysis (SPSS-X Discriminant Procedure) is conducted to define the predictors that best discriminate users and non-users. The use of each health service is explained by a different set of variables. The need variables play a more important role in predicting the use of non-discretionary services that are more closely related to healing processes (medical consultations, emergencies and hospitalisation). The predisposing and enabling variables are more relevant in explaining the use of dental services, indicating a certain degree of inequity of these discretionary services. PMID:10622691
Hoggard, Michael; Gast, Julie
There are over 300 refugees resettled in Cache County, Utah (figure 2). Despite coming from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, the Cache County refugee population shares similar circumstances in regards to access to health care: (a)96% of working adults are employed at the same job (b)Refugees have access to the same social services (c)None of the refugee populations speak English as a native language. The purpose of this study is to understand key physical, structural and cultu...
Godager, Geir; Iversen, Tor; Ma, Ching-to Albert
We study gatekeeping physicians' referrals of patients to specialty care. We derive theoretical results when competition in the physician market intensifies. First, due to competitive pressure, physicians refer patients to specialty care more often. Second, physicians earn more by treating patients themselves, so refer patients to specialty care less often. We assess empirically the overall effect of competition with data from a 2008-2009 Norwegian survey, National Health Insurance Administration, and Statistics Norway. From the data we construct three measures of competition: the number of open primary physician practices with and without population adjustment, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index. The empirical results suggest that competition has negligible or small positive effects on referrals overall. Our results do not support the policy claim that increasing the number of primary care physicians reduces secondary care. PMID:25544400
Buchmueller, T C
The attractiveness of a job offering health benefits increases with a worker's expected medical expenditures. At the same time, employers have an incentive to screen out high-risk workers. Evidence from the 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation indicates that employer screening dominates high-risk workers' desire to select jobs that offer insurance. Workers who describe their health as fair or poor, report difficulty with physical tasks, or have a work-related disability are less likely to receive employer-provided health insurance than healthy workers. Part of this effect is explained by the negative impact of poor health on earnings and labor supply. PMID:7713620
Dândara Nayara Azevêdo Dantas
Full Text Available The objective was to know the evaluation of patients with tuberculosis regarding the access to health care and the diagnosis of the disease. It is a cross-sectional quantitative study made in Natal, RN, Brazil, from February to September 2012, with 60 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Access to health care was considered easy by 80% of patients. Of those, 35% considered it easy because of the short time to get a doctor’s appointment and 21.7% because of their relationship with the health professionals. The access to the diagnosis of the disease was also evaluated as easy (85%. Of this total, 33.3% rated it as easy, once the exams were made in the health service and 13.3% due to the short time to get immediate doctor’s appointment. It is concluded that the organization of the services was crucial for the good or bad evaluation of the access to the assistance to health and diagnosis of the disease.
Wimmer-Puchinger, B; Wolf, H; Engleder, A
Due to the evident interaction between social factors and health, migrants are exposed to specific risk factors and access barriers to health services. Some examples are the lower education level, the low social position and/or the insufficient language skills. This concept is further elaborated in the multi-factorial impacts of health literacy. Female migrants often experience additional discrimination because of their gender. Despite the lack of representative data, consistent studies show that female migrants do not regularly take advantage of health care prevention and present themselves with higher degrees of stress. The current "inadequate health care" manifests itself in a lack of care in the areas of prevention and health education and an abundance in the context of medication and diagnostic procedures. To meet these demands and to further reduce barriers, in particular language barriers, specific strategies for this target group involving both politics and the health care system have to be developed. Besides the employment of interpreters with a native cultural background and the distribution of information booklets, it is an important strategy to reduce structural obstacles such as cultural diversity. To contact these women in their living environment should help to increase their self-determined health promotion. Selected models of good practice in Austria with regard to the themes of FGM (female genital mutilation), violence, heart disease and breast cancer are presented to highlight the specific health situation and risk factors of female migrants as well as successful strategies to confront them. PMID:16927035
AbuOun, Nael A. H; Abdel-Hamid, Ayman; El-Nasr, Mohamad Abou
When most patients visit physicians in a clinic or a hospital, they are asked about their medical history and related medical tests' results which might not exist or might simply have been lost over time. In emergency situations, many patients suffer or sadly die because of lack of pertinent medical information. Patient's Health information (PHI) saved by Electronic Medical Record (EMR) could be accessible only by a hospital using their EMR system. Furthermore, Personal Health Record (PHR) in...
Pihlaja, Kimmo; Päivärinta, Paula
The purpose of this thesis is to describe the accessibility in mental health care from the point of view of an adult with cerebral palsy. The theoretical framework of this thesis is constructed from the related literature and previous studies closely linked to the topic. Research was done to clarify the concepts of disability, cerebral palsy, and mental health. The research showed cerebral palsy as a multidimensional physical disability which may include different types of accompanying im...
Brown, E. Richard; Cousineau, Michael R.
In this article, the authors assessed the effects of the loss of Medicaid eligibility on access to health services by the medically indigent population in two California counties. An historically derived baseline of health services received by each county's medically indigent adults under Medicaid was compared with the volume of services provided by the county to the same population after they lost Medicaid eligibility. The baseline figures were used as an “expected” volume of services which ...
This thesis seeks to shift the discussion of mental health records in archives and records management literature by foregrounding the autonomy and experiences of records subjects, drawing from the scholarship surrounding archival activism, human rights and disability studies. Using qualitative content analysis of in-depth interviews with five people who have accessed their own records in California, this exploratory study shows evidence that mental health records serve significant practical a...
de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Machado, Rosani Ramos; Soratto, Jacks; Scherer, Magda dos Anjos; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Resque; Trindade, Letícia Lima
Objective to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. Method qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. Results the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. Conclusions investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health. PMID:27027679
It introduces a nuclear radiation monitoring simulation system of health access. The main parameters of the software and hardware design and the system structure are described, the development of similar simulation system to provide some help an d guidance, the system design is based on radiation monitor of NPQJVC. (authors)
Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Ramírez-Valdés, Carlos Jacobo; Cerecero-Garcia, Diego; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza
OBJECTIVE To describe the health status and access to care of forced-return Mexican migrants deported through the Mexico-United States border and to compare it with the situation of voluntary-return migrants. METHODS Secondary data analysis from the Survey on Migration in Mexico’s Northern Border from 2012. This is a continuous survey, designed to describe migration flows between Mexico and the United States, with a mobile-population sampling design. We analyzed indicators of health and access to care among deported migrants, and compare them with voluntary-return migrants. Our analysis sample included 2,680 voluntary-return migrants, and 6,862 deportees. We employ an ordinal multiple logistic regression model, to compare the adjusted odds of having worst self-reported health between the studied groups. RESULTS As compared to voluntary-return migrants, deportees were less likely to have medical insurance in the United States (OR = 0.05; 95%CI 0.04;0.06). In the regression model a poorer self-perceived health was found to be associated with having been deported (OR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.52;1.92), as well as age (OR = 1.03, 95%CI 1.02;1.03) and years of education (OR = 0.94 95%CI 0.93;0.95). CONCLUSIONS According to our results, deportees had less access to care while in the United States, as compared with voluntary-return migrants. Our results also showed an independent and statistically significant association between deportation and having poorer self-perceived health. To promote the health and access to care of deported Mexican migrants coming back from the United States, new health and social policies are required. PMID:25119943
Chong, Chyi Ming
The indications of Malaysia government to remove its subsidize policy in its health care system and privatizing certain hospitals and health care services has inflicted numerous heated debates and discussions among individuals and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO). The author wishes to contribute some insightful information to the public through her research about Malaysia citizen’s access to medical health care inline with its current health care system and policy. Health care systems of ...
Kousoulis, Antonis A; Ioakeim-Ioannidou, Myrsini; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P
Eastern Greek islands have been direct passageways of (mainly Syrian) refugees to the European continent over the past year. However, basic medical care has been insufficient. Despite calls for reform, the Greek healthcare system has for many years been costly and dysfunctional, lacking universal equity of access. Thus, mainly volunteers look after the refugee camps in the Greek islands under adverse conditions. Communicable diseases, trauma related injuries and mental health problems are the most common issues facing the refugees. The rapid changes in the epidemiology of multiple conditions that are seen in countries with high immigration rates, like Greece, demand pragmatic solutions. Best available knowledge should be used in delivering health interventions. So far, Greece is failed by international aid, and cross-border policies have not effectively tackled underlying reasons for ill-health in this context, like poverty, conflict and equity of access. PMID:27485633
Brey, Rebecca A.; Clark, Susan E.; Wantz, Molly S.
The second National Health Education Standard states the importance of student demonstration of the ability to access valid health information and services. The teaching technique presented in this article provides an opportunity for children and adolescents to develop their health literacy and advocacy skills by contributing to a class resource…
Full Text Available This paper tackles the difficult and often not openly discussed This paper tackles the difficult and often not openly discussed topic of access and equity in higher education for people with mental health difficulties. Recent legislative and policy developments in mental health, disability, anti-discrimination and education mean that all students who disclose a mental health condition can expect fair and equitable treatment. However the findings of an exploratory study at an Australian university reveal that just under two thirds of the 54 students who reported mental health difficulties did not disclose this to staff due to fears of discrimination at university and in future employment. Students who did disclose felt supported when staff displayed a respectful attitude and provided appropriate advice and useful strategies for them to remain engaged in university studies when experiencing mental health difficulties.
Lambert, D; Agger, M S
This article examines geographic differences in the use of mental health services among Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)-eligible Medicaid beneficiaries in Maine. Findings indicate that rural AFDC beneficiaries have significantly lower utilization of mental health services than urban beneficiaries. Specialty mental health providers account for the majority of ambulatory visits for both rural and urban beneficiaries. However, rural beneficiaries rely more on primary-care providers than do urban beneficiaries. Differences in use are largely explained by variations in the supply of specialty mental health providers. This finding supports the long-held assumption that lower supply is a barrier to access to mental health services in rural areas. PMID:10153467
Bush, Nigel E.; Bowen, Deborah J.; Jean Wooldridge; Abi Ludwig; Hendrika Meischke; Robert Robbins
Much is written about Internet access, Web access, Web site accessibility, and access to online health information. The term access has, however, a variety of meanings to authors in different contexts when applied to the Internet, the Web, and interactive health communication. We have summarized those varied uses and definitions and consolidated them into a framework that defines Internet and Web access issues for health researchers. We group issues into two categories: connectivity and human...
Wang Peng; Jiang Lingyun
As the development of computer science and smart health-care technology, there is a trend for patients to enjoy medical care at home. Taking enormous users in the Smart Health-care System into consideration, access control is an important issue. Traditional access control models, discretionary access control, mandatory access control, and role-based access control, do not properly reflect the characteristics of Smart Health-care System. This paper proposes an advanced access control model for...
Enabling the shared care paradigm, centralised or even decentralised electronic health record (EHR) systems increasingly become core applications in hospital information systems and health networks. For realising multipurpose use and reuse as well as inter-operability at knowledge level, EHR have to meet special architectural requirements. The component-oriented and model-based architecture should meet international standards. Especially in extended health networks realising inter-organisational communication and co-operation, authorisation cannot be organised at user level anymore. Therefore, models, methods and tools must be established to allow formal and structured policy definition, policy agreements, role definition, authorisation and access control. Based on the author's international engagement in EHR architecture and security standards referring to the revision of CEN ENV 13606, the GEHR/open EHR approach, HL7 and CORBA, models for health-specific and EHR-related roles, for authorisation management and access control have been developed. The basic concept is the separation of structural roles defining organisational entity-to-entity relationships and enabling specific acts on the one hand, and functional roles bound to specific activities and realising rights and duties on the other hand. Aggregation of organisational, functional, informational and technological components follows specific rules. Using UML and XML, the principles as well as some examples for analysis, design, implementation and maintenance of policy and authorisation management as well as access control have been practically implemented. PMID:15066555
Niniek Lely Pratiwi
Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.
Syed, Samina T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Sharp, Lisa K.
Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthes...
Βλαχάκη, Ασημίνα; Urquhart, Christine
The aim is to explore how health library and information professionals can expand their current work roles by supporting open access initiatives particularly the development of institutional repositories. A role competency framework is presented to help analyse a case study in a cancer hospital in the UK, as well as some other examples from the literature. The findings show that librarians benefit from greater expertise gained in metadata standards, and the library ...
Nigel E. Bush
Full Text Available Much is written about Internet access, Web access, Web site accessibility, and access to online health information. The term access has, however, a variety of meanings to authors in different contexts when applied to the Internet, the Web, and interactive health communication. We have summarized those varied uses and definitions and consolidated them into a framework that defines Internet and Web access issues for health researchers. We group issues into two categories: connectivity and human interface. Our focus is to conceptualize access as a multicomponent issue that can either reduce or enhance the public health utility of electronic communications.
Woofter, Dennis D; Peters, Andrew; Kvaska, Greg; Turner, Carol I; Peters, Robert J; Shaffer, Richard G; Sobocinski, Andre B
The Navy Dental Corps is responsible for ensuring the readiness of America's sailors and marines and optimizing their oral health. This article traces the history from the 1912 Act of Congress authorizing thirty "assistant dental surgeons" as the first Navy Dental Corps through service around the world. Navy dentists have seen service in every war and action in the past ninety years, reaching a peak of seven thousand officers and eleven thousand technicians in World War II. The Navy Dental Corps has served in the Korean and Vietnam Wars, Beirut, Somalia, Haiti, 9/11, Desert Storm, Desert Shield, and Operation Iraqi Freedom. PMID:12892336
Battistella, R M; Kuder, J M
Policy disconnected from economic reality is bad policy. Neither government financed health insurance nor an employer mandated health insurance approach are in the national interest. Higher national priorities compel a reallocation of resources from consumption to investment. This need not, however, cause an abandonment of efforts to deal with the problems of the uninsured and other health reforms. Successful health care reform is achievable provided it is responsive to higher priorities for economic growth. A strong economy and the production of wealth are indispensable to economic justice. Toward this end, a program of universal access is proposed whereby families and individuals are required to pay for their own health insurance up to a fixed percentage of disposable personal income before public payments kick in. Government's chief role is to establish a standard package of cost-effective benefits to be offered by all insurance carriers, the cost of which is approximately 40 percent less than conventional insurance coverage because of the elimination of reimbursement for clinically non-efficacious and cost-ineffective services. Public financing is relegated to a residual role in which subsidies are targeted on the needy. Much of the momentum for cost control is transferred to consumers and private insurers, both of whom acquire a vested interest in obtaining value for money. Uniform rules for underwriting, eligibility, and enrollment practices guard against socially harmful practices such as experience rating and exclusion of preexisting conditions. The household responsibility and equity plan described herein could free up as much as $90 billion or more for public investment in economic growth and national debt reduction while assuring access to health care regardless of ability to pay. Economic revitalization will be assisted by changes in household savings. With health care no longer a free good and government social programs concentrated on the truly needy
Henifin, M S
While attention has focused on the promise of new reproductive technologies to provide cures for infertility, efforts aimed at preventing infertility have languished, and the major cause of infant morbidity and morality--lack of prenatal care--has worsened. This article explores the social and ethical issues arising out of the uses of three new reproductive technologies: surrogacy, in vitro fertilization, and prenatal screening. In addition, coerced medical interventions during pregnancy are described. Examination of the social circumstances surrounding the use of these medical technologies supports the conclusion that new reproductive technologies have increased, rather than decreased, inequities in access to and allocation of health care resources. PMID:17165238
Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta
This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,Peffect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971
... sophisticated levels of health care beyond primary care); (b) Establish and maintain a patient record system; (c... applicable fire and safety codes; (e) Develop, to the extent feasible, linkages with other health care... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What operational requirements apply to an entity...
Kalich, Angela; Heinemann, Lyn; Ghahari, Setareh
Canadian population-based surveys report comparable access to health care services between immigrant and non-immigrant populations, yet other research reports immigrant-specific access barriers. A scoping review was conducted to explore research regarding Canadian immigrants' unique experiences in accessing health care, and was guided by the research question: "What is currently known about the barriers that adult immigrants face when accessing Canadian health care services?" The findings of this study suggest that there are unmet health care access needs specific to immigrants to Canada. In reviewing research of immigrants' health care experiences, the most common access barriers were found to be language barriers, barriers to information, and cultural differences. These findings, in addition to low cultural competency reported by interviewed health care workers in the reviewed articles, indicate inequities in access to Canadian health care services for immigrant populations. Suggestions for future research and programming are discussed. PMID:26093784
... and Health IT Meaningful Use of Health IT E-Health Stay Well Electronic Health Records - How they connect ... Record Support family caregivers Benefits of Health IT e-Health for Communities Better Information Means Safer Health Care ...
Gilmour, Jean; Strong, Alison; Chan, Helen; Hanna, Sue; Huntington, Annette
Online information is a critical resource for evidence-based practice and patient education. This study aimed to establish New Zealand nurses' access and evaluation of online health information in the primary care context using a postal questionnaire survey; there were 630 respondents from a random sample of 931 nurses. The majority of respondents were satisfied with work access to online information (84.5%, n = 501) and searched for online information at least several times a week (57.5%, n = 343). The major barrier to online information seeking was insufficient time, but 68 respondents had no work online information access. The level of nursing qualification was significantly correlated with computer confidence and information quality checking. A range of information evaluation approaches was used. Most nurses in study accessed and evaluated Internet information in contrast to the findings of earlier studies, but there were barriers preventing universal integration into practice. PMID:25355072
The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care. PMID:25364028
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to health care can be described along four dimensions: geographic accessibility, availability, financial accessibility and acceptability. Geographic accessibility measures how physically accessible resources are for the population, while availability reflects what resources are available and in what amount. Combining these two types of measure into a single index provides a measure of geographic (or spatial coverage, which is an important measure for assessing the degree of accessibility of a health care network. Results This paper describes the latest version of AccessMod, an extension to the Geographical Information System ArcView 3.×, and provides an example of application of this tool. AccessMod 3 allows one to compute geographic coverage to health care using terrain information and population distribution. Four major types of analysis are available in AccessMod: (1 modeling the coverage of catchment areas linked to an existing health facility network based on travel time, to provide a measure of physical accessibility to health care; (2 modeling geographic coverage according to the availability of services; (3 projecting the coverage of a scaling-up of an existing network; (4 providing information for cost effectiveness analysis when little information about the existing network is available. In addition to integrating travelling time, population distribution and the population coverage capacity specific to each health facility in the network, AccessMod can incorporate the influence of landscape components (e.g. topography, river and road networks, vegetation that impact travelling time to and from facilities. Topographical constraints can be taken into account through an anisotropic analysis that considers the direction of movement. We provide an example of the application of AccessMod in the southern part of Malawi that shows the influences of the landscape constraints and of the modes of transportation on
Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Eames, Deanna R.
The Rio Grande Civil Works and Restoration Projects Web Application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Albuquerque District, is designed to provide publicly available information through the Internet about civil works and restoration projects in the Rio Grande Basin. Since 1942, USACE Albuquerque District responsibilities have included building facilities for the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force, providing flood protection, supplying water for power and public recreation, participating in fire remediation, protecting and restoring wetlands and other natural resources, and supporting other government agencies with engineering, contracting, and project management services. In the process of conducting this vast array of engineering work, the need arose for easily tracking the locations of and providing information about projects to stakeholders and the public. This fact sheet introduces a Web application developed to enable users to visualize locations and search for information about USACE (and some other Federal, State, and local) projects in the Rio Grande Basin in southern Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Literature suggests that good quality health care access can have a positive impact on the health of people with serious mental illness (SMI, but literature relating to patterns of access by this group is equivocal. AIM: This study was designed to explore health care access patterns in a group of people with SMI and to compare them with a general New Zealand population group, in order for health providers to understand how they might contribute to positive health outcomes for this group. METHODS: The study surveyed 404 mental health consumers aged 18-65 years receiving care from one district health board in Auckland about their patterns of health care access. Results were compared with those from the New Zealand Health Survey of the general population. RESULTS: Findings suggest that the SMI consumer respondents had poorer physical health than the general population respondents, accessed health care services in more complex ways and were more particular about who they accessed for their care than the general population respondents. There was some concern from SMI consumers around discrimination from health care providers. The study also suggested that some proactive management with SMI consumers for conditions such as metabolic syndrome was occurring within the health care community. DISCUSSION: The first point of access for SMI consumers with general health problems is not always the family general practitioner and so other health professionals may sometimes need to consider the mental and physical health of such consumers in a wider context than their own specialism.
Pileggi Claudia; Nicotera Gaetano; Flotta Domenico; Nobile Carmelo GA; Angelillo Italo F
Abstract Background Self-reported health status in underserved population of prisoners has not been extensively explored. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to assess self-reported health, quality of life, and access to health services in a sample of male prisoners of Italy. Methods A total of 908 prisoners received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire pertaining on demographic and detention characteristics, self-reported health status and quality of life, access to health...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality and essential health information is considered one of the most cost-effective interventions to improve health for a developing country. Healthcare portals have revolutionalized access to health information and knowledge using the Internet and related technologies, but their usage is far from satisfactory in India. This article describes a health portal developed in India aimed at providing one-stop access to efficiently search, organize and share maternal child health information relevant from public health perspective in the country. Methods The portal ‘Repository on Maternal Child Health’ was developed using an open source content management system and standardized processes were followed for collection, selection, categorization and presentation of resource materials. Its usage is evaluated using key performance indicators obtained from Google Analytics, and quality assessed using a standardized checklist of knowledge management. The results are discussed in relation to improving quality and access to health information. Results The portal was launched in July 2010 and provides free access to full-text of 900 resource materials categorized under specific topics and themes. During the subsequent 18 months, 52,798 visits were registered from 174 countries across the world, and more than three-fourth visits were from India alone. Nearly 44,000 unique visitors visited the website and spent an average time of 4 minutes 26 seconds. The overall bounce rate was 27.6%. An increase in the number of unique visitors was found to be significantly associated with an increase in the average time on site (p-value 0.01, increase in the web traffic through search engines (p-value 0.00, and decrease in the bounce rate (p-value 0.03. There was a high degree of agreement between the two experts regarding quality assessment carried out under the three domains of knowledge access, knowledge creation and knowledge transfer (Kappa
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Coordinating Center provides SWAN data access to SWAN Investigators through the study website. The SWAN website provides access to longitudinal data...
Juliana Pires Ribeiro
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate accessibility to primary health care services in the state of Goiás. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the National Program to Improve Access to and Quality of Primary Health Care. The study sample was composed of health professionals from 1,216 primary health care units. Results showed that 68.5% of the health units miss a screening room, thus considerably damaging prompt decision-making by professionals. The lack of medical offices in 2% of the sites hinders the primary health care services accessibility in Goiás. As regards opening hours and work shifts, 86% of the units are open five days a week in eight-hour shifts, which does not favor accessibility for users. This study confirms the lack of accessibility to health services and the need for additional investments to strengthen primary health care.
Geiger, Brian; Evans, R. R.; Cellitti, M. A.; Smith, K. Hogan; O'Neal, Marcia R.; Firsing, S. L., III; Chandan, P.
Background: The Internet can be an invaluable resource for obtaining health information by people with disabilities. Although valid and reliable information is available, previous research revealed barriers to accessing health information online. Health education specialists have the responsibilities to insure that it is accessible to all users.…
Matthew Richard McGrail
Full Text Available Poor spatial access to health care remains a key issue for rural populations worldwide. Whilst geographic information systems (GIS have enabled the development of more sophisticated access measures, they are yet to be adopted into health policy and workforce planning. This paper provides and tests a new national-level approach to measuring primary health care (PHC access for rural Australia, suitable for use in macro-level health policy. The new index was constructed using a modified two-step floating catchment area method framework and the smallest available geographic unit. Primary health care spatial access was operationalised using three broad components: availability of PHC (general practitioner services; proximity of populations to PHC services; and PHC needs of the population. Data used in its measurement were specifically chosen for accuracy, reliability and ongoing availability for small areas. The resultant index reveals spatial disparities of access to PHC across rural Australia. While generally more remote areas experienced poorer access than more populated rural areas, there were numerous exceptions to this generalisation, with some rural areas close to metropolitan areas having very poor access and some increasingly remote areas having relatively good access. This new index provides a geographically-sensitive measure of access, which is readily updateable and enables a fine granulation of access disparities. Such an index can underpin national rural health programmes and policies designed to improve rural workforce recruitment and retention, and, importantly, health service planning and resource allocation decisions designed to improve equity of PHC access.
Vázquez, María-Luisa; Vargas, Ingrid; Jaramillo, Daniel López; Porthé, Victoria; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; Vargas, Hernán; Bosch, Lola; Hernández, Silvia S; Azarola, Ainhoa Ruiz
Until April 2012, all Spanish citizens were entitled to health care and policies had been developed at national and regional level to remove potential barriers of access, however, evidence suggested problems of access for immigrants. In order to identify factors affecting immigrants' access to health care, we conducted a qualitative study based on individual interviews with healthcare managers (n=27) and professionals (n=65) in Catalonia and Andalusia, before the policy change that restricted access for some groups. A thematic analysis was carried out. Health professionals considered access to health care "easy" for immigrants and similar to access for autochthons in both regions. Clear barriers were identified to enter the health system (in obtaining the health card) and in using services, indicating a mismatch between the characteristics of services and those of immigrants. Results did not differ among regions, except for in Catalonia, where access to care was considered harder for users without a health card, due to the fees charged, and in general, because of the distance to primary health care in rural areas. In conclusion, despite the universal coverage granted by the Spanish healthcare system and developed health policies, a number of barriers in access emerged that would require implementing the existing policies. However, the measures taken in the context of the economic crisis are pointing in the opposite direction, towards maintaining or increasing barriers. PMID:26898401
Albert, Jean-Pierre; Albert-Llorca, Marlène; Bagliani, Agostino Paravicini; Beier, Rosmarie; Bergues, Martine; Charuty, Giordana; Desbois, Evelyne; Dias, Nélia; Héritier-Augé, Françoise; Lemonnier, Pierre; Piette, Albert; Raimbault, Ginette; Roth, Martin; Sissa, Giulia; Voisenat, Claudie
Martyres de chrétiennes, collections médicales, mutilés de la Grande Guerre, ex-voto anatomiques des pèlerinages portugais, greffes du rein... Les études présentées éclairent les données symboliques et idéologiques qui s'attachent au corps morcelé et induisent la définition de ce qu'est un corps sain.
Verónica Perales Blanco
Full Text Available El título de este artículo, la suma del término inglés digital con el francés corps (cuerpo digital es un guiño que hace referencia a la relación existente entre nuestra búsqueda identitaria en el ciberespacio y el derivado carácter económico de la misma. Corp es el término abreviado de corporation, procedente del latín corpus, se entiende como “cuerpo de gente” y se utiliza fundamentalmente para referirse a la estructura de gran parte de los negocios en Norteamérica y el mundo entero.Este artículo analiza -desde una perspectiva de género- algunas de las proyecciones identitarias actuales en internet con especial atención a las vinculadas a los espacios lúdicos.
Alvarez, Luz Stella; Salmon, J Warren; Swartzman, Dan
In 1993, the Colombian government sought to reform its health care system under the guidance of international financial institutions (the World Bank and International Monetary Fund). These institutions maintain that individual private health insurance systems are more appropriate than previously established national public health structures for overcoming inequities in health care in developing countries. The reforms carried out following international financial institution guidelines are known as "neoliberal reforms." This qualitative study explores consumer health choices and associated factors, based on interviews with citizens living in Medellin, Colombia, in 2005-2006. The results show that most study participants belonging to low-income and middle-income strata, even with medical expense subsidies, faced significant barriers to accessing health care. Only upper-income participants reported a selection of different options without barriers, such as complementary and alternative medicines, along with private Western biomedicine. This study is unique in that the informal health system is linked to overall neo-liberal policy change. PMID:21563628
Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh
Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...
Despite spending more than any other nation on medical care per person, the United States ranks behind other industrialized nations in key health performance measures. A main cause is the deep disparities in access to care and health outcomes. Federal programs such as the designations of Medically Underserved Areas/Populations and Health Professional Shortage Areas are designed to boost the number of health professionals serving these areas and to help alleviate the access problem. Their effe...
Luz Mery Mejía O
Full Text Available This article is the result of a product of a study elaborated with the aim of systematizing the available information related to the accessibility to the health services of the prison population in the penitentiary centers. To this end, we reviewed the literature and systematic collection of the academic available material in the principal university libraries in the city of Medellin, scientific databases and the web pages of national and international organizations that have dealt with this topic. The information was systematized considering some historical references to prisons and health, the record of experiences in some countries and the current regulations for health care in the prison population in the Colombian case. We conclude that although significant progress has been made to ensure health care for the prison population, in the prison there are still obstacles and limitations that infringe the right to health of this population. Likewise, it is evidenced that it has not been considered a public health problem in the country, which it is considered a challenge to incorporate it as such.
Poljski, Carolyn; Quiazon, Regina; Tran, Chau
Drawing on the research and advocacy work being conducted by the Multicultural Centre for Women's Health (MCWH), a national community-based organization in Victoria, Australia, the paper analyzes female international students' experiences with accessing sexual and reproductive health information and services. Accessibility of sexual and…
... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health... Information Systems Technology Architecture (VistA). DATES: Written comments and recommendations on the... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (VSO Access to VHA Electronic Health Records) Activity;...
Geitona, Mary; Milioni, Stella-Olga
Background Self-reported health status of prisoners’ population and access to health services during incarceration have not been adequately explored in Greece. The purpose of this study was to assess female prisoners’ health status and access to healthcare in the Attica detention center “Korydallos”. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed, including questions on the prisoners’ socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported hea...
Holder, Reynaldo; Fabrega, Ricardo
Moving towards Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage (UAH/UHC) is an imperative task on the health agenda for the Americas. The Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recently approved resolution CD53.R14, titled Strategy for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. From the perspective of the Region of the Americas, UAH/UHC "imply that all people and communities have access, without any kind of discrimination, to comprehensive, appropriate and timely, quality health services determined at the national level according to needs, as well as access to safe, affordable, effective, quality medicines, while ensuring that the use of these services does not expose users to financial hardship, especially groups in conditions of vulnerability". PAHO's strategic approach to UAH/UHC sets out four specific lines of action toward effective universal health systems. The first strategic line proposes: a) implementation of integrated health services delivery networks (IHDSNs) based on primary health care as the key strategy for reorganizing, redefining and improving healthcare services in general and the role of hospitals in particular; and b) increasing the response capacity of the first level of care. An important debate initiated in 2011 among hospital and healthcare managers in the region tried to redefine the role of hospitals in the context of IHSDNs and the emerging UAH/UHC movement. The debates resulted in agreements around three main propositions: 1) IHSDNs cannot be envisioned without hospitals; 2) The status-quo and current hospital organizational culture makes IHSDNs inviable; and 3) Without IHSDNs, hospitals will not be sustainable. This process, that predates the approval of PAHO's UAH/UHC resolution, now becomes more relevant with the recognition that UAH/UHC cannot be attained without a profound change in healthcare service and particularly in hospitals. In this context, a set of challenges both for
Das, Biswa R.; Leatherman, John C.; Bressers, Bonnie M.
The Internet has potential for improving health information delivery and strengthening connections between rural populations and local health service providers. An exploratory case study six rural health care markets in Kansas showed that about 70% of adults use the Internet, with substantial use for accessing health information. While there are…
Brown, K E; Newby, K; Caley, M; Danahay, A; Kehal, I
Sexual health service access is fundamental to good sexual health, yet interventions designed to address this have rarely been implemented or evaluated. In this article, pilot evaluation findings for a targeted public health behavior change intervention, delivered via a website and web-app, aiming to increase uptake of sexual health services among 13-19-year olds are reported. A pre-post questionnaire-based design was used. Matched baseline and follow-up data were identified from 148 respondents aged 13-18 years. Outcome measures were self-reported service access, self-reported intention to access services and beliefs about services and service access identified through needs analysis. Objective service access data provided by local sexual health services were also analyzed. Analysis suggests the intervention had a significant positive effect on psychological barriers to and antecedents of service access among females. Males, who reported greater confidence in service access compared with females, significantly increased service access by time 2 follow-up. Available objective service access data support the assertion that the intervention may have led to increases in service access. There is real promise for this novel digital intervention. Further evaluation is planned as the model is licensed to and rolled out by other local authorities in the United Kingdom. PMID:26928566
Bissonnette, Laura; Wilson, Kathi; Bell, Scott; Shah, Tayyab Ikram
The availability of, and access to, primary health care is one neighbourhood characteristic that has the potential to impact health thus representing an important area of focus for neighbourhood-health research. This research examines neighbourhood access to primary health care in the city of Mississauga, Ontario, Canada. A modification of the Two Step Floating Catchment Area method is used to measure multiple spatial and aspatial (social) dimensions of potential access to primary health care in natural neighbourhoods of Mississauga. The analysis reveals that neighbourhood-level potential access to primary care is dependant on spatial and aspatial dimensions of access selected for examination. The results also show that potential accessibility is reduced for linguistic minorities as well as for recent immigrant populations who appear, on the surface, to have better access to walk-in clinics than dedicated physicians. The research results reinforce the importance of focusing on intra-urban variations in access to care and demonstrate the utility of a new approach for studying neighbourhood impacts that better represents spatial variations in health care access and demand. PMID:22503565
E. Schokkaert (Schokkaert); T.G.M. van Ourti (Tom); D. de Graeve (Diana); A. Lecluyse (Ann); C. van de Voorde (Carine)
textabstractThe effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental in
Roos, Noralou P.; O'Grady, Kathleen; Singer, Sharon Manson; Turczak, Shannon; Tapp, Camilla
The media shape consumer expectations and interpretations of health interventions, influencing how people think about their need for care and the sustainability of the system. EvidenceNetwork.ca is a non-partisan, web-based project funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Manitoba Health Research Council to make the latest evidence on controversial health policy issues available to the media. This website links journalists with health policy experts. We publish opinion pie...
Kerker, Bonnie D.; Mostashari, Farzad; Thorpe, Lorna
Past research has shown that women who either have sex with women or who identify as lesbian access less preventive health care than other women. However, previous studies have generally relied on convenience samples and have not examined the multiple associations of sexual identity, behavior and health care access/utilization. Unlike other studies, we used a multi-lingual population-based survey in New York City to examine the use of Pap tests and mammograms, as well as health care coverage ...
Borschmann, Rohan; Oram, Sian; Howard, Louise Michele; Kinner, Stuart; Dutta, Rina; Zimmerman, Cathy
Objective: This study estimated the prevalence, correlates and mental health service responses to self-harm among trafficked adults accessing secondary mental health services in England. Methods: A clinical records database was searched to identify trafficked adults who accessed secondary mental health services in South London from 2006-2012. A matched cohort of non-trafficked patients was selected. Data were extracted on self-harm, socio-demographic, clinical and service use characteristics....
Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena
One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia. PMID:24186359
Bruno Pereira Nunes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the inequalities in access, utilization, and quality of health care services according to the socioeconomic status. METHODS This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated 2,927 individuals aged ≥ 20 years living in Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2012. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and the following outcomes were evaluated: lack of access to health services, utilization of services, waiting period (in days for assistance, and waiting time (in hours in lines. We used Poisson regression for the crude and adjusted analyses. RESULTS The lack of access to health services was reported by 6.5% of the individuals who sought health care. The prevalence of use of health care services in the 30 days prior to the interview was 29.3%. Of these, 26.4% waited five days or more to receive care and 32.1% waited at least an hour in lines. Approximately 50.0% of the health care services were funded through the Unified Health System. The use of health care services was similar across socioeconomic groups. The lack of access to health care services and waiting time in lines were higher among individuals of lower economic status, even after adjusting for health care needs. The waiting period to receive care was higher among those with higher socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Although no differences were observed in the use of health care services across socioeconomic groups, inequalities were evident in the access to and quality of these services.
Robinson, Renee F.; Dillard, Denise A.; Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Smith, Julia J.; Tierney, Steve; Avey, Jaedon P.; Buchwald, Dedra S.
Objective Information technology can improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare delivery by improving provider and patient access to health information. We conducted a nonrandomized, cross-sectional, self-report survey to determine whether Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) people have access to the health communication technologies available through a patient-centered medical home. Methods In 2011, we administered a self-report survey in an urban, tribally owned and operated primary care center serving AN/AI adults. Patients in the center’s waiting rooms completed the survey on paper; center staff completed it electronically. Results Approximately 98% (n = 654) of respondents reported computer access, 97% (n = 650) email access, and 94% (n = 631) mobile phone use. Among mobile phone users, 60% had Internet access through their phones. Rates of computer access (p = .011) and email use (p = .005) were higher among women than men, but we found no significant gender difference in mobile phone access to the Internet or text messaging. Respondents in the oldest age category (65–80 years of age) were significantly less likely to anticipate using the Internet to schedule appointments, refill medications, or communicate with their health care providers (all p < .001). Conclusion Information on use of health communication technologies enables administrators to deploy these technologies more efficiently to address health concerns in AN/AI communities. Our results will drive future research on health communication for chronic disease screening and health management.
Pine, Donald; Bissen, Joan; Abelson, David; Roller, Scott
HealthNet is a browser-based environment that connects HealthSystem Minnesota (HSM) health care providers to multiple information components needed in the process of providing care to patients. Its goal is to provide context-based access to professional knowledge at or near the point of care. HSM is a large integrated health care system including a hospital and 30 community clinic sites that provide health care to about sixteen percent of the Twin Cities residents.
Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy
Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed. PMID:25087372
Katz, Vikki S.; Ang, Alfonso; Suro, Roberto
U.S. Latinos experience constrained access to formal health care resources, contributing to higher incidence of preventable diseases and chronic health conditions than the general population. The authors explore whether a rich set of informal health communication connections--to friends, family, radio, television, Internet, newspapers, magazines,…
Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…
Yao, Jing; Murray, Alan T.; Agadjanian, Victor
Utilization of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services can significantly impact health outcomes, such as pregnancy and birth, prenatal and neonatal mortality, maternal morbidity and mortality, and vertical transmission of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. It has long been recognized that access to SRH services is essential to positive health outcomes, especially in rural areas of developing countries, where long distances as well as poor transportation conditions, can be potential barriers to health care acquisition. Improving accessibility of health services for target populations is therefore critical for specialized healthcare programs. Thus, understanding and evaluation of current access to health care is crucial. Combining spatial information using geographical information system (GIS) with population survey data, this study details a gravity model-based method to measure and evaluate access to SRH services in rural Mozambique, and analyzes potential geographic access to such services, using family planning as an example. Access is found to be a significant factor in reported behavior, superior to traditional distance-based indicators. Spatial disparities in geographic access among different population groups also appear to exist, likely affecting overall program success. PMID:24034952
Smith, Scott R; Kushalnagar, Poorna; Hauser, Peter C
Deaf individuals have more cardiovascular risks than the general population that are believed to be related to their cardiovascular health knowledge disparities. This phenomenological study describes where 20 deaf sign language-using adolescents from Rochester, New York, many who possess many positive characteristics to support their health literacy, learn cardiovascular health information and their lived experiences accessing health information. The goal is to ultimately use this information to improve the delivery of cardiovascular health education to this population and other deaf adolescents at a higher risk for weak health literacy. Deaf bilingual researchers interviewed deaf adolescents, transcribed and coded the data, and described the findings. Five major sources of cardiovascular health information were identified including family, health education teachers, healthcare providers, printed materials, and informal sources. Despite possessing advantageous characteristics contributing to stronger health literacy, study participants described significant challenges with accessing health information from each source. They also demonstrated inconsistencies in their cardiovascular health knowledge, especially regarding heart attack, stroke, and cholesterol. These findings suggest a great need for additional public funding to research deaf adolescents' informal health-related learning, develop accessible and culturally appropriate health surveys and health education programming, improve interpreter education, and disseminate information through social media. PMID:26048900
Plumbaum, Till; Narr, Sascha; Eryilmaz, Elif; Hopfgartner, Frank; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Riese, Anna; Albayrak, Sahin
Finding health-related content is not an easy task. People have to know what to search for, which medical terms to use, and where to find accurate information. This task becomes even harder when people such as immigrants wish to find information in their country of residence and do not speak the national language very well. In this paper, we present a new health information system that allows users to search for health information using natural language queries composed of multiple languages....
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Burton, Ann; Burnham, Gilbert
Background The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system. Changing lifestyles and aging populations are shifting the global disease burden towards increased non-infectious diseases including chronic conditions, co-morbidities, and injuries which are more complicated and costly to manage. The strain placed on health systems threatens the ability to ensure the health needs of both refugees and host country populations are adequately addresse...
Good, Alice; Stokes, Suzanne; Jerrams-Smith, Jenny
The Web can provide a quick and easy way to access health information, especially for elderly users. However, these health information sites need to be accessible and usable. In spite of legislation and clear guidelines, there continues to be issues of poor accessibility and usability. Because of an aging population and the likelihood of being more susceptible to age-related impairments such as restricted vision and mobility, the severity of this problem continues to grow. This article presents the results of an exploratory study aimed at assessing the accessibility and usability of three health information Web sites for elderly novice users. The results from the study show that certain aspects of these Web sites make it difficult for elderly people to use them, especially if the users have impairments. Problematic areas are highlighted regarding usability and accessibility, and recommendations are made based on the findings. PMID:19195297
Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Gadducci, F.
Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e.before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori acce
Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.
Traditional access control mechanisms aim to prevent illegal actions a-priori occurrence, i.e. before granting a request for a document. There are scenarios however where the security decision can not be made on the fly. For these settings we developed a language and a framework for a-posteriori acc
Full Text Available [The abstract of this article is not available. Here are the first sentence of the interview with Peter Suber. The complete interview is freely available upon registration]Peter Suber (http://bit.ly/suber is Berkman Fellow at Harvard University, Senior Researcher at SPARC, the Open Access Project Director at Public Knowledge, and Research Professor of Philosophy at Earlham College. He conducts research, writing, consulting, and advocacy on open access and related topics.Q: The aim of open access is to remove access barriers to publication. Don’t you think that fee-based model can be an obstacle for authors in less-developed countries?A: Fee-based OA journals don’t work as well as no-fee OA journals in fields and countries where most research is unfunded. But it’s important to remember that the vast majority of OA journals (70% charge no publication fees at all. The percentage is even higher for OA journals published in developing countries. For example, nearly all the OA journals published in India are no-fee. It’s equally important to remember that green OA, or OA through repositories, is an inexpensive alternative to gold OA, or OA through journals.
Uchôa, Severina Alice da Costa; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Fronteira, Inês Santos Estevinho; Coêlho, Ardigleusa Alves; Martiniano, Claudia Santos; Brandão, Isabel Cristina Araújo; Yamamura, Mellina; Maroto, Renata Melo
Objective: to analyze the influence of contextual indicators on the performance of municipalities regarding potential access to primary health care in Brazil and to discuss the contribution from nurses working on this access. Method: a multicenter descriptive study based on secondary data from External Evaluation of the National Program for Access and Quality Improvement in Primary Care, with the participation of 17,202 primary care teams. The chi-square test of proportions was used to verify differences between the municipalities stratified based on size of the coverage area, supply, coordination, and integration; when necessary, the chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test were employed. For the population variable, the Kruskal-Wallis test was used. Results: the majority of participants were nurses (n=15.876; 92,3%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the municipalities in terms of territory (p=0.0000), availability (p=0.0000), coordination of care (p=0.0000), integration (p=0.0000) and supply (p=0.0000), verifying that the municipalities that make up area 6 tend to have better performance in these dimensions. Conclusion: areas 4,5 and 6 performed better in every analyzed dimension, and the nurse had a leading role in the potential to access primary health care in Brazil. PMID:26959332
Richard K Johnson
Comments submitted by SPARC (Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition) in response to the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) “Request for Information: NIH Public Access Policy” issued on March 31, 2008 (73 Federal Register 16881).
J. Sellin (Jennifer)
textabstractThe World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that the share of people lacking access to essential medicines worldwide is around 1.7 billon, approximately one-third of the world’s population. Lack of access to essential medicines is an especially serious problem for patients in developin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to personal health information through the electronic health record (EHR is an innovative means to enable people to be active participants in their own health care. Currently this is not an available option for consumers of health. The absence of a key technology, the EHR, is a significant obstacle to providing patient accessible electronic records. To assess the readiness for the implementation and adoption of EHRs in Canada, a national scan was conducted to determine organizational readiness and willingness for patient accessible electronic records. Methods A survey was conducted of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs of Canadian public and acute care hospitals. Results Two hundred thirteen emails were sent to CEOs of Canadian general and acute care hospitals, with a 39% response rate. Over half (54.2% of hospitals had some sort of EHR, but few had a record that was predominately electronic. Financial resources were identified as the most important barrier to providing patients access to their EHR and there was a divergence in perceptions from healthcare providers and what they thought patients would want in terms of access to the EHR, with providers being less willing to provide access and patients desire for greater access to the full record. Conclusion As the use of EHRs becomes more commonplace, organizations should explore the possibility of responding to patient needs for clinical information by providing access to their EHR. The best way to achieve this is still being debated.
The existence of unfair differences or disparities in access to and quality of health care is well known. However, the nature of disparities at different stages of the health seeking pathway and interventions to reduce them are less clear. Applying the tools of statistics and quasi experimental design-- interrupted time series, propensity score matching, hierarchical models---we can analyze how care is accessed in low, middle and high income countries and assess for disparities. The results a...
Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Bice, Sara J
Since the tightening of Australian policy for protection visa applicants began in the 1990s, access to health care has been increasingly restricted to asylum seekers on a range of different visa types. This paper summarises those legislative changes and discusses their implications for health policy relating to refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Of particular concern are asylum seekers on Bridging Visas with no work rights and no access to Medicare. The paper examines several key quest...
William J. Culpepper, II, PhD, MA; Diane Cowper-Ripley, PhD; Eric R. Litt, BA; Tzu-Yun McDowell, MA; Paul M. Hoffman, MD
Access to appropriate and timely healthcare is critical to the overall health and well-being of patients with chronic diseases. In this study, we used geographic information system (GIS) tools to map Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their access to MS specialty care. We created six travel-time bands around VHA facilities with MS specialty care and calculated the number of VHA patients with MS who resided in each time band and the number of patient...
This thesis discusses about the key provisions of the TRIPS Agreement and their effects on the realization of the right to health on access to essential medicines. It explores also the relationship between the trade right to intellectual property and the fundamental human rights to health on access to affordable medicines and how can such be reconciled.The Philippines' experience with regard to property rights is used in the illustration.
Alencar Albuquerque, Grayce; de Lima Garcia, Cintia; da Silva Quirino, Glauberto; Alves, Maria Juscinaide Henrique; Belém, Jameson Moreira; dos Santos Figueiredo, Francisco Winter; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando
Background The relationship between users and health services is considered essential to strengthen the quality of care. However, the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender population suffer from prejudice and discrimination in access and use of these services. This study aimed to identify the difficulties associated with homosexuality in access and utilization of health services. Method A systematic review conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, SciELO, and LILACS, considering the period from 200...
West, Alan; Weeks, William B.
Context: The 4.5 million military veterans treated by the Veterans Health Administration (VA) are believed to experience poorer physical and mental health than nonveterans. Furthermore, nonmetropolitan residents have less access to medical services, whether or not they are veterans in VA care. A direct comparison of metropolitan and…
Klemick, Heather; Leonard, Kenneth L; Masatu, Melkiory C.
We examine the implications of health seeking behavior on access to quality health care using a unique dataset that combines a household survey from rural Tanzania with the location and quality of all health facilities available to households. Patients do not always visit the nearest facility, but choose from among multiple facilities, improving the quality of care they receive by bypassing low quality facilities. Recognizing this behavior alters the projected benefits to health interventions...
Durazo, Eva M.; Wallace, Steven P.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 expands health insurance coverage to a substantial number of persons without health insurance. In California, Latinos, especially Mexican immigrants, have one of the highest rates of uninsurance, making the ACA particularly important for that group. Using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, this study examines how the generation in the U.S. of individuals of Mexican-origin is associated with their access to health insurance...
Myers, Bronwyn A; Rohan P Fisher; Nelson Nelson; Suzanne Belton
The causes of maternal death are well known, and are largely preventable if skilled health care is received promptly. Complex interactions between geographic and socio-cultural factors affect access to, and remoteness from, health care but research on this topic rarely integrates spatial and social sciences. In this study, modeling of travel time was integrated with social science research to refine our understanding of remoteness from health care. Travel time to health facilities offering em...
Chen, Alice W.; Kazanjian, Arminée
Background The utilization of health care providers who share the language and culture of their patients has been advocated as a strategy to improve access to the mental health care of immigrants. This study examines the relationship between patients receiving primary care from health care providers who speak Chinese and the rate of mental health diagnosis and consultation among Chinese immigrants in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods The study analyzed 3 linked administrative databases: ...
Plumbaum, Till; Narr, Sascha; Eryilmaz, Elif; Hopfgartner, Frank; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Reese, Anna; Albayrak, Sahin
Finding health-related content is not an easy task. People have to know what to search for, which medical terms to use, and where to find accurate information. This task becomes even harder when people such as immigrants wish to find information in their country of residence and do not speak the national language very well. In this paper, we present a new health information system that allows users to search for health information using natural language queries composed of multiple languages. We present the technical details of the system and outline the results of a preliminary user study to demonstrate the usability of the system. PMID:25160213
Sung, Jeehee; Mayo, Nicolle; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lasley, Chandra
This study examined the use of thematic analysis to determine how characteristics of collaborative care facilitate accessibility to mental health services among the Asian community in the United States. This investigation explored characteristics of collaborative care in patient treatment, barriers that prevent the Asian community from utilizing care, and how collaborative settings can facilitate mental health care access in the Asian community. Mental health providers with relevant experiences in collaborative care were recruited through snowball sampling to participate in a telephone interview with the researchers. The results suggested a collectivistic culture, valuing authority, acculturation, language, and stigma as themes of Asian patients as well as key providers (mental and medical health providers), colocation, the physician's leading role, the provider's language, and collaboration among providers as themes for collaborative care. The study suggests that collaborative care's foundational characteristics can promote easier access to mental health care for the Asian community. PMID:23937434
Sne, Niv; Ondiveeran, Hari Kumar; Fox-Robichaud, Alison
Tifacogin is a recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rTFPI) under development by Pharmacia Corp (formerly GD Searle) and Chiron as a potential treatment for sepsis. The product is in phase III trials . In July 2000, Pharmacia anticipated regulatory filings in 2002 . Chiron and Searle conducted research on TFPI independently in the early 1990s and entered an agreement to collaborate on the development, manufacturing and marketing of the compound in 1994, granting each other licenses on the patents concerned with TFPI . Searle (Monsanto Co) first disclosed recombinant TFPI in the associated patent, US-05212091. Unlike natural TFPI, however, it possessed an N-terminal alanine and the expression method using E coli did not always yield entirely homologous protein. A method for expressing genuine TFPI in yeast is disclosed in Chiron's patent WO-09604377. Patents for methods of treating sepsis with TFPI were claimed independently in two patents from Cetus Oncology (Chiron; WO-09324143) and Searle (WO-09325230). The discovery research of TFPI was conducted by Searle in collaboration with Washington University . Washington University holds two patents, EP-00563023 and WO-09604378, which claim the use of TFPI for the inhibition of microvascular thrombosis and reperfusion injury, respectively. Analysts at Lehman Brothers predicted in December 2001, that there was a 50% probability of the drug making it to market, with peak sales potential of 500 million US dollars in 2003 . PMID:12861483
Kangolle Alfred CT; Hanna Timothy P
Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly availab...
Mirzikashvili, N; Kazakhashvili, N
This study identifies barriers to accessing primary health care among youth in Georgia to inform strategies for improving the appropriateness, quality and usage of primary health care services. The quantitative survey was conducted throughout Georgia among 1000 adolescents 11-19 years of age via interview. Multi stage probability sampling was used to administer questionnaires in the schools, universities and in the streets between March-May 2014 and September-October 2014. Young people in Georgia identified a range of problems in accessing primary health services. By far the most important issues were preventive checkups, geographical access, cost of care, and perceptions about the quality of care. The majority of respondents (78.4%) declared that they do not visit family doctor when well, and 81.9% said that no information was provided about reproductive health issues. Most (77.3%) stated that their family doctor had never talked about health promotion or life style risk factors. Access to health care is still problematic in the villages; and in some areas young people must travel more than 30 minutes by public transport. Limited access in rural areas compared to urban areas was statistically significant (p<0.05). As our survey data shows, most adolescents do not visit a health provider annually, obviating opportunities to integrate prevention into clinical encounters. Because repeated contacts with a primary care provider may occur over several years, clinicians should ideally have multiple opportunities to screen and counsel an adolescent patient for risky health behaviors. However, young people report that there is little screening or discussion about healthy lifestyles. The biggest health challenge for young people in Georgia is overcoming barriers (socioeconomic, geographic, trust, and perceived competence) to visit a doctor for regular preventive checkups and to get health behavior advice from health professional. Addressing the health and development needs
Full Text Available Background: To address the acute shortages of health workers in underserved, remote, and difficult-to-access areas, the Government of Chhattisgarh and the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM launched the Chhattisgarh Rural Medical Corps (CRMC in 2009. CRMC has enabled provisions such as financial incentives, residential accommodation, life insurance, and extra marks during admission at the postgraduate (PG level to eligible doctors for the attraction and retention of health workers, i.e., doctors, staff nurses, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs, and rural medical assistants (RMAs in underserved areas. Objectives: This study aims to understand the CRMC scheme in terms of implementation, challenges, gaps, and outcome in achieving the attraction and retention of health workers in the remote and difficult-to-access areas of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The study adopts a mix of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The purposive sampling method was used for the selection of three districts having normal, difficult, and inaccessible areas. Data were collected through key informant (KI interviews with beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of CRMC or district and state government officials, and reviews of document were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: CRMC has made positive outcome as 1319 health workers, including doctors, have joined the service in 2010-11, reducing the vacancy of doctors from 90% to 45%. The scope of CRMC was primarily limited to payment of monthly financial incentives. The fund utilization rate of CRMC has increased (from 27% in 2009-10 to 98% in 2011-12, though there are delays in payment of incentives. The majority of staff lack awareness about CRMC during job applications. The payment of incentives based on facility performance has demotivated staff. Conclusions: Establishment of a performance management system, activating the CRMC cell to make it functional, and wide publicity of CRMC
This project enabled novel organisational insight into the comparative utility of a portfolio of consumer health information content, by measuring patterns of attrition (abandonment) in content use. The project used as a case study the event activity log of a fully automated digital information kiosk, located in a community health facility. Direct measurements of the duration of content use were derived from the user interface activity recorded in the kiosk log, thus avoiding issues in using other approaches to collecting this type of data, such as sampling and observer bias. The distribution patterns of 1,383 durations of observed abandonments of use for twenty-eight discrete modules of health information content were visualised using Kaplan-Meir survival plots. Clear patterns of abandonment of content use were exhibited. The method of analysis is cost-effective, scalable and provides deep insight into the utility of health promotion content. The impact on the content producers, platform operators and service users is to improve organisational learning and thus increase the confidence in stakeholders that the service is continuously delivering high quality health and wellbeing benefits. PMID:27440299
Kelley, Megan S; Su, Dejun; Britigan, Denise H
Health knowledge and behavior can be shaped by the extent to which individuals have access to reliable and understandable health information. Based on data from a population-based telephone survey of 1,503 respondents of ages 18 years and older living in Douglas County, Nebraska, in 2013, this study assesses disparities in health information access and their related covariates. The two most frequently reported sources of health information are the Internet and health professionals, followed by print media, peers, and broadcast media. Relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks are more likely to report health professionals as their primary source of health information (odds ratio [OR] = 2.61, p < .001) and less likely to report peers (OR = 0.39, p < .05). A comparison between Whites and Hispanics suggests that Hispanics are less likely to get their health information through the Internet (OR = 0.51, p < .05) and more likely to get it from broadcast media (OR = 4.27, p < .01). Relative to their counterparts, participants with no health insurance had significantly higher odds of reporting no source of health information (OR = 3.46, p < .05). Having no source of health information was also associated with an annual income below $25,000 (OR = 2.78, p < .05 compared to middle income range) and being born outside of the United States (OR = 5.00, p < .05). Access to health information is lowest among society's most vulnerable population groups. Knowledge of the specific outlets through which people are likely to obtain health information can help health program planners utilize the communication channels that are most relevant to the people they intend to reach. PMID:26452300
Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.
Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. This data has been identified as being useful for determining appropriate occupational surveillance targets and requirements. Colonoscopies in the astronaut corps can be used for: (a) Assessing overall colon health, (b) A point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, (c) Following-up and tracking rates of colorectal cancer and polyps; and (d) Comparison to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, medical screening requirements for the active astronaut corps changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer and decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer.
Background Inadequate access to healthful foods has been identified as a significant barrier to healthful dietary behaviors among individuals who live in low-income communities. The purpose of this study was to gather low-income community members’ opinions about their food purchasing choices and their perceptions of the most effective ways to increase access to healthful foods in their communities. Methods Spanish and English focus groups were conducted in low-income, ethnically-diverse communities. Participants were asked about their knowledge, factors influencing their food purchasing decisions, and their perceptions regarding solutions to increase access to healthful foods. Results A total of 148 people participated in 13 focus groups. The majority of participants were female and ethnically diverse (63% Hispanic, 17% African American, 16% Caucasian, and 4% “other”). More than 75% of the participants reported making less than $1999 USD per month. Participants reported high levels of knowledge and preference for healthful foods. The most important barriers influencing healthful shopping behaviors included high price of healthful food, inadequate geographical access to healthful food, poor quality of available healthful food, and lack of overall quality of the proximate retail stores. Suggested solutions to inadequate access included placement of new chain supermarkets in their communities. Strategies implemented in convenience stores were not seen as effective. Farmers’ markets, with specific stipulations, and community gardens were regarded as beneficial supplementary solutions. Conclusion The results from the focus groups provide important input from a needs assessment perspective from the community, identify gaps in access, and offer potential effective solutions to provide direction for the future. PMID:26222910
MacDonnell, Judith A.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people have historically, and continue today to encounter barriers to accessing health services. This has been attributed to the well-documented heterosexism, homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia that shape all health and social institutions. In this paper, invitational theory offers insight into the…
Tiwari, Basant; Kumar, Abhay
Electronic health records (EHR) provides convenient method to exchange medical information of patients between different healthcare providers. Access control mechanism in healthcare services characterises authorising users to access EHR records. Role Based Access Control helps to restrict EHRs to users in a certain role. Significant works have been carried out for access control since last one decade but little emphasis has been given to on-demand role based access control. Presented work achieved access control through physical data isolation which is more robust and secure. We propose an algorithm in which selective combination of policies for each user of the EHR database has been defined. We extend well known data mining technique 'classification' to group EHRs with respect to the given role. Algorithm works by taking various roles as class and defined their features as a vector. Here, features are used as a Feature Vector for classification to describe user authority. PMID:26559071
Lavelle, Bridget; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Wickrama, K. A. S.
Economic restructuring in rural areas in recent decades has been accompanied by rising marital instability. To examine the implications of the increase in divorce for the health of rural women, we examine how marital status predicts adequacy of health insurance coverage and health care access, and whether these factors help to account for the…
Azétsop, Jacquineau; Diop, Blondin A
Universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Chad was officially declared in December 2006. This presidential initiative was and is still funded 100% by the country's budget and external donors' financial support. Many factors have triggered the spread of AIDS. Some of these factors include the existence of norms and beliefs that create or increase exposure, the low-level education that precludes access to health information, social unrest, and population migration to areas of high economic opportunities and gender-based discrimination. Social forces that influence the distribution of dimensions of well-being and shape risks for infection also determine the persistence of access barriers to ART. The universal access policy is quite revolutionary but should be informed by the systemic barriers to access so as to promote equity. It is not enough to distribute ARVs and provide health services when health systems are poorly organized and managed. Comprehensive access to ART raises many organizational, ethical and policy problems that need to be solved to achieve equity in access. This paper argues that the persistence of access barriers is due to weak health systems and a poor public health leadership. AIDS has challenged health systems in a manner that is essentially different from other health problems. PMID:23902732
Full Text Available Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, low = 1.1-3.0%, low medium = 3.1-6.0%, high medium = 6.1-10.0%, high = 10.1-20.0%, very high = 20 + %. The analysis of health service utilisation also took into account age, remoteness and the Socioeconomic Indices for Areas (SEIFA. Results The rate of eye exams provided in areas with very high Indigenous populations was two-thirds of the rate of eye exams for areas with very low indigenous populations. The cataract surgery rates in areas with high medium to very high Indigenous populations were less than half that reference areas. In over a third of communities with very high Indigenous populations the cataract surgery rate fell below the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines compared to a cataract surgery rate of 3% in areas with very low Indigenous populations. Conclusions There remain serious disparities in access to eye health service in areas with high Indigenous populations. Addressing disparities requires a co-ordinated approach to improving Indigenous people’s access to eye health services. More extensive take-up of existing Medicare provisions is an important step in this process. Along with improving access to health services, community education concerning the importance of eye health and the effectiveness of treatment might reduce reluctance to seek help.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reported health status in underserved population of prisoners has not been extensively explored. The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to assess self-reported health, quality of life, and access to health services in a sample of male prisoners of Italy. Methods A total of 908 prisoners received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire pertaining on demographic and detention characteristics, self-reported health status and quality of life, access to health services, lifestyles, and participation to preventive, social, and rehabilitation programs. A total of 650 prisoners agreed to participate in the study and returned the questionnaire. Results Respectively, 31.6% and 43.5% of prisoners reported a poor perceived health status and a poor quality of life, and 60% admitted that their health was worsened or greatly worsened during the prison stay. Older age, lower education, psychiatric disorders, self-reported health problems on prison entry, and suicide attempts within prison were significantly associated with a perceived worse health status. At the time of the questionnaire delivery, 30% of the prisoners self-reported a health problem present on prison entry and 82% present at the time of the survey. Most frequently reported health problems included dental health problems, arthritis or joint pain, eye problems, gastrointestinal diseases, emotional problems, and high blood pressure. On average, prisoners encountered general practitioners six times during the previous year, and the frequency of medical encounters was significantly associated with older age, sentenced prisoners, psychiatric disorders, and self-reported health problems on prison entry. Conclusions The findings suggest that prisoners have a perceived poor health status, specific care needs and health promotion programs are seldom offered. Programs for correction of risk behaviour and prevention of long-term effects of incarceration on prisoners
Satre, Derek D; Campbell, Cynthia I.; Gordon, Nancy S; Weisner, Constance
OBJECTIVE: This study examined ethnic differences in accessing treatment for depression and substance use disorders (SUDs) among men and women in a large integrated health plan, and explored factors potentially contributing to health care disparities. METHODS: Participants were 22,543 members ages 20 to 65 who responded to health surveys in 2002 and 2005. Survey questions were linked to provider-assigned diagnoses, electronic medication, psychiatry, and chemical dependency program re...
Riggs Elisha; Davis Elise; Gibbs Lisa; Block Karen; Szwarc Jo; Casey Sue; Duell-Piening Philippa; Waters Elizabeth
Abstract Background Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH) service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0–6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refug...
Ali, A.; Scior, K.; Ratti, V.; A. Strydom; King, M; Hassiotis, A.
Background People with intellectual disability have a higher prevalence of physical health problems but often experience disparities in accessing health care. In England, a number of legislative changes, policies and recommendations have been introduced to improve health care access for this population. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the extent to which patients with intellectual disability and their carers experience discrimination or other barriers in accessing health serv...
... COMMISSION Game Show Network, LLC v. Cablevision Systems Corp. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Show Network, LLC (``GSN'') and Cablevision Systems Corp. (``Cablevision'') shall each file with the..., Washington, DC 20554. To request this document in accessible formats (computer diskettes, large print,...
Amante, Daniel J.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Pagoto, Sherry; English, Thomas M.; Lapane, Kate L.
Background The insurance mandate of the Affordable Care Act has increased the number of people with health coverage in the United States. There is speculation that this increase in the number of insured could make accessing health care services more difficult. Those who are unable to access care in a timely manner may use the Internet to search for information needed to answer their health questions. Objective The aim was to determine whether difficulty accessing health care services for reas...
Full Text Available In 2005, a World Health Organization resolution called for health systems to move towards universal coverage, such that everyone would have access to promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health interventions at an affordable cost. Responding to this call, a new target for achieving universal access to reproductive health was integrated within the revised millennium development goals framework. Forty-eight African countries adopted the Maputo Plan of Action committing to the goal of universal access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services in Africa by 2015. The aim of this study was to assess Egypt’s commitment to implementing the Maputo Plan of Action. This was achieved through soliciting information relating to the extent of Egypt’s progress towards the achievement of universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights information and services. In late 2009, a qualitative study was conducted. It included in-depth interviews with 20 physicians and 10 key informants in addition to 8 focus group discussions with sub-segments of 65 beneficiaries, including married women of reproductive age, married men and youth of both sexes. The study revealed that public sector, non-governmental organisations and private sector organisations delivering sexual and reproductive health services functioned in isolation from each other. Delivered services focused mainly on family planning and maternity care and targeted married women of reproductive age. Scaling up universal access to sexual and reproductive health services requires programmes to expand beyond the maternal and child health delivery model targeted solely at married women with children.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Citizens choose their health care services not only depending on their needs, but also on where they are located. The location of the services is especially important in the case of mental health due to the specific features of mental disorders. This article provides an analysis of temporal access by road to outpatient mental health centres in Andalusia (Spain with a view to improving accessibility for the greatest volume of population possible. Methods: Firstly, accessibility by road to the outpatient mental health centres was calculated in terms of time by establishing journey times using the ArcGIS Geographical Information System´s (GIS Network Analyst module. These journey times by road enabled travel times to be established for these sections, temporal accessibility areas to be plotted from each of the outpatient mental health centres and the number of people included in each accessibility area to be calculated. Results: The accessibility analysis enabled the sitting of the centres to be evaluated for 2006, a comparison to be made with 2011 (with six new facilities having been set up since 2006 and new locations for the siting of these six new facilities to be proposed. Conclusions: This study has enabled the optimum territorial locations to be proposed for the six mental health centres created between 2006 and 2011 that would allow travel times to be reduced for the greatest numbers of people possible. It can be stated on the basis of this study that, if territorial criteria had been taken into account, 97,720 inhabitants would have seen their travel times to their nearest mental health centres reduced using the same resources.
Jubin Varghese; Nathan Grills; Kaaren Mathias
Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intell...
The object of this Master’s thesis was to describe the basic functionalities provided by identity and access management system (IAM) and their suitability for a health care environment. Specifying and defining the IAM project began in the Northern Ostrobothnia Hospital District in 2007. The preliminary work for enabling identity and access management automation has been done ever since. Most of the requirement specification work was done during the autumn 2013 for the IAM SSO project in the N...
Fakoya, I; Álvarez-Del Arco, D.; Monge, S; Copas, A J; Gennotte, A. F.; Volny-Anne, A.; Göpel, S.; Touloumi, G.; Prins, M; Barros, H; Staehelin, C.; del Amo, J.; Burns, F. M.
BACKGROUND: Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. OBJECTIVE: We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify ...
Svetlana A. Firsova; Elena A. Ryabukhina
Introduction: this article explores the pedagogical technology employed to teach medical students foundations of work with MICROSOFT ACCESS databases. The above technology is based on integrative approach to the information modeling in public health practice, drawing upon basic didactic concepts that pertain to objects and tools databases created in MICROSOFT ACCESS. The article examines successive steps in teaching the topic “Queries in MICROSOFT ACCESS” – from simple queries to complex ones...
Joseph J. Capuno; Kraft, Aleli D.
In developing countries like the Philippines, a major policy concern is the inequity in access to health and education services. In this paper, we investigate the effects of factors over which households have control ("choices") or none ("circumstances") on their access to basic services. Our logit regression analyses of two nationwide household surveys reveal that household income and composition, mother's age and education status, and the child's age and gender are critical. The circumstanc...
de Lusignan, S.; Mold, F.; Sheikh, A; Majeed, A; Wyatt, J C; Quinn, T.; Cavill, M.; Gronlund, T. A.; Franco, C.; Chauhan, U.; Blakey, H.; N. Kataria; Barker, F; Ellis, B; Koczan, P
Objectives To investigate the effect of providing patients online access to their electronic health record (EHR) and linked transactional services on the provision, quality and safety of healthcare. The objectives are also to identify and understand: barriers and facilitators for providing online access to their records and services for primary care workers; and their association with organisational/IT system issues. Setting Primary care. Participants A total of 143 studies were included. 17 ...
Most countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have either initiated or are contemplating reform of the health sector. With negative real income growth and falling government revenues, a key concern of many governments is to secure additional finance through non-budgetary sources such as hypothecated payroll taxes, voluntary insurance, and increased private finance through patient cost-sharing. However, before such reforms can be considered, information is needed both on the current levels and distribution of household expenditures on health care, and the extent to which increased charges may affect access to health services, especially amongst the poor. This paper uses the Tajikistan Livings Standard Survey to investigate the level and distribution of out-of-pocket payments for health care in Tajikistan and to examine the extent to which such payments act as barriers to health-care access. The data show that there are significant differences in health-care utilisation rates across socio-economic groups and that these differences are related to ability to pay. Official and informal payments are acting both to deter people from seeking medical assistance and once advice has been sought, from receiving the most appropriate treatment. Despite informal exemptions, out-of-pocket payments for health care are exacting a high toll on household welfare with households being forced to sell assets or go into debt to meet the costs of care. Urgent action is needed to ensure equity in access to health care. PMID:14604611
Mi, Misa; Wu, Wendy; Qiu, Maylene; Zhang, Yingting; Wu, Lin; Li, Jie
This systematic review examines types of mobile devices used by health professions students, kinds of resources and tools accessed via mobile devices, and reasons for using the devices to access the resources and tools. The review included 20 studies selected from articles published in English between January 2010 and April 2015, retrieved from PubMed and other sources. Data extracted included participants, study designs, mobile devices used, mobile resources/apps accessed, outcome measures, and advantages of and barriers to using mobile devices. The review indicates significant variability across the studies in terms of research methods, types of mobile programs implemented, resources accessed, and outcomes. There were beneficial effects of using mobile devices to access resources as well as conspicuous challenges or barriers in using mobile devices. PMID:26794197
Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study we explained the possible determinants of satisfaction with access to health services in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Of the 2000 randomly selected Estonian adult patients with RA, a total 1259 completed the survey. Regression analysis was used to analyse the predictors of patients' satisfaction with access to health services. Half of the respondents were satisfied with their access to health services. Factors that had a negative impact on satisfaction included pain intensity, longer waiting times to see the doctors, as well as low satisfaction with the doctors. Transportation costs to visit a rheumatologist and higher rehabilitation expenses also affected the degree of satisfaction. Patients who could choose the date and time at which they could visit the rheumatologist or who could visit their “own” doctor were more likely to be satisfied than patients whose appointment times were appointed by a healthcare provider.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.
Silva, Bela Feiman Sapiertein; Benito, Gladys Amelia Vélez
Universal access to health services is a challenge for municipal administration in a society that treats health as a commodity and gives preference to the individual consumer to the detriment of the citizen. This study sought to identify the social representations in the narrative of local health managers in a micro-region of southeast Brazil about access to health services. It consists of qualitative research with interviews conducted with 16 managers. The Collective Subject Discourse technique was employed with the use of Qualiquantisoft software in the data analysis. Four core ideas were identified: coordination between federal states; reorganization of admission procedures; user service and the precariousness of guaranteed access. It was revealed that the quality, resolvability, approach to the user's needs and the care network organization are poorly addressed, which reflects an understanding that does not consider 'access quality and resolution.' It is understood that the managers' impotence to make changes and the lack of society and worker engagement in management bolster the supremacy of market interests and contribute to 'limited access' and the continuity of the hegemonic model of care. PMID:23896901
Frances E. Owusu-Ansah
Full Text Available Background: Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcarefacilities.Methods: Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Data on demographic characteristics, existent health facilities and number of users, health-insured residents and knowledge of common diseases were collected.Results: Majority of the residents were from the northern parts of Ghana, relative to the south and a few of them come from other parts of West Africa. Seventy-one percent of residents had never visited a health facility in the last 5 years. When necessary, they access health care from drug stores (61.1% or hospitals (33.1%. Residents’ age, educational status, income, health knowledge and membership of National Health Insurance Scheme were significantly (p < 0.05 associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Younger residents and those without National Health Insurance Scheme membership, formal education, no knowledge of common illnesses and regular income were significantly less likely to use a healthcare facility. For most residents, neither distance (73.2% nor transportation to health facilities was a problem (74.1%.Conclusion: Conditions of profound environmental hazards, overcrowding, poor-quality housing and lack of health care in Sodom and Gomorrah pose grave threats to the health of the inhabitants. Multisectoral interventions and resource mobilisation championed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development are needed to alter the trend.Keywords: Slum dwellers, health, access, Sodom and Gomorra, Ghana
González Vélez, Ana Cristina
In most Latin American countries, abortion is not illegal if there is a risk to the life or health of the woman. This article discusses the process of expanding the interpretation of this "health exception" to mean that even the possibility of harm to health should make an abortion legal--which then becomes a mechanism for expanding women's right of access to safe abortion services. The article reports on an assessment of the impact of disseminating information on this interpretation of risk to health in Latin America, and how a regional process of debate and training of health service providers in 2009-10 has influenced the views and practice of health professionals in Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. The training included human rights arguments for applying the health exception in a comprehensive manner. All the respondents recognized the importance of interpreting risk to health as far more than the risk of death. Data from two clinics in Colombia also show an important increase in the number of women who had a legal abortion following this training. Dissemination of information and training on the health exception must continue--to protect women's right to health, reduce mortality and morbidity among those with unwanted pregnancies and encourage timely access to safe abortion services. PMID:23245405
Full Text Available Abstract Natural philosophy once spanned the fields of philosophy, science, and medicine. Scientific disciplines and medical specialties have rapidly achieved independence, and the availability of the internet and open-access publishing promises a further expansion of knowledge. Nevertheless, a consideration of the grounding concepts and ethical principles that underlie health care remains paramount. It is timely, therefore, to contribute to the global conversation on health care with an open-access journal that focuses on addressing the conceptual basis of medicine and related disciplines, considering the ethical aspects of clinical practice, and exploring its intersection with the humanities (including history of medicine.
Langellier, BA; Chen, J; Vargas-Bustamante, A; Inkelas, M; Ortega, AN
It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., i...
Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.
Full Text Available Roma people’s life expectancy is at least ten years below that of the majority population the main incriminating factor for this state of affairs being the poor access to education and health services. Adding to that, other factors are deeply influencing the accessibility of roma people to health services: the level of the integration in the community, the health related believes due to cultural aspects, migration, the image of the person who cures (could be the doctor and the complicated explanation of disease and death in terms of religious and metaphorical approach and the lack of education for health. Roma people remain a vulnerable population regarding diagnostic, treatment and recovering.
Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne
Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796
Garcia-Alonso, Maria D C; Acharyya, Rajat
We study how income redistribution affects decisions of a health care innovator and the utility of individuals. We find that income redistribution from rich to poor can increase the quality of medical innovation and the utility of some consumers whose income is reduced through the redistribution. We therefore find a non-altruistic motive for international income transfers that would increase access to health innovations.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between the implementation of community-based primary care clinics and improved access to general health care and/or mental health care, in both the general population and among people with disabling mental illness. STUDY SETTING: The 69 new community-based primary care clinics in underserved areas, established by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between the last quarter of FY 1995 and the second quarter of FY 1998, including the 21 new clinics ...
Silberfarb, Laura Oliven; Savre, Sonja; Geber, Gayle
Local governments play an increasingly important role in improving residents’ access to healthful food and beverages to reduce obesity and chronic disease. Cities can use multiple strategies to improve community health through, for example, land use and zoning policies, city contracting and procurement practices, sponsorship of farmers markets and community gardens, and vending and concession practices in parks and recreation facilities. With 41 cities in the Hennepin County Human Services an...
Van Herp Michel; Bachy Catherine; Reid Tony; Ponsar Frederique; Lambert-Evans Sophie; Philips Mit
Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection...
Mushfiq Mobarak, Ahmed; Rajkumar, Andrew Sunil; Cropper, Maureen
The authors examine the impact of local politics and government structure on the allocation of publicly subsidized (SUS) health services across municipios (counties) in Brazil, and on the probability that uninsured individuals who require medical attention actually receive access to those health services. Using data from the 1998 PNAD survey they demonstrate that higher per capita levels of SUS doctors, nurses, and clinic rooms increase the probability that an uninsured individual gains acces...
Kronfol, N M
This paper reviews some of the main obstacles encountered by the population (or rather by different social groups) in accessing health services in Arab countries. These obstacles can be social and cultural, administrative and organizational or financial and may impact on gender and ethnic groups to different degrees. Governments are urged to address the health inequalities that result from these obstacles and promote equity, solidarity and fairness through social policies that enhance social and national development. PMID:23301399
Blewett, Lynn A; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Mach, Annie L.
We use data from the National Health Interview Survey (2000–2006) to examine the social determinants of health insurance coverage and access to care for immigrant children by 10 global regions of birth. We find dramatic differences in the social and economic characteristics of immigrant children by region of birth. Children from Mexico and Latin America fare worse than immigrant children born in the U.S. with significantly lower incomes and little or no education. These social determinants, a...
舒文锐; 杨人懿; 潘霄; 林宁; 时皎皎; 焦成元; 唐云翔; 邓光辉; 陈怡; 李玉友
目的：调查高原汽车兵心理健康状况，对心理测量结果进行分析，提出心理服务对策。方法：采用SCL－90量表、军人心理应激自评问卷、阿森斯失眠量表和一般情况问卷对驻高原某部队200名汽车兵进行调查。结果：高原汽车兵在躯体化评分方面显著低于军队常模（P＜0．01）；总均分与8个因子均分（强迫、人际关系敏感性、抑郁、焦虑、敌意、恐怖、妄想、精神病性）低于地方常模（P＜0．05）。军人心理应激自评问卷显示，96．8％的官兵标准分T分＜70，没有心理应激；3．2％的官兵标准分T分≥70，存在心理应激。阿森斯失眠量表显示，25．3％没有失眠症状，16．8％可能存在失眠症状，57．9％存在失眠症状。不同年龄、是否为独生子女、不同家庭经济状况、不同驻扎高原时间、所在海拔高度不同的官兵SCL－90量表总均分和各因子得分均未见明显差异（P＞0．05）。结论：高原汽车兵的心理健康水平在近几年中有较大提升已接近全军平均水平，但睡眠状况较差。建议进行经常性的心理教育、心理测评、心理咨询、行为训练和个别心理诊治。%Objective: To investigate the mental health of plateau motor transport corps and analyze the data , put forward some suggestions for psychological services.Methods:Use SCL-90 Symptom Checklist, soldiers psychological stress self-reported questionnaire, athens insom-nia scale and general situation questionnaire to test 200 soldiers from plateau motor transport corps.Results: Plateau motor transport corps were lower than the military norm in summarization scores(P0.05).Conclusion:Plateau motor transport corps are approaching to the average level of whole army in mental health;mental health status had a great improvement in recent years.We propose to carry out regular psychological education, psychological evaluation, counseling, behavioral
Full Text Available Background and purpose: The study aims to determine factors influencing the utilization of accredited government-run ANC facilities at the Kawangu Health Centre. Methods: Research was a cross-sectional study, with a total sample of 85 respondents taken by consecutive sampling from the Kawangu Health Centre. The dependent variable was the use government-run ANC facility at the Kawangu Health Centre. The independent variables were knowledge, awareness, attitudes, access to health services, frequency of receiving information and family support. The data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The data analysis includes univariate, bivariate (chi-square and multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Results: The results of the study indicates that there was a significant relationship between the use of accredited government-run ANC facilities with maternal knowledge/awareness (p=0.001, attitude (p<0.001, ability to access to health services (p<0.001, frequency of information (p=0.039, and family support (p<0.001. Multivariate analysis indicated that the only significant independent variable related to the use of adequate delivery was the ability to access health services with OR =11.68 (95%CI: 1.37 to 99.89. Conclusion: An inability to access either due to distance to travel, lack of vehicle and/or infrastructure concerns such as poor quality/lack of roads was the dominant variable in the utilization of accredited government-run ANC facility. Keywords: accredited government-run ANC facilities, influencing factors, East Sumba
Arne H Eide
Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness among researchers and others that marginalized and vulnerable groups face problems in accessing health care. Access problems in particular in low-income countries may jeopardize the targets set by the United Nations through the Millennium Development Goals. Thus, identifying barriers for individuals with disability in accessing health services is a research priority. The current study aimed at identifying the magnitude of specific barriers, and to estimate the impact of disability on barriers for accessing health care in general. A population based household survey was carried out in Sudan, Namibia, Malawi, and South Africa, including a total of 9307 individuals. The sampling strategy was a two-stage cluster sampling within selected geographical areas in each country. A listing procedure to identify households with disabled members using the Washington Group six screening question was followed by administering household questionnaires in households with and without disabled members, and questionnaires for individuals with and without disability. The study shows that lack of transport, availability of services, inadequate drugs or equipment, and costs, are the four major barriers for access. The study also showed substantial variation in perceived barriers, reflecting largely socio-economic differences between the participating countries. Urbanity, socio-economic status, and severity of activity limitations are important predictors for barriers, while there is no gender difference. It is suggested that education reduces barriers to health services only to the extent that it reduces poverty. Persons with disability face additional and particular barriers to health services. Addressing these barriers requires an approach to health that stresses equity over equality.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate healthcare access disparity that will cause delayed and unmet healthcare needs for the elderly, and to examine health inequality and healthcare cost burden for the elderly. To produce clear policy applications, this study adapts a modified PRECEDE-PROCEED model for framing theoretical and experimental approaches. Data were collected from a large collection of the Community Tracking Study Household Survey 2003–2004 of the USA. Reliability and construct validity are examined for internal consistency and estimation of disparity and inequality are analyzed by using probit/ols regressions. The results show that predisposing factors (e.g., attitude, beliefs, and perception by socio-demographic differences are negatively associated with delayed healthcare. A 10% increase in enabling factors (e.g., availability of health insurance coverage, and usual sources of healthcare providers are significantly associated with a 1% increase in healthcare financing factors. In addition, information through a socio-economic network and support system has a 5% impact on an access disparity. Income, health status, and health inequality are exogenously determined. Designing and implementing easy healthcare accessibility (healthcare system and healthcare financing methods, and developing a socio-economic support network (including public health information are essential in reducing delayed healthcare and health inequality.
Kummervold, Per Egil; Wynn, Rolf
The aim of this study was to summarize and analyse findings from four prior studies on the use of the Internet as a source of health information in five European countries (Norway, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Portugal). A cross-study comparison of data was performed. All the studies included fit with a trend of a sharp and continuous growth in the use of the Internet for health information access in the major part of the last decade. Importantly, the Internet has become an important mass media source of health information in northern Europe. While the use of the Internet for health information is somewhat less common in the south European countries, its use is also clearly increasing there. We discuss the advantages of cross-study comparisons of data and methodological challenges. As the use of the Internet for health information is likely to peak in some countries in the near future, new population surveys on health information access should focus more on the details of information that is accessed and which sites that are most used and trusted. PMID:23304133
Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical access to health care facilities is known to influence health services usage. As societies age, accessibility to health care becomes an increasingly acute public health concern. It is known that seniors tend to have lower mobility levels, and it is possible that this may negatively affect their ability to reach facilities and services. Therefore, it becomes important to examine the mobility situation of seniors vis-a-vis the spatial distribution of health care facilities, to identify areas where accessibility is low and interventions may be required. Methods Accessibility is implemented using a cumulative opportunities measure. Instead of assuming a fixed bandwidth (i.e. a distance threshold for measuring accessibility, in this paper the bandwidth is defined using model-based estimates of average trip length. Average trip length is an all-purpose indicator of individual mobility and geographical reach. Adoption of a spatial modelling approach allows us to tailor these estimates of travel behaviour to specific locations and person profiles. Replacing a fixed bandwidth with these estimates permits us to calculate customized location- and person-based accessibility measures that allow inter-personal as well as geographical comparisons. Data The case study is Montreal Island. Geo-coded travel behaviour data, specifically average trip length, and relevant traveller's attributes are obtained from the Montreal Household Travel Survey. These data are complemented with information from the Census. Health care facilities, also geo-coded, are extracted from a comprehensive business point database. Health care facilities are selected based on Standard Industrial Classification codes 8011-21 (Medical Doctors and Dentists. Results Model-based estimates of average trip length show that travel behaviour varies widely across space. With the exception of seniors in the downtown area, older residents of Montreal Island tend to be
Gerreth, Karolina; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria
Background: A patient's with disability everyday life is rife with many limitations such as architectural, transport, information as well as medical, psychological, legal, economic and social barriers. The aim of this study was to evaluate access to dental health care of special-care schoolchildren with intellectual disability on the basis of…
Mao, Eric J; Kelly, Colleen R; Machan, Jason T
This study confirms previously reported racial differences in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates in the United States and explores the nature of those differences. We conducted a retrospective study using the 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, the largest all-payer database of hospital discharges in the United States. We identified hospital stays most likely to include antibiotic treatment for infections, based on hospital discharge diagnoses, and we examined how CDI rates varied, in an attempt to distinguish between genotypic and environmental racial differences. Logistic regressions for the survey design were used to test hypotheses. Among patients likely to have received antibiotics, white patients had higher CDI rates than black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American patients (P racial bias in health care access is less, racial differences in CDI rates disappeared (P = 1.0). Infected patients did not show racial differences in rates of complicated CDI or death (P = 1.0). Although white patients had greater CDI rates than nonwhite patients, racial differences in CDI rates disappeared in a population for which health care access was presumed to be less racially biased. This provides evidence that apparent racial differences in CDI risks may represent health care access disparities, rather than genotypic differences. CDI represents a deviation from the paradigm that increased health care access is associated with less morbidity. PMID:26248363
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded funding to computer science researchers in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering for a project aimed at making it easier for senior citizens to access Virginia Department for the Aging (VDA) services on the World Wide Web.
Khan, Arshia A.
Driven by the compulsion to improve the evident paucity in quality of care, especially in critical access hospitals in the United States, policy makers, healthcare providers, and administrators have taken the advise of researchers suggesting the integration of technology in healthcare. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) System composed of multiple…
Ethelwynn L. Stellenberg
Full Text Available Background: Inequalities in healthcare between population groups of South Africa existed during the apartheid era and continue to exist both between and within many population groups. Accessibility and affordability of healthcare is a human right.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore and describe accessibility, affordability and the use of health services by the mixed race (coloured population in the Western Cape, South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive, non-experimental study with a quantitative approach was applied. A purposive convenient sample of 353 participants (0.6% was drawn from a population of 63 004 economically-active people who lived in the residential areas as defined for the purpose of the study. All social classes were represented. The hypothesis set was that there is a positive relationship between accessibility, affordability and the use of health services. A pilot study was conducted which also supported the reliability and validity of the study. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Stellenbosch and informed consent from respondents. A questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results: The hypothesis was accepted. The statistical association between affordability (p = < 0.01, accessibility (p = < 0.01 and the use of health services was found to be significant using the Chi-square (χ² test.Conclusion: The study has shown how affordability and accessibility may influence the use of healthcare services. Accessibility is not only the distance an individual must travel to reach the health service point but more so the utilisation of these services. Continuous Quality Management should be a priority in healthcare services, which should be user-friendly.
Sunday A. Adedini
Full Text Available Background: Existing studies indicate that about one in every six children dies before age five in Nigeria. While evidence suggests that improved access to adequate health care holds great potential for improved child survival, previous studies indicate that there are substantial barriers to accessing health care in Nigeria. There has not been a systematic attempt to examine the effects of barriers to health care on under-five mortality in Nigeria. This study is designed to address this knowledge gap. Data and method: Data came from a nationally representative sample of 18,028 women (aged 15–49 who had a total of 28,647 live births within the 5 years preceding the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The risk of death in children below age five was estimated using Cox proportional hazard models and results are presented as hazards ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: Results indicate higher under-five mortality risks for children whose mothers had cultural barriers and children whose mothers had resource-related barriers to health care (HR: 1.44, CI: 1.32–1.57, p<0.001, and those whose mothers had physical barriers (HR: 1.13, CI: 1.04–1.24, p<0.001, relative to children whose mothers reported no barriers. Barriers to health care remained an important predictor of child survival even after adjusting for the effects of possible confounders. Conclusion: Findings of this study stressed the need for improved access to adequate health care in Nigeria through the elimination of barriers to access. This would enable the country to achieve a significant reduction in childhood mortality.
Sundari Ravindran, T K; Fonn, Sharon
A social franchise in health is a network of for-profit private health practitioners linked through contracts to provide socially beneficial services under a common brand. The early 21st century has seen considerable donor enthusiasm for promoting social franchises for the provision of reproductive health services. Based on a compendium of descriptive information on 45 clinical social franchises, located in 27 countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, this paper examines their contribution to universal access to comprehensive reproductive health services. It finds that these franchises have not widened the range of reproductive health services, but have mainly focused on contraceptive services, and to a lesser extent, maternal health care and abortion. In many instances, coverage had not been extended to new areas. Measures taken to ensure sustainability ran counter to the objective of access for low-income groups. In almost two-thirds of the franchises, the full cost of all services had to be paid out of pocket and was unaffordable for low-income women. While standards and protocols for quality assurance were in place in all franchises, evidence on adherence to these was limited. Informal interviews with patients indicated satisfaction with services. However, factors such as difficulties in recruiting franchisees and significant attrition, franchisees' inability to attend training programmes, use of lay health workers to deliver services without support or supervision, and logistical problems with applying quality assurance tools, all raise concerns. The contribution of social franchises to universal access to reproductive health services appears to be uncertain. Continued investment in them for the provision of reproductive health services does not appear to be justified until and unless further evidence of their value is forthcoming. PMID:22118144
Van Herp Michel
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, Médecins Sans Frontières, the provincial government, and the provincial health authority began a community project to guarantee financial access to primary health care in Karuzi province, Burundi. The project used a community-based assessment to provide exemption cards for indigent households and a reduced flat fee for consultations for all other households. Methods An evaluation was carried out in 2005 to assess the impact of this project. Primary data collection was through a cross-sectional household survey of the catchment areas of 10 public health centres. A questionnaire was used to determine the accuracy of the community-identification method, households' access to health care, and costs of care. Household socioeconomic status was determined by reported expenditures and access to land. Results Financial access to care at the nearest health centre was ensured for 70% of the population. Of the remaining 30%, half experienced financial barriers to access and the other half chose alternative sites of care. The community-based assessment increased the number of people of the population who qualified for fee exemptions to 8.6% but many people who met the indigent criteria did not receive a card. Eighty-eight percent of the population lived under the poverty threshold. Referring to the last sickness episode, 87% of households reported having no money available and 25% risked further impoverishment because of healthcare costs even with the financial support system in place. Conclusion The flat fee policy was found to reduce cost barriers for some households but, given the generalized poverty in the area, the fee still posed a significant financial burden. This report showed the limits of a programme of fee exemption for indigent households and a flat fee for others in a context of widespread poverty.
Full Text Available Along with three years implementation of health reform in China, this study aimed at providing the up-to-date evidence about the accessibility of essential public health services (EPHS among adults with chronic diseases (CDs in both urban and rural areas, as well as determinants in access to EPHS.The data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013, which used a multistage stratified random sampling method to select 54 urban communities and 54 rural villages. Hypertension patients and diabetes patients were the target population who are the main beneficiaries of EPHS. Single factor analysis of influencing factors on difference access to EPHS was performed by Chi-Square analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of effective management and effective control.Patients with hypertension or diabetes were predominantly middle-aged or older persons and had a mean age of 65.26 year. People with CDs in China have a higher basic accessibility rate in EPHS with more than 90% of them having experience in receiving EPHS. And those who are willing to receive services from doctors have the most positive influence on effective management and control in blood pressure or blood glucose. But unsatisfied quality and equity of EPHS still exist in primary health system. 90% of participants could receive EPHS, but just 44% of them could control their diseases effectively. And participants from cities had the higher rates in effective management (urban: rural = 57%: 50.6% and effective control (urban: rural = 39.5%: 27.8%.People with CDs have a high level in geography and economic accessibility to EPHS, but the effectiveness of health management also needs to be improved, especially for those living in rural areas. Our study highlights the continuing need for improving ability to provide EPHS and the equality among regions. Meanwhile, strengthen health education and promotion for patients with CDs to improve their
Kleiman, Michael B
A brief overview of six articles which address ethical considerations in the allocation of medical resources: N. Daniels on the obligation of physicians in the distribution of health care; D. Ozar on the right to health care; J. Humber on the involuntary commitment and treatment of the mentally ill; N. Bell on triage and the allocation of scarce medical resources; C. Kaufmann on health policy in the U.S., Great Britain, and the U.S.S.R.; and C. Perry on the right of public access to cadaver organs. PMID:11649357
MacDonnell Judith A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1 to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2 to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1 multicultural discourse, and 2 diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3 social determinants of health (SDOH discourse; 4 anti-oppression (AOP discourse; and 5 citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress
Ajeng T. Endarti
Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI = 0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion
Girão, Ana Lívia Araújo; Freitas, Consuelo Helena Aires de
Objective To assess the impacts of inclusion of care for spontaneous demands in the treatment of hypertensive patients in primary health care. Methods Third generation qualitative assessment survey conducted with 16 workers in a Primary Care Health Unit (PHCU) of the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceara, in the period between July and September of 2015. To collect data, systematic field observation and semi-structured interviews were used, and the stages of thematic content analysis were adopted for data analysis. Results Participants revealed that access, connection and care are fundamental to the treatment of hypertension. However, they said that the introduction of free access for spontaneous demands compromised the flow of care in the hypertension programs. Conclusion A dichotomy between the practice of care recommended by health policies and the one existing in the reality of PHCUs was shown, causing evident losses to the care of hypertensive patients in primary care. PMID:27253602
Schoo, Adrian; Lawn, Sharon; Carson, Dean
Background Access to rural health services is compromised in many countries including Australia due to workforce shortages. The issues that consequently impact on equity of access and sustainability of rural and remote health services are complex. Discussion The purpose of this paper is to describe a number of approaches from the literature that could form the basis of a more integrated approach to health workforce and rural health service enhancement that can be supported by policy. A case s...
Neufeld, Jonathan; Case, Ruth
Introduction: Telemedicine has demonstrated potential to improve access and quality of mental health services in underserved areas. Use of telemedicine to deliver health services may enable a range of synergistic innovations in care practices, but such innovations will require rigorous evaluation. Materials and Methods: We evaluated a telemental health program designed to increase access by eliminating clinician travel time in a multisite rural community mental health center. The pro...
Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.
Rosati, Robert J; Russell, David; Peng, Timothy; Brickner, Carlin; Kurowski, Daniel; Christopher, Mary Ann; Sheehan, Kathleen M
The Affordable Care Act directed Medicare to update its home health prospective payment system to reflect more recent data on costs and use of services-an exercise known as rebasing. As a result, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services will reduce home health payments 3.5 percent per year in the period 2014-17. To determine the impact that these reductions could have on beneficiaries using home health care, we examined the Medicare reimbursement margins and the use of services in a national sample of 96,621 episodes of care provided by twenty-six not-for-profit home health agencies in 2011. We found that patients with clinically complex conditions and social vulnerability factors, such as living alone, had substantially higher service delivery costs than other home health patients. Thus, the socially vulnerable patients with complex conditions represent less profit-lower-to-negative Medicare margins-for home health agencies. This financial disincentive could reduce such patients' access to care as Medicare payments decline. Policy makers should consider the unique characteristics of these patients and ensure their continued access to Medicare's home health services when planning rebasing and future adjustments to the prospective payment system. PMID:24889943
Andres, Ellie; Baird, Sarah; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart; Markus, Anne Rossier
Background Maternity leave is integral to postpartum maternal and child health, providing necessary time to heal and bond following birth. However, the relationship between maternity leave and health outcomes has not been formally and comprehensively assessed to guide public health research and policy in this area. This review aims to address this gap by investigating both the correlates of maternity leave utilization in the US and the related health benefits for mother and child. Methods We searched the peer-reviewed scholarly literature using six databases for the years 1990 to early 2015 and identified 37 studies to be included in the review. We extracted key data for each of the included studies and assessed study quality using the "Weight of the Evidence" approach. Results The literature generally confirms a positive, though limited correlation between maternity leave coverage and utilization. Likewise, longer maternity leaves are associated with improved breastfeeding intentions and rates of initiation, duration and predominance as well as improved maternal mental health and early childhood outcomes. However, the literature points to important disparities in access to maternity leave that carry over into health outcomes, such as breastfeeding. Synthesis We present a conceptual framework synthesizing what is known to date related to maternity leave access and health outcomes. PMID:26676977
Rosen-Reynoso, Myra; Porche, Michelle V; Kwan, Ngai; Bethell, Christina; Thomas, Veronica; Robertson, Julie; Hawes, Eva; Foley, Susan; Palfrey, Judith
Objectives Families, clinicians and policymakers desire improved delivery of health and related services for children with special health care needs (CSHCN). We analyzed factors associated with ease of use in obtaining such services. We also explored what were specific difficulties or delays in receiving services. By examining data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN 2009-2010) and using the revised criteria for "ease of use," we were able to assess the percentage of parents who reported that their experiences seeking services for their children met those criteria. Methods We performed Chi square tests to examine associations between the independent variables and their relationship to the difficulties or delays assessed in the survey; including: eligibility, availability of services, waiting lists, cost, and access to information. We used logistic regression to determine the association of meeting the "ease of use" criteria with socio-demographic, complexity of need, and access variables. Results Overall, a third of families of CSHCN (35.3 %) encounter difficulties, delays, or frustrations in obtaining health and related services. The lack of access to health and community services in this study fell most heavily on children from racial/ethnic minority backgrounds, those in poverty, and those with complex emotional/behavioral or developmental needs and functional limitations. Conclusions for Practice CSHCN require services from a broad array of providers across multiple systems. Unfortunately, there are certain difficulties that hamper the accessibility of these systems. These findings underscore the need for both practice-level response and systems-level reform to ensure equitable distribution of health and community resources. PMID:26728898
Maybank, Allison; Hurley, Oliver; Modir, Hilary; Farrell, Alison; Marshall, Zack; Kendall, Claire; Johnston, Sharon; Hogel, Matthew; Rourke, Sean B; Liddy, Clare
Background Strategies to improve access to health care for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have demonstrated limited success. Whereas previous approaches have been informed by the views of health providers and decision-makers, it is believed that incorporating patient perspectives into the design and evaluations of health care programs will lead to improved access to health care services. Objective We aim to map the literature on the perspectives of PLHIV concerning access to health care services, to identify gaps in evidence, and to produce an evidence-informed research action plan to guide the Living with HIV program of research. Methods This scoping review includes peer-reviewed and grey literature from 1946 to May 2014 using double data extraction. Variations of the search terms “HIV”, “patient satisfaction”, and “health services accessibility” are used to identify relevant literature. The search strategy is being developed in consultation with content experts, review methodologists, and a librarian, and validated using gold standard studies identified by those stakeholders. The inclusion criteria are (1) the study includes the perspectives of PLHIV, (2) study design includes qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods, and (3) outcome measures are limited to patient satisfaction, their implied needs, beliefs, and desires in relation to access to health care. The papers are extracted by two independent reviewers, including quality assessment. Data is then collated, summarized, and thematically analyzed. Results A total of 12,857 references were retrieved, of which 326 documents were identified as eligible in pre-screening, and 64 articles met the inclusion criteria (56% qualitative studies, 38% quantitative studies and 6% mixed-method studies). Only four studies were conducted in Canada. Data synthesis is in progress and full results are expected in June, 2016. Conclusions This scoping review will record and characterize the
Zimmermann, Kristine; Peacock, Nadine R.
Introduction Living in a rural food desert has been linked to poor dietary habits. Understanding community perspectives about available resources and feasible solutions may inform strategies to improve food access in rural food deserts. The objective of our study was to identify resources and solutions to the food access problems of women in rural, southernmost Illinois. Methods Fourteen focus groups with women (n = 110 participants) in 4 age groups were conducted in a 7-county region as part of a community assessment focused on women’s health. We used content analysis with inductive and deductive approaches to explore food access barriers and facilitators. Results Similar to participants in previous studies, participants in our study reported insufficient local food sources, which they believe contributed to poor dietary habits, high food prices, and the need to travel for healthful food. Participants identified existing local activities and resources that help to increase access, such as home and community gardens, food pantries, and public transportation, as well as local solutions, such as improving nutrition education and public transportation options. Conclusion Multilevel and collaborative strategies and policies are needed to address food access barriers in rural communities. At the individual level, education may help residents navigate geographic and economic barriers. Community solutions include collaborative strategies to increase availability of healthful foods through traditional and nontraditional food sources. Policy change is needed to promote local agriculture and distribution of privately grown food. Understanding needs and strengths in rural communities will ensure responsive and effective strategies to improve the rural food environment. PMID:27126555
Tazhmoye V. Crawford
Full Text Available Background: Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government’s objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors. Aims: This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs and confidentiality. Materials and Methods: This research involved quantitative and qualitative data. Two hundred and thirty eight sexually active cases were investigated in Jamaica by the researchers, during the period 2006-2007. The age group population was 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17. Results: The study showed that access to contraceptive advice and treatment by minors was more favorable to males than females. The difference in access to contraceptive between male and female was statistically significant (x² = 20.16, p<0.05. Of the 80 male respondents, who are contraceptive users, 11 encountered challenges in legitimately accessing contraceptive methods, while 38 of the 40 female users also encountered challenges. This resulted in unintended pregnancies and impregnation (33.2%, as well as the contracting of STIs (21%. Conclusion: The findings of this study will be important in informing the development of reproductive health services and family life education programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents in Jamaica and other Caribbean countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men who were adults (at least 18 years old and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP, becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains
Lynam, M Judith; Scott, Lorine; Loock, Christine; Wong, Sabrina T
Considerable evidence shows that children and families who are vulnerable because of their social and material circumstances shoulder a disproportionate burden of disease and are more likely to face both social and structural challenges in accessing healthcare. Addressing these issues in children is particularly important as evidence has demonstrated that inequities in health are cumulative over the life course. In this article, the authors report on the RICHER (Responsive, Intersectoral-Interdisciplinary, Child-Community, Health, Education and Research) social pediatrics initiative, which was designed to foster timely access to healthcare across the spectrum from primary care to specialized services for a community of inner-city children who have disproportionately high rates of developmental vulnerability. Their research shows that the initiative has effectively "reformed" health services delivery to provide care in ways that are accessible and responsive to the needs of the population. RICHER is an intersectoral, interdisciplinary outreach initiative that delivers care through the formation of innovative partnerships. The authors share research results that demonstrate that the RICHER model of engagement with children and families not only effectively fosters access for families with multiple forms of disadvantage, but also improves outcomes by empowering parents of particularly vulnerable children to become more active participants in care. PMID:22008572
de Lusignan, Simon; Mold, Freda; Sheikh, Aziz; Majeed, Azeem; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Quinn, Tom; Cavill, Mary; Gronlund, Toto Anne; Franco, Christina; Chauhan, Umesh; Blakey, Hannah; Kataria, Neha; Barker, Fiona; Ellis, Beverley; Koczan, Phil; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; McCarthy, Mary; Jones, Simon; Rafi, Imran
Objectives To investigate the effect of providing patients online access to their electronic health record (EHR) and linked transactional services on the provision, quality and safety of healthcare. The objectives are also to identify and understand: barriers and facilitators for providing online access to their records and services for primary care workers; and their association with organisational/IT system issues. Setting Primary care. Participants A total of 143 studies were included. 17 were experimental in design and subject to risk of bias assessment, which is reported in a separate paper. Detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria have also been published elsewhere in the protocol. Primary and secondary outcome measures Our primary outcome measure was change in quality or safety as a result of implementation or utilisation of online records/transactional services. Results No studies reported changes in health outcomes; though eight detected medication errors and seven reported improved uptake of preventative care. Professional concerns over privacy were reported in 14 studies. 18 studies reported concern over potential increased workload; with some showing an increase workload in email or online messaging; telephone contact remaining unchanged, and face-to face contact staying the same or falling. Owing to heterogeneity in reporting overall workload change was hard to predict. 10 studies reported how online access offered convenience, primarily for more advantaged patients, who were largely highly satisfied with the process when clinician responses were prompt. Conclusions Patient online access and services offer increased convenience and satisfaction. However, professionals were concerned about impact on workload and risk to privacy. Studies correcting medication errors may improve patient safety. There may need to be a redesign of the business process to engage health professionals in online access and of the EHR to make it friendlier and provide equity of
Historically deaf people have been denied access to professional nurse education due to a range of language, communication and ideological barriers. The following study was set in the North of England and draws upon the Western experience and knowledge base of deaf people's experience of access to professional education. The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of the first British Sign Language using deaf qualified nurses before they entered the Pre-registration Diploma in Nursing Programme, during the programme and after the programme as they progressed into professional nursing roles. The purpose of the study was to gather the nurses' thoughts and feelings about their experiences and to analyse these using thematic analysis within a narrative interpretive tradition against a backdrop of Jurgen Habermas' critical theory and Paulo Freire's critical pedagogy. By drawing out significant themes to structure a deeper understanding of the nurses' unique positions, they offer a model for inclusive education practice that would support deaf people and people from minority groups into nursing and other health care professions. The signed narratives were video recorded and interpreted into written English transcripts which were then analysed to discover the underlying themes using Boyatzis' (1998) thematic analysis. The findings are set against an historical and contemporary setting of deaf people in Western society, their experiences of education, health and employment. These unique findings illustrate the significance of an accessible language environment for the nurses, the role of the organisation in ensuring access for the nurses and the impact of barriers to education and the clinical environment. The implications for education and practice supports the need to analyse the workforce required in deaf services, to scrutinize the access provided, to develop cultural competence skills, enhance the use of additional support mechanisms, generate accessible
Marianne P. Bitler
This paper examines the association between use of infertility treatment and infant and child health outcomes. Infertility treatment makes conception possible for many couples who otherwise would have been unable to reproduce. Many treatments also increase the chance of having a multiple birth, typically a more risky pregnancy. State insurance mandates compelling insurers to cover or offer to cover infertility treatment induce variation across states over time in access to subsidized infertil...
Full Text Available Introduction: In South Africa, there are renewed efforts to strengthen primary health care and community health worker (CHW programmes. This article examines three South African CHW programmes, a small local non-governmental organisation (NGO, a local satellite of a national NGO, and a government-initiated service, that provide a range of services from home-based care, childcare, and health promotion to assist clients in overcoming poverty-related barriers to health care. Methods: The comparative case studies, located in Eastern Cape and Gauteng, were investigated using qualitative methods. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors that constrain and enable outreach services to improve access to care. Results: The local satellite (of a national NGO, successful in addressing multi-dimensional barriers to care, provided CHWs with continuous training focused on the social determinants of ill-health, regular context-related supervision, and resources such as travel and cell-phone allowances. These workers engaged with, and linked their clients to, agencies in a wide range of sectors. Relationships with participatory structures at community level stimulated coordinated responses from service providers. In contrast, an absence of these elements curtailed the ability of CHWs in the small NGO and government-initiated service to provide effective outreach services or to improve access to care. Conclusion: Significant investment in resources, training, and support can enable CHWs to address barriers to care by negotiating with poorly functioning government services and community participation structures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the geographical accessibility of health services in urban and rural areas of the South West of England, comparing two measures of geographical access and characterising the areas most remote from hospitals. Straight-line distance and drive-time to the nearest general practice (GP and acute hospital (DGH were calculated for postcodes and aggregated to 1991 Census wards. The correlation between the two measures was used to identify wards where straight-line distance was not an accurate predictor of drive-time. Wards over 25 km from a DGH were classified as 'remote', and characterised in terms of rurality, deprivation, age structure and health status of the population. Results The access measures were highly correlated (r2>0.93. The greatest differences were found in coastal and rural wards of the far South West. Median straight-line distance to GPs was 1 km (IQR = 0.6–2 km and to DGHs, 12 km (IQR = 5–19 km. Deprivation and rates of premature limiting long term illness were raised in areas most distant from hospitals, but there was no evidence of higher premature mortality rates. Half of the wards remote from a DGH were not classed as rural by the Office for National Statistics. Almost a quarter of households in the wards furthest from hospitals had no car, and the proportion of households with access to two or more cars fell in the most remote areas. Conclusion Drive-time is a more accurate measure of access for peripheral and rural areas. Geographical access to health services, especially GPs, is good, but remoteness affects both rural and urban areas: studies concentrating purely on rural areas may underestimate geographical barriers to accessing health care. A sizeable minority of households still had no car in 1991, and few had more than one car, particularly in areas very close to and very distant from hospitals. Better measures of geographical access, which integrate public and private transport
..., 2010, edition of the Federal Register (75 FR 53264) and the docket number was COE-2010- 0032. In... waters of the Potomac River extending offshore from the Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF) at Marine Corps... Presidential Helicopter Squadron (HMX-1). The restricted area will also protect public health by...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... current and accurate information concerning the securities of California Oil & Gas Corp. because it...
Julián Vargas J
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the characteristics of access to the General System of Social Security in health (SGSS, from the perspective of doctors, nurses, administrators and users. Methodology: based on the grounded theory we present a study in six cities in Colombia: Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Bogota, Leticia, Medellín and Pasto, for which interviews were conducted in-depth with health professionals involved in service delivery and focus groups with service users. Results: The findings indicate that insurance has become an end in itself, and being affiliated to SGSSS does not guarantee effective access to services. The dominance of the market, the financial profitability of insurers, imposed cost-containment mechanisms over the right to health. There are limitations from the rules, benefit plans that create geographical, economic and cultural barriers from the various actors involved in the chain of decisions. Additionally, display individual and institutional ethical shortcomings, clientelism and corruption in the management of resources, coupled with poverty and geographical dispersion of communities, mean that further limiting access to health services.
Thomas F. Kresina
Full Text Available Providing access to and utilization of medication assisted treatment (MAT for the treatment of opioid abuse and dependence provides an important opportunity to improve public health. Access to health services comprising MAT in the community is fundamental to achieve broad service coverage. The type and placement of the health services comprising MAT and integration with primary medical care including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention, care and treatment services are optimal for addressing both substance abuse and co-occurring infectious diseases. As an HIV prevention intervention, integrated (same medical record for HIV services and MAT services MAT with HIV prevention, care and treatment programs provides the best “one stop shopping” approach for health service utilization. Alternatively, MAT, medical and HIV services can be separately managed but co-located to allow convenient utilization of primary care, MAT and HIV services. A third approach is coordinated care and treatment, where primary care, MAT and HIV services are provided at distinct locations and case managers, peer facilitators, or others promote direct service utilization at the various locations. Developing a continuum of care for patients with opioid dependence throughout the stages MAT enhances the public health and Recovery from opioid dependence. As a stigmatized and medical disenfranchised population with multiple medical, psychological and social needs, people who inject drugs and are opioid dependent have difficulty accessing services and navigating medical systems of coordinated care. MAT programs that offer comprehensive services and medical care options can best contribute to improving the health of these individuals thereby enhancing the health of the community.
Silberfarb, Laura Oliven; Savre, Sonja; Geber, Gayle
Local governments play an increasingly important role in improving residents' access to healthful food and beverages to reduce obesity and chronic disease. Cities can use multiple strategies to improve community health through, for example, land use and zoning policies, city contracting and procurement practices, sponsorship of farmers markets and community gardens, and vending and concession practices in parks and recreation facilities. With 41 cities in the Hennepin County Human Services and Public Health Department jurisdiction, the county undertook to measure the extent to which cities were engaged in making policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) changes to increase residents' access to healthful food. The results revealed that some cities, particularly those with higher resident demand for healthful food, are making nationally recommended PSE changes, such as sponsoring farmers markets and community gardens. Cities have moved more slowly to make changes in areas with perceived negative cost consequences or lesser public demand, such as parks and recreation vending and concessions. This article describes the assessment process, survey tools, findings, and implications for other health departments seeking to undertake a similar assessment. PMID:24762528
Fiorati, Regina Celia; Arcêncio, Ricardo Alexandre; Souza, Larissa Barros de
Objective to present a critical reflection upon the current and different interpretative models of the Social Determinants of Health and inequalities hindering access and the right to health. Method theoretical study using critical hermeneutics to acquire reconstructive understanding based on a dialectical relationship between the explanation and understanding of interpretative models of the social determinants of health and inequalities. Results interpretative models concerning the topic under study are classified. Three generations of interpretative models of the social determinants of health were identified and historically contextualized. The third and current generation presents a historical synthesis of the previous generations, including: neo-materialist theory, psychosocial theory, the theory of social capital, cultural-behavioral theory and the life course theory. Conclusion From dialectical reflection and social criticism emerge a discussion concerning the complementarity of the models of the social determinants of health and the need for a more comprehensive conception of the determinants to guide inter-sector actions to eradicate inequalities that hinder access to health. PMID:27143540
Soares, Neelkamal S; Hobson, Wendy L; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Finneran, Maureen; Varrasso, Denia A; Keller, David
The CATCH (Community Access to Child Health) Program, which supports pediatricians who engage with the community to improve child health, increase access to health care, and promote advocacy through small seed grants, was last evaluated in 1998. The objective was to describe the characteristics of CATCH grant recipients and projects and assess the community impact of funded projects. Prospective data was collected from CATCH applications (grantee characteristics, topic area and target population for projects funded from 2006-2012) and post-project 2-year follow-up survey (project outcomes, sustainability, and impact for projects funded from 2008 through 2010). From 2006 through 2012, the CATCH Program awarded 401 projects to grantees working mostly in general pediatrics. Eighty-five percent of projects targeted children covered by Medicaid, 33% targeted uninsured children, and 75% involved a Latino population. Main topic areas addressed were nutrition, access to health care, and medical home. Sixty-nine percent of grantees from 2008 to 2010 responded to the follow-up survey. Ninety percent reported completing their projects, and 86% of those projects continued to exist in some form. Grantees reported the development of community partnerships (77%) and enhanced recognition of child health issues in the community (73%) as the most frequent changes due to the projects. The CATCH Program funds community-based projects led by pediatricians that address the medical home and access to care. A majority of these projects and community partnerships are sustained beyond their original CATCH funding and, in many cases, are leveraged into additional financial or other community support. PMID:24323996
Andrulis, D P
Urban communities continue to face formidable historic challenges to improving public health. However, reinvestment initiatives, changing demographics, and growth in urban areas are creating changes that offer new opportunities for improving health while requiring that health systems be adapted to residents' health needs. This commentary suggests that health care improvement in metropolitan areas will require setting local, state, and national agendas around 3 priorities. First, health care must reorient around powerful population dynamics, in particular, cultural diversity, growing numbers of elderly, those in welfare-workplace transition, and those unable to negotiate an increasingly complex health system. Second, communities and governments must assess the consequences of health professional shortages, safety net provider closures and conversions, and new marketplace pressures in terms of their effects on access to care for vulnerable urban populations; they must also weigh the potential value of emerging models for improving those populations' care. Finally, governments at all levels should use their influence through accreditation, standards, tobacco settlements, and other financing streams to educate and guide urban providers in directions that respond to urban communities' health care needs. PMID:10846501
Kangolle Alfred CT
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly available documents. In spite of significant limitations in the available data, it is clear there are substantial barriers to access to cancer control in developing countries. This includes prevention, early detection, diagnosis/treatment and palliation. There are also substantial limitations in the quality of cancer control and a great need to improve economic efficiency. We describe how the application of health data may assist in optimizing (1 Structure: strengthening planning, collaboration, transparency, research development, education and capacity building. (2 Process: enabling follow-up, knowledge translation, patient safety and quality assurance. (3 Outcome: facilitating evaluation, monitoring and improvement of national cancer control efforts. There is currently limited data and capacity to use this data in developing countries for these purposes. Summary There is an urgent need to improve health services for cancer control in developing countries. Current resources and much-needed investments must be optimally managed. To achieve this, we would recommend investment in four key priorities: (1 Capacity building in oncology health services research, policy and planning relevant to developing countries. (2 Development of high-quality health data sources. (3 More oncology-related economic evaluations in developing countries. (4 Exploration of high-quality models of cancer control in developing countries. Meeting these needs will require national, regional and
Faden, R R; Kass, N E
Whereas the introduction of new technologies previously has raised the ethical question of who ought to have access to a new procedure or device, genetic testing technology raises the new ethical question of to whom access to a new technology ought to be limited. In this article we discuss the implications of employers and private health insurance companies having access to genetic testing technology. Although there may be legitimate business interests in allowing employers and insurers to conduct genetic screening, there are other valid societal interests in regulating or limiting the use of this technology by third parties. Public policy developed in the area of new genetic technology must reflect such interests. PMID:17165239
de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Baptista, Rosilene Santos; de França, Eurípedes Gil; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Souza, Jeová Alves
A descriptive study which aimed to characterize the conditions of people with disabilities (PD) in the Basic Health Units-UBS. Data were collected in January 2009 in 20 UBSF. It was used digital camera and check list based on the 9050-NBR ABNT. The results showed: Access town - no traffic lights (100%) of lanes for pedestrians (100%), bumpy sidewalks (90%); Access in UBS: non-standard ports (30%) staircases without banisters (20%); floor outside the standard (75%), in disagreement with standard mobile (20%), drinking at odds with standard (55%), making it difficult to people with disabilities to use a filter (30%), has no drinking or filters (15%); telephones installed inadequately (55%); inaccessible restrooms (96%). Access to UBS of PD is permeated by the symbolic violence. PMID:21308230
Full Text Available Equity of access to healthcare remains a major challenge with families continuing to face financial and non-financial barriers to services. Lack of education has been shown to be a key risk factor for 'catastrophic' health expenditure (CHE, in many countries including India. Consequently, ways to address the education divide need to be explored. We aimed to assess whether the innovative state-funded Rajiv Aarogyasri Community Health Insurance Scheme of Andhra Pradesh state launched in 2007, has achieved equity of access to hospital inpatient care among households with varying levels of education.We used the National Sample Survey Organization 2004 survey as our baseline and the same survey design to collect post-intervention data from 8623 households in the state in 2012. Two outcomes, hospitalisation and CHE for inpatient care, were estimated using education as a measure of socio-economic status and transforming levels of education into ridit scores. We derived relative indices of inequality by regressing the outcome measures on education, transformed as a ridit score, using logistic regression models with appropriate weights and accounting for the complex survey design.Between 2004 and 2012, there was a 39% reduction in the likelihood of the most educated person being hospitalised compared to the least educated, with reductions observed in all households as well as those that had used the Aarogyasri. For CHE the inequality disappeared in 2012 in both groups. Sub-group analyses by economic status, social groups and rural-urban residence showed a decrease in relative indices of inequality in most groups. Nevertheless, inequalities in hospitalisation and CHE persisted across most groups.During the time of the Aarogyasri scheme implementation inequalities in access to hospital care were substantially reduced but not eliminated across the education divide. Universal access to education and schemes such as Aarogyasri have the synergistic potential
Sibley Lyn M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies comparing the access to health care of rural and urban populations have been contradictory and inconclusive. These studies are complicated by the influence of other factor which have been shown to be related to access and utilization. This study assesses the equity of access to health care services across the rural-urban continuum in Canada before and after taking other determinants of access into account. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of the population of the 10 provinces of Canada using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 2.1. Five different measures of access and utilization are compared across the continuum of rural-urban. Known determinants of utilization are taken into account according to Andersen's Health Behaviour Model (HBM; location of residence at the levels of province, health region, and community is also controlled for. Results This study found that residents of small cities not adjacent to major centres, had the highest reported utilisation rates of influenza vaccines and family physician services, were most likely to have a regular medical doctor, and were most likely to report unmet need. Among the rural categories there was a gradient with the most rural being least likely to have had a flu shot, use specialist physicians services, or have a regular medical doctor. Residents of the most urban centres were more likely to report using specialist physician services. Many of these differences are diminished or eliminated once other factors are accounted for. After adjusting for other factors those living in the most urban areas were more likely to have seen a specialist physician. Those in rural communities had a lower odds of receiving a flu shot and having a regular medical doctor. People residing in the most urban and most rural communities were less likely to have a regular medical doctor. Those in any of the rural categories were less likely to report unmet need
Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping strategies have, in some countries, become so prevalent that it has been widely assumed that the very notion of civil services ethos has completely – and possibly irreversibly – disappeared. This paper describes the importance and the nature of pilfering of drugs by health staff in Mozambique and Cape Verde, as perceived by health professionals from these countries. Their opinions provide pointers as to how to tackle these problems. Methods This study is based on a self-administered questionnaire addressed to a convenience sample of health workers in Mozambique and in Cape Verde. Results The study confirms that misuse of access to pharmaceuticals has become a key element in the coping strategies health personnel develop to deal with difficult living conditions. Different professional groups (misuse their privileged access in different ways, but doctors diversify most. The study identifies the reasons given for misusing access to drugs, shows how the problem is perceived by the health workers, and discusses the implications for finding solutions to the problem. Our findings reflect, from the health workers themselves, a conflict between their self image of what it means to be an honest civil servant who wants to do a decent job, and the brute facts of life that make them betray that image. The manifest unease that this provokes is an important observation as such. Conclusion Our findings suggest that, even in the difficult circumstances observed in many countries, behaviours that depart from traditional civil servant deontology have not been interiorised as a norm. This ambiguity indicates that interventions to mitigate the erosion of proper conduct would be welcome. The time to act is now, before small-scale individual coping grows into large-scale, well-organized crime.
Bronwyn A Myers
Full Text Available The causes of maternal death are well known, and are largely preventable if skilled health care is received promptly. Complex interactions between geographic and socio-cultural factors affect access to, and remoteness from, health care but research on this topic rarely integrates spatial and social sciences. In this study, modeling of travel time was integrated with social science research to refine our understanding of remoteness from health care. Travel time to health facilities offering emergency obstetric care (EmOC and population distribution were modelled for a district in eastern Indonesia. As an index of remoteness, the proportion of the population more than two hours estimated travel time from EmOC was calculated. For the best case scenario (transport by ambulance in the dry season, modelling estimated more than 10,000 fertile aged women were more than two hours from EmOC. Maternal mortality ratios were positively correlated with the remoteness index, however there was considerable variation around this relationship. In a companion study, ethnographic research in a subdistrict with relatively good access to health care and high maternal mortality identified factors influencing access to EmOC, including some that had not been incorporated into the travel time model. Ethnographic research provided information about actual travel involved in requesting and reaching EmOC. Modeled travel time could be improved by incorporating time to deliver request for care. Further integration of social and spatial methods and the development of more dynamic travel time models are needed to develop programs and policies to address these multiple factors to improve maternal health outcomes.
Nieto Masot Ana
Full Text Available As the competent laws on Health and Education of the Extremaduran Government read, all the Extremaduran people have the right to their benefits, irrespective of their social, economic and cultural characteristics. Nevertheless, in the Region of Extremadura there are still differences between the rural and urban areas, so, studying how the Extremaduran people can access, with the same conditions, to those services considered basic, such as health and education, is very significant. Using techniques as Network Analyst and the interpolation method IDW, we can note that in Extremadura there are still zones with a very-far- from- laws reality, rural areas with a difficult access to the named services and equipment due to the location on low developed in population and economy areas, and very far from the main communication roads
Rocon, Pablo Cardozo; Rodrigues, Alexsandro; Zamboni, Jésio; Pedrini, Mateus Dias
The objective of this study was to discuss the difficulties of trans people living in the metropolitan region of Greater Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, in accessing the health services of the Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). We used a qualitative approach through semi-structured interviews with 15 trans people. The results point to disrespect toward the adopted name, discrimination, and the diagnosis required for the gender reassignment process as major limitations to accessing the healthcare system. The diagnosis helps hide the responsibility of heteronormativity and gender binarism in the social marginalization of trans people. It is concluded that it is necessary to review the issue of diagnosis, given that the existence of a prior pathology is not required to access the SUS. It is important to develop educational programmes and permanent campaigns concerning the right to access the healthcare system free from discrimination and to use the adopted name. PMID:27557024
Cristina Marques de Almeida Holanda; Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes de Andrade; Maria Aparecida Bezerra; João Paulo da Silva Nascimento; Robson da Fonseca Neves; Simone Bezerra Alves; Kátia Suely Queiroz Silva Ribeiro
This study seeks to identify the formation of social support networks of people with physical disabilities, and how these networks can help facilitate access to health services and promote social inclusion. It is a cross-sectional study, with data collected via a form applied to physically disabled persons over eighteen years of age registered with the Family Health Teams of the municipal district of João Pessoa in the state of Paraíba. It was observed that the support networks of these indiv...
Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal
Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of ...
Li, Xiaoming; Doyle, Frank
On behalf of the editorial board, it is our pleasure to introduce Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine: an Open Access Journal (HPBM), which we hope will become a leading international journal in these areas. HPBM will be interdisciplinary and global in scope, offering studies in a wide range of forms including systematic and critical reviews, meta-analyses, ethnographic and qualitative studies, quantitative studies, program evaluation, policy studies, case studies, and research protocol...
Saavala Minna; Char Arundhati; Kulmala Teija
Abstract Background We investigated the accessibility of reproductive health information and contraceptives in a relatively less developed area of rural central India and assessed the risks facing young unmarried men. Methods This cross-sectional study used both qualitative and quantitative methods. Participants included 38 unmarried rural men in four focus-group discussions and a representative sample of 316 similarly profiled men, aged 17-22 years, in a survey. Information was collected on ...
Wearn, A M; Greenfield, S M
Complementary therapy (CT) has become increasingly popular with the general public and interest from the health professions has been rising. There has been no study focusing on the pattern of availability of CT within urban and inner-city general practice. We aimed to describe the prevalence and pattern of access to complementary therapy in this setting, identifying the characteristics of practices offering CT and the perceived barriers to service provision. We sent a postal questionnaire to ...
da Silva, Hilderjane Carla; Pessoa, Renata de Lima; de Menezes, Rejane Maria Paiva
Objective: to identify the prevalence of trauma in elderly people and how they accessed the health system through pre-hospital care. Method: documentary and retrospective study at a mobile emergency care service, using a sample of 400 elderly trauma victims selected through systematic random sampling. A form validated by experts was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied. The chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the variables. Results: Tr...
Zuvekas, S H; Weinick, R M
OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in Americans' access to care over the last 20 years focusing on the uninsured, Hispanic American, and young adult populations, and to analyze the factors underlying these changes with a particular focus on the role of health insurance. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data from the 1977 National Medical Care Expenditure Survey, the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey, and the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. STUDY DESIGN: Focusing on whether each individua...
Nokulunga H. Cele
Full Text Available Background: Homosexual patients are affected by social factors in their environment, and as a result may not have easy access to existing health care services. Prejudice against homosexuality and homosexual patients remains a barrier to them seeking appropriate healthcare. The concern is that lesbians and gays might delay or avoid seeking health care when they need it because of past discrimination or perceived homophobia within the health care thereby putting their health at risk.Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of homosexual patients utilising primary health care (PHC services in Umlazi in the province ofKwaZulu-Natal (KZN.Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive study was conducted which was contextual innature. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 participants. The findings of this study were analysed using content analysis.Results: Two major themes emerged from the data analysis, namely, prejudice against homosexual patients by health care providers and other patients at the primary health care facilities, and, homophobic behaviour from primary health care personnel.Conclusion: Participants experienced prejudice and homophobic behaviour in the course of utilising PHC clinics in Umlazi, which created a barrier to their utilisation of health services located there. Nursing education institutions, in collaboration with the National Department of Health, should introduce homosexuality and anti-homophobia education programmes during the pre-service and in-service education period. Such programmes will help to familiarise health care providers with the health care needs of homosexual patients and may decrease homophobic attitudes.
Luke C Mullany
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen
This article examines relationships between access to a car and the self-reported health and mental health of older people. The analysis is based on a sample of N = 65,601 individuals aged 65 years and older from the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study linked to 2001 and 2011 census returns. The findings from hierarchical linear and binary logistic multilevel path models indicate that having no access to a car is related to a considerable health and mental health disadvantage particularly for older people who live alone. Rural-urban health and mental health differences are mediated by access to a car. The findings support approaches that emphasize the importance of autonomy and independence for the well-being of older people and indicate that not having access to a car can be a problem for older people not only in rural but also in intermediate and urban areas, if no sufficient alternative forms of mobility are provided. PMID:26055983
Ebenezer, Catherine; Bath, Peter A.; Pinfield, Stephen
1. Introduction The research project as a whole examines the factors that bear on the accessibility of online published professional information within the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The poster focuses on one aspect of this, control of access to the World Wide Web within NHS organisations. The overall aim of this study is to investigate the apparent disjunction between stated policy regarding evidence-based practice and professional learning, and actual IT (information te...
Azétsop, Jacquineau; Diop, Blondin A
Universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Chad was officially declared in December 2006. This presidential initiative was and is still funded 100% by the country’s budget and external donors’ financial support. Many factors have triggered the spread of AIDS. Some of these factors include the existence of norms and beliefs that create or increase exposure, the low-level education that precludes access to health information, social unrest, and population migration to areas of high e...
Rooks, Ronica N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Klesges, Lisa M; Newman, Anne B; Ayonayon, Hilsa
Black adults consistently exhibit higher rates and poorer outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) relative to other racial groups, even after accounting for differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Whether factors related to health care access can further explain racial disparities in CVD have not been thoroughly examined. Using logistic regression we examined racial and health care [i.e. health insurance and access to care] associations with CVD indicators [i.e. hypertension, low ankle-ar...
Jacobs, Bart; de Groot, Richard; Fernandes Antunes, Adélio
Background Older people make up an increasing proportion of the population in low- and middle-income countries. This brings a number of challenges, as their health needs are greater than, and different from, those of younger people. In general, these health systems are not geared to address their needs, and traditional support systems tend to erode, potentially causing financial hardship when accessing health care. This paper provides an overview of older Cambodians’ financial access to healt...