WorldWideScience

Sample records for acceptance beam

  1. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  2. MAGNEX: a large-acceptance spectrometer for radioactive nuclear beam experiments

    A large acceptance (51 msr) high-resolution magnetic spectrometer MAGNEX is under construction at INFN-LNS Catania. It is intended primarily for use with the radioactive beam facility EXCYT. The relatively low beam energies (0.5 - 8 MeV/A) and excellent beam quality from the 15 MV Tandem accelerator will provide new opportunities for direct reactions and other studies of nuclei far from stability. The structure and dynamics of nuclei in the extreme conditions of high isospin asymmetry, large deformations, and low binding energies will be accessible. A particular area to be explored with EXCYT-MAGNEX is the study of processes of astrophysical interest. (Author)

  3. A 2D Acceptance Diagram Description of Neutron Primary Spectrometer Beams

    Cussen, Leo D

    2016-01-01

    Many types of neutron spectrometer use a conventional primary spectrometer consisting of some collimator, a crystal monochromator and a second collimator. Conventional resolution descriptions use instrument parameter values to deduce the beam character and thence the instrument transmission and resolution. This article solves the inverse problem of choosing beam elements to deliver some desired beam character and shows that there are many possible choices of elements to deliver any given beam character. Dealing with this multiplicity seems to be a central issue in the search for optimal instrument designs especially if using numerical methods. The particular approach adopted here is to extend the 2D "Acceptance Diagram" view of the in-scattering-plane component of primary spectrometer beams to include horizontally curved monochromators and a variety of collimator types (beamtubes, guides, Soller collimators and radial Soller collimators). This visual approach clarifies the effect of primary spectrometer varia...

  4. Estimation of acceptance of the beam extraction system of K500 superconducting cyclotron

    The extraction system of the KSOO superconducting cyclotron consists of two electrostatic deflectors and eight passive magnetic channels, spanning over an azimuthal length of 330 degrees, with radial aperture of ∼6 mm. The radial position of the elements can be varied within ±6 mm. The extraction path is within the fringing field of the cyclotron. So, different positions of the magnetic elements change the optical properties of the extraction system, as seen by the beam. Here we have approximated the entire extraction path by a series of equivalent combined function magnetic elements, having variable field and gradient for different ion species and energies. The acceptance of the extraction system at the entry of first deflector has been determined. The accelerated beam can be extracted only if its emittance matches with this acceptance aperture. The acceptance calculation also predicts the tolerance limit of the magnetic field imperfections in the acceleration zone. (author)

  5. Estimation of acceptable beam-trip frequencies of accelerators for accelerator-driven systems and comparison with existing performance data

    Frequent beam trips as experienced in the existing high-power proton accelerators may cause thermal fatigue in accelerator-driven system (ADS) components, which may lead to degradation of their structural integrity and reduction of their lifetime. In this study, acceptable beam-trip frequencies of the ADS accelerator were evaluated and compared with the performance of the ADS accelerator, which was estimated based on the operational data on existing accelerators. Thermal transient analyses were performed to investigate the effects of beam trips on the reactor components, with the objective of determining the feasibility of engineering the ADS and the reliability of the accelerator. These analyses were based on the thermal responses of the following reactor components: the beam window, the fuel cladding, the inner barrel and the reactor vessel. Assuming that the annual plant availability was 70%, our results indicated three acceptable beam-trip frequencies, depending on the beam-trip duration, τb: 2 x 104 times per year for 0 ≤ τb ≤ 10 s; 2 x 103 times per year for 10 s b ≤ 5 min; and 42 times per year for τb > 5 min. In order to consider methods to reduce beam-trip frequency, we compared the acceptable beam-trip frequency with the performance of the ADS accelerator, which was estimated based on the operational data on existing accelerators. The comparison showed that for beam trips with a duration of 10 s or less, the beam-trip frequency was acceptable. On the other hand, for beam trips with durations of 10 s b ≤ 5 min and τb > 5 min, it was necessary to reduce the beam-trip frequencies to about 1/6 and 1/35, respectively. (author)

  6. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  7. Multicenter study differentiated thyroid carcinoma (MSDS). Diminished acceptance of adjuvant external beam radiotherapy

    Biermann, M.; Pixberg, M.K.; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Schuck, A.; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiooncology; Heinecke, A.; Koepke, W. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Informatics and Biomathematics; Schmid, K.W. [Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Dralle, H. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Surgery

    2003-12-01

    Aim: The Multicenter Study Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (MSDS) is an ongoing study in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland on the clinical benefit of adjuvant external beam radiotherapy (RTx) for locally invasive differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) in TNM stages pT4 pNO/1/xMO/x (5th ed. 1997). Methods: MSDS was designed as a prospective randomized trial. Patients receive thyroidectomy, radioiodine therapy (RIT) to ablate the thyroid remnant, and TSH-suppressive L-thyroxine therapy with or without RTx after documented elimination of cervical iodine-131 uptake (http://msds-studie.uni-muenster.de). Results: 311 patients were enrolled between January 2000 and March 2003. 279 patients met the trial's inclusion criteria. 45 consented to randomization, of whom 17 were randomized into treatment arm A (RTx) and 18 into arm B (no RTx). Advised by the trial's independent Data Monitoring and Safety Committee, the MSDS steering committee decided to terminate randomization in April 2003 and continue MSDS as a prospective cohort study. 23 of the 234 patients in the observation arm of the trial were prescribed RTx by their physicians. Thus, 14% of the trial cohort were randomized or assigned to receive RTx (intention-to-treat analysis). In contrast, at least 44% of all patients with pT4 papillary DTC in Germany in the nationwide PCES study underwent RTx in 1996 (p<0.001, {chi}{sup 2}-test). Conclusions: Acceptance of external beam RTx as a treatment modality for DTC has receded to a degree that accrual of a sufficient number of patients for a randomized trial has been impossible. Observation of the trial cohort is continued in order to assess clinical event rates with and without RTx and chronic RTx toxicity. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Multizentrische Studie Differenziertes Schilddruesenkarzinom (MSDS) ist eine laufende Studie in Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz zum klinischen Nutzen der adjuvanten perkutanen Strahlentherapie (RTx) bei lokal invasivem

  8. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization

    Gobin, R., E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bogard, D.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Delferrière, O.; Harrault, F.; Mattei, P.; Senée, F. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France); Cara, P. [Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Mosnier, A. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France); Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Shidara, H. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Okumura, Y. [JAEA, Division of Rokkasho BA Project, Obuchi-Omotedate 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported.

  9. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization.

    Gobin, R; Bogard, D; Cara, P; Chauvin, N; Chel, S; Delferrière, O; Harrault, F; Mattei, P; Mosnier, A; Senée, F; Shidara, H; Okumura, Y

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported. PMID:24593497

  10. SU-E-T-71: Commissioning and Acceptance Testing of a Commercial Monte Carlo Electron Dose Calculation Model (eMC) for TrueBeam

    Purpose: To provide commissioning and acceptance test data of the Varian Eclipse electron Monte Carlo model (eMC v.11) for TrueBeam linac. We also investigated the uncertainties in beam model parameters and dose calculation results for different geometric configurations. Methods: For beam commissioning, PTW CC13 thimble chamber and IBA Blue Phantom2 were used to collect PDD and dose profiles in air. Cone factors were measured with a parallel plate chamber (PTW N23342) in solid water. GafChromic EBT3 films were used for dose calculation verifications to compare with parallel plate chamber results in the following test geometries: oblique incident, extended distance, small cutouts, elongated cutouts, irregular surface, and heterogeneous layers. Results: Four electron energies (6e, 9e, 12e, and 15e) and five cones (6×6, 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, and 25×25) with standard cutouts were calculated for different grid sizes (1, 1.5,2, and 2.5 mm) and compared with chamber measurements. The results showed calculations performed with a coarse grid size underestimated the absolute dose. The underestimation decreased as energy increased. For 6e, the underestimation (max 3.3 %) was greater than the statistical uncertainty level (3%) and was systematically observed for all cone sizes. By using a 1mm grid size, all the calculation results agreed with measurements within 5% for all test configurations. The calculations took 21s and 46s for 6e and 15e (2.5mm grid size) respectively distributed on 4 calculation servants. Conclusion: In general, commissioning the eMC dose calculation model on TrueBeam is straightforward and thedose calculation is in good agreement with measurements for all test cases. Monte Carlo dose calculation provides more accurate results which improves treatment planning quality. However, the normal acceptable grid size (2.5mm) would cause systematic underestimation in absolute dose calculation for lower energies, such as 6e. Users need to be cautious in this

  11. SU-C-304-02: Robust and Efficient Process for Acceptance Testing of Varian TrueBeam Linacs Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop a process that utilizes the onboard kV and MV electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) to perform rapid acceptance testing (AT) of linacs in order to improve efficiency and standardize AT equipment and processes. Methods: In this study a Varian TrueBeam linac equipped with an amorphous silicon based EPID (aSi1000) was used. The conventional set of AT tests and tolerances was used as a baseline guide, and a novel methodology was developed to perform as many tests as possible using EPID exclusively. The developer mode on Varian TrueBeam linac was used to automate the process. In the current AT process there are about 45 tests that call for customer demos. Many of the geometric tests such as jaw alignment and MLC positioning are performed with highly manual methods, such as using graph paper. The goal of the new methodology was to achieve quantitative testing while reducing variability in data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the results. The developed process was validated on two machines at two different institutions. Results: At least 25 of the 45 (56%) tests which required customer demo can be streamlined and performed using EPIDs. More than half of the AT tests can be fully automated using the developer mode, while others still require some user interaction. Overall, the preliminary data shows that EPID-based linac AT can be performed in less than a day, compared to 2–3 days using conventional methods. Conclusions: Our preliminary results show that performance of onboard imagers is quite suitable for both geometric and dosimetric testing of TrueBeam systems. A standardized AT process can tremendously improve efficiency, and minimize the variability related to third party quality assurance (QA) equipment and the available onsite expertise. Research funding provided by Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Sasa Mutic receives compensation for providing patient safety training services from Varian Medical

  12. SU-C-304-02: Robust and Efficient Process for Acceptance Testing of Varian TrueBeam Linacs Using An Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID)

    Yaddanapudi, S; Cai, B; Sun, B; Li, H; Noel, C; Goddu, S; Mutic, S [Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Harry, T [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Pawlicki, T [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this project was to develop a process that utilizes the onboard kV and MV electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) to perform rapid acceptance testing (AT) of linacs in order to improve efficiency and standardize AT equipment and processes. Methods: In this study a Varian TrueBeam linac equipped with an amorphous silicon based EPID (aSi1000) was used. The conventional set of AT tests and tolerances was used as a baseline guide, and a novel methodology was developed to perform as many tests as possible using EPID exclusively. The developer mode on Varian TrueBeam linac was used to automate the process. In the current AT process there are about 45 tests that call for customer demos. Many of the geometric tests such as jaw alignment and MLC positioning are performed with highly manual methods, such as using graph paper. The goal of the new methodology was to achieve quantitative testing while reducing variability in data acquisition, analysis and interpretation of the results. The developed process was validated on two machines at two different institutions. Results: At least 25 of the 45 (56%) tests which required customer demo can be streamlined and performed using EPIDs. More than half of the AT tests can be fully automated using the developer mode, while others still require some user interaction. Overall, the preliminary data shows that EPID-based linac AT can be performed in less than a day, compared to 2–3 days using conventional methods. Conclusions: Our preliminary results show that performance of onboard imagers is quite suitable for both geometric and dosimetric testing of TrueBeam systems. A standardized AT process can tremendously improve efficiency, and minimize the variability related to third party quality assurance (QA) equipment and the available onsite expertise. Research funding provided by Varian Medical Systems. Dr. Sasa Mutic receives compensation for providing patient safety training services from Varian Medical

  13. Acceptable risk

    The hazards of nuclear power, radioactive wastes and radiation are analysed in a general book describing and defining acceptable-risk problems, the difficulties in resolving them and considering such issues as uncertainty about their definition, lack of relevant facts, conflicting and conflicted social values and disagreements between technical experts and the lay public. The many methods that have been proposed for resolving acceptable-risk problems are identified and criticised. (author)

  14. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    There is a fundamental difference between the acceptability of a civilizatory or societal risk and the acceptability of the decision-making process that leads to a civilizatory or societal risk. The analysis of individual risk decisions - regarding who, executes when which indisputably hazardous, unhealthy or dangerous behaviour under which circumstances - is not helpful in finding solutions for the political decisions at hand in Germany concerning nuclear energy in particular or energy in general. The debt for implementation of any technology, in the sense of making the technology a success in terms of broad acceptance and general utilisation, lies with the particular industry involved. Regardless of the technology, innovation research identifies the implementation phase as most critical to the success of any innovation. In this sense, nuclear technology is at best still an innovation, because the implementation has not yet been completed. Fear and opposition to innovation are ubiquitous. Even the economy - which is often described as 'rational' - is full of this resistance. Innovation has an impact on the pivotal point between stability, the presupposition for the successful execution of decisions already taken and instability, which includes insecurity, but is also necessary for the success of further development. By definition, innovations are beyond our sphere of experience; not at the level of reliability and trust yet to come. Yet they are evaluated via the simplifying heuristics for making decisions proven not only to be necessary and useful, but also accurate in the familiar. The 'settlement of the debt of implementation', the accompanying communication, the decision-making procedures concerning the regulation of averse effects of the technology, but also the tailoring of the new technology or service itself must be directed to appropriate target groups. But the group often aimed at in the nuclear debate, the group, which largely determines political

  15. Effective acceptance evaluation of linear resonance accelerator

    One of the most important challenges for accelerators is to match an accelerating beam with an accelerator acceptance. It allows one reduce a particle loss. Effective acceptance evaluation of linear resonance accelerator with RF focusing is carried out with no taking into account a beam space charge; a model taking into account non-coherent bunch particle oscillations is considered with the use of an averaging technique over rapid oscillations. Analytical results obtained are verified. Computer simulations of self-consistent low-energy ion beam dynamics are performed.

  16. Metal investigation of beams durable

    Ya.A. Balabukh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of metal researches of long-term storage beams are considered. It is determined that the steel of beams meets the requirements of Norms. Their acceptability for construction of bridges is established.

  17. Beam-Beam Effects

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  18. Beam-Beam Effects

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  19. Responsible technology acceptance

    Toft, Madeleine Broman; Schuitema, Geertje; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    on private consumers’ acceptance of having Smart Grid technology installed in their home. We analyse acceptance in a combined framework of the Technology Acceptance Model and the Norm Activation Model. We propose that individuals are only likely to accept Smart Grid technology if they assess...... usefulness in terms of a positive impact for society and the environment. Therefore, we expect that Smart Grid technology acceptance can be better explained when the well-known technology acceptance parameters included in the Technology Acceptance Model are supplemented by moral norms as suggested by the...... Norm Activation Model. We tested this proposition by means of an online survey of Danish (N=323), Norwegian (N=303) and Swiss (N=324) private consumers. The study confirms that adding personal norms to the independent variables of the Technology Acceptance Model leads to a significant increase in the...

  20. Determining the acceptance of the Brookhaven EBIS Test Stand for primary ions by computer simulation

    We report on computer studies to determine the acceptance of the Electron Beam Ion Source Test Stand (EBTS) at BNL. Knowledge of the acceptance is a useful guide in selecting a source of primary ions, and in designing a transfer line which best matches the primary ion beam to the acceptance of the EBTS. In this work, an ion beam with suitable parameters is tracked out of the EBIS, to a plane where knowledge of the acceptance is wanted. The emittance of the extracted beam in this plane gives a starting point for determining a more reliable value of acceptance. The result will be compared with a theoretical estimate

  1. Design of Large Momentum Acceptance Transport Systems

    Douglas, David

    2005-01-01

    The use of energy recovery to enable high power linac operation often gives rise to an attendant challenge - the transport of high power beams subtending large phase space volumes. In particular applications - such as FEL driver accelerators - this manifests itself as a requirement for beam transport systems with large momentum acceptance. We will discuss the design, implementation, and operation of such systems. Though at times counterintuitive in behavior (perturbative descriptions may, for example, be misleading), large acceptance systems have been successfully utilized for generations as spectrometers and accelerator recirculators.* Such systems are in fact often readily designed using appropriate geometric descriptions of beam behavior; insight provided using such a perspective may in addition reveal inherent symmetries that simplify construction and improve operability. Our discussion will focus on two examples: the Bates-clone recirculator used in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW IR Upgrade FEL (which has an ob...

  2. ARC Code TI: ACCEPT

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACCEPT consists of an overall software infrastructure framework and two main software components. The software infrastructure framework consists of code written to...

  3. Acceptable noise level

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...

  4. Beam-beam effects

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  5. Particle beam injector system and method

    Guethlein, Gary

    2013-06-18

    Methods and devices enable coupling of a charged particle beam to a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Coupling of the charged particle beam is accomplished, at least in-part, by relying on of sensitivity of the input phase space acceptance of the radio frequency quadrupole to the angle of the input charged particle beam. A first electric field across a beam deflector deflects the particle beam at an angle that is beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. By momentarily reversing or reducing the established electric field, a narrow portion of the charged particle beam is deflected at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. In another configuration, beam is directed at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole by the first electric field and is deflected beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole due to the second electric field.

  6. Newbery Medal Acceptance.

    Freedman, Russell

    1988-01-01

    Presents the Newbery Medal acceptance speech of Russell Freedman, writer of children's nonfiction. Discusses the place of nonfiction in the world of children's literature, the evolution of children's biographies, and the author's work on "Lincoln." (ARH)

  7. Analysis of Scrum acceptance

    Vončina, Bojan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyse the acceptance of Scrum methodology, which has become one of the leading agile methodologies, and to find out which were the key factors that influenced the acceptance. The analysis was conducted in Comtrade, which is one of the largest Slovenian software development companies. The First part (theoretical part) contains an introduction chapter, a detailed presentation of Scrum methodology and the presentation of theoretical models, on which practical ...

  8. Acceptability of human risk.

    Kasperson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper has three objectives: to explore the nature of the problem implicit in the term "risk acceptability," to examine the possible contributions of scientific information to risk standard-setting, and to argue that societal response is best guided by considerations of process rather than formal methods of analysis. Most technological risks are not accepted but are imposed. There is also little reason to expect consensus among individuals on their tolerance of risk. Moreover, debates abo...

  9. Operations Acceptance Management

    Suchá, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the process of Operations Acceptance Management, whose main task is to control Operations Acceptance Tests (OAT). In the first part the author focuses on the theoretical ground for the problem in the context of ITSM best practices framework ITIL. Benefits, process pitfalls and possibilities for automation are discussed in this part. The second part contains a case study of DHL IT Services (Prague), where a solution optimizing the overall workflow was implemented using simp...

  10. Acceptable noise level

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes;

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  11. Accepting grammars and systems.

    Bordihn, Henning; Fernau, Henning

    2007-01-01

    We investigate several kinds of regulated rewriting (programmed, matrix, with regular control, ordered, and variants thereof) and of parallel rewriting mechanisms (Lindenmayer systems, uniformly limited Lindenmayer systems, limited Lindenmayer systems and scattered context grammars) as accepting devices, in contrast with the usual generating mode. In some cases, accepting mode turns out to be just as powerful as generating mode, e.g. within the grammars of the Chomsky ...

  12. The Saskatchewan-Alberta large acceptance detector for photonuclear physics

    The Saskatchewan-Alberta Large Acceptance Detector (SALAD) is a 4π detector designed and built for studies of photonuclear reactions with a tagged photon beam. The design and performance of the detector are described. Its characteristics have been studied by examining p-p elastic scattering with a proton beam at TRIUMF. (orig.)

  13. Spain accepts safeguards controls

    Spain became the 26th country to accept safeguards controls by the Agency in December. An agreement was signed in Vienna, transferring to IAEA the administration of safeguards against diversion of materials and installations to military purposes provided for under a nuclear co-operation agreement concluded between Spain and USA in 1957

  14. Robustness - acceptance criteria

    Rizzuto, Enrico; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, Inger B.

    2010-01-01

    This factsheet describes the general framework on the bases of which acceptance criteria for requirements on the robustness of structures can be set. Such framework is based on the more general concept of risk-based assessment of engineering systems. The present factsheet is to be seen in...

  15. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Several alternative approaches to address the question open-quotes How safe is safe enough?close quotes are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made

  16. Approaches to acceptable risk

    Whipple, C.

    1997-04-30

    Several alternative approaches to address the question {open_quotes}How safe is safe enough?{close_quotes} are reviewed and an attempt is made to apply the reasoning behind these approaches to the issue of acceptability of radiation exposures received in space. The approaches to the issue of the acceptability of technological risk described here are primarily analytical, and are drawn from examples in the management of environmental health risks. These include risk-based approaches, in which specific quantitative risk targets determine the acceptability of an activity, and cost-benefit and decision analysis, which generally focus on the estimation and evaluation of risks, benefits and costs, in a framework that balances these factors against each other. These analytical methods tend by their quantitative nature to emphasize the magnitude of risks, costs and alternatives, and to downplay other factors, especially those that are not easily expressed in quantitative terms, that affect acceptance or rejection of risk. Such other factors include the issues of risk perceptions and how and by whom risk decisions are made.

  17. 1984 Newbery Acceptance Speech.

    Cleary, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    This acceptance speech for an award honoring "Dear Mr. Henshaw," a book about feelings of a lonely child of divorce intended for eight-, nine-, and ten-year-olds, highlights children's letters to author. Changes in society that affect children, the inception of "Dear Mr. Henshaw," and children's reactions to books are highlighted. (EJS)

  18. Den betingede accept

    Kolind, Torsten

    1999-01-01

    difficulties in underscoring this normality. This conditioned accept tends to leave the ex-prisoner in an vacuum of signification; he is neither fully normal nor fully deviant. In regard to identity, this vacuum, and the practices that follows, leaves the ex-prisoner badly equipped in his attempt to live up to...

  19. Why was Relativity Accepted?

    Brush, S. G.

    Historians of science have published many studies of the reception of Einstein's special and general theories of relativity. Based on a review of these studies, and my own research on the role of the light-bending prediction in the reception of general relativity, I discuss the role of three kinds of reasons for accepting relativity (1) empirical predictions and explanations; (2) social-psychological factors; and (3) aesthetic-mathematical factors. According to the historical studies, acceptance was a three-stage process. First, a few leading scientists adopted the special theory for aesthetic-mathematical reasons. In the second stage, their enthusiastic advocacy persuaded other scientists to work on the theory and apply it to problems currently of interest in atomic physics. The special theory was accepted by many German physicists by 1910 and had begun to attract some interest in other countries. In the third stage, the confirmation of Einstein's light-bending prediction attracted much public attention and forced all physicists to take the general theory of relativity seriously. In addition to light-bending, the explanation of the advance of Mercury's perihelion was considered strong evidence by theoretical physicists. The American astronomers who conducted successful tests of general relativity became defenders of the theory. There is little evidence that relativity was `socially constructed' but its initial acceptance was facilitated by the prestige and resources of its advocates.

  20. Teller award acceptance speech

    A short history of studies on ion-laser physics at the Russian facility Arzamas-16 is presented. Starting in 1965 the explosive shock waves were used for the plasma heating. Both experimental and theoretical studies of the beam optics, fuel compression and laser development are reviewed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Acceptance of Tinnitus : Validation of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire

    Weise, Cornelia; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Hesser, Hugo; Westin, Vendela; Andersson, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of acceptance has recently received growing attention within tinnitus research due to the fact that tinnitus acceptance is one of the major targets of psychotherapeutic treatments. Accordingly, acceptance-based treatments will most likely be increasingly offered to tinnitus patients and assessments of acceptance-related behaviours will thus be needed. The current study investigated the factorial structure of the Tinnitus Acceptance Questionnaire (TAQ) and the role of tinnitus acce...

  2. Waste acceptance and logistics

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  3. kitchingroup-57: Accepted

    John Kitchin

    2016-01-01

    This is the accepted version of this manuscript. @article{kitchin-2015-examp, author = {Kitchin, John R.}, title = {Examples of Effective Data Sharing in Scientific Publishing}, journal = {ACS Catalysis}, volume = {5}, number = {6}, pages = {3894-3899}, year = 2015, doi = {10.1021/acscatal.5b00538}, url = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.5b00538 }, keywords = {DESC0004031, early-career, orgmode, Data sharing }, eprint = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscatal.5b00538 }, }

  4. Environment and public acceptance

    The problems involved in the siting of nuclear power stations at a local level are of a political economic, social or ecological order. The acceptance of a nuclear station mostly depends on its interest for the local population. In order to avoid negative reactions, the men who are responsible must make the harmonious integration of the station within the existing economic and social context their first priority

  5. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  6. NCenter wide band neutrino beam

    This memo describes the physical properties of the currently operating N-Center wide band neutrino beam---commonly called the triplet train, following a past tradition of a triplet lens configuration. In reality, in order to gain a larger momentum acceptance and to minimize the angular divergence of the beam, a quadruplet beam (4 lenses) employing point-to-parallel optics at a central momentum of 300 GeV was built. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  7. A beam-matching concept for medical linear accelerators

    Sjöström, David; Bjelkengren, Ulf; Ottosson, Wiviann;

    2009-01-01

    not revealed by the vendor-defined acceptance criteria, whereas the other six accelerators were satisfactorily matched. The beam-matching acceptance criteria defined by the vendor are not strict enough to guarantee optimal beam-match. Deviations related to dose calculations and to beam-matched accelerators may...

  8. Acceptance, Tolerance, Participation

    The problem of radioactive waste management from an ethical and societal viewpoint was treated in this seminar, which had participants from universities (social, theological, philosophical and science institutes), waste management industry, and regulatory and controlling authorities. After initial reviews on repository technology, policies and schedules, knowledge gaps, and ethical aspects on decision making under uncertainty, four subjects were treated in lectures and discussions: Democratic collective responsibility, Handling threats in democratic decision making, Waste management - a technological operation with a social dimension, Acceptance and legitimity. Lectures with comments and discussions are collected in this report

  9. Marketing for Acceptance

    Tina L. Johnston, Ph.D.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Becoming a researcher comes with the credentializing pressure to publish articles in peer-reviewed journals (Glaser, 1992; Glaser, 2007; Glaser, 2008. The work intensive process is exacerbated when the author’s research method is grounded theory. This study investigated the concerns of early and experienced grounded theorists to discover how they worked towards publishing research projects that applied grounded theory as a methodology. The result was a grounded theory of marketing for acceptance that provides the reader with insight into ways that classic grounded theorists have published their works. This is followed by a discussion of ideas for normalizing classic grounded theory research methods in our substantive fields.

  10. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np→n'p' or pp→p'p' scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994

  11. Morsleben waste acceptance requirements

    The Morsleben waste acceptance requirements take into account the valid stipulations in the permanent operational license of the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (Eram) dated April 22, 1986, and in the documents underlying it. In line with the guaranteed continued validity until June 30, 2000 of this permanent operational license, also the classification of radioactive waste by waste types (A) and radiation protection groups (S) was retained. The revised requirements to be met by radioactive waste to be disposed of in Eram as issued by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) effective August 1996 constitute the safety framework which must be adhered to by this waste. They also take into account other stipulations by the BfS, especially voluntary restrictions and conditions imposed by the self-surveillance. Eram accepts the 'solid waste' and 'spent sealed radiation sources' categories. The waste generators must observe the requirements to be met by waste to be stored permanently. In the case of solid waste, these conditions include criteria to be met by waste forms, activity limitations for radionuclides and groups of radionuclides, and packaging criteria. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of longitudinal acceptance and emittance of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source Superconducting Linac

    Zhang, Y.; Galambos, J.; Shishlo, A.

    2008-10-01

    The longitudinal acceptance of the Spallation Neutron Source superconducting linac is computed with a longitudinal model. A beam current monitor and beam loss monitors are utilized in a new beam acceptance measurement technique, and the measured results show close agreement with the model. Based on the simulations and on the measurements of the superconducting linac acceptance, we developed a novel method to measure beam bunch shape, beam energy profile, and the longitudinal emittance at the entrance of the linac. The experimental measurements reveal that a large longitudinal beam halo exists in the injected beam to the superconducting linac, and the longitudinal rms emittance is approximately twice that of the nominal design. The simple measurement method is applicable to other superconducting linacs.

  13. Detection of Equipment Faults Before Beam Loss

    Galambos, J

    2016-01-01

    High-power hadron accelerators have strict limits on fractional beam loss. In principle, once a high-quality beam is set up in an acceptable state, beam loss should remain steady. However, in practice, there are many trips in operational machines, owing to excessive beam loss. This paper deals with monitoring equipment health to identify precursor signals that indicate an issue with equipment that will lead to unacceptable beam loss. To this end, a variety of equipment and beam signal measurements are described. In particular, several operational examples from the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) of deteriorating equipment functionality leading to beam loss are reported.

  14. Nonlinear beam-beam resonances

    Head-on collisions of bunched beams are considered, assuming the two colliding beams have opposite charges. A few experimental observations are described. The single resonance analysis is developed that is applicable to the strong-weak case of the beam-beam interaction. In this case, the strong beam is unperturbed by the beam-beam interaction; motions of the weak beam particles are then analyzed in the presence of the nonlinear electromagnetic force produced by the strong beam at the collision points. The coherent motions of the two coupled strong beams are shown to exhibit distinct nonlinear resonance behavior. 16 refs., 22 figs

  15. Is nuclear power acceptable

    The energy shortage forecast for the early 21st century is considered. Possible energy sources other than fossil fuel are stated as geothermal, fusion, solar and fission, of which only fission has been demonstrated technically and economically. The environmental impacts of fission are examined. The hazards are discussed under the following headings: nuclear accident, fatality risk, safe reactor, property damage, acts of God, low-level release of radioactivity, diversion of fissile material and sabotage, radioactive waste disposal, toxicity of plutonium. The public reaction to nuclear power is analyzed, and proposals are made for a programme of safety and security which the author hopes will make it acceptable as the ultimate energy source. (U.K.)

  16. Public acceptance of nuclear power

    The lecture addresses the question why we need public acceptance work and provides some clues to it. It explains various human behaviour patterns which determine the basics for public acceptance. To some extent, the opposition to nuclear energy and the role the media play are described. Public acceptance efforts of industry are critically reviewed. Some hints on difficulties with polling are provided. The lecture concludes with recommendations for further public acceptance work. (author)

  17. Public acceptance of biofuels

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 Euro /L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 Euro /L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels.

  18. Public acceptance of biofuels

    Savvanidou, Electra; Zervas, Efthimios; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Vas. Sofias 12, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    The public acceptance of biofuels in Greece is examined in this work. The analysis of 571 face to face interviews shows that 90.7% of the respondents believe that climatic changes are related to fossil fuel consumption, while only 23.8% know the difference between biodiesel and bioethanol. 76.1% believe that energy saving should precede the use of an alternative source of energy. Only 27.3% believe that priority must be given to biofuels over other renewable energy sources. Only 49.9% think that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution against climatic changes and 53.9% believe that the use of biofuels can be an effective solution for the energy problem. Finally, 80.9% of the car owners are willing to use biofuels, 44.8% are willing to pay the supplementary amount of 0.06 EUR/L of the fuel market price, while the average amount reported as willing to pay was 0.079 EUR/L on top of the fuel market price. Furthermore, eight models correlating the eight main responses with several socioeconomic variables are developed and analyzed. Those findings heave important policy implications related to the use and promotion of biofuels. (author)

  19. Bessel Beams

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  20. American acceptance of nuclear power

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature

  1. American acceptance of nuclear power

    Barrett, W.

    The characteristic adventurous spirit that built American technology will eventually lead to American acceptance of nuclear power unless an overpowering loss of nerve causes us to reject both nuclear technology and world leadership. The acceptance of new technology by society has always been accompanied by activist opposition to industralization. To resolve the debate between environmental and exploitive extremists, we must accept with humility the basic premise that human accomplishment is a finite part of nature. (DCK)

  2. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed on the......, Ronold K. Societal indicators and risk acceptance. In: 17th International Conference on Offshote Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, number OMAE98-1488. ASME; 1998; Rackwitz R. Optimization and risk acceptability based on the Life Quality Index. Structural Safety 2002;24;297-331.). Keywords: Acceptance...

  3. Radioactive waste package acceptance criteria

    Preliminary acceptance criteria have been developed for packages containing nuclear waste which must be stored or disposed of by the US Department of Energy. Acceptance criteria are necessary to ensure that the waste packages are compatible with all elements of the Waste Management System. The acceptance criteria are subject to revision since many of the constraints that will be imposed on the waste packages by the Waste Management System have either not been defined or are being revised. Delineation of the acceptance criteria will provide bases for handling, transporting and disposing of the commercial waste

  4. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    The current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad are outlined. The development of public opinion in the last decade is playing an important part. This has turned from clear rejection to careful acceptance. Transparency and open communication will be important aspects in the further development of nuclear acceptance. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of intense beam bunching using 3D PIC method

    Most of the ion sources produce continuous beam of charged particles. In a cyclotron using such an external ion source, only a small fraction of the injected continuous beam is accepted in the central region for further acceleration. By transforming the continuous beam into a suitably bunched beam using a buncher prior to injection, the amount of accepted particles in the central region of cyclotron can be increased. To compress the continuous beam longitudinally one needs to impose a velocity modulation at the buncher gap which results in density modulation as the beam advances. In the case of low beam current the velocity modulation of the beam has very little effect on the transverse envelope of the beam. However, in the case of high intensity beams, the space-charge force introduces much collective behaviour and increase of current in the specified bunch width affects the transverse dynamics

  6. An RF beam sweeper for purifying in-flight produced secondary ion beams at ATLAS

    A new large-acceptance RF beam sweeper was designed, constructed and put into operation with the goal to remove the energy-degraded primary beams tails from radioactive beams (RIB) produced by in-flight transfer or charge-exchange reactions. The system makes use of the velocity difference between the RIB beam of interest and the remaining tails of the primary beam after momentum selection by a bending magnet. The time-delayed primary beam components are deflected vertically out of the beam path by the RF sweeper, significantly reducing the stable beam background. Beam purity for the in-flight radioactive ion beams as high as 96% has been achieved with this system

  7. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Tunable hybrid plasma

    This report resents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning Tunable Hybrid Plasma (THP) derived from a three-year program of stake holder involvement. THP destroys volatile organic compounds by directing a moderate energy electron beam into a flow of air containing organic contaminants. This report is for technology developers and for those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of THP to the remediation problems the face. In addition, this report presents data requirements for the technology's field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on THP from stakeholders from four other sites throughout the western United States

  8. The NA49 large acceptance hadron detector

    The NA49 detector is a wide acceptance spectrometer for the study of hadron production in p+p, p+A, and A+A collisions at the CERN SPS. The main components are 4 large-volume TPCs for tracking and particle identification via dE/dx. TOF scintillator arrays complement particle identification. Calorimeters for transverse energy determination and triggering, a detector for centrality selection in p+A collisions, and beam definition detectors complete the set-up. A description of all detector components is given with emphasis on new technical realizations. Performance and operational experience are discussed in particular with respect to the high track density environment of central Pb+Pb collisions

  9. L-286, Acceptance Test Record

    This document provides a detailed account of how the acceptance testing was conducted for Project L-286, ''200E Area Sanitary Water Plant Effluent Stream Reduction''. The testing of the L-286 instrumentation system was conducted under the direct supervision

  10. Design of a new low momentum kaon beam for the AGS

    The low momentum beam described is to be a unique source of antiprotons as well as kaons. The discussion covers (1) choice of production angle; (2) secondary beams; (3) the use of sector dipole magnets for minimizing aberrations; (4) beam bending magnets; (5) beam separators; and (6) beam acceptance

  11. Public acceptance of small reactors

    The success of any nuclear program requires acceptance by the local public and all levels of government involved in the decision to initiate a reactor program. Public acceptance of a nuclear energy source is a major challenge in successful initiation of a small reactor program. In AECL's experience, public acceptance will not be obtained until the public is convinced that the specific nuclear program is needed, safe and economic and environmental benefit to the community. The title of public acceptance is misleading. The objective of the program is a fully informed public. The program proponent cannot force public acceptance, which is beyond his control. He can, however, ensure that the public is informed. Once information has begun to flow to the public by various means as will be explained later, the proponent is responsible to ensure that the information that is provided by him and by others is accurate. Most importantly, and perhaps most difficult to accomplish, the proponent must develop a consultative process that allows the proponent and the public to agree on actions that are acceptable to the proponent and the community

  12. The Sepukhov neutrino beam

    The neutrino beam shaping system at the Serpukhov accelerator is described. The basic characteristics and design features of the neutrino focusing device (NFD) are given. The proton beam transported along the ion guide falls upon a block of six rod targets from aluminium, copper and sapphire of 6 to 10 mm in diameter and 300 to 800 mm long. The mesons produced in the target are focused by a system of 3 parabolic lenses, which shapes a meson beam with 4.5, 9.5 and 22 GeV/c. Each lens is essentially a coaxial system whose inner part is the lens shell and the outer part is its body. The bodies are made of aluminium alloy. The diameters of the current surfaces of the bodies are equal to 160, 214 and 511 mm respectively. Lens pulsed current is of an amplitude up to 0.5 MA and a duration of 160 μs. The angular acceptance of the NFD is +-60 mrad. The system provides for accepting mesons from the target within a momentum interval from 4 to 10 GeV/c at the level from 50 to 90%. In the presence of pions and kaons being focused the muon flux increases from 4 to 30 times depending on their momenta. The results of static and dynamic tests of the lenses are given

  13. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  14. First Results from The MAGNEX Large Acceptance Spectrometer

    The MAGNEX large-acceptance spectrometer was commissioned with beams from the LNS Tandem. First results of physical interest are presented. The obtained 10-3 energy resolution confirms the ambitious characteristic of the calculations and allows considering the instrument as an ideal tool for future studies in the field of nuclear spectroscopy and reaction mechanisms at incident energies not far form the Coulomb barrier.

  15. Wind power: basic challenge concerning social acceptance

    M. Wolsink

    2012-01-01

    This reference article gives an overview of social acceptance (acceptance by all relevant actors in society) of all relevant aspects of implementation and diffusion of wind power. In social acceptance three dimensions of acceptance are distinguished (socio-political -; community -; market acceptance

  16. Frozen Beams

    Okamoto, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    In general, the temperature of a charged particle beam traveling in an accelerator is very high. Seen from the rest frame of the beam, individual particles randomly oscillate about the reference orbit at high speed. This internal kinetic energy can, however, be removed by introducing dissipative interactions into the system. As a dissipative process advances, the beam becomes denser in phase space or, in other words, the emittance is more diminished. Ideally, it is possible to reach a "zero-emittance" state where the beam is Coulomb crystallized. The space-charge repulsion of a crystalline beam just balances the external restoring force provided by artificial electromagnetic elements. In this talk, general discussion is made of coasting and bunched crystalline beams circulating in a storage ring. Results of molecular dynamics simulations are presented to demonstrate the dynamic nature of various crystalline states. A possible method to approach such an ultimate state of matter is also discussed.

  17. The real problem: public acceptability

    The paper concerns the problem of public acceptibility of radioactive waste disposal in the United Kingdom. U.K. Nirex has responsibility for developing a deep repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the U.K., and it is also developing a public information programme aimed at obtaining public acceptibility for such a repository. The main objective of the programme is to raise the level of public awareness of radioactive waste disposal to the point where scientifically supported assurances on safety and environmental impact would be accepted by concerned people. Previous experience of Nirex in dealing with the public on the waste disposal issue is described - this includes the public opposition to the proposed use of Billingham and Elstow as sites for a repository. The main lesson learnt from the latter opposition by Nirex is that public relations must be part of Nirex's main business. (U.K.)

  18. Stochastic phonological grammars and acceptability

    Coleman, J; Coleman, John; Pierrehumbert, Janet

    1997-01-01

    In foundational works of generative phonology it is claimed that subjects can reliably discriminate between possible but non-occurring words and words that could not be English. In this paper we examine the use of a probabilistic phonological parser for words to model experimentally-obtained judgements of the acceptability of a set of nonsense words. We compared various methods of scoring the goodness of the parse as a predictor of acceptability. We found that the probability of the worst part is not the best score of acceptability, indicating that classical generative phonology and Optimality Theory miss an important fact, as these approaches do not recognise a mechanism by which the frequency of well-formed parts may ameliorate the unacceptability of low-frequency parts. We argue that probabilistic generative grammars are demonstrably a more psychologically realistic model of phonological competence than standard generative phonology or Optimality Theory.

  19. Nuclear Energy and Public Acceptance

    The continued use of nuclear power in the European Union and elsewhere requires an adequate level of public and political acceptance. A lack of acceptance is often mistakenly cited as a reason for the slowdown in nuclear power plant construction in Western Europe and as a justification for abandoning nuclear power. In fact, the reasons for the slowdown have more to do with the following two factors: Plentiful supplies of low-priced natural gas, making gas-fired power plants a more attractive investment choice; more than adequate supplies of electricity which have curbed the need for the construction of new plant of any kind. In general, moves towards a withdrawal from nuclear in certain Community countries have been due to party political pressures and have not been a response to public opposition to nuclear. In addition, opinion polls do not show widespread public opposition to the use of nuclear power. Figures consistently indicate that the use of nuclear power does not come high on the list of most people's main worries. Their main concerns focus on other issues such as crime and financial problems. In the main, electricity is taken for granted in the industrialised world. Electric power only becomes an issue when there is a threat of shortages. So if public acceptance is not the main obstacle, what is? Political acceptance is an integral part of the process in which nuclear becomes acceptable or not. The relationship between public and political acceptance and the role of the industry in this context, on how to foster a better trialogue, will be examined. (author)

  20. Beam loading

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  1. Acceptance test of LANTIS system

    Acceptance tests of radiotherapy equipment are very important. It is essential for the quality control of the equipment. Quality assurance checks for LANTIS was done during the installation and also periodically. QA involves checks for individual workstations, as well as for overall system. In modern radiotherapy centers, transferring data from one workstation to another via networking improves the quality of the treatment, reduces the errors and reduces the overall treatment time. In this hospital, Local Area Network Therapy Information system (LANTIS) from Siemens, is available for patient data transfer. Here, some of the acceptance checks carried out are presented

  2. Safety culture and public acceptance

    After the Chernobyl NPP accident a public acceptance has become a key factor in nuclear power development all over the world. Therefore, nuclear safety culture should be based not only on technical principles, responsibilities, supervision, regulatory provisions, emergency preparedness, but the public awareness of minimum risk during the operation and decommissioning of NPPs, radioactive waste management, etc. (author)

  3. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco's facility

  4. Acceptance tests and commissioning measurements

    Following the installation of a therapy machine, be it an orthovoltage X ray unit, cobalt unit, linac or brachytherapy machine, in a radiotherapy clinic, the medical physicist must perform a series of measurements and tasks prior to placing the unit into clinical operation. These duties include acceptance testing and commissioning. Various dosimetric and radiation measuring instruments and techniques are discussed

  5. AAL- technology acceptance through experience

    Huldtgren, A.; Ascencio San Pedro, G.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Romero Herrera, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial research and development of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies, their acceptance remains low. This is partially caused by a lack of accounting for users' needs and values, and the social contexts these systems are to be embedded in. Participatory design has some potential

  6. Nitrogen trailer acceptance test report

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-02-12

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0249. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-108 Rev.0. The equipment being tested is a portable contained nitrogen supply. The test was conducted at Norco`s facility.

  7. Euthanasia Acceptance: An Attitudinal Inquiry.

    Klopfer, Fredrick J.; Price, William F.

    The study presented was conducted to examine potential relationships between attitudes regarding the dying process, including acceptance of euthanasia, and other attitudinal or demographic attributes. The data of the survey was comprised of responses given by 331 respondents to a door-to-door interview. Results are discussed in terms of preferred…

  8. Worldwide nuclear revival and acceptance

    The paper outlines the current status and trends of the nuclear revival in Europe and abroad, the evolution of the public opinion in the last decade, and the interaction between the former and the latter. It emphasises the absolute priority of a professional communication and exchange to gain public acceptance. (orig.)

  9. Beam Instabilities

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  10. Injection line of 1+ ion beam for electron beam ion-charge breeding source and related beam elements

    Main purpose of the electron beam ion-charge breeding source (EBIBS) is to produce highly pure and highly charged ion beam from single charge ion of stable or radioactive species. It can accept low emittance ion beam from either online or offline ECR ion sources (ECRIS). The emittance of the extracted beam is low at lower RF frequencies and magnetic field of the ECRIS. The beam at the position of extraction is approximately reproduced at the entrance of the electron collector of the EBIBS. The beam moves forward under the influence of the negative potential deep of the electron beam and enters the ionization region in solenoid field of the EBIBS. The injection line starts at the extraction region of the ECRIS. The assumed parameters of the extracted beam of 20 keV energy and 0.0732 GeV/c momentum for injection are 10 mm diameter and 30 mrad beam divergence cone. As mass number of the ions decreases the energy decreases for constant momentum of the ion beam. The value of the momentum or the beam rigidity is judiciously chosen to encompass the most of the isotopes of various elements. The beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet and passes the beam through a 90° bending magnet. The beam is analyzed also by the dipole magnet to remove the contaminants and the selected ion beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet magnet to pass through an electrostatic 90° bending elements. The beam approaches the opening of 16 mm diameter of the electron collector. A round beam of 12 mm diameter is achieved here with the help of a quadrupole triplet through point-to-point imaging from start to the end. The transport matrices for the electrostatic bending elements were calculated and incorporated into the TRANSPORT code. (author)

  11. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  12. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  13. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  14. Vaccine acceptance: The UK perspective

    Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...

  15. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System

  16. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it does not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System

  17. Molecular beams

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  18. Scheme to funnel ion beams with a radio-frequency quadrupole

    We describe a proposed method to funnel ion beams using a new form of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure. This RFQ accepts two bunched ion beams and combines them into a single final beam with interlaced microstructure pulses. It also provides uninterrupted periodic transverse focusing to facilitate the funneling of beams with high current and low emittance

  19. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 1034 nucleon cm-2 s-1. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS

  20. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    Mecking, B.A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.P.; Barbosa, F.J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B.L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W.J.; Brooks, W.K.; Burkert, V.D.; Carman, D.S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S.B.; Cole, P.L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R.C.; Degtyarenko, P.V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G.E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W.S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R.J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Giovanetti, K.L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F.W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R.S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F.J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R.A.; Major, W.; Manak, J.J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S.K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J.W.C.; Mestayer, M.D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L.Y.; Mutchler, G.S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B.B.; Nozar, M.; O' Brien, J.T.; Opper, A.K.; O' Meara, J.E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S.A.; Polli, E.; Price, J.W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L.M.; Raue, B.A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B.G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R.A.; Serov, V.S.; Sharabian, Y.G.; Smith, E.E.S. E-mail: elton@jlab.org; Smith, L.C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D.I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W.M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L. [and others

    2003-05-11

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10{sup 34} nucleon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  1. The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS)

    Mecking, B. A.; Adams, G.; Ahmad, S.; Anciant, E.; Anghinolfi, M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Asryan, G.; Audit, G.; Auger, T.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J. P.; Barbosa, F. J.; Barrow, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Beard, K.; Berman, B. L.; Bianchi, N.; Boiarinov, S.; Bonneau, P.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Carstens, T.; Cetina, C.; Christo, S. B.; Cole, P. L.; Coleman, A.; Connelly, J.; Cords, D.; Corvisiero, P.; Crabb, D.; Crannell, H.; Cuevas, R. C.; Degtyarenko, P. V.; Dennis, L.; DeSanctis, E.; DeVita, R.; Distelbrink, J.; Dodge, G. E.; Dodge, W.; Doolittle, G.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Duncan, W. S.; Dytman, S.; Egiyan, H.; Egiyan, K. S.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Ficenec, J.; Frolov, V.; Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Golovatch, E.; Gram, J.; Guidal, M.; Gyurjyan, V.; Heddle, D.; Hemler, P.; Hersman, F. W.; Hicks, K.; Hicks, R. S.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde-Wright, C. E.; Insley, D.; Ito, M. M.; Jacobs, G.; Jenkins, D.; Joo, K.; Joyce, D.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Klusman, M.; Kossov, M.; Kramer, L.; Koubarovski, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Lake, A.; Lawrence, D.; Longhi, A.; Lukashin, K.; Lachniet, J.; Magahiz, R. A.; Major, W.; Manak, J. J.; Marchand, C.; Martin, C.; Matthews, S. K.; McMullen, M.; McNabb, J. W. C.; Mestayer, M. D.; Minehart, R.; Mirazita, M.; Miskimen, R.; Muccifora, V.; Mueller, J.; Murphy, L. Y.; Mutchler, G. S.; Napolitano, J.; Niculescu, I.; Niczyporuk, B. B.; Nozar, M.; O'Brien, J. T.; Opper, A. K.; O'Meara, J. E.; Pasyuk, E.; Philips, S. A.; Polli, E.; Price, J. W.; Pozdniakov, S.; Qin, L. M.; Raue, B. A.; Riccardi, G.; Ricco, G.; Riggs, C.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Robb, J.; Ronchetti, F.; Rossi, P.; Roudot, F.; Salgado, C.; Sapunenko, V.; Schumacher, R. A.; Serov, V. S.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, L. C.; Smith, T.; Sober, D. I.; Stavinsky, A.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Taiuti, M.; Taylor, W. M.; Taylor, S.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Thoma, U.; Thompson, R.; Tilles, D.; Todor, L.; Tung, T. Y.; Tuzel, W.; Vineyard, M. F.; Vlassov, A. V.; Weinstein, L. B.; Welsh, R. E.; Weygand, D. P.; Wilkin, G. R.; Witkowski, M.; Wolin, E.; Yegneswaran, A.; Yergin, P.; Yun, J.

    2003-05-01

    The CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about 30 institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cherenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data-acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10 34 nucleon cm -2 s-1. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarized and unpolarized electron and photon beams and targets. This paper is a comprehensive and general description of the design, construction and performance of CLAS.

  2. Fast Acceptance by Common Experience

    Nathan Berg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Schelling (1969, 1971a,b, 1978 observed that macro-level patterns do not necessarily reflect micro-level intentions, desires or goals. In his classic model on neighborhood segregation which initiated a large and influential literature, individuals with no desire to be segregated from those who belong to other social groups nevertheless wind up clustering with their own type. Most extensions of Schelling's model have replicated this result. There is an important mismatch, however, between theory and observation, which has received relatively little attention. Whereas Schelling-inspired models typically predict large degrees of segregation starting from virtually any initial condition, the empirical literature documents considerable heterogeneity in measured levels of segregation. This paper introduces a mechanism that can produce significantly higher levels of integration and, therefore, brings predicted distributions of segregation more in line with real-world observation. As in the classic Schelling model, agents in a simulated world want to stay or move to a new location depending on the proportion of neighbors they judge to be acceptable. In contrast to the classic model, agents' classifications of their neighbors as acceptable or not depend lexicographically on recognition first and group type (e.g., ethnic stereotyping second. The FACE-recognition model nests classic Schelling: When agents have no recognition memory, judgments about the acceptability of a prospective neighbor rely solely on his or her group type (as in the Schelling model. A very small amount of recognition memory, however, eventually leads to different classifications that, in turn, produce dramatic macro-level effects resulting in significantly higher levels of integration. A novel implication of the FACE-recognition model concerns the large potential impact of policy interventions that generate modest numbers of face-to-face encounters with members of other social groups.

  3. Beam emittance and beam disruption

    Beam disruption during the collision of intense relativistic bunches has been studied by R. Hollebeek. In the case of oppositely charged bunches, focussing effects occur causing a decrease in the effective bunch cross section, and thereby an increase of luminosity by an enhancement factor H. The term disruption derives from the fact that the beam emittance changes markedly during the collision. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Wind energy and social acceptability

    This document was prepared as part of a decentralized collaboration between Quebec and France to share knowledge regarding strategies and best practices in wind power development. It reviewed the social acceptance of Quebec's wind power industry, particularly at the municipal level. The wind industry is growing rapidly in Quebec, and this growth has generated many reactions ranging from positive to negative. The purpose of this joint effort was to describe decision making steps to developing a wind turbine array. The history of wind development in Quebec was discussed along with the various hardware components required in a wind turbine and different types of installations. The key element in implementing wind turbine arrays is to establish public acceptance of the project, followed by a good regulatory framework to define the roles and responsibilities of participants. The production of electricity from wind turbines constitutes a clean and renewable source of energy. Although it is associated with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, this form of energy can also have negative environmental impacts, including noise. The revenues generated by wind parks are important factors in the decision making process. Two case studies in Quebec were presented. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Policy formulation of public acceptance

    Since 1970, the new policy formulation for public acceptance of the new consideration on the location of electric power generation has been set and applied. The planning and the enforcement being conducted by local public organizations for the local economic build-up with plant location and also the adjustement of the requirements for fishery are two main specific characters in this new policy. The background of this new public acceptance policy, the history and the actual problems about the compensation for the location of power generation plants are reviewed. One new proposal, being recommended by the Policy and Science Laboratory to MITI in 1977 is explained. This is based on the method of promoting the location of power generation plants by public participation placing the redevelopment of regional societies as its basis. The problems concerning the industrial structures in farm villages, fishing villages and the areas of commerce and industry should be systematized, and explained from the viewpoint of outside impact, the characteristics of local areas and the location problems in this new proposal. Finally, the location process and its effectiveness should be put in order. (Nakai, Y.)

  6. Heat exchanger staybolt acceptance criteria

    The structural integrity demonstration of the primary coolant piping system includes evaluating the structural capacity of each component against a large break or equivalent Double-Ended Guillotine Break. A large break at the inlet or outlet heads of the heat exchangers would occur if the restraint members of the heads become inactive. The structural integrity of the heads is demonstrated by showing the redundant capacity of the staybolts to restrain the head at design conditions and under seismic loadings. The Savannah River Site heat exchanger head is attached to the tubesheet by 84 staybolts. Access to the staybolts is limited due to a welded seal cap over the staybolts. An ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection technique to provide an in-situ examination of the staybolts has recently been developed at SRS. Examination of the staybolts will be performed to ensure their service condition and configuration is within acceptance limits. An acceptance criteria methodology has been developed to disposition flaws reported in the staybolt inspections while ensuring adequate restraint capacity of the staybolts to maintain integrity of the heat exchanger heads against collapse. The methodology includes an approach for the baseline and periodic inspections of the staybolts. The heat exchanger head is analyzed with a three-dimensional finite element model. The restraint provided by the staybolts is evaluated for several postulated cases of inactive or missing staybolts. Evaluation of specific, inactive staybolt configurations based on the UT results can be performed with the finite element model and fracture methodology in this report

  7. Influence of injection beam emittance on beam transmission efficiency in a cyclotron

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron accelerates various kinds of high-energy ion beams for research in biotechnology and materials science. Beam intensities of an ion species of the order of 10{sup −9}–10{sup −6} ampere are often required for various experiments performed sequentially over a day. To provide ion beams with sufficient intensity and stability, an operator has to retune an ion source in a short time. However, the beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron rarely increases in proportion to the intensity at the ion source. To understand the cause of this beam behavior, transmission efficiencies of a {sup 12}C{sup 5+} beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the cyclotron were measured for various conditions of the ion source. Moreover, a feasible region for acceleration in the emittance of the injection beam was clarified using a transverse-acceptance measuring system. We confirmed that the beam emittance and profile were changed depending on the condition of the ion source and that matching between the beam emittance and the acceptance of the cyclotron was degraded. However, after fine-tuning to improve the matching, beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron increased.

  8. Low energy beam transport system developments

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H− beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H− beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H− beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H− beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed

  9. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  10. Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.

  11. Acceptance of Others, Feeling of Being Accepted and Striving for Being Accepted Among the Representatives of Different Kinds of Occupations

    Gergana Stanoeva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an important issue related to the human attitudes and needs in interpersonal and professional aspects. The theoretical part deals with several psychological components of the self-esteem and esteem of the others – acceptance of the others, feeling of being accepted, need for approval. Some gender differences in manifestations of acceptance and feeling of being accepted at the workplace are discussed. This article presents some empirical data for the degree of acceptance of others, feeling of being accepted and the strive for being accepted among the representatives of helping, pedagogical, administrative and economic occupations, as well as non-qualified workers. The goals of the study were to reveal the interdependency between these constructs and to be found some significant differences between the representatives of the four groups of occupations. The methods of the first study were W. Fey’s scales “Acceptance of others”, and “How do I feel accepted by others”. The method of the second study was Crown and Marlowe Scale for Social Desirability. The results indicated some significant differences in acceptance of others and feeling of being accepted between the non-qualified workers and the representatives of helping, administrative and economic occupations. There were not any significant difference in strive for being accepted between the fouroccupational groups.

  12. PAGs - Public perception and acceptance

    Full text: While Protective Action Guides or PAGs have been a part of the lexicon of the radiation protection field for several decades, the concept of accepting higher levels of risk under certain situations has not received adequate scrutiny by the general public, the media or elected officials. Consequently there is a question as to how implementation of PAGs would be perceived by the above groups in the event that such implementation became necessary. A personal case in point involves the response of an executive in the food industry. When the concept of selling a food product meeting the PAGs was explained his response was, 'we won't sell a contaminated product, we would dump the unprocessed raw food. Our industry image is that of a natural unadulterated food'. While this may be an isolated view, there is a need to determine what is the perception and consequently what would be the response if PAGs were implemented today. If the response was negative by anyone of the three groups listed previously, then there is an obvious need for a program to assure receptiveness by those concerned. However, this may face formidable obstacles. This is because the terms radiation and radioactive have gained generally negative word associations, e.g. 'deadly' radiation and radioactive 'desert'. The former term was recently heard in a taped presentation at a Museum of Natural History on a completely unrelated subject. The latter term was part of a recent article heading in the Wall Street Journal. Incidentally the article was discussing television. Thus beyond the scientific issues of setting PAGs and the administrative and procedural issues of implementing PAGs there is the issue of society's understanding and acceptance of PAGs. Particularly, how can such understanding and acceptance be achieved in a situation which is associated with an actual or perceived radiation emergency? These are not questions that radiation or agricultural scientists can answer alone. These are

  13. Studying Student Teachers' Acceptance of Role Responsibility.

    Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)

  14. Decision modeling and acceptance criteria

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    formulation of decision criteria and public acceptance criteria connected to risk analysis of technical operations that may endanger human life and property. Public restrictions on the decisions concerning the design, construction and managing of the technical operation have in the past been imposed on the...... expected gain rate. The public money equivalent of a human life is assessed by use of a recently in (Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Pandey MD. Afordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada: Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo, 1997) suggested Life Quality Index (LQI......) that combines wealth in terms of Gross Domestic Product per person, life expectancy at birth, and yearly work time into a single number. The philosophy behind the published evaluations is that the prevention of a loss of a life is counteracted by a cost such that the LQI remains unchanged (Skjong R...

  15. Nuclear wastes and public acceptance

    A new approach to the storage of nuclear wastes is described. Certain criteria for a nuclear waste storage system that is based on ideas of technical soundess and public acceptability are set forth. These criteria are 1.) the wastes must be reliably contained at all times, 2.) the containers must be retrievable and maintainable, 3.) the storage facility must also provide isolation from external events and must also permit careful control of human access, 4.) the storage facility and containers must have plausible or demonstratble likelihood of lasting for 100 years, and 5.) the storage system should be able to accept and retrieve both processed waste and spent fuel elements interchangeably. A specific storage system concept that is based on proved data and that meets the 5 criteria is described. The waste, either glassified high-level waste or spent fuel-fuel bundles from which the end structures have been removed, is stored in sealed stainless steel containers, which is sealed in a second sealed container made of a durable metal such as Ti. The space between the two containers is filled with a gas that can be detected at very low concentrations. These containers are stored in a tunnel excavated into the side of a convenient mountain. The tunnel is excavated above flood level, is accessible by rail and/or road, and is designed for self-draining. A free-standing inner lining is constructed within the tunnel. Offset vertical shafts provide for ventilation. Continuous monitoring leak detectors are maintained in the tunnel and in the stack

  16. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  17. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is' or 'there is not' (there is or there is not

  18. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  19. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  20. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  1. Issues on accepting nuclear energy

    Nuclear power has been promoted so far as a national project to be an energy source sharing a large weight in the future and is also expected recently to be a means to suppress the global warming affected by the use of fossil fuels. From a stand point opposing to or cautious of the promotion of its extensive use, various issues on its incompatibility to the society such as technical problems pointed out that radioactivity miss-control may cause hazards, energy problems, political problems, cultural life problems, etc. are raised. Also in site areas, pros and cons on the evaluation of its contribution are spreading. However, the area of the issues is wide-spread and sometime too difficult to understand because of its specialty or barriers such as conviction and fixed distrust and so it is often seen that the controversies are lead to be governed by irritation or abandonment that ones argument is not understood by the party. In the social situation in which common interests for various stand points are hard to find, it looks only way for finding the direction of any decision in a political issue to mutually know the arguments through discussion as much as possible, correct erroneous understandings and expand the area of agreement. Hear, various issues on accepting nuclear power from a variety of stand points and view angles are summarized so as to be referred by various engineers and non-engineers to let the uselessly continuing deadlock proceed toward meaningful agreement. (author)

  2. Calculation of New Beam Dump Shielding for CYCIAE-100

    2011-01-01

    The 100 MeV high intensity cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, places a demanding requirement on the collection device to accept the proton beam. According to the original design, the beam dump would be settled in the cyclotron vault. It uses pure aluminum as the target material,

  3. Beam transport

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  4. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z External Beam Therapy (EBT) External beam therapy (EBT) is a ... follow-up should I expect? What is external beam therapy and how is it used? External beam ...

  5. Recent radioactive ion beam program at RIKEN and related topics

    Akira Ozawa

    2001-08-01

    Recent experimental programs at RIKEN concerning RI beams are reviewed. RIKEN has the ring cyclotron (RRC) with high intense heavy-ion beams and large acceptance fragment separator, RIPS. The complex can provide high intense RI-beams. By using the high intense RI-beams, a variety of experiments have been done. Recently, nuclear structure for unstable nuclei has been paid much attention. In special, disappearance and appearance of magic numbers are discussed experimentally and theoretically. Thus, in this review, related experiments concerning disappearance and appearance of magic numbers are described. Finally, future project in RIKEN, RI-beam factory, is introduced briefly.

  6. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Modeling of beam customization devices in the pencil beam splitting algorithm for heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2010-01-01

    Broad-beam-delivery methods use multiple devices to form a conformal field of heavy charged particles. To overcome an intrinsic difficulty of pencil-beam algorithms in dealing with fine lateral structure, we applied the pencil-beam-splitting algorithm to a beam-customization system conprised of multiple collimators and a range compensating filter. The pencil beams were initially defined at the range compensating filter with angular acceptance correction for the upstream collimators followed by the range compensation effects. They were individually transported with possible splitting near the downstream collimator edges. The dose distribution was calculated and compared with existing experimental data. The penumbra sizes for various collimator edges agreed between them to a submillimeter level. This beam-customization model will complete an accurate and efficient dose-calculation algorithm for treatment planning.

  9. Consumer acceptance of irradiated prepared and processed food

    Although the FDA has approved the irradiation of food, at specified levels, to prevent foodborne diseases, it is unclear if consumers are willing to accept and pay for irradiated food products. In spring 2002, we conducted a study to assess (1) consumers' knowledge and acceptance of food irradiation, (2) the effects of information regarding the food irradiation technology on consumer acceptance, and (3) the willingness to pay (WTP) for irradiated ground beef. We interviewed 474 consumers at various stores of a regional supermarket chain in Austin, San Antonio, Waco, and Houston. Potential buyers' of irradiated foods can be grouped into four segments, namely, strong buyers, interested, doubters and rejecters. During the interview process, we provided each respondent with Information I (nature and benefits of food irradiation) and Information II (difference between use of electron beam and gamma rays to irradiate food products). The respondents were asked, before and after the presentation of information, in which of the four segments they think they belong in regards to irradiated foods. We also asked the respondents who were willing to buy irradiated ground beef about their willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for a pound of irradiated ground beef

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: Distinctive Features

    Flaxman, Paul E.; Blackledge, J. T.; Bond, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    What are the distinctive theoretical and practical features of acceptance and commitment therapy? Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a modern behaviour therapy that uses acceptance and mindfulness interventions alongside commitment and behaviour change strategies to enhance psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility refers to the ability to contact the present moment and change or persist in behaviour that serves one’s personally chosen values. Divided into two secti...

  11. Mindfulness, Acceptance and Catastrophizing in Chronic Pain

    de Boer, Maaike J.; Steinhagen, Hannemike E.; Versteegen, Gerbrig J.; Struys, Michel M.R.F.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chr...

  12. Personal values and intention to accept ICT

    Harfouche, Antoine; Kalika, Michel

    2008-01-01

    This work-in-progress develops an integral model of individuals’ intention to accept Information and Communication Technology innovations (ICTIA model). It captures the influence of different external and internal variables on ICT’s acceptance and use at the first stages of the acceptance process. The model focuses on the association between (1) ICT perceived attributes and perceived characteristics of using ICT, (2) individual’s personal variables, specifically personal values, (3) environme...

  13. The Relationship Between Treatment Acceptability and Familism

    Joy R. Pemberton; Joaquin Borrego, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have examined the acceptability of treatments for children with disruptive behaviors. However, few studies to date have tested the effects of home environment variables such as family support on treatment acceptability. In the current study, parents’ level of familism was used to predict the ir willingness toaccept several behavioral child treatment techniques. Eighty-two parents completed measures related to familism, child behavior problems, parenting stress, and acceptance of ...

  14. The acceptance of risks in modern civilization

    A systematic analysis or even consistent theory of the acceptance of risks is missing. So far it is limited to narrow subjects like economy, insurance and technology. In connection with the acceptance of technical risks the pros and cons of technology-assessment are dealt with. The 'gentle' way of technology has risks too, which at least jeopardize our prosperity. The acceptance of every risk in the end presupposes a sober consideration of unavoidable dangers and the yielded profit. (DG)

  15. Food allergy: Stakeholder perspectives on acceptable risk

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Crevel, René; Chan, Chun-Han;

    2010-01-01

    We have reached a point where it is difficult to improve food allergy risk management without an agreement on levels of acceptable risk. This paper presents and discusses the perspectives of the different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, public authorities and the food...... industry) on acceptable risk in food allergy. Understanding where these perspectives diverge and even conflict may help develop an approach to define what is acceptable. Uncertainty about food allergy, its consequences and how to manage them is the common denominator of the stakeholders’ views. In patients...... not a realistic possibility, consensus on acceptable risk will be needed....

  16. Production of rare isotope beams with the NSCL fragment separator

    Rare isotope beams at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory are produced by projectile fragmentation of medium energy primary beams on beryllium targets. The fragments of interest are selected by the A1900 high-acceptance fragment separator. The A1900 consists of superconducting magnets: four 45 deg. dipoles and eight quadrupole triplets with a maximum magnetic rigidity of 6 Tm. A momentum acceptance of Δp/p = 5% with a solid angle acceptance of ΔΩ = 8 msr makes the A1900 one of the highest-acceptance separators in the world. Detector systems installed within the device allow tracking and unambiguous identification of individual isotopes. During the first three years of operation of the A1900, more than 200 different rare isotope beams approaching both the neutron and proton driplines have been delivered to experiments

  17. Beam quality measure for vector beams.

    Ndagano, Bienvenu; Sroor, Hend; McLaren, Melanie; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Vector beams have found a myriad of applications, from laser materials processing to microscopy, and are now easily produced in the laboratory. They are usually differentiated from scalar beams by qualitative measures, for example, visual inspection of beam profiles after a rotating polarizer. Here we introduce a quantitative beam quality measure for vector beams and demonstrate it on cylindrical vector vortex beams. We show how a single measure can be defined for the vector quality, from 0 (purely scalar) to 1 (purely vector). Our measure is derived from a quantum toolkit, which we show applies to classical vector beams. PMID:27472580

  18. 2013 SYR Accepted Poster Abstracts.

    2013-01-01

    SYR 2013 Accepted Poster abstracts: 1. Benefits of Yoga as a Wellness Practice in a Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care Setting: If You Build It, Will They Come? 2. Yoga-based Psychotherapy Group With Urban Youth Exposed to Trauma. 3. Embodied Health: The Effects of a Mind�Body Course for Medical Students. 4. Interoceptive Awareness and Vegetable Intake After a Yoga and Stress Management Intervention. 5. Yoga Reduces Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians. 6. Designing and Implementing a Therapeutic Yoga Program for Older Women With Knee Osteoarthritis. 7. Yoga and Life Skills Eating Disorder Prevention Among 5th Grade Females: A Controlled Trial. 8. A Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing the Impact of Yoga and Physical Education on the Emotional and Behavioral Functioning of Middle School Children. 9. Feasibility of a Multisite, Community based Randomized Study of Yoga and Wellness Education for Women With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy. 10. A Delphi Study for the Development of Protocol Guidelines for Yoga Interventions in Mental Health. 11. Impact Investigation of Breathwalk Daily Practice: Canada�India Collaborative Study. 12. Yoga Improves Distress, Fatigue, and Insomnia in Older Veteran Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study. 13. Assessment of Kundalini Mantra and Meditation as an Adjunctive Treatment With Mental Health Consumers. 14. Kundalini Yoga Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Co-Occurring Mood Disorder. 15. Baseline Differences in Women Versus Men Initiating Yoga Programs to Aid Smoking Cessation: Quitting in Balance Versus QuitStrong. 16. Pranayam Practice: Impact on Focus and Everyday Life of Work and Relationships. 17. Participation in a Tailored Yoga Program is Associated With Improved Physical Health in Persons With Arthritis. 18. Effects of Yoga on Blood Pressure: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 19. A Quasi-experimental Trial of a Yoga based Intervention to Reduce Stress and

  19. Acceptance testing and QA in dental radiology

    The HPA (UK) reported in 2002 that although the effective dose from dental examinations is low, dental imaging is the most frequent type of X ray examination undertaken (approx. 30%); a similar situation is likely to exist in Ireland. It is most likely that this will increase further in the future as the dental X ray technology moves from film to digital equipment. Dental X rays are taken more frequently with digital equipment than film based technology. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St. James's Hospital, Dublin is particularly interested in the area of dental quality assurance (QA) as a result of a significant medical radiation safety incident in Ireland occurring with a faulty dental X ray installation. The implementation of a QA programme in Ireland has been enforced not only by the publication of the Dental Code of Practice by the Irish Regulatory Authority in the 1990s but also by the publication of the European Medical Exposures Directive. The current QA programme, which includes site visits in order to perform acceptance testing and routine QA checks on dental X ray equipment has been implemented in approximately 250 dental health centres to which the Department has provided radiation protection advisory services for approximately twenty years. In addition to the technical evaluation of the equipment, an assessment of the adequacy of the shielding in the X ray room and of the radiation protection facilities is performed. This paper identifies the findings from the dental radiology QA assessments. QA test protocols were developed in accordance with current national and internationally accepted guidelines. The tests include exposure time and kVp accuracy, radiation output consistency, filtration, irradiated field size, mechanical and electrical safety checks and measurement of tube output for specific X ray examinations to aid in the establishment of a national diagnostic reference levels, a requirement of the Medical Exposures

  20. Beam propagation

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  1. Stable beams

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  2. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal

  3. Mini-DACS acceptance test report

    The attached document is the acceptance test summary report, of the mini-DACS, that was used to test the spare mixer pump for tank 241-SY-101, at the maintenance and storage facility (MASF). It includes a copy of the acceptance test procedure (ATP) and all pertaining ECNS

  4. A Distributive Model of Treatment Acceptability

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A model of treatment acceptability is proposed that distributes overall treatment acceptability into three separate categories of influence. The categories are comprised of societal influences, consultant influences, and influences associated with consumers of treatments. Each of these categories are defined and their inter-relationships within…

  5. 34 CFR 668.57 - Acceptable documentation.

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable documentation. 668.57 Section 668.57... Application Information § 668.57 Acceptable documentation. (a) Adjusted Gross Income (AGI), income earned from... applicant, the documentation set forth in paragraph (a)(4) of this section if the individual for the...

  6. Mindfulness, acceptance and catastrophizing in chronic pain.

    Maaike J de Boer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Catastrophizing is often the primary target of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of chronic pain. Recent literature on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT suggests an important role in the pain experience for the concepts mindfulness and acceptance. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of mindfulness and general psychological acceptance on pain-related catastrophizing in patients with chronic pain. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including 87 chronic pain patients from an academic outpatient pain center. RESULTS: The results show that general psychological acceptance (measured with the AAQ-II is a strong predictor of pain-related catastrophizing, independent of gender, age and pain intensity. Mindfulness (measured with the MAAS did not predict levels of pain-related catastrophizing. DISCUSSION: Acceptance of psychological experiences outside of pain itself is related to catastrophizing. Thus, acceptance seems to play a role in the pain experience and should be part of the treatment of chronic pain. The focus of the ACT treatment of chronic pain does not necessarily have to be on acceptance of pain per se, but may be aimed at acceptance of unwanted experiences in general. Mindfulness in the sense of "acting with awareness" is however not related to catastrophizing. Based on our research findings in comparisons with those of other authors, we recommend a broader conceptualization of mindfulness and the use of a multifaceted questionnaire for mindfulness instead of the unidimensional MAAS.

  7. Enzyme Reactions and Acceptability of Plant Foods.

    Palmer, James K.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of enzyme reactions which contribute to the character and acceptability of plant foods. A detailed discussion of polyphenoloxidase is also provided as an example of an enzyme which can markedly affect the character and acceptability of such foods. (JN)

  8. Acceptable Channel Switching Delays for Mobile TV

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a user study investigating the acceptability of channel switching delays on mobile television systems. The authors first review the previous work in the area, then propose a study design and present results from its implementation, focusing on the overall acceptability threshold...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2303 - Construction acceptance.

    2010-10-01

    ...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Construction § 193.2303 Construction acceptance. No person may place in service... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction acceptance. 193.2303 Section 193.2303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  10. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  11. Hanford Site liquid waste acceptance criteria

    This document provides the waste acceptance criteria for liquid waste managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. (WMH). These waste acceptance criteria address the various requirements to operate a facility in compliance with applicable environmental, safety, and operational requirements. This document also addresses the sitewide miscellaneous streams program

  12. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  13. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (pnegative experiences with health care providers (pGender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  14. Electron beam grafting of polymers

    Electron beam (EB) grafting has been a well known technique for modifying the surfaces of materials for many years. Commercial implementation has been quite successful in a few, narrow niche markets. Irradiation grafting is being used to control ion flow through battery separator membranes, to modify the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of semi-permeable membranes and non-woven fabrics, to enhance the bio-compatibility of materials used in the medical device area, and to impart release properties to films and papers. The use of grafting to modify the bulk properties of materials has not as yet emerged as a widely accepted commercial practice. The development of lower voltage, more cost-effective self-shielded electron beam equipment presents opportunities for enhanced commercial development. The technology used in grafting is very specific to the selection of the base polymer and to the choice of the graft monomers. Different combinations can yield vastly different performance properties

  15. Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  16. Who accepts responsibility for their transgressions?

    Schumann, Karina; Dweck, Carol S

    2014-12-01

    After committing an offense, transgressors can optimize their chances of reconciling with the victim by accepting responsibility. However, transgressors may be motivated to avoid admitting fault because it can feel threatening to accept blame for harmful behavior. Who, then, is likely to accept responsibility for a transgression? We examined how implicit theories of personality--whether people see personality as malleable (incremental theory) or fixed (entity theory)--influence transgressors' likelihood of accepting responsibility. We argue that incremental theorists may feel less threatened by accepting responsibility because they are more likely to view the situation as an opportunity for them to grow as a person and develop their relationship with the victim. We found support for our predictions across four studies using a combination of real-world and hypothetical offenses, and correlational and experimental methods. These studies therefore identify an important individual difference factor that can lead to more effective responses from transgressors. PMID:25252938

  17. Monitoring device acceptance in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients using the Florida Patient Acceptance Survey

    Versteeg, Henneke; Starrenburg, Annemieke; Denollet, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    Patient device acceptance might be essential in identifying patients at risk for adverse patient-reported outcomes following implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We examined the validity and reliability of the Florida Patient Acceptance Scale (FPAS) and identified...

  18. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  19. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  20. Understanding social acceptance of electricity generation sources

    Social acceptability is a determinant factor in the failure or success of the government's decisions about which electricity generation sources will satisfy the growing demand for energy. The main goal of this study was to validate a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources. In the model, social acceptance of an energy source is directly caused by perceived risk and benefit and also by social trust in regulatory agencies (both directly and indirectly, through perceived risk and benefit). Results from a web-based survey of Chilean university students demonstrated that data for energy sources that are controversial in Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro, and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model, whereas data for non conventional renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal and tidal) did not. Perceived benefit had the greatest total effect on acceptability, thus emerging as a key predictive factor of social acceptability of controversial electricity generation sources. Further implications for regulatory agencies are discussed. - Highlights: ► We tested a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources in Chile. ► Data for controversial energy sources in the Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model. ► Data for non conventional renewable energy sources did not fit the data. ► Perceived benefit showed the greatest total effect on acceptability.

  1. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure

  2. Beam screen cryogenic control improvements for the LHC run 2

    Bradu, Benjamin; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Ferlin, Gerard; Tovar-Gonzalez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the improvements performed on the cryogenic control system for the LHC beam screens. The regulation objective is to maintain an acceptable temperature range around 20 K that ensures a good LHC beam vacuum and that limits cryogenic heat loads. In total, there are 485 regulation loops around the 27 km of the LHC machine affected by these beam disturbances. Due to the increase of the LHC performance during the run 2, standard PID controllers manage with difficulties the temperature transients of the beam screens. Several alternative control techniques have been studied and validated using dynamic simulation and then deployed on the LHC cryogenic control system in 2015. The main contribution is the addition of a feed-forward control in order to compensate the beam effects on the beam screen temperature based on the main beam parameters of the machine in real time.

  3. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal

  4. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C)

  5. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities

  6. The Acceptability of Speech with Radio Interference

    Baykaner, K.; Hummersone, H.; Mason, R.;

    2014-01-01

    A listening test was conducted to investigate the acceptability of audio-on-audio interference for radio programs featuring speech as the target. Twenty-one subjects, including naïve and expert listeners, were presented with 200 randomly assigned pairs of stimuli and asked to report, for each trial......, whether the listening scenario was acceptable or unacceptable. Stimuli pairs were set to randomly selected SNRs ranging from 0 to 45 dB. Results showed no significant difference between subjects according to listening experience. A logistic regression to acceptability was carried out based on SNR. The...

  7. Approaches to acceptable risk: a critical guide

    Fischhoff, B.; Lichtenstein, S.; Slovic, P.; Keeney, R.; Derby, S.

    1980-12-01

    Acceptable-risk decisions are an essential step in the management of technological hazards. In many situations, they constitute the weak (or missing) link in the management process. The absence of an adequate decision-making methodology often produces indecision, inconsistency, and dissatisfaction. The result is neither good for hazard management nor good for society. This report offers a critical analysis of the viability of various approaches as guides to acceptable-risk decisions. This report seeks to define acceptable-risk decisions and to examine some frequently proposed, but inappropriate, solutions. 255 refs., 22 figs., 25 tabs.

  8. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  9. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  10. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  11. Cultural Technology Acceptance Model for Consumers’ Acceptance of Arabic E-Commerce Websites

    Omar (Mohammad Ali Al-Qudah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites and to propose a cultural technology acceptance model for consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites. The proposed model was built based on, technology acceptance model, trust, perceived risk and Hofstede’s cultural values as moderators between trust and perceived risk and purchase intention. In addition, Arabic language from literature review was added. Based on these theories and concepts, this study identifies the factors affecting consumer’s acceptance of Arabic e-commerce websites.

  12. CLIC Main Linac Beam-Loading Compensation by Drive Beam Phase Modulation

    Corsini, R; Syratchev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The CLIC final focus momentum acceptance of ± 0.5 % limits the bunch-to-bunch energy variation in the main beam to less than ± 0.1 %, since the estimated single-bunch contribution is ± 0.4 %. On the other hand, a relatively high beam-loading of the main accelerating structures (about 16 %) is unavoidable in order to optimize the RF-to-beam efficiency. Therefore, a compensation method is needed to reduce the resulting bunch-to-bunch energy spread of the main beam. Up to now, it has been planned to obtain the RF pulse shape needed for compensation by means of a charge ramp in the drive beam pulse. On the other hand, the use of constant-current drive beam pulses would make the design and operation of the drive beam injector considerably simpler. In this paper we present a possible solution adapted to the CLIC two-beam scheme with constant-current pulses, based on phase modulation of the drive beam bunches.

  13. Beam profiling at focus: the search for the Holy Grail

    Green, Lawrence I.

    2007-02-01

    Electronic laser beam profiling is now a widely accepted method to measure the mode quality and spatial profile of a laser beam. For the most part, profiling has been limited to the unfocused or 'raw' beam, because the energy density or irradiance in the vicinity of focus is high enough to destroy almost any measurement device. Recent developments in measuring technology now enable users to make beam profiling measurements at and near the focus of many lasers. We discuss two new designs and show examples of how they function.

  14. ATOMIC BEAM STUDIES IN THE RHIC H-JET POLARIMETER.

    MAKDISI,Y.; ZELENSKI,A.; GRAHAM,D.; KOKHANOVSKI,S.; MAHLER,G.; NASS,A.; RITTER,J.; ZUBETS,V.; ET AL.

    2005-01-28

    The results of atomic beam production studies are presented. Improved cooling of the atoms before jet formation in the dissociator cold nozzle apparently reduces the atomic beam velocity spread and improves beam focusing conditions. A carefully designed sextupole separating (and focusing) magnet system takes advantage of the high brightness source. As a result a record beam intensity of a 12.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 16} atoms/s was obtained within 10 mm acceptance at the collision point. The results of the polarization dilution factor measurements (by the hydrogen molecules at the collision point) are also presented.

  15. New results from the BATES Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST)

    An experiment using the novel technique of scattering a longitudinally polarized electron beam from polarized internal hydrogen/deuterium gas targets was carried out in the South Hall Ring at the MIT-Bates Accelerator Center. The scattered particles were detected by the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid (BLAST) detector. The proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, GEp/GMp at Q2 = 0.1 - 0.65 (GeV/c)2 has been determined from the experiment by measuring the spin-dependent ep elastic scattering asymmetry in the two symmetric sectors of the BLAST simultaneously for the first time. The neutron electric form factor GEn in the same Q2 range has been extracted by measuring the spin-dependent asymmetry from the d-vector(e-vector, e′n) process with a vector polarized deuterium target. These results on the nucleon form factors from the BLAST experiment are presented. (author)

  16. Beam imaging sensor

    McAninch, Michael D.; Root, Jeffrey J.

    2016-07-05

    The present invention relates generally to the field of sensors for beam imaging and, in particular, to a new and useful beam imaging sensor for use in determining, for example, the power density distribution of a beam including, but not limited to, an electron beam or an ion beam. In one embodiment, the beam imaging sensor of the present invention comprises, among other items, a circumferential slit that is either circular, elliptical or polygonal in nature.

  17. Integrated Model for E-Learning Acceptance

    Ramadiani; Rodziah, A.; Hasan, S. M.; Rusli, A.; Noraini, C.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning is not going to work if the system is not used in accordance with user needs. User Interface is very important to encourage using the application. Many theories had discuss about user interface usability evaluation and technology acceptance separately, actually why we do not make it correlation between interface usability evaluation and user acceptance to enhance e-learning process. Therefore, the evaluation model for e-learning interface acceptance is considered important to investigate. The aim of this study is to propose the integrated e-learning user interface acceptance evaluation model. This model was combined some theories of e-learning interface measurement such as, user learning style, usability evaluation, and the user benefit. We formulated in constructive questionnaires which were shared at 125 English Language School (ELS) students. This research statistics used Structural Equation Model using LISREL v8.80 and MANOVA analysis.

  18. Gas characterization system software acceptance test report

    This document details the results of software acceptance testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  19. Gas characterization system software acceptance test procedure

    This document details the Software Acceptance Testing of gas characterization systems. The gas characterization systems will be used to monitor the vapor spaces of waste tanks known to contain measurable concentrations of flammable gases

  20. Acceptance Test Plan for ANSYS Software

    This plan governs the acceptance testing of the ANSYS software (Full Mechanical Release 5.5) for use on Project Word Management Contract (PHMC) computer systems (either UNIX or Microsoft Windows/NT). There are two phases to the acceptance testing covered by this test plan: program execution in accordance with the guidance provided in installation manuals; and ensuring results of the execution are consistent with the expected physical behavior of the system being modeled

  1. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient combinations is explained by general attitudes to functional foods, consumers' health concerns, and the perceived fit of a particular carrier ingredient combination? (3) How food manufacturers decide to dev...

  2. Anticipating Public Acceptance: The Hydrogen Case

    Di Ruggero, O.

    2014-01-01

    Current energy related issues, such as climate change or the oil depletion, demand technological and societal change towards new ways of producing and using energy. One of the challenges coming with the development of these new solutions relates to the impact that these technologies will have on society, and how people will react to these technologies. This phenomenon is often referred to as public acceptance. The relevance of considering public acceptance of emerging technologies is self-evi...

  3. Acceptance of Diabetes Education via the Telephone

    Boren, Suzanne Austin; De Leo, Gianluca; Krishna, Santosh

    2005-01-01

    Patients require education and information as they engage in self-help, self-care, and disease management activities. The objective of this study was to explore the acceptance of voice technologies in diabetes patient education. Eighteen participants listened to a total of 324 diabetes educational messages and were provided the opportunity to rate the usefulness of each message. This study demonstrated that brief telephone-based education can be acceptable and useful.

  4. Acceptance testing of photographic film dosemeters

    The reports describes a system for acceptance testing of photographic film dosemeters in customary use in personal dosimetry. The system comprises a test of some of the fundamental dosimetric properties of the film. The acceptance test will be performed in connection with the semi-annual purchases of dosemeter film to the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene. The test program comprises both constancy tests and absolute requirements. The latter refer mainly to ISO 1757 - Personal photographic dosemeters. 2 refs

  5. Schematic effects of rape myth acceptance

    Süssenbach, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In a set of studies, the present work investigates the type of influence exerted by rape myth acceptance (RMA). Rape myths may be defined as "beliefs about rape (i.e., about its causes, context, consequences, perpetrators, victims, and their interaction) that serve to deny, downplay or justify male sexual aggression against women" (Gerger, Kley, Bohner, & Siebler, 2007, p. 423). In this work the hypothesis is made and tested that the acceptance of rape myths influences the processing of relev...

  6. Risk aversion in risk acceptance criteria

    The risk averse attitude that is included in some proposed risk acceptance criteria is examined. It is shown that it is a weaker attitude than risk aversion, as is commonly defined in decision theory. Consequently, the boundary curve separating acceptable and unacceptable regions does not have to be a straight line on the logarithmic frequency-consequence space. A curve of variable slope would express the same attitude as long as the slope is less than -1

  7. A structural model of technology acceptance

    Etienne Erasmus; Sebastiaan Rothmann; Chrizanne van Eeden

    2015-01-01

    Orientation: Enterprise resource systems have not always led to significant organisational enhancement and many projects in which these systems have been implemented turn out to be over budget, not on time and unsuccessful.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to test the technology acceptance model within a South African SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning user environment.Motivation for the study: No study could be traced in which the technology acceptance model has been evaluated in th...

  8. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    Ilić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts i...

  9. Customer acceptance of internet banking in Estonia

    Eriksson, Kent; Kerem, Katri; Nilsson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study technology acceptance of internet banking inEstonia, an emerging east European economy. Design/methodology/approach – The present paper modifies the technology acceptance modeland applies it to bank customers in Estonia, because Estonia, a country with a developing economy, has focused on internet banking as an important distribution channel. Findings – The findings suggest that internet bank use increases insofar as customers perceive it as use...

  10. Large acceptance spectrometers for invariant mass spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and future developments

    Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Large acceptance spectrometers at in-flight RI separators have played significant roles in investigating the structure of exotic nuclei. Such spectrometers are in particular useful for probing unbound states of exotic nuclei, using invariant mass spectroscopy with reactions at intermediate and high energies. We discuss here the key characteristic features of such spectrometers, by introducing the recently commissioned SAMURAI facility at the RIBF, RIKEN. We also investigate the issue of cross talk in the detection of multiple neutrons, which has become crucial for exploring further unbound states and nuclei beyond the neutron drip line. Finally we discuss future perspectives for large acceptance spectrometers at the new-generation RI-beam facilities.

  11. Specification and acceptance testing of radiotherapy treatment planning systems

    Quality assurance (QA) in the radiation therapy treatment planning process is essential to ensure accurate dose delivery to the patient and to minimize the possibility of accidental exposure. The computerized radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPSs) are now widely available in industrialized and developing countries and it is of special importance to support hospitals in Member States in developing procedures for acceptance testing, commissioning and QA of their RTPSs. Responding to these needs, a group of experts developed an IAEA publication with such recommendations, which was published in 2004 as IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 430. This report provides a general framework and describes a large number of tests and procedures that should be considered by the users of new RTPSs. However, small hospitals with limited resources or large hospitals with high patient load and limited staff are not always able to perform complete characterization, validation and software testing of algorithms used in RTPSs. Therefore, the IAEA proposed more specific guidelines that provide a step-by-step recommendation for users at hospitals or cancer centres how to implement acceptance and commissioning procedures for newly purchased RTPSs. The current publication was developed in the framework of the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Procedures for Quality Assurance for Dosimetry Calculations in Radiotherapy and uses the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 62083, Requirements for the Safety of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems as its basis. The report addresses the procedures for specification and acceptance testing of RTPSs to be used by both manufacturers and users at the hospitals. Recommendations are provided for specific tests to be performed at the manufacturing facility known as type tests, and for acceptance tests to be performed at the hospital known as site tests. The purpose of acceptance testing is to demonstrate to the

  12. Molecular-beam spectroscopy of interhalogen molecules

    A molecular-beam electric-resonance spectrometer employing a supersonic nozzle source has been used to obtain hyperfine spectra of 79Br35Cl. Analyses of these spectra and of microwave spectra published by other authors have yielded new values for the electric dipole moment and for the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in this molecule. The new constants are significantly different from the currently accepted values. Van der Waals clusters containing chlorine monofluoride have been studied under various expansion conditions by the molecular-beam electric-deflection method. The structural possibilities indicated by the results are discussed, and cluster geometries are proposed

  13. Physics acceptance and QA procedures for IMRT

    Full text: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) may improve tumor control without compromising normal tissues by facilitating higher, more conformal tumor doses relative to 3D CRT. Intensity modulation (IM) is now possible with inverse planning and radiation delivery using dynamic multileaf collimation. Compared to 3D CRT, certain components in the IMRT process are more obscure to the user. Thus, special quality assurance procedures are required. Hardware and software are still relatively new to many users, and the potential for error is unknown. The relationship between monitor unit (MU) setting and radiation dose for IM beams is much more complex than for non-IM fields. The leaf sequence computer files, which control the MLC position as a function of MU, are large and do not lend themselves to simple manual verification. The 'verification' port film for each IM treatment field, usually obtained with the MLC set at the extreme leaf positions for that field to outline the entire irradiated area, does not verify the intensity modulation pattern. Finally, in IMRT using DMLC (the so-called sliding window technique), a small error in the window (or gap) width will lead to a significant dose error. In earlier papers, we provided an evaluation of the mechanical and dosimetric aspects in the use of a MLC in the dynamic mode. Mechanical tolerances are significantly tighter for DMLC than for static MLC treatments. Transmission through the leaves and through rounded leaf ends and head scatter were shown to be significant to the accuracy of radiation dose delivery using DMLC. With these considerations, we concluded that the present DMLC hardware and software are effective for routine clinical implementation, provided that a carefully designed routine QA procedure is followed to assure the normality of operation. In our earlier studies, an evaluation of the long-term stability of DMLC operation had not yet been performed. This paper describes the current status of our

  14. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  15. Electron beam energy QA - a note on measurement tolerances.

    Meyer, Juergen; Nyflot, Matthew J; Smith, Wade P; Wottoon, Landon S; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R G; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A

    2016-01-01

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high-energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6-18 MeV) and eight Varian (6-22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calcu-lated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ± 15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ± 2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ± 6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies. PMID:27074488

  16. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  17. Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

    Dřímal, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max.. In case of common welding procedure, cracks were formed in the weld, initiated by spiking in the weld root. Crack formation was prevented by the use of an interlocking joint with a rounded recess and suitable welding parameters, eliminating crack initiation by spiking in the weld root. Minimisation of the welding distortions was achieved by the application of tack welding with simultaneous splitting of one beam into two parts in the opposite sections of circumferential face weld attained on the principle of a new system of controlled deflection with digital scanning of the beam. This welding procedure assured that the weldment temperature after welding would not be higher than 400 °C. Thus, this procedure allowed achieving the final run-outs in the critical point of gearwheels within the maximum range up to 0.04 mm, which is acceptable for the given application. Accurate optical measurements did not reveal any changes in the teeth dimensions.

  18. The Design of High Acceptance Fragment Separators for RIA

    Sherrill, B. M.

    2001-10-01

    In-flight separation of rare isotopes produced by projectile fragmentation and projectile fission has been proposed as a major component of the Rare Isotope Accelerator Project, RIA. Information on the plans for the RIA project can be found at the Argonne National Lab and the National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab web sites. Two aspects of the RIA rare isotope production will require the use of fragment separators. First, experiments with high energy, in-flight separated beams will require a high rigidity separator with modest momentum and angular acceptance, and multiple stages of separation. Additional velocity selection by either Wien filters for RF cavities is also desirable. A second separator will be required for filtering the primary beam and most other fragments before the isotope of interest is caught in a gas-catcher cell, extracted and post-accelerated. This separator would have ideally a near 100% collection efficiency for fragmentation and fission fragments, and allow for the use of thick production targets. The separator needs only modest momentum resolution. Design considerations for both separators and some preliminary designs will be presented.

  19. Public acceptance activities by the Rokkasho project

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, incorporated by mainly ten Japanese utilities, engages in constructing and operating nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as reprocessing, uranium enrichment and low level radioactive waste disposal at Rokkasho village in Aomori prefecture, 600 kilometers north of Tokyo, where is the most northern part of Honshu island. This presentation deals with the situation concerning the Rokkasho project and our public acceptance activities. The expansion of anti nuclear movement was spread not only Aomori prefecture but also all over Japan, affected strongly by the Chernobyl accident. In 1988,16 anti-nuclear groups including labor-union organized a committee for the purpose of a campaign to collect signatures for opposing nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Those groups brought in a lawsuit against the Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, for stopping the construction of enrichment plant. Facing furious anti nuclear fuel cycle movements in Aomori prefecture, the Federation of Electric Power Companies decided to re strengthen the public acceptance activities and established the Nuclear Fuel Joint head office together with Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co.and Japan Nuclear Fuel Industry Co. To this new organization many excellent members were dispatched from all electric power companies. The target area for public acceptance activities expanded from the surrounding area to all area of Aomori prefecture. The first policy of public acceptance activities is 'Appealing by face to face' which means the direct personal contact with people being anxious about nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The second main policy is 'Seeing the plant itself is better than persuading orally.' Survey conducted by a newspaper company in respect with the public acceptance of Rokkasho project in July 1989 July 1992 showed a favorable change of the public acceptance. However, one also has to recognize that most of people still have anxiety about the nuclear fuel cycle facilities and we shall

  20. Visualizing and Assessing Acceptance Sampling Plans: The R Package AcceptanceSampling

    Andreas Kiermeier

    2008-01-01

    Manufacturers and government agencies frequently use acceptance sampling to decide whether a lot from a supplier or exporting country should be accepted or rejected. International standards on acceptance sampling provide sampling plans for specific circumstances.The aim of this package is to provide an easy-to-use interface to visualize single, double or multiple sampling plans. In addition, methods have been provided to enable the user to assess sampling plans against pre-specified levels of...

  1. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2001-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  2. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    Mary-Louise Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mary-Louise Jung1, Karla Loria11Division of Industrial Marketing, e-Commerce and Logistics, Lulea University of Technology, SwedenObjective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health.Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM, in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted.Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use.Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide.Keywords: health services, elderly, technology, Internet, TAM, patient acceptance, health-seeking behavior

  3. International acceptability of advanced safeguarding techniques

    There are active development programs now under way to significantly enhance the effectiveness of international safeguarding. Advanced safeguarding techniques now under development include new material accounting methods utilizing nondestructive assay techniques, more reliable surveillance instrumentation, tamper-resistant and tamper-indicating seals, new means of utilizing continuous human inspection, and systems that incorporate both passive and active use-denial technologies. Before these new safeguarding techniques are utilized, however, they must be acceptable to the international community. This will unquestionably result in a compromise between what is technically feasible and what is politically acceptable. This report highlights many of the elements common to advanced safeguarding techniques that impact directly upon international acceptability. The concept of acceptability is viewed from the perspective of three different groups: (1) those States seeking upgraded safeguards, (2) those States having safeguards imposed upon them, and (3) the International Atomic Energy Agency. In general, a more conducive climate exists today for the acceptance of advanced safeguarding techniques than at any period in the past; but the differences between advanced safeguards and those safeguards being employed today are so large that considerable opposition to their implementation can be expected

  4. Children acceptance of laser dental treatment

    Lazea, Andreea; Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the dental anxiety level and the degree of acceptance of laser assisted pedodontic treatments from the children part. Also, we want to underline the advantages of laser use in pediatric dentistry, to make this technology widely used in treating dental problems of our children patients. Methods: Thirty pediatric dental patients presented in the Department of Pedodontics, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babeş", Timişoara were evaluated using the Wong-Baker pain rating scale, wich was administered postoperatory to all patients, to assess their level of laser therapy acceptance. Results: Wong-Baker faces pain rating scale (WBFPS) has good validity and high specificity; generally it's easy for children to use, easy to compare and has good feasibility. Laser treatment has been accepted and tolerated by pediatric patients for its ability to reduce or eliminate pain. Around 70% of the total sample showed an excellent acceptance of laser dental treatment. Conclusions: Laser technology is useful and effective in many clinical situations encountered in pediatric dentistry and a good level of pacient acceptance is reported during all laser procedures on hard and soft tissues.

  5. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  6. Electricity supply between acceptance, acceptability and social compatibility; Energieversorgung zwischen Akzeptanz, Akzeptabilitaet und Sozialvertraeglichkeit

    Schubert, Katharina; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl Energiesysteme und Energiewirtschaft (LEE)

    2012-11-01

    Acceptance promotion is supposed to be an indispensable premise for a successful realization of an energy concept. The contribution identifies deficiencies of the energy policy, including intransparency, complexity of decision procedures, for instance in case of the so called energy transmission line extension acceleration law, that has caused irritation and anger in the public. The justification of acceptance promotion is questioned in connection with the German nuclear policy reversal following the Fukushima accident. A research program ''public acceptance of large-scale power plants for electricity generation'' is presented. The issues criteria and limits of acceptability are of main importance for this discussion.

  7. Ion beam diagnosis

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  8. The beam dump tunnels

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  9. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    Hammarlund, K. [University of Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Social and Economic Geography

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains idealogical and practical contradictions between the development and preservation of landscapes. (author)

  10. Improving acceptance in wind power planning

    This paper presents important factors and planning procedures for public acceptance of wind power. Opinion surveys in Sweden show that acceptance is connected to the concept of utility rather than the aesthetic values. If wind turbines are confined by the authorities to marginal areas they will not earn their rightful place in the landscape by being of use. A positive attitude in general promotes positive experience of the effects of wind turbines. It is therefore essential to establish a sense of cooperation between the project management and the public. An open dialogue and continuous information will increase the possibilities for acceptance of future development. We must establish new codes of practice in permit processing because policies today contains idealogical and practical contradictions between the development and preservation of landscapes. (author)

  11. Functional food acceptance in the food chain

    Krutulyte, Rasa

    This thesis analyses consumer acceptance of functional foods and food manufacturers' decision to develop functional foods. The thesis sets up four key research questions: (1) How consumers accept functional foods enriched with omega-3? (2) How the intention of purchasing carrier ingredient...... another central issue of the paper. Results revealed that the general attitudes towards functional foods are related to the purchase intention with regard to functional foods described by their carrier/ingredient combinations. Consumers' attitudes towards specific carrier ingredient combinations define...... to develop functional foods? Research question 1 The health benefit of a functional food product is in fact limited if it is not eaten regularly and thus is not part of the healthy diet. For that reason it is highly relevant to look at the dietary change research when studying functional food acceptance...

  12. Working Toward Public Acceptance in Germany

    West German utilities show a typical three level structure: local distributors, regional producers/distributors and some ten nationwide producers/distributors. Only the latter have the necessary financial and organizational means for running nuclear power stations. Public acceptance, on the other hand, does not care for state borders. Today, the leading German electronic media and the relevant print media are being distributed and received nationwide, transporting opinion as well as acceptance or non-acceptance. This paper describes the main projects of 'Nuclear Information Group' and the strategy considerations behind. Information centers at NPP sites can cover local information needs, regional utilities will cope with regional needs. It became obvious at the very beginning of the nuclear controversy, however, that it is also necessary to establish an additional, strictly federal, i. e. central, organisation that takes care of all nationwide information needs

  13. FFTBM and primary pressure acceptance criterion

    When thermalhydraulic computer codes are used for simulation in the area of nuclear engineering the question is how to conduct an objective comparison between the code calculation and measured data. To answer this the fast Fourier transform based method (FFTBM) was developed. When the FFTBM method was developed the acceptance criteria for primary pressure and total accuracy were set. In the recent study the FFTBM method was used for accuracy quantification of RD-14M large LOCA test B9401 calculations. The blind accuracy analysis indicated good total accuracy while the primary pressure criterion was not fulfilled. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate the reasons for not fulfilling the primary pressure acceptance criterion and the applicability of the criterion to experimental facilities simulating heavy water reactor. The results of the open quantitative analysis showed that sensitivity analysis for influence parameters provide sufficient information to judge in which calculation the accuracy of primary pressure is acceptable. (author)

  14. Issues affecting the acceptance of hydrogen fuel

    While the topic of hydrogen as an alternative vehicle fuel is gaining increasing attention internationally, one significant aspect of its introduction has been given less attention than others: the public acceptance of such a new technology and fuel. After reviewing the existing literature on acceptance, risk perception and customer satisfaction, this paper describes the development of a model that illustrates important aspects in influencing a person's attitude towards a new product. 'Values', 'wants' and 'perception' are the three components found to influence acceptance, they themselves are affected by 'social background' and 'experience'. Suggestions are then given on how to use marketing methods, education projects and product exposure in order to maximise the likelihood of a successful introduction of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. (author)

  15. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency

  16. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  17. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  18. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities

  19. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal

  20. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal

  1. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer acceptance of functional foods is analyzed from the perspective of consumer quality perception of food products. Four major dimensions of food quality are identified: taste and other sensory characteristics, healthiness, convenience, and naturalness. Functional foods provide, from the...... consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  2. Social acceptance of handicapped people in Mongolia

    Jargalmaa Bayarsaikhan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The social integration of people with handicaps is an important social task. Their equal participation in social life cannot only be reached by law, but the acceptance of the social environment is an essential basic condition. Experiences, attitudes and behaviours of non-handicapped people towards people with handicaps are very important. The situation of people with handicaps has been confronted with a lack of understanding prejudices and refusal up to today. This study investigates how the mongolian citizens think about handicapped people. The adults were asked about subjects like social acceptance, refusal or even depreciation of people with handicaps.

  3. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  4. ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS BY THE EQUIVALENT SECTION METHOD

    Schulz, Mauro; Santisi D'Avila, Maria Paola

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the analysis of reinforced concrete beams subjected to combined axial load, bending moment and shear force. Cross-sections of general shape are divided, along the height, into plane elements. The biaxial behavior is represented according to the smeared rotating crack approach. Using traditionally accepted hypotheses for beams, the shear flow is determined by applying the Jouravski formula to an "equivalent section", which takes into account the nonlinear material be...

  5. System turnover and acceptance procedure of Qingshan NPP

    Turnover and acceptance process of nuclear power plant has direct influence on construction scheduling. The authors describe organization, conditions and implementation of system turnover and acceptance. The paper also gives some suggestions as reference of turnover and acceptance work

  6. Intense positron beams: linacs

    Beams of monoenergetic positrons with energies of a few eV to many keV have been used in experiments in atomic physics, solid-state physics and materials science. The production of positron beams from a new source, an electron linac, is described. Intense, pulsed beams of low-energy positrons were produced by a high-energy beam from an electron linac. The production efficiency, moderator geometry, beam spot size and other positron beam parameters were determined for electrons with energies from 60 to 120 MeV. Low-energy positron beams produced with a high-energy electron linac can be of much higher intensity than those beams currently derived from radioactive sources. These higher intensity beams will make possible positron experiments previously infeasible. 10 references, 1 figure

  7. Preliminary comments about beam loss

    Groom, D.

    1985-10-01

    A variety of beam loss questions are being investigated. They affect several design issues, ranging from machine-associated background in the detectors to the radiation lifetime of the main-ring magnets: (1) Muons. Oppositely directed muon beams from prompt muon production, primary meson decay, and a variety of other processes radiate from each IR. If they were not fanned by the insertion dipoles, the beams would be sufficiently intense and energetic that they would present a radiation hazard even after penetrating 2 km of soil or rock. (2) Machine-associated background in the IR`s. About 30 mb of the total cross section is elastic or quasi-elastic, and most of the protons are in a Gaussian spot with sigma = 9 mr. These particles are well within the machine acceptance, but there is a grey area in the tail of the distributions in which the scattered particles `almost` remain in orbit - they continue for some distance but eventually hit a wall. (3) Cryogenic load. This problem has been addressed to some degree in the RDS, but considerably more detail is needed. It appears that a very large fraction of the inelastic particle energy will be deposited here. (4) Radiation damage in the ring. The lifetime of both magnets and electronics in the tunnel might be limited by radiation due to particle loss. Early results are not reassuring. Tevatron measurements, reported to the authors by John Elias, indicate that most of the tunnel background comes from particle loss due to beam-gas collisions.

  8. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the...... column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Sustainability and acceptance - new challenges for nuclear energy

    This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in relation to acceptance of nuclear energy. Acceptance is viewed in terms of public acceptance, industrial acceptance, and internal acceptance/consensus within the nuclear community. It addresses sustainability criteria, the need for innovation, and the different levels of acceptability. The mechanisms of risk perception are discussed along with the technological consequences from risk perception mechanisms leading to specific objections against nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown. Results A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86%) agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients). Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2%) was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%). The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556) to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427). Conclusion The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. PMID:26316719

  11. Treatment Acceptability among Mexican American Parents

    Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Spendlove, Stuart J.; Pemberton, Joy R.

    2007-01-01

    There is a void in the literature with regard to Hispanic parents' views about common interventions for children with behavior problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the treatment acceptability of child management techniques in a Mexican American sample. Parents' acculturation was also examined to determine if it would account for…

  12. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices. T

  13. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  14. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control

  15. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  16. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste; DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW); DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW); and, U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste. The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  18. Peer Acceptance and Friendship: An Investigation.

    Bishop, Julia A.; Inderbitzen, Heidi M.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated how peer acceptance and friendship were related to self-esteem in adolescents. Ninth-grade students (n=542) were classified by sociometric group and presence or absence of reciprocal friendships. Results indicate no significant difference in self-esteem scores across sociometric groups. Subjects with one friend had higher self-esteem…

  19. Generator acceptance test and inspection report

    This Acceptance Test Report(ATR) is the completed testing and inspection of the new portable generator. The testing and inspection is to verify that the generator provided by the vendor meets the requirements of specification WHC-S-0252, Revision 2. Attached is various other documentation to support the inspection and testing

  20. Are we ready to accept the challenge?

    Lau, Sofie Rosenlund; Traulsen, Janine M

    2016-01-01

    administrative pharmacy, this study challenges contributors to the field by asking: Are we ready to accept the challenge and take qualitative research one step further? PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to initiate a constructive dialogue on the need for increased transparency in qualitative data analysis...

  1. Is Coersive Treatment of Offenders Morally Acceptable?

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Is it morally acceptable to instigate criminal offenders to participate in rehabilitative treatment by offering treatment in return for early release from prison? Some theorists have supported such treatment schemes by pointing to the beneficial consequences that follow from the treatment. Others...

  2. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    This acceptance test procedure (ATP) was written to test the void fraction instrument (VFI) and verify that the unit is ready for field service. The procedure verifies that the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed in the software ATP) and software alarms are operating as designed

  3. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and trends in

  4. Monitoring Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2010-01-01

    Promoting acceptance of homosexuality is the main objective of current Dutch policy on the emancipation of gays and lesbians. At the request of Ronald Plasterk, the former Dutch government minister with responsibility for this policy, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is monitoring d

  5. Influence Processes for Information Technology Acceptance

    Bhattacherjee, Anol; Sanford, Clive Carlton

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how processes of external influence shape information technology acceptance among potential users, how such influence effects vary across a user population, and whether these effects are persistent over time. Drawing on the elaboration-likelihood model (ELM), we compared two...

  6. W-087 Acceptance test procedure. Revision 1

    Joshi, A.W.

    1997-06-10

    This Acceptance Test Procedure/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Electrical/Instrumentation and Mechanical systems function as required by project criteria and to verify proper operation of the integrated system including the interlocks.

  7. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2012-02-28

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept DOE non-radioactive classified waste, DOE non-radioactive hazardous classified waste, DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW), DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste for permanent disposal. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and will be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project (WMP) at (702) 295-7063, and your call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  8. Acceptance of nuclear power: The Fukushima effect

    Utilizing a longitudinal study design, the impact of the 2011 accident in Fukushima on acceptance of nuclear power and the evaluation of several scenarios with different percentages of nuclear power were examined. Mail surveys were conducted in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The first survey took place before the accident in Fukushima (Autumn 2010), the second survey immediately after the accident (March 2011), and the third survey half a year after the accident (October 2011). A sample of 463 persons participated in all three surveys. The accident had a negative impact on the acceptance of nuclear power. The mean change was moderate, and high correlations between the measurement points were observed. Overall, participants thus showed rather stable attitudes towards nuclear power across the three measurement waves. Results of the present study demonstrate the importance of prior beliefs and attitudes for the interpretation of an accident. The evaluation of the various scenarios was strongly influenced by participants’ pre-Fukushima attitudes towards nuclear power. - Highlights: ► Longitudinal studies are important for risk perception research. ► The accident in Fukushima had only a moderate impact on acceptance. ► Acceptance of nuclear power before and after Fukushima was highly correlated. ► People have stable attitudes towards nuclear power

  9. 29 CFR 1926.29 - Acceptable certifications.

    2010-07-01

    ... Acceptable certifications. (a) Pressure vessels. Current and valid certification by an insurance company or... be in compliance with the requirements of this part when evidence of current and valid certification by an insurance company or regulatory authority attesting to the safe installation, inspection,...

  10. Acceptance of irradiated food: an education issue

    The commercial use of irradiated food technology in Brazil has a slow growing due to misinterpretation by most Brazilian consumers, who have been mislead by wrong ideas about the meaning of what is nuclear energy. Researches indicate that consumers have difficult in accepting such a technology due to the confusion between the terms irradiation and radioactivity, which are often related to health risks. When properly informed about the process, its purpose and the benefits offered by food irradiation technology, most consumers react positively. Therefore, this work aims to: first, to evaluate the acceptance of irradiated foods by Brazilian consumers; second, to verify the teaching at school about the food irradiation process; third, to analyze the Brazilian school curriculum from elementary school to high school, regarding nuclear energy applications; then, to compare the content taught in Brazil with the content covered in other surveyed countries, such as France, United States, and China. The methodology of this study consisted of a systematic survey of the specific literature, and a questionnaire to verify the acceptance of irradiated food by Brazilian consumers. According to the researched bibliography, it was clear the recommendation of an early school education about the usage of nuclear energy, more specifically, food irradiation. Such a recommendation is due to the fact that the consulted costumers, in Brazil and other countries mentioned in this work, do not clearly understand the full benefits of irradiated food. Hence, education is fundamental for the acceptance of new technologies by consumers, as it is the case with irradiated food. (author)

  11. INS Director SHI Xianglin's resignation accepted

    2007-01-01

    @@ The CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) has accepted the resignation of Dr. SHI Xianglin as director of the Institute for Nutritional Sciences (INS), and decided that Dr. CHEN Yan, deputy director of INS, would take the helm of the institute for the time being.

  12. Accepting the truth: A step toward reconciliation

    Ilić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The truth is not only about accepting the facts. The truth includes emotional components - longing for acknowledgment of mistakes and validation of painful losses and experiences. While one side in the conflict considers itself as the only victim and experiences determination and acknowledgment of the truth as a possibility for healing its own trauma through satisfaction of justice and compensation, the other side is not accepting the truth. For this other side, confrontation with the facts is a painful trauma, which endangers individual moral norms, threatens the national identity and requires, on individual level, plugging in the defense mechanism, in order to prevent penetration of painful emotions into the consciousness. Primitive psychological mechanisms of defense, focused around splitting (projection, denial, are the main obstacles in accepting the truth both on individual and group level. There is also another extreme form of reaction manifested through "hypertrophy" of the truth and one-sided self-accusation. In this paper the author presents psychological explanation of the process of accepting the truth as the prerequisite for reconciliation and transformation of the conflict.

  13. Workaholism, Health, and Self-Acceptance

    Chamberlin, Christine M.; Zhang, Naijian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between workaholism, perceived parental workaholism, self-acceptance, psychological well-being, and physical symptoms among 347 college students. Statistically significant relationships were found between college students' perceived parental workaholism and their own workaholism. Also, relationships between…

  14. Measuring acceptance of new food product concepts

    Grunert, Klaus G; Perrea, Toula; Kügler, Jens

    and convenience, or without cognitive mediation (see figure). Using examples of new pork-based product concepts and data from four countries (Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, UK), we elaborate on the role of these two routes towards new product acceptance. We propose that the increased role of storytelling...

  15. Women's role for public acceptance - WEN activities

    WEN (Women's Energy Network) is a national network of women working professionally in the field of public relations or technologies in various energy-related companies and organizations or interested in energy public acceptance (PA) activities including nuclear PA. This paper describes goals, organization, activities of WEN, and survey on public consciousness. 10 figs

  16. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    Zawawi KH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Zawawi Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option.Methods: Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was explained and photographs of an actual procedure were shown.Results: A total of 150 subjects were approached and 129 (86% agreed to answer the questionnaires (72 male and 57 female patients. Of these, only 3.1% did hear about corticotomy and 7.8% selected corticotomy instead of extraction. Fear from the surgery (53.2% was the most frequent reason for not selecting corticotomy followed by fear from pain (36.9%. The acceptance of corticotomy between males and females was similar. No relationship was found between the level of education and prior knowledge of the procedure, P=0.857. Prior knowledge about corticotomy was not a factor in selecting it as a treatment option (P=0.556 to reduce the treatment time (P=0.427.Conclusion: The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option was low. Fear from the surgery was the main reason for not selecting it. The acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics was not related to patient’s level of education or sex. Keywords: orthodontic treatment, corticotomy-assisted orthodontics, patient acceptance, cross sectional survey, alveolar decortication

  17. Design study of beam dynamics issues for 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    A design study has recently been conducted for exploring the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a rf power source for a 1 TeV linear collider. The author present, in this paper, the beam dynamics part of this study. They have achieved in their design study acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties for the resulting high efficiency and low cost RK-TBA

  18. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  19. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e{sup +}- e{sup -} colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II).

  1. Secondary beams and the synthesis of exotic nuclei

    With the advent of modern fast cycling synchrotrons capable of delivering high intensity heavy ion beams up to uranium, the production of secondary radioactive ion beams (RIBs) with sufficient intensity has become feasible. The basic production mechanism is the fragmentation of near relativistic heavy ion beams on light targets. The physical facts underlying the efficient conversion of stable beams into RIBs are: (1) at beam energies of several 100 MeV/A thick conversion targets (1-10 g/cm2) can be used, which, for nuclei near stability, convert on the order of .1 to 1% of the primary beam into secondary beams, (2) the secondary beams are emitted into a narrow phase space (small transverse and longitudinal emittances), and (3) these emittances are of the correct magnitude to match the acceptances of suitably designed storage accumulator rings. From a primarily experimental point of view experiments with RIBs can be divided into three categories: (1) Experiments that measure properties of the secondary beams as such, like masses, Q-values, and magnetic moments, β-decay studies of implanted exotic nuclei, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (2) Experiments that use external targets. This includes the synthesis of exotic nuclei with neutron- or proton-rich beams, implantation of RIBs for tracer studies in solid state physics, and biomedical applications. Many well established experimental techniques can be used in these two categories, while (3), the use of internal targets, represents in many ways new challenges to experimenters in nuclear and atomic physics

  2. Beam Loss Monitors at LHC

    Dehning, B

    2016-01-01

    One of the main functions of the LHC beam loss measurement system is the protection of equipment against damage caused by impacting particles creating secondary showers and their energy dissipation in the matter. Reliability requirements are scaled according to the acceptable consequences and the frequency of particle impact events on equipment. Increasing reliability often leads to more complex systems. The downside of complexity is a reduction of availability; therefore, an optimum has to be found for these conflicting requirements. A detailed review of selected concepts and solutions for the LHC system will be given to show approaches used in various parts of the system from the sensors, signal processing, and software implementations to the requirements for operation and documentation.

  3. Beam Loss in Linacs

    Plum, M A

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  4. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...... beam is \\SI{4\\times10}{mm}. It is reinforced with a \\SI{3}{mm} high steel band covering the full width of the beam. The experimental setup is described and results for this beam are presented. Furthermore, the results for three similar experiments with a \\SI{6}{mm} steel band reinforcement are briefly...

  5. Space charge dominated beams

    After an introductory section on the relationship between emittance and beam Coulomb energy we discuss the properties of space charge dominated beams in progressive steps: from uniformly charged bunched beams to non-uniformly charged beams to correlation effects between particles (simulation beams or 'crystalline' beams). A practical application can be found in the beam dynamics of a high-current injector. The concept of correlation energy is of practical interest in computer simulation of high-brilliance beams, where one deals with an artificially enhanced two-particle Coulomb energy, if many real particles are combined into one simulation super-particle. This can be a source of non-physical emittance growth. (orig./HSI)

  6. Laser-Beam Separator

    Mcdermid, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Train of prisms and optical stop separate fundamental beam of laser from second and higher order harmonics of beam produced in certain crystals and by stimulated Raman scattering in gases and liquids.

  7. Acceptance testing and quality assurance of Simulix evolution radiotherapy simulator

    The success of radiotherapy depends on precise treatment simulation and proper patient positioning. The simulator is a conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic system which emulates the geometrical positions of radiotherapy treatment unit. Hence, the acceptance tests and quality assurance (QA) of the simulator are important prior to its commissioning for the safe and precise clinical use. The verification of mechanical and optical readouts, field size, isocenter, optical and radiation field congruence were performed. The X-ray beam parameters were tested for kVp, mAs and consistency of radiation output. The flat panel detector performance was checked with respect to resolution, low contrast sensitivity (LCS), automatic dose rate control (ADRC), and gray image resolution (GIR). Gantry, table, and imaging system collision possibility was checked. Radiation survey around the room was also performed. The field size test for digital readout and on graph paper, the results of isocenter checkup for rotation of gantry, collimator, and couch, and the deviations observed in auto stop for various movements were found within the tolerance limits. Optical field and radiation field was found congruent. All the lasers were found aligned with the established isocenter. Maximum deviation for set and measured kV was found to be 3% in fluoro mode. The maximum deviation observed in mAs was 1.5% in 3-point as well as in 2-point film exposed mode. The X-ray output was found consistent. The results of tests for resolution, LCS, ADRC, and GIR of the flat panel detector were within tolerance limits. All the six safety interlocks were found working. Radiation level around the room was found within the acceptable limits. All the tests carried out were found within the tolerance limits. The data which has been taken in this study will provide basic support to the routine QA of the simulator. (author)

  8. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  9. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  10. Slow kaon beams

    A short description is given of considerations for the design of low-momentum kaon beam lines. Relevant data for the performance of seven existing and decommissioned slow kaon beams are presented. For single-stage separated beams the observed ratio all/K- is greater than 50 for momenta less than 500 MeV/c. We recommend a two-stage separated beam with perhaps an upstream cleanup section for maximal purity

  11. Welding by laser beam

    A laser which does not require a vacuum and the beam from which can be projected over a distance without loss of power is sited outside a welding zone and the beam projected through a replaceable laser transparent window. The window is designed and shaped to facilitate access of the beam of workpiece items to be welded in containment. Either the workpiece or the laser beam may be moved during welding. (author)

  12. Proton beam writing

    Frank Watt; Breese, Mark B H; Bettiol, Andrew A; Jeroen A. van Kan

    2007-01-01

    Proton beam (p-beam) writing is a new direct-writing process that uses a focused beam of MeV protons to pattern resist material at nanodimensions. The process, although similar in many ways to direct writing using electrons, nevertheless offers some interesting and unique advantages. Protons, being more massive, have deeper penetration in materials while maintaining a straight path, enabling p-beam writing to fabricate three-dimensional, high aspect ratio structures with vertical, smooth side...

  13. Electron beam focusing system

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  14. Beam injection into RHIC

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam

  15. Beams 92: Proceedings

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  16. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development of the...

  17. Klystron beam bunching

    A detailed description of electron-beam bunching phenomena in klystrons is presented. Beam harmonic current is defined, both space-charge and ballistic bunching are analyzed, Ramo's theorem is used to describe how a bunched beam drives a cavity, and a general cavity model including external coupling is provided. (author)

  18. Accelerating nondiffracting beams

    Yan, Shaohui; Li, Manman; Yao, Baoli, E-mail: yaobl@opt.ac.cn; Yu, Xianghua; Lei, Ming; Dan, Dan; Yang, Yanlong; Min, Junwei; Peng, Tong

    2015-06-05

    We present a set of beams which combine the properties of accelerating beams and (conventional) diffraction-free beams. These beams can travel along a desired trajectory while keeping an approximately invariant transverse profile, which may be (higher-order) Bessel-, Mathieu- or parabolic-nondiffracting-like beams, depending on the initial complex amplitude distribution. A possible application of these beams presented here may be found in optical trapping field. For example, a higher-order Bessel-like beam, which has a hollow (transverse) pattern, is suitable for guiding low-refractive-index or metal particles along a curve. - Highlights: • A set of beams having arbitrary trajectories of accelerating and nondiffracting behaviors are generalized and presented. • Bessel-like accelerating beams are generalized to the higher-order (hollow) version. • Mathieu-like accelerating beams and parabolic-nondiffracting-like accelerating beams are presented. • A possible application of these beams may be found in optical trapping and guiding of particles.

  19. Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18 and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11 are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age of the target vaccination population means that physicians, parents, and patients will all be involved in the decision-making process. Research has shown that parents and patients are more likely to accept a vaccine if it is efficacious, safe, reasonably priced, and recommended by a physician. Widespread education of physicians, patients, and parents about the risks and consequences of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination will be instrumental for fostering vaccine acceptance.

  20. GERDA phase II detectors and acceptance tests

    The GERDA collaboration aims at searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge into 76Se. It uses enriched Ge detectors that are operated in liquid argon. Phase I of the experiment started with a target mass of approximately 20 kg on November 1, 2011, and it will last for 1 year. Phase II is in preparation and envisions the installation of at least 25 new Broad Energy Ge detectors (BEGe) that will increase the target mass by nearly 20 kg. These detectors, however, have to be extensively tested prior to their usage. The talk briefly reviews the preparation of the detector screening campaign and focuses on the corresponding acceptance test strategy. The tests include energy resolution and leakage current measurements, dead layer and active volume determination, as well as the pulse shape discrimination efficiencies of the detectors. Finally we present results obtained with depleted BEGe detectors that are used for the optimization of the enriched ones during the acceptance tests.

  1. Nevada test site waste acceptance criteria

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the NTS. Review each section of this document. This document is not intended to include all of the requirements; rather, it is meant as a guide toward meeting the regulations. All references in this document should be observed to avoid omission of requirements on which acceptance or rejection of waste will be based. The Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document

  2. Acceptable risk in reactor safety studies

    Acceptable risk is defined in terms of its five basic parameters: the hazard or problem; the probability of occurrence; the consequence; the possible alternative actions; and the value system of the community or the society. The problem of consistency in design at a site and between differing sites is discussed and solutions are suggested. Techniques for consistent deterministic and probabilistic setting limits and design standards are illustrated using data from AEC Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400. The influence of level of consequence is discussed and a general methodology for decision analysis in resource allocation problem is briefly introduced and illustrated. The concept of acceptable risk is put in a quantitative format that can be used by engineers and planners. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced to develop the methodologies

  3. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  4. Void fraction instrument acceptance test procedure

    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the mechanical and electrical features (not specifically addressed by the software ATP) of the void fraction instrument (VFI). Acceptance testing of the VFI, control console, and decontamination spray assembly was conducted in the 306E building high bay and area adjacent to the facility. The VFI was tested in the horizontal position supported in multiple locations on rolling tables. The control console was located next to the VFI pneumatic control assembly. The VFI system was operated exactly as is expected in the tank farm, with the following exceptions: power was provided from a building outlet and the VFI was horizontal. The testing described in this document verifies that the mechanical and electrical features are operating as designed and that the unit is ready for field service

  5. Radioactive waste disposal and public acceptance aspects

    Ulhoa, Barbara M.A.; Aleixo, Bruna L.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M., E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.b, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Part of the public opinion around the world considers the wastes generated due to nuclear applications as the biggest environmental problem of the present time. The development of a solution that satisfies everybody is a great challenge, in that obtaining public acceptance for nuclear enterprises is much more challenging than solving the technical issues involved. Considering that the offering of a final solution that closes the radioactive waste cycle has a potentially positive impact on public opinion, the objective of this work is to evaluate the amount of the radioactive waste volume disposed in a five-year period in several countries and gauge the public opinion regarding nuclear energy. The results show that the volume of disposed radioactive waste increased, a fact that stresses the importance of promoting discussions about repositories and public acceptance. (author)

  6. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.;

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  7. Transport efficiency in large acceptance spectrometers

    Cavallaro, M., E-mail: manuela.cavallaro@lns.infn.i [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Linares, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litoranea s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ 24210-340 (Brazil)

    2011-05-01

    A general technique to study the transmission efficiency of charged particles through a large acceptance magnetic device is presented. This basically involves the measurement of the impact positions and angles of the particles in any plane normal to the optical axis and the use of a powerful algorithm for the reconstruction of the trajectories. This latter is designed to perform the calculations of highly non-linear transport functions and is essential when high-order aberrations are not negligible. The technique is applied to study the transport efficiency of the heavy ions produced in different nuclear reactions and analyzed by the MAGNEX large acceptance spectrometer. Both the angular integral and differential efficiency have been deduced with overall accuracy of about {+-}1.5% and {+-}5%, respectively.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. Validation and acceptance of synthetic infrared imagery

    Smith, Moira I.; Bernhardt, Mark; Angell, Christopher R.; Hickman, Duncan; Whitehead, Philip; Patel, Dilip

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes the use of an image query database (IQ-DB) tool as a means of implementing a validation strategy for synthetic long-wave infrared images of sea clutter. Specifically it was required to determine the validity of the synthetic imagery for use in developing and testing automatic target detection algorithms. The strategy adopted for exploiting synthetic imagery is outlined and the key issues of validation and acceptance are discussed in detail. A wide range of image metrics has been developed to achieve pre-defined validation criteria. A number of these metrics, which include post processing algorithms, are presented. Furthermore, the IQ-DB provides a robust mechanism for configuration management and control of the large volume of data used. The implementation of the IQ-DB is reviewed in terms of its cardinal point specification and its central role in synthetic imagery validation and EOSS progressive acceptance.

  11. TOFD and acceptance criteria: a perfect team

    In recent years, it has become clear that the Time Of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) technique, developed in the UK in the seventies, is a most powerful technique not only for accurate sizing of known defects but also for defect detection in routine NDT. But, whereas TOFD may have been successfully introduced for recurrent inspections and fingerprinting, using Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA) or Fitness For Purpose (FFP) approaches, the lack of adequate acceptance criteria still prohibits its introduction for routine inspections. This paper also addresses a Dutch project that aims for the development of defect acceptance criteria for TOFD inspection. Examples of TOFD applications are given, ranging from pipeline girth welds to vessels with wall thicknesses up to 400 mm. Some experiences on complex geometries as well as high-alloy steels and titanium will also be highlighted

  12. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  13. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    Zawawi KH

    2015-01-01

    Khalid H Zawawi Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Objective: To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option.Methods: Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticoto...

  14. Patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics

    Zawawi, Khalid H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study patients’ acceptance of corticotomy-assisted orthodontics as a treatment option. Methods Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment were asked to complete two sets of questionnaires; the first set included questions about age, sex, and level of education and general questions about orthodontic treatment; and the second set was related to the corticotomy-assisted orthodontics. Before answering the corticotomy questions, a brief description of the clinical procedure was exp...

  15. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  16. Acceptance of a Theory: Justification or Rhetoric?

    Chow, Siu L.

    1992-01-01

    The rhetoric-analytic critique of experimental psychology owes its apparent attractiveness to (a) some erroneous ideas about cognitive psychology and the rationale of experimentation, (b) the failure to distinguish between prior data and evidential data vis-à-vis the to-be-corroborated explanatory theory, and (c) evidential data owes their identity to a theory that is independent of the theory being tested. Theories in cognitive psychology are accepted because they can withstand concerted eff...

  17. Peer acceptance/rejection and academic achievement

    Spasenović Vera Z.

    2003-01-01

    Considerations of the nature and role of peer relations in child development indicate that peer interaction is an important factor in developing social and cognitive competences. Peer relations not only influence current but also subsequent academic, behavioral and emotional development. Accepted students more often display better academic achievement, whereas the status of rejection is coupled with academic difficulties and lower academic achievement. Peer rejection is a relatively stable ch...

  18. Sexual Education In Malaysia: Accepted Or Rejected?

    Siti Syairah Mohd Mutalip; Ruzianisra Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Introduction to sexual education in schools was suggested by the Malaysian government as one of the effort taken in the aim to reduce the sexual-related social problems among Malaysian teenagers nowadays. This study was proposed in the aim to determine the rate of acceptance among adolescents on the implementation of sexual education in schools. Methods: This study was conducted using questionnaires distributed to 152 pre-degree students in Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknolog...

  19. Assesing the acceptance of the project

    Clara Fernández-Shaw Toda; David García Marco; Inmaculada Díaz Fernández

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the acceptability of the project "Adding colour to your unit dose." MATERIAL AND METHODS: It sets in motion a project to reduce errors in the administration of pasting labels with different shapes and colours on blister medicines. It includes the name of the product, the active ingredient, dosage, lot and expiration date. Also included for internal quality control are the initials of the person who made the label and the date and time at which it was made. The nurse monito...

  20. Consumer Acceptance Of Functional Foods In Montenegro

    Zaklina Stojanovic; Jelena Filipovic; Boban Mugosa

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate determinants of acceptance of functional food in Montenegro and to analyze to what extent these factors affected individuals' consumption of food with health claims. The questionnaire was administered to 479 respondents in Montenegro. The stratified three-stage random sampling method was adopted. Several statistical techniques were employed for investigating data: regression, cluster analysis, independent-samples t test and chi-square. The results indicate that...

  1. Diesel generator trailer acceptance test procedure

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) will document compliance with the requirements of WHC-S-0252 Rev. 1 and ECNs 609271, and 609272. The equipment being tested is a 150KW Diesel Generator mounted on a trailer with switchgear. The unit was purchased as a Design and Fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and will be performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing the test at the Seller's location

  2. Finite Automata with Generalized Acceptance Criteria

    Timo Peichl; Heribert Vollmer

    2001-01-01

    We examine the power of nondeterministic finite automata with acceptance of an input word defined by a leaf language, i.e., a condition on the sequence of leaves in the automaton's computation tree. We study leaf languages either taken from one of the classes of the Chomsky hierarchy, or taken from a time- or space-bounded complexity class. We contrast the obtained results with those known for leaf languages for Turing machines and Boolean circuits.

  3. Measuring social risk and determining its acceptability

    Lathrop, J.W.

    1978-07-14

    The implementation of a nuclear waste management technology raises several issues concerning the regulation of social risk. This paper presents a decision analytic approach to resolving some of those issues. A methodology for developing a radiological risk measure is presented, and several approaches to defining acceptable levels of that risk measure are considered. The methodology presented is oriented toward the development of radiological performance objectives for use as guidance in the drafting of regulations.

  4. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and trends in this regard. This report shows that the Netherlands is still the most gay-tolerant country in Europe. Nonetheless, there are limits to that tolerance and there are some groups in Dutch society whi...

  5. Monitoring Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2010-01-01

    Promoting acceptance of homosexuality is the main objective of current Dutch policy on the emancipation of gays and lesbians. At the request of Ronald Plasterk, the former Dutch government minister with responsibility for this policy, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is monitoring developments in society in this regard. This preliminary publication, which precedes a report to be published in June 2010, contains data from population surveys. What are the attitudes of the Dutch...

  6. Introduction to Technologies Acceptance and Sustainability Modelling

    Barkane, Zane; Ginters, Egils

    2011-01-01

    International audience Elaboration and introduction of a new technology is a complex and expensive task, therefore it is necessary to assess the set of factors influencing the future of technology. The most important parameters of assessment are acceptance and sustainability of technology. Different models exist, but mostly they are static and do not offer possibilities for interactive and real time assessment and do not allow forecasting the sustainability of technology. In the framework ...

  7. Measuring social risk and determining its acceptability

    The implementation of a nuclear waste management technology raises several issues concerning the regulation of social risk. This paper presents a decision analytic approach to resolving some of those issues. A methodology for developing a radiological risk measure is presented, and several approaches to defining acceptable levels of that risk measure are considered. The methodology presented is oriented toward the development of radiological performance objectives for use as guidance in the drafting of regulations

  8. Heavy fuel oil: acceptable? available? affordable?

    Increasingly stringent environmental legislation on emissions limits poses problems for large industrial energy users, causing them to re-examine their choice of fuel source. Choice of fuel must be made flexibly, preferably in the form of a dual fuel strategy, it is argued here. This article examines the relationship between the 1995 Environment Act, the 1990 Environmental Protection Act, and the likely future of heavy fuel oils in terms of acceptability, availability and affordability. (UK)

  9. Antiseptic technology: access, affordability, and acceptance.

    Boyce, J M

    2001-01-01

    Factors other than antimicrobial activity of soaps and antiseptic agents used for hand hygiene by health personnel play a role in compliance with recommendations. Hand hygiene products differ considerably in acceptance by hospital personnel. If switching from a nonmedicated soap to an antiseptic agent or increased use of an existing antiseptic agent for hand hygiene prevented a few more infections per year, additional expenditures for antiseptic agents would be offset by cost savings.

  10. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale survey of the attitudes of the Dutch public to homosexuality; this was published earlier this year under the title Just doing what comes naturally. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands (Gewoon doe...

  11. Intrinsic work motivation and pension reform acceptance

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Hennighausen, Tanja; Moessinger, Marc-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although demographic change leaves pay-as-you-go pension systems unsustainable, reforms, such as a higher pension age, are highly unpopular. This contribution looks into the role of intrinsic motivation as a driver for pension reform acceptance. Theoretical reasoning suggests that this driver should be relevant: The choice among different pension reform options (increasing pension age, increasing contributions, cutting pensions) can be analyzed within the framework of an optimal job separatio...

  12. Consumer studies acceptability on irradiated food

    A questionary to 119 professionals connected with the food field was performed in order to know their attitude, doubts and concernings about food irradiation considering that a favourable opinion would produce trust to the consumer market. The first part of the questionary showed the following results: 13% had never heard about food irradiation (FI), 72% were few familiarized with it, and 14% knew the subject; 42% would accept FI, 37% probably would accept it, 19% could not make up their minds and 2% would not accept it; 45% would eat irradiated food (IF), 45% probably would eat it, 8% probably would not eat it and 2% would not eat it; 44% would serve IF in their home, 45% would probably do so, 8% would probably not do it, and 3% would not do it. The second part showed that 67% of people thought that ionizing radiation (IR) improved the sanitary quality of food, 3% did not think so, and 29% did not know; 63% thought that IR is preferible to chemical preservatives, 4% did not think so and 33% did not know; 11% thought that the food treated with IR becomes radioactive, 60% did not think so, and 29% did not know; 42% thought that FI is wholesome, 8% did not think so, and 50% did not know; 8% consider that the majority of the persons would eat IF, 40% did not think so and 52% did not know; 82% consider necessary that IF have an identificatory label, 10% did not think so, and 8% did not know; 95% consider necessary more diffusion of this method before its commercialization, 2% did not think so and 3% did not know, and 81% want more information, 18% would want it and 1% do not want it. These results are considered to be a good sign of future consumption acceptability of food irradiation. (Author)

  13. Proposals now being accepted for 'INCITE'

    2003-01-01

    Secretary of Energy, Spencer Abraham, has announced that proposals are now being accepted for a new DOE Office of Science program to support innovative, large-scale computational science projects. The program, entitled "Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment" will award a total of 4.5 million supercomputer processor hours and 100 trillion bytes of data storage space at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center at DOE's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (1 page).

  14. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic and evolutionary algorithms or in modeling of complex networks. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(log(N)) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm, which typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. We also discuss a hybrid version, which might be suitable for highly heterogeneous weight distributions, found, fo...

  15. Food Authenticity, Technology and Consumer Acceptance

    Hobbs, Jill E.; McDonald, Jillian; Zhang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Traceability and authenticity issues have gained increasing prominence in food markets and create both opportunities and challenges for the food industry in providing credible information to consumers. Internal molecular tagging is an emerging technology with the potential to deliver traceability and authenticity assurances. A key question for the food industry in adopting new technologies is consumer acceptance. This paper explores consumer attitudes toward traceability and authenticity and ...

  16. Acceptability of male condom: an Indian scenario.

    Donta, Balaiah; Begum, Shahina; Naik, D D

    2014-11-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late 1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband's alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom. PMID:25673537

  17. Rationality, Theory Acceptance and Decision Theory

    J. Nicolas Kaufmann

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Following Kuhn's main thesis according to which theory revision and acceptance is always paradigm relative, I propose to outline some possible consequences of such a view. First, asking the question in what sense Bayesian decision theory could serve as the appropriate (normative theory of rationality examined from the point of view of the epistemology of theory acceptance, I argue that Bayesianism leads to a narrow conception of theory acceptance. Second, regarding the different types of theory revision, i.e. expansion, contraction, replacement and residuals shifts, I extract from Kuhn's view a series of indications showing that theory replacement cannot be rationalized within the framework of Bayesian decision theory, not even within a more sophisticated version of that model. Third, and finally, I will point to the need for a more comprehensive model of rationality than the Bayesian expected utility maximization model, the need for a model which could better deal with the different aspects of theory replacement. I will show that Kuhn's distinction between normal and revolutionary science gives us several hints for a more adequate theory of rationality in science. I will also show that Kuhn is not in a position to fully articulate his main ideas and that he well be confronted with a serious problem concerning collective choice of a paradigm.

  18. A structural model of technology acceptance

    Etienne Erasmus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Enterprise resource systems have not always led to significant organisational enhancement and many projects in which these systems have been implemented turn out to be over budget, not on time and unsuccessful.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to test the technology acceptance model within a South African SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning user environment.Motivation for the study: No study could be traced in which the technology acceptance model has been evaluated in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. The 23-item Technology Acceptance Model Questionnaire was deployed amongst SAP® Enterprise Resource Planning users (N = 241. Main findings: The results confirmed significant paths from perceived usefulness of the information system to attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use it. Furthermore, behavioural intention to use the system predicted actual use thereof. Perceived ease of use indirectly affected attitudes towards and behavioural intentions to use via perceived usefulness of the information system.Practical/managerial implications: Practitioners should build user confidence by ensuring the ease of use of a new system, providing relevant education, training and guidance and reiterating its usefulness and future added value to the user’s job and career.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the influence of individuals’ perceptions of information system usage on their attitudes, behavioural intentions and actual use of such a system.

  19. Acceptable regret in medical decision making.

    Djulbegovic, B; Hozo, I; Schwartz, A; McMasters, K M

    1999-09-01

    When faced with medical decisions involving uncertain outcomes, the principles of decision theory hold that we should select the option with the highest expected utility to maximize health over time. Whether a decision proves right or wrong can be learned only in retrospect, when it may become apparent that another course of action would have been preferable. This realization may bring a sense of loss, or regret. When anticipated regret is compelling, a decision maker may choose to violate expected utility theory to avoid regret. We formulate a concept of acceptable regret in medical decision making that explicitly introduces the patient's attitude toward loss of health due to a mistaken decision into decision making. In most cases, minimizing expected regret results in the same decision as maximizing expected utility. However, when acceptable regret is taken into consideration, the threshold probability below which we can comfortably withhold treatment is a function only of the net benefit of the treatment, and the threshold probability above which we can comfortably administer the treatment depends only on the magnitude of the risks associated with the therapy. By considering acceptable regret, we develop new conceptual relations that can help decide whether treatment should be withheld or administered, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain. This may be particularly beneficial in deciding what constitutes futile medical care. PMID:10580533

  20. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Indonesia

    In Indonesia, the activities in nuclear field have developed since 1954 when a government committee was formed. This committee had the task to carry out nuclear energy research, and after this committee reported its work, the Lembaga Tenaga Atom (Agency for Atomic Energy) was founded in 1958, and in 1964, it became Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional through the Basic Act on Atomic Energy. BATAN is a government agency, of which the main tasks are the development of nuclear energy by regulating, administering and controlling all nuclear activities in Indonesia and conducting the research and development of the use of nuclear energy. One of its tasks is to give general and technical informations on nuclear technology to public, and the activities on public acceptance started at the end of 1985. The feasibility study to introduce the first nuclear power plant has been done by a Japanese NEWJEC Inc., and completed in May, 1996. The public acceptance program and strategy and the activities of the public acceptance of a nuclear power plant are reported. The results of the public socialization and exhibition can be seen by the increasing number of the participants in the programs. (K.I.)

  1. Acceptability of male condom: An Indian scenario

    Balaiah Donta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Family Planning Programme of India had introduced condom as one of the family planning methods in the late1960s. Condom was promoted as a family planning method through social marketing since its inception. With the increasing prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV/AIDS, condom was also promoted as a dual method for protection against both unintended pregnancies as well as sexually transmitted infections. Despite efforts at various levels, the overall use of condom among couples in India is low. Here we present literature review of studies to understand the condom acceptability among couples in India. Specifically, the paper assesses research and programmes that have been carried out to increase the use of condom among couples; determinants of condom use; reason for not using condom; and perception versus experience of condom failure. The reported problems related to condom use included non acceptance by partner, perceived ineffectiveness, less comfort, lack of sexual satisfaction, husband′s alcohol use, depression, and anxiety, and not available at that instant. The role of media in the promotion of condom use was indicated as an important way to increase awareness and use. Multiple strategies would help in acceptance of male condom.

  2. 48 CFR 552.270-29 - Acceptance of Space.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of Space. 552... Acceptance of Space. As prescribed in 570.603, insert the following clause: Acceptance of Space (SEP 1999) (a... designated representative shall promptly inspect the space. (b) The Government will accept the space and...

  3. Perceptions of Social Behavior and Peer Acceptance in Kindergarten.

    Phillipsen, Leslie C.; Bridges, Sara K.; McLemore, T. Gayle; Saponaro, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Used social behavior ratings from observers, teachers, and parents to predict kindergartners' perceptions of peer acceptance. Found that friendship skill predicted parent- and child-reported peer acceptance. Shyness/withdrawal inversely predicted teacher-reported peer acceptance. Aggression did not predict peer acceptance. Girls were rated as more…

  4. 48 CFR 28.203-2 - Acceptability of assets.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptability of assets... Acceptability of assets. (a) The Government will accept only cash, readily marketable assets, or irrevocable... underlying bond obligations. (b) Acceptable assets include— (1) Cash, or certificates of deposit, or...

  5. Dogmatism, Self-Acceptance, and Acceptance of Others Among Spanish and American Students

    Gonzalez-Tamayo, Eulogy

    1974-01-01

    A cross cultural study of 16-year-olds in Spain and the United States assesses the extent to which open or closed societies effect performance on the Dogmatism Scale, and the Acceptance of Self and Others Attitude Scale. (JH)

  6. Evaluation of the Acceptance of Audience Response System by Corporations Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Chu, Hsing-Hui; Lu, Ta-Jung; Wann, Jong-Wen

    The purpose of this research is to explore enterprises' acceptance of Audience Response System (ARS) using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The findings show that (1) IT characteristics and facilitating conditions could be external variables of TAM. (2) The degree of E-business has positive significant correlation with behavioral intention of employees. (3) TAM is a good model to predict and explain IT acceptance. (4) Demographic variables, industry and firm characteristics have no significant correlation with ARS acceptance. The results provide useful information to managers and ARS providers that (1) ARS providers should focus more on creating different usages to enhance interactivity and employees' using intention. (2) Managers should pay attention to build sound internal facilitating conditions for introducing IT. (3) According to the degree of E-business, managers should set up strategic stages of introducing IT. (4) Providers should increase product promotion and also leverage academic and government to promote ARS.

  7. Basic design of the beam diagnostic device and proposal of a new electrostatic optical element

    Hanashima, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The basic design completed of a beam diagnostic device, which indicates, among others, the phase space regions acceptable by the beams, and density distributions in the phase space as well. The measurement is made using two deflectors and two apertures. (M. Tanaka)

  8. How is Acceptable Public Risk Determined?

    Treichel, Judy [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Acceptance of risk is a value-based decision, that is, the acceptance of risk by a person or group of persons depends on the values of the person or the shared values of the group. In the case of nuclear waste management, the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the general public approach risk from entirely different perspectives, dictated by the separate value systems held by each. The utilities producing radioactive waste view risk assessment as a part of a business decision that involves costs and benefits. The values that drive public acceptance of a national nuclear waste management policy are very different. As stated by Peter Montague of the Environmental Research Foundation: 'The only people I know who are enthusiastic about quantitative risk assessment are people who want to gain permission to expose other humans to dangerous chemicals so someone can make money. Risk assessment has proven to be an effective way to gain the necessary permissions'. Between the industry and the public are the regulators. Most national governments require regulatory agencies to establish rules that provide adequate public safety while allowing industries, whether nuclear or other producers of public commodities, to profitably do business. The general population has always had a fragile relationship with nuclear proponents. There is an atmosphere of mistrust based on the understanding that the values that matter to the general public differ tremendously from those purported by the industry and regulators. The general public is more interested in worst case scenarios; that is, what is the most severe negative consequence to their safety and the safety of their children that could result from nuclear projects. There is no cost or benefit more important to the general public than the health and safety of their families. The rift in values creates a great disparity in proposed solutions to the nuclear waste question. Regulators regard public acceptance of a risk

  9. How is Acceptable Public Risk Determined?

    Acceptance of risk is a value-based decision, that is, the acceptance of risk by a person or group of persons depends on the values of the person or the shared values of the group. In the case of nuclear waste management, the nuclear industry, the regulators, and the general public approach risk from entirely different perspectives, dictated by the separate value systems held by each. The utilities producing radioactive waste view risk assessment as a part of a business decision that involves costs and benefits. The values that drive public acceptance of a national nuclear waste management policy are very different. As stated by Peter Montague of the Environmental Research Foundation: 'The only people I know who are enthusiastic about quantitative risk assessment are people who want to gain permission to expose other humans to dangerous chemicals so someone can make money. Risk assessment has proven to be an effective way to gain the necessary permissions'. Between the industry and the public are the regulators. Most national governments require regulatory agencies to establish rules that provide adequate public safety while allowing industries, whether nuclear or other producers of public commodities, to profitably do business. The general population has always had a fragile relationship with nuclear proponents. There is an atmosphere of mistrust based on the understanding that the values that matter to the general public differ tremendously from those purported by the industry and regulators. The general public is more interested in worst case scenarios; that is, what is the most severe negative consequence to their safety and the safety of their children that could result from nuclear projects. There is no cost or benefit more important to the general public than the health and safety of their families. The rift in values creates a great disparity in proposed solutions to the nuclear waste question. Regulators regard public acceptance of a risk-informed policy

  10. HPV vaccination acceptability in young boys

    Giancarlo Tisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comprehension and acceptance of HPV vaccination in parents of adolescent boys aged 11 to 15 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted by means of questionnaires sent directly to the homes of all families with young males aged between 11 and 15, residents of three municipalities of the Province of Brescia, Italy. The documentation also contained an informative leaflet summarizing the HPV-related disease characteristics, the burden of disease and the available strategies for prevention and treatment, illustrating the rationale of vaccination and describing the project and its phases. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, acceptance and motivations for HPV vaccination. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. At the end of the study, parents who received the questionnaires were also offered the possibility of vaccinating their male sons for free. RESULTS: From a total of 1072 questionnaires sent, 161 where returned from the three selected municipalities (average response rate 15%; 97% of adolescent males involved in the study were Italian and 91% Catholic; 97% of parents declared themselves to be willing to vaccinate their sons: the principal motivation given (92% was prevention of the disease, cancerous or not, related to viral infection. Among the respondents not willing to vaccinate their sons, the motivation was lack of information about the vaccine and the disease. At the end of the study, around 71 boys were vaccinated. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first survey in Italy exclusively conducted on parents of adolescent males about the acceptability and feasibility of vaccination against HPV: a very high percentage of respondents was favorable to accept the vaccination for their sons, the main motivation being the fact that parents considered protecting their sons from HPV-related diseases highly important. Of the 161 boys

  11. Predicting Public Acceptability in Controversial Technologies

    Technology and society have a synergic relationship. New technologies are a product of the values and aspirations of the culture in which they emerge. In turn, each new technology shapes and alters these values and aspirations, to a greater or lesser degree. The acceptance by society of any particular technology depends, however, on how far the values embodied in the technology reflect those of the wider society, or only those of some privileged sector - perhaps a ruling elite, a group of academic researchers, a commercial company, or even a special interest group. As public disquiet about controversial technologies has grown, their acceptance can no longer be taken for granted. It is now becoming more important to evaluate in advance the degree of likely mismatch between the aspirations of the technologists and the values of society. This paper explores one approach to making this evaluation, based on the notion of a conditional social contract between technology and society. A given society may be prepared to embrace a new technology to deliver certain benefits, and may accept a certain degree of risk and adaptation of life styles, provided certain basic conditions are fulfilled. These conditions include the upholding of basic values, familiarity, how it compares with similar technologies, the degree of control and choice, trust in those in control, the nature of any risks, the tangible benefits, and the media profile given to the new area. If several of these factors are not fulfilled, the technology is unlikely to be accepted. This was dramatically illustrated in the UK public reaction to food products derived from imported US GM soya and maize. These failed nearly all the conditions, so that public rejection should have been seen as a foregone conclusion. In the light of this, the likely public reaction to a number of future biotechnological innovations is assessed, based on the same conditions. Some examples taken from the energy sector are also compared. The

  12. Pushing the limits - beam

    Métral, E

    2011-01-01

    Many collective effects were observed in 2010, first when the intensity per bunch was increased and subsequently when the number of bunches was pushed up and the bunch spacing was reduced. After a review of the LHC performance during the 2010 run, with a particular emphasis on impedances and related single-beam coherent instabilities, but mentioning also beam-beam and electron cloud issues, the potential of the LHC for 2011 will be discussed. More specifically, the maximum bunch/beam intensity and the maximum beam brightness the LHC should be able to swallow will be compared to what the injectors can provide.

  13. Final design of kaon beam K2 at KEK

    Final design of the 2.3 GeV/c kaon beam K2 is given. The K2 beam starts from the production target in slow extracted beam. Momentum range is 1 GeV/c through 2.3 GeV/c. Nominal total beam length is 27.9 m and solid-angle momentum acceptance is 6.25 msr%ΔP/P. Using a platinum target of diameter 3 mm and length 6 cm, 2.0 GeV/c beam fluxes of 1.0 x 106 K+ and 5.2 x 105 K- per 1012 13 GeV/c incident protons are expected at the final focus. (auth.)

  14. Innovative energy efficient low-voltage electron beam emitters

    Advanced electron beams (AEB) has developed a modular, low voltage (80-125 keV), high beam current (up to 40 ma), electron emitter with typically 25 cm of beam width, that is housed in an evacuated, returnable chamber that is easy to plug in and connect. The latest in nanofabrication enables AEB to use an ultra-thin beam window. The power supply for AEB's emitter is based on solid-state electronics. This combination of features results in a remarkable electrical efficiency. AEB's electron emitter relies on a touch screen, computer control system. With 80 μm of unit density beam penetration, AEB's electron emitter has gained market acceptance in the curing of opaque, pigmented inks and coatings used on flexible substrates, metals and fiber composites and in the curing of adhesives in foil based laminates

  15. Identification of permit and waste acceptance criteria provisions requiring modification for acceptance of commercial mixed waste

    In October 1990, representatives of States and compact regions requested that the US Department of Energy (DOE) explore an agreement with host States and compact regions under which DOE would accept commercial mixed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at DOE's own treatment and disposal facilities. A program for DOE management of commercial mixed waste is made potentially more attractive in light of the low commercial mixed waste volumes, high regulatory burdens, public opposition to new disposal sites, and relatively high cost of constructing commercial disposal facilities. Several studies were identified as essential in determining the feasibility of DOE accepting commercial mixed waste for disposal. The purpose of this report is to identify any current or proposed waste acceptance criteria (WAC) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) provisions that would have to be modified for commercial mixed waste acceptance at specified DOE facilities. Following the introduction, Section 2 of this report (a) provides a background summary of existing and proposed mixed waste disposal facilities at each DOE site, and (b) summarizes the status of any RCRA Part B permit and WAC provisions relating to the disposal of mixed waste, including provisions relating to acceptance of offsite waste. Section 3 provides overall conclusions regarding the current status and permit modifications that must be implemented in order to grant DOE sites authority under their permits to accept commercial mixed waste for disposal. Section 4 contains a list of references

  16. Reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals

    The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy [1] is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for highenergy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient

  17. Public Acceptance of Nuclear Energy in Mexico

    The nuclear energy is attracting renewed interest of public and policy makers due to his potential role in long term strategies aiming to reduce the risk of global warming and in a more general, to carry out sustainable policies, however, any project of nuclear nature arise concerns about the risks associated with the release of radioactivity during accident conditions, radioactive waste disposal and nuclear weapons proliferation. Then in light of the likeliness for a new nuclear project in Mexico, is necessary to design a strategy to improve the social acceptance of nuclear power. This concern is been boarding since the environmental and economic point of view. The information that can change the perception of nuclear energy towards increase public acceptance, should be an honest debate about the benefits of nuclear energy, of course there are questions and they have to be answered, but in a realistic and scientific way: So thinking in Mexico as a first step it is important to communicate to the government entities and political parties that nuclear energy is a proven asset that it is emission free and safe. Of course besides the guarantee of a proven technology, clean and safe relies the economic fact, and in Mexico this could be the most important aspect to communicate to key people in government. Based in the Laguna Verde survey it is clear that we have to find the adequate means to distribute the real information concerning nuclear technology to the public, because the results shows that Mexican people does not have complete information about nuclear energy, but public can support it when they have enough information. From the IAEA study we can say that in Mexico public acceptance of nuclear energy it s not so bad, is the highest percentage of acceptance of nuclear technology for health, considering benefits to the environment Mexican opposition to build new plants is the second less percentage, and generally speaking 60% of the people accept somehow nuclear

  18. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  19. Dynamics of beam halo in mismatched beams

    High-power proton linacs for nuclear materials transmutation and production, and new accelerator-driven neutron spallation sources must be designed to control beam-halo formation, which leads to beam loss. The study of particle-core models is leading to a better understanding of the causes and characteristics of beam halo produced by space-charge forces in rms mismatched beams. Detailed studies of the models have resulted in predictions of the dependence of the maximum amplitude of halo particles on a mismatch parameter and on the space-charge tune-depression ratio. Scaling formulas have been derived which will provide guidance for choosing the aperture radius to contain the halo without loss. (author)

  20. Beam dynamics and expected RHIC performance with 56MHz RF upgrade

    Fedotov,A.V.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2009-05-04

    An upgrade of the RHIC storage RF system with a superconducting 56 MHz cavity was recently proposed. This upgrade will provide a significant increase in the acceptance of the RHIC 197 MHz storage RF bucket. This paper summarizes simulations of beam evolution due to intra-beam scattering (IBS) for beam parameters expected with the 56 MHz SRF cavity upgrade. Expected luminosity improvements are shown for Au ions at 100 GeV/nucleon and protons at 250 GeV.

  1. Neutrino beams using the main injector

    TM-1946 summarizes the status of the NuMI project. This note presents more details on the technical design of the various NUMI beams. Several beam]Line options are investigated for producing neutrinos--(l) a wide-band beam(WBB) using horns, (2) a beam using a single lithium Lens, and (3) a two stage narrow-band beam(NBB) using a Lithium Lens, quadrupoles and dipoles. The first two are designed to maximize the muon neutrino event rate; the third is designed to have a tunable range of parent momenta from 5-60 GeV/c. In the context of NuMI, the Double Horns-and its target were concepts first described in 1991. The lithium Lens has been used at Fermilab for pbar production for several years. With recent upgrades, it forms the basis of what will be used by NuMI. Narrow band beams using conventional dipoles and quadrupoles have been studied, but have less acceptance than one using a lithium lens. The following practical limits are imposed on each of the systems: (1) Horns: The necks will not have a smaller radius than 1 cm; the maximum current will not exceed 170 kAmp. Keeping the inside diameter large allows the primary proton beam to vary in position, yet not strike the fragile neck. In addition, there is a trade-off between decreasing the radius and increasing the wall thickness to maintain the required strength in the conductor material. (2) Magnets: Reasonable conventional designs are used. The maximum gradient for quadrupoles is 12 kG/half-aperture; the maximum field for dipoles is about 16 kG; larger apertures scale the gradients and fields downward. Although not a primary consideration, optically it is desirable for the magnification in each plane to be comparable (within a factor of 2 or 3 is OK). (3) Lithium Lens: The maximum radius is 1.0 cm with a maximum gradient of 100 kG/cm. (4) Dumps: At the place where the primary protons are absorbed, the transverse beam center is ∼ 1 inch off the edge of the acceptance

  2. Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou

    詹文龙; 郭忠言; 刘冠华; 党建荣; 何锐荣; 周嗣信; 尹全民; 罗亦孝; 王义芳; 魏宝文; 孙志宇; 肖国青; 王金川; 江山红; 李加兴; 孟祥伟; 张万生; 秦礼军; 王全进

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) has been constructed for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei and studies of exotic nuclei far from the β-stability line. It has been put into operation recently at the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator Lanzhou. RIBLL consists of two doubly achromatic parts with a solid acceptance ΔΩ≥6.5 msr, momentum acceptance Δp/p=±5% and maximum magnetic rigidity Bρmax=4.2 Tm. The second part of RIBLL serving as a spectrometer gives an element resolution Z/ΔZ>150 and mass resolution A/ΔA>300. The polarized secondary beams can be obtained by using a swinger dipole magnet to change the incident direction of primary projectile from 0°to 5°. The shortest lift time for secondary beams on RIBLL is less than 1μs. First experiments were performed with neutron rich nuclei for understanding the properties of halo nuclei and exotic nuclear reactions.

  3. Search for H-dibaryon at J-PARC with a Large Acceptance TPC

    Sako H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available H-dibaryon has been predicted as a stable 6-quark color-singlet state. It has been searched for by many experiments but has never been discovered. Recent lattice QCD calculations predict H-dibaryon as a weakly bound or a resonant state close to the LL threshold. E224 and E522 experiments at KEK observed peaks in LL invariant mass spectra near the threshold in (K-, K+ reactions, which were statistically not significant. Therefore, we proposed a new experiment E42 at J-PARC. It will measure decay products of ΛΛ and Λπ-p in a (K-, K+ reaction. We design a large acceptance spectrometer based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC immersed in a dipole magnetic field. The TPC surrounds a target to cover nearly 4π acceptance, and accepts K- beams up to 106 counts per second. To suppress drift field distortion at high beam rates, we adopt Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs for electron amplification and a gating grid. We show an overview of the experiment, the design of the spectrometer, and the R&D status of the TPC prototype.

  4. An international comparative analysis of public acceptance of nuclear energy

    Across the globe, public acceptance of nuclear power is a crucial factor for governmental establishment of a nuclear energy program. Therefore, it is important to understand the determinants of public acceptance of nuclear power. This study examines the effects of knowledge, trust, risk, and benefit related factors on public acceptance of nuclear power across 19 countries. We consider three levels of public acceptance – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – and classify countries into four groups according to the ratio of those three levels of public acceptance. Our results indicate that knowledge of nuclear inspection is more effective than trust in inspection authorities in creating stronger public acceptance among people in the countries with a high level of reluctant acceptance and a low level of strong acceptance, while trust in inspection authorities is more important than knowledge of nuclear inspection for the selection between opposition and reluctant acceptance in countries with a low level of reluctant acceptance and a high level of strong acceptance. Without grouping the countries, we found that trust in inspection authorities is crucial for the decision between opposition and reluctant acceptance. Additionally, the generation of electricity has the most positive effect on public acceptance of nuclear power. - Highlights: • We examine public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power across 19 countries. • Three levels of PA – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – are considered. • Knowledge is most effective in creating stronger PA. • Trust is effective in shifting PA from opposition to reluctant acceptance. • Low risk and benefit of electricity generation enhance PA the most

  5. Global Acceptance Programs towards Coastal States

    The transport by sea of highly radioactive materials such as used fuel and vitrified waste has elicited concerns in some States along the shipping routes. In order to alleviate those concerns, three industry members from Japan, the United Kingdom and France have introduced Global Acceptance programs towards these 'Coastal States'. These partners had the mission to manage nuclear transports through Japan under the strictest safety and security measures and with the acceptance of the coastal states alongside the maritime routes used between Europe and Japan. During these transports they have to face some strong opposition from states, anti nuclear NGOs acting during the transports or inside the local and international fora. The Global Acceptance team has developed a unique approach to allow these transports to be performed normally all around the world. Organizing missions in the relevant countries to explain our transports and our safety and security measures, inviting top authorities to visit our ships and facilities in Europe, dispatching up to date files and communication documents, lobbying the top organizations and executives of these countries, developing a long time relationship with local authorities, looking for relevant relay inside the educational world - were part of the business dedicated to - keep our routes open - for the benefit of our industries. During these mission we have discovered that ignorance, misinformation, lack of knowledge in a difficult environment can lead countries, NGOs, political bodies, international fora to take irrelevant positions about transports which all comply with the strongest international requirements in term of safety and security. It was a unique experience for the benefit of our companies and we have now to check again with an on going program in the future where we will get the experience gained during the past 17 years to complete these contracts. (author)

  6. Public acceptance of nuclear energy in Mexico

    One of the main constraints to adopt a nuclear program is the public acceptance. In Mexico, at least, it lacks of an adequate promotion of its benefits and challenges. A big stigma for nuclear electricity production is the association with nuclear weapons, along with myths and misconceptions and bad information about nuclear energy. Mexico has adopted an energy policy to diversify the electricity sources and nuclear energy is among the alternatives to achieve this goal because current studies show that is a safe and a competitive option from an economical point of view. Public opinion plays a very important role in the policy decision making to adopt the deployment of new reactor units; therefore it is necessary to define communication strategies to promote nuclear energy. The current study is an investigation to learn what is the perception and positioning about nuclear energy as a starting point to define the way to improve public acceptance. The national assessment carry on here is divided in two parts, the first one is a qualitative study to know knowledge level, associations and nuclear perception, identifying controversy items and expectations about advantages and disadvantages to define the adequate question to be used in the second part, which is a quantitative study that shows the acceptance of nuclear energy at national level and in particular in two sites that are suitable to deploy new nuclear reactors. From the results of this study some communication and persuasion strategies to improve public perception are defined and they could be used as part of a nuclear program. (author)

  7. Acceptability of the standard cosmological model

    An attempt is made to assess the acceptability of the standard model of cosmology. While the success claimed in connection with the microwave background radiation and primordial nucleogenesis may not be convincing, the absence of any adhoc hypothesis in the standard model and the nonavailability of any better model are strong arguments in its favour. It is suggested that anomalous redshifts and the quantal effect in the redshifts are as yet little understood and do not invalidate the idea of redshift due to universal expansion. (author)

  8. Improving public acceptance of Nuclear Energy

    Full text: After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, public acceptance of nuclear energy decreased dramatically. In order to prevent such catastrophic events, major safety improvements have been achieved both in the operating nuclear power plants and in the future advanced projects as well. Nowadays, the nuclear energy problem was totally modified by the complete mastery and control of nuclear power generation as well as of radioactive waste management. It become a solution to the global climatic challenges and equally to the ever increasing world energy demand. (author)

  9. Study on public acceptance of irradiated potatoes

    4,500 kg potatoes of different sorts were irradiated by a 137Cs source with a dose of 10 krad. The potatoes were then stored for several months at a room temperature of 6 to 100C and a humidity of 80 to 85%. 0% of the irradiated potatoes sprouted, as compared to 100% of the non-irradiated potatoes. The percentage of rotting varied in the irradiated potatoes, depending on the variety. Cooking tests showed no difference between irradiated and non-irradiated potatoes. The irradiated potatoes were consumed and accepted by about 4,000 persons in the cafeteria of the institute. (AJ)

  10. Development of quantitative risk acceptance criteria

    Some of the major considerations for effective management of risk are discussed, with particular emphasis on risks due to nuclear power plant operations. Although there are impacts associated with the rest of the fuel cycle, they are not addressed here. Several previously published proposals for quantitative risk criteria are reviewed. They range from a simple acceptance criterion on individual risk of death to a quantitative risk management framework. The final section discussed some of the problems in the establishment of a framework for the quantitative management of risk

  11. W-026, acceptance test report manipulator system

    Watson, T.L.

    1997-04-15

    The purpose of the WRAP Manipulator System Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) is to verify that the 4 glovebox sets of WRAP manipulator components, including rail/carriage, slave arm, master controller and auxiliary equipment, meets the requirements of the functional segments of 14590 specification. The demonstration of performance elements of the ATP are performed as a part of the Assembly specifications. Manipulator integration is integrated in the performance testing of the gloveboxes. Each requirement of the Assembly specification will be carried out in conjunction with glovebox performance tests.

  12. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    Lipowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic or evolutionary algorithms. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(\\log N) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm that typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. With minor modifications the algorithm might be also used for sampling with fitness being cut-off at a certain value or for sampling without replacement.

  13. Roulette-wheel selection via stochastic acceptance

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2012-03-01

    Roulette-wheel selection is a frequently used method in genetic and evolutionary algorithms or in modeling of complex networks. Existing routines select one of N individuals using search algorithms of O(N) or O(logN) complexity. We present a simple roulette-wheel selection algorithm, which typically has O(1) complexity and is based on stochastic acceptance instead of searching. We also discuss a hybrid version, which might be suitable for highly heterogeneous weight distributions, found, for example, in some models of complex networks. With minor modifications, the algorithm might also be used for sampling with fitness cut-off at a certain value or for sampling without replacement.

  14. Colliding Crystalline Beams

    The understanding of crystalline beams has advanced to the point where one can now, with reasonable confidence, undertake an analysis of the luminosity of colliding crystalline beams. Such a study is reported here. It is necessary to observe the criteria, previously stated, for the creation and stability of crystalline beams. This requires, firstly, the proper design of a lattice. Secondly, a crystal must be formed, and this can usually be done at various densities. Thirdly, the crystals in a colliding-beam machine are brought into collision. We study all of these processes using the molecular dynamics (MD) method. The work parallels what was done previously, but the new part is to study the crystal-crystal interaction in collision. We initially study the zero-temperature situation. If the beam-beam force (or equivalent tune shift) is too large then over-lapping crystals can not be created (rather two spatially separated crystals are formed). However, if the beam-beam force is less than but comparable to that of the space-charge forces between the particles, we find that overlapping crystals can be formed and the beam-beam tune shift can be of the order of unity. Operating at low but non-zero temperature can increase the luminosity by several orders of magnitude over that of a usual collider. The construction of an appropriate lattice, and the development of adequately strong coding, although theoretically achievable, is a challenge in practice

  15. Human response to individually controlled micro environment generated with localized chilled beam

    Uth, Simon C.; Nygaard, Linette; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2014-01-01

    Indoor environment in a single-office room created by a localised chilled beam with individual control of the primary air flow was studied. Response of 24 human subjects when exposed to the environment generated by the chilled beam was collected via questionnaires under a 2-hour exposure including...... different work tasks at three locations in the room. Response of the subjects to the environment generated with a chilled ceiling combined with mixing air distribution was used for comparison. The air temperature in the room was kept at 26 or 28 °C. Results show no significant difference in the overall and...... local thermal sensation reported by the subjects with the two systems. Both systems were equally acceptable. At 26°C the individual control of the localised chilled beam lead to higher acceptability of the work environment. At 28°C the acceptability decreased with the two systems. It was not acceptable...

  16. Beam-beam effect seen through forced vibration

    In electron accelerator, tune is measured by giving beam transverse forced vibration caused by RF frequency. It is well known that beam-beam parameter can be measured if beam-beam interaction exists. Generally, small value is chosen as the amplitude of forced vibration, and many researches were done in this case. In this report, we discuss effect of resonance caused by beam-beam interaction in case of amplitude of forced vibration being big. (author)

  17. Environmentally acceptable drill pipe thread compound

    Environmental concerns are prompting the petroleum industry to replace thread compounds. Traditional thread compound formulations, now widely used for more than three decades have proven effective. But all contain significant percentages (up to about 60%) of heavy metal powders. Ingredients such as copper, lead and zinc are increasingly being banned for use or dumping. This paper outlines the issues and describes the new technology which will be required in most areas during 1992. It introduces a drill pipe thread compound with unique mechanisms to achieve improved functional performance while providing environmental acceptability. Rotary shouldered compounds (and orthodox thinking) have relied upon soft, low melting point, malleable metal particles to provide connection sealing and anti-galling characteristics. The new approach uses the non-conformist approach of hard ceramic microspheres to achieve the same results. This work gives the application and general performance requirements for rotary shouldered thread compounds. It compares the new technology with traditional compounds from the standpoint of composition, functional performance, and environmental acceptability. Bomac's work now makes it possible to run a drilling project entirely free of lead, copper and zinc

  18. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    Cochet, B. [FRAMATOME, Paris la Defense (France)

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  19. Public acceptance of nuclear power in Taiwan

    It is necessary to reach the public acceptance for nuclear power development program. During the process of the application for the approval from the government to implement the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant program in Taiwan, we initialized a series of communication program in the last two years and are expecting to convince the public that to develops nuclear power is essential to the country from a viewpoint of energy diversified. The basic strategies of the communication program not only emphasized the new nuclear power project, but also for the long term public acceptance on nuclear power. The strategies include: (1) Preview and implement the promotion program for the performance of the existing nuclear power plants. (2) Designate and communicate with the major communication target groups: elected delegates, journalists, local residents, scholars and experts. (3) Edit and incorporate the basic nuclear knowledge into the preliminary school educational materials. (4) Subsidize the adjacent communities of nuclear power plants for the public well-being construction. In order to implement the mentioned strategies, Taipower has reorganized the public service department and the existing nuclear power plants, setup the nuclear exhibition center, conducted fullscale emergency drill biannually for each of nuclear power plant, and prepared the seminars for the teacher

  20. Acceptability of Contraceptives in Young Couples

    楼超华; 郭友宁

    1997-01-01

    Based on the data from the survey of 7826 young couples in two districts of Shanghai, we analyzed the acceptability of oral pill, IUD, condom and injection in women. The results showed that 63.4% of subjects were unwilling to use pill and 5.7% were unwilling to use injection, mainly for the reasons that the pill was “harmful tohealth” and the “cause of obesity”; 8.7% of subjects were unwilling to use IUD, mainly for the reasons of the “cause of menorrhagia or spotting” and“being easy to fail”; 6.2% of subjects were unwilling to use condom, mainly for the reasons of “interference with intercourse” and “inconvenience in use”. The most important source of getting the information was “heard from person's talking”.Simple variate and Logistic analysis showed that women's age at marriage, education, occupation, contraceptive knowledge score, history of using the contraceptives,some women's traits etc. affected the acceptability of the contraceptives. The study implies that it is necessary to strengthen provision of contraceptive knowledge for young couples and to make them have correct understanding of the side effects of contraceptives for improving family planning program.

  1. Assesing the acceptance of the project

    Clara Fernández-Shaw Toda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the acceptability of the project "Adding colour to your unit dose." MATERIAL AND METHODS: It sets in motion a project to reduce errors in the administration of pasting labels with different shapes and colours on blister medicines. It includes the name of the product, the active ingredient, dosage, lot and expiration date. Also included for internal quality control are the initials of the person who made the label and the date and time at which it was made. The nurse monitors the consistency between the data and the label of the drug. After 4 years the external acceptance of the project is analyzed through a satisfaction survey administered to the professionals involved in prescribing and dispensing medicines. RESULTS: 100% of the physicians believed that the project is adequate. Assistants and nurses expressed a dissatisfaction of 58.3% and 26.66% respectively due to the difficulty of extracting the specialty. CONCLUSIONS: - There is agreement on the need to clearly differentiate drugs, which traditional packaging does not resolve while “Adding colour to your unit dose" does. - The pharmacy prepared labels with a flap to facilitate their opening, thereby improving the current system.

  2. Nuclear power development and public acceptance

    The public acceptance aimed at realizing the development of nuclear energy of 49,000,000 kW in 1985 in accordance with the basic policy of the combined energy measures in Japan determined by the cabinet meeting in December 1975 is discussed, and the three principles, namely democracy, independence and disclosures under Article 2 of the Atomic Energy Act, are reviewed. Stronger friction may occur owing to the following characteristics of nuclear power development: it is comprehensive but apt to be sectional, too large scale, very long term, military secrecy, and international relations. In addition, there are the sensibility to radioactivity and illogical refusal in Japan. As to the democracy, the participation of the people to the development of nuclear power has not so far been considered. For example, the holding of public hearings has not been legal obligation, but only a by-law of Atomic Energy Commission. As to the independence, serious troubles have been experienced because of the complete dependence of U.S. techniques. As to the disclosure, the opening to the public of the commercial secrecy attached to the application for the approval of reactor installations is apt to be much disputed. In conclusion, it is believed that there is no other way than the exertion of straight effort under the three principles, so that the formation of public acceptance will be accomplished. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  4. Acceptance testing and QA in interventional cardiology

    Interventional radiology has seen rapid growth in the field of cardiology over the past decade. This growth has been facilitated by advances in imaging technology and the development of increasingly sophisticated dedicated radiological equipment. Interventional cardiology (IC) procedures are complex and may involve prolonged irradiations, which may subject patients and operators to higher levels of risk than those, which normally prevail. Currently interventional cardiology contributes over 10% to annual collective dose in the UK in spite of contributing to a total annual frequency of 0.68%. The EU Medical Exposures Directive, 97/43/Euratom, identifies interventional radiology as an area of special concern. Acceptance testing and routine quality assurance (QA) programmes are particularly important in the field of interventional cardiology given the above. The requirements for acceptance testing and QA are underpinned in the EU Medical Exposures Directive and consequent national legislation. A QA survey of 16 interventional cardiology systems in Ireland was carried out by the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St. James's Hospital, Dublin. This is the continuation of a recently published survey and represents over half of the interventional cardiology systems in Ireland including new technology digital flat panel systems and dedicated mobile equipment in trailors. Acceptance testing and QA protocols were developed and reviewed in accordance with current international and national guidelines, standards and literature. Testing included assessing the performance of the X ray tube and generator, the automatic exposure control (AEC) device in fluoroscopy and digital acquisition modes and a subjective assessment of image quality using the Leeds test objects. Radiation shielding calculations and measurements were performed to determine the structural shielding required by new installations and electrical, mechanical and general radiation safety was also

  5. Semiconductor laser beam bending

    YILDIRIM, REMZİ; ÇELEBİ, FATİH VEHBİ

    2015-01-01

    This study is about a single-component cylindrical structured lens with a gradient curve that was used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independently of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single-piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams was developed. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted, or colored glass and are used to undermine or absorb the energy of...

  6. Cyclotron radiation beam control

    This patent application describes an apparatus for attenuating a beam of particulate radiation comprising a series of modules, each module being constituted by a sphere having a passage, a cupola covering said sphere and a base supporting said sphere, and means for causing movement of the spheres for aligning said passages with an axis of a beam line and arranging said passages out of alignment so as to attenuate the beam. (author)

  7. Proton Beam Energy Characterization

    Marus, Lauren A.; Engle, J.W.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is actively engaged in the development of isotope production technologies that can utilize its 100 MeV proton beam. Characterization of the proton beam energy and current is vital for optimizing isotope production and accurately conducting research at the IPF. Motivation In order to monitor beam intensity during research irradiations, aluminum foils are interspersed in experimental stacks. A theoretical yield of 22Na from...

  8. Chilled beam application guidebook

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  9. Quantum beam nanolithography

    Recently, nanotechnology has attracted much attention. Nanotechnology-related research and development have been intensively carried out in the world. Quantum beam nanolithography such as electron beam lithography is expected as a fabrication tool for nanotechnology-related products. For the development of materials capable of fabricating nanostructures, it is important to understand beam-material interaction. We reported radiation-induced reactions in nanolithography materials studied by ISIR subpicosecond pulse radiolysis system. (author)

  10. Mechanical beam isolator

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  11. Electron beam welding

    Electron-beam equipment is considered along with fixed and mobile electron-beam guns, questions of weld environment, medium and nonvacuum welding, weld-joint designs, tooling, the economics of electron-beam job shops, aspects of safety, quality assurance, and repair. The application of the process in the case of individual materials is discussed, giving attention to aluminum, beryllium, copper, niobium, magnesium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, metal alloys, superalloys, and various types of steel. Mechanical-property test results are examined along with the areas of application of electron-beam welding

  12. Beam alignment system

    A patent is claimed for the invention of a beam alignment system. The aim of the invention is the obtention of an accurate monitoring of the beam position and direction. It is of great interest in the nuclear industry. The invention can be applied in an infrared laser beam for welding operations. An auxiliar radiation source is incorporated to the device. The system's configuration allows a simultaneous and separated utilisation of two beams. The description and the design of the proposed system are provided

  13. Nonlinear Bessel beams

    Johannisson, P; Lisak, M; Marklund, M; Johannisson, Pontus; Anderson, Dan; Lisak, Mietek; Marklund, Mattias

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the Kerr nonlinearity on linear non-diffractive Bessel beams is investigated analytically and numerically using the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The nonlinearity is shown to primarily affect the central parts of the Bessel beam, giving rise to radial compression or decompression depending on whether the nonlinearity is focusing or defocusing, respectively. The dynamical properties of Gaussian-truncated Bessel beams are also analysed in the presence of a Kerr nonlinearity. It is found that although a condition for width balance in the root-mean-square sense exists, the beam profile becomes strongly deformed during propagation and may exhibit the phenomena of global and partial collapse.

  14. Beam cavity interaction

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  15. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  16. Public Acceptance A Threefold Application of Social Psychology to Enhance People's Acceptance of Nuclear Energy

    It provides three aspects of application of social psychological theories and methodology. The first aspect deals with the study of people's attitudes toward nuclear energy; the second with the development of programs in order to promote people's acceptance of nuclear energy; and the third with the measurement of the effectiveness of the programs that have been implemented to promote the public acceptance. In Korea, very few studies have been conducted to explain people's attitudes toward nuclear power. The existing data tell US that the public attitudes are generally favorable. Would they stay that way? The outlook is not very bright, considering the rapid growth of the environmental movement in Korea

  17. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  18. Model for the overall phase-space acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator

    Dulitz, Katrin; Softley, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new formalism to calculate phase-space acceptance in a Zeeman decelerator. Using parameters closely mimicking previous Zeeman deceleration experiments, this approach reveals a hitherto unconsidered velocity dependence of the phase stability which we ascribe to the finite rise and fall times of the current pulses that generate the magnetic fields inside the deceleration coils. It is shown that changing the current switch-off times as the sequence progresses, so as to maintain a constant mean acceleration per pulse, can lead to a constant phase stability and hence a beam with well-defined characteristics. We also find that the time overlap between fields of adjacent coils has an influence on the phase-space acceptance. Previous theoretical and experimental results suggested unfilled regions in phase space that influence particle transmission through the decelerator. Our model provides, for the first time, a means to directly identify the origin of these effects due to coupling between longitudinal ...

  19. Extracting the depolarization coefficient DNN from data measured with a full acceptance detector

    Hauenstein, F.; Clement, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Eyrich, W.; Gillitzer, A.; Grzonka, D.; Jowzaee, S.; Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Röder, M.; Wintz, P.

    2016-05-01

    The spin transfer from vertically polarized beam protons to Λ or Σ hyperons of the associated strangeness production p → p →pK+ Λ and p → p →pK0Σ+ is described with the depolarization coefficient DNN. As the polarization of the hyperons is determined by their weak decays, detectors, which have a large acceptance for the decay particles, are needed. In this paper a formula is derived, which describes the depolarization coefficient DNN by count rates of a 4π detector. It is shown that formulas, which are given in publications for detectors with restricted acceptance, are specific cases of this formula for a 4π detector.

  20. What makes nuclear energy (not) acceptable?

    Higher knowledge has long been hypothesized as leading to better acceptance of nuclear energy, but in the last years other factors such as risk perception and trust in nuclear risk governance were also recognized as key elements. While stakeholder involvement is now fully recognized as a key element for nuclear energy acceptance, there are still questions about the impact of higher knowledge. This paper investigates the relation between knowledge about the nuclear domain, risk perception of nuclear risks, confidence in the management of nuclear technologies, on the one hand, and the attitude towards nuclear energy and opinion about nuclear energy, on the other hand. It also studies the factors that are pleading in favour or against nuclear energy and their relation with the forementioned variables. The study is based on empirical data from a large scale opinion survey in Belgium between 25/05/2011 and 24/06/2011, i.e. the third month after the accident in Fukushima. The sample consisted of 1020 respondents and is representative for the Belgian adult population (18+) with respect to gender, age, region, province, habitat and social class. Our results show that confidence in the safe management of nuclear technologies as well as the perceived strength of the arguments pro/against nuclear are driving factors for people's attitude towards nuclear energy. Higher confidence and stronger adherence to the arguments in favour of nuclear energy lead to higher acceptance. The correlation between knowledge and attitude/opinion towards nuclear energy is statistically significant, but rather low, showing only a weak effect of knowledge on attitudes or opinions about nuclear energy. A weak effect is also observed for risk perception of nuclear risks, lower risk perception leading to a somewhat more positive attitude/opinion about nuclear energy. In the study we also highlight that the main factors seen as pleading in favour or against nuclear energy are the same, both for people

  1. Acceptance Test Report for 241-U compressed air system

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of acceptance testing of a newly upgraded compressed air system at 241-U Farm. The system was installed and the test successfully performed under work package 2W-92-01027

  2. Social Acceptance of a Teleoperated Android

    Ryuji, Yamazaki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi;

    2012-01-01

    to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.......We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused...... on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid’s operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment...

  3. Stakeholder acceptance analysis ResonantSonic drilling

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning ResonantSonic Drilling (Sonic Drilling), derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. Sonic Drilling is an innovative method to reach contamination in soil and groundwater. The resonant sonic drill rig uses counter-rotating weights to generate energy, which causes the drill pipe to vibrate elastically along its entire length. In the resonant condition, forces of up to 200,000 pounds are transmitted to the drill bit face to create a cutting action. The resonant energy causes subsurface materials to move back into the adjacent formation, permitting the drill pipe to advance. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of sonic drilling to the remediation problems they face

  4. KNOWLEDGE AND ACCEPTANCE OF RFID TRACEABILITY SOLUTIONS

    Zoltan KATO

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the food market has become highly dynamic. Food crises in the early 90's, or those of the recent years, such as avian flu pandemic, swine flu, the cucumber or horse meat crises all had a negative impact on the Romanian food industry. Food deficiencies have led not only to contamination but also to the illness or death of some consumers. The products traceability is a prerequisite for success in the food industry. As a modern solution, RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications made with rewritable passive RFID tags. This paper aims to examine how RFID technology can be useful for traceability applications and will submit a diligent search regarding the degree of knowledge of RFID technology and the acceptance of an empirical model by the employees of Romanian companies.

  5. Nuclear energy: beliefs, values and acceptability

    The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in public concern about nuclear energy. As a consequence, it has become recognised that the future of nuclear energy will not only depend on technical and economic factors, but that public acceptability of this technology will play a crucial role in the long-term future of nuclear energy. Research has shown a considerable divergence in public and expert assessment of the risks associated with nuclear energy. Qualitative aspects of risks play a dominant role in the public's perception of risks, and it seems necessary for experts to recognise this in order to improve relations with the general public. It is also clear, however, that differences in the perception of risks do not embrace all the relevant aspects of the public's assessment of nuclear energy. Public reaction is also related to more general beliefs and values, and the issue of nuclear energy is embedded in a much wider moral and political domain. (author)

  6. Effective communications bring greater public acceptance

    In 1986, GPU Nuclear Corporation announced a plan to evaporate into the atmosphere 2.3 million gal of water remaining from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. The water would be processed to remove most of the radioactivity, but still remaining were >1,000 Ci of tritium to be released to the atmosphere during the evaporation process. It was expected that, following regulatory approvals, it would take >2 yr to complete the process. Fed by well-established antinuclear groups, public concern about evaporating the TMI-2-accident-generated water ran high among residents living near the plant. In the years since the TMI-2 accident, GPU Nuclear had developed a highly effective communications program in the communities surrounding TMI. This ongoing program provided a solid foundation on which to create and implement a risk communications approach to community understanding and acceptance of the evaporation process

  7. The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS)

    Mecking, B

    2003-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) is used to study photo- and electro-induced nuclear and hadronic reactions by providing efficient detection of neutral and charged particles over a good fraction of the full solid angle. A collaboration of about thirty institutions has designed, assembled, and commissioned CLAS in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The CLAS detector is based on a novel six-coil toroidal magnet which provides a largely azimuthal field distribution. Trajectory reconstruction using drift chambers results in a momentum resolution of 0.5% at forward angles. Cerenkov counters, time-of-flight scintillators, and electromagnetic calorimeters provide good particle identification. Fast triggering and high data acquisition rates allow operation at a luminosity of 10 sup 3 sup 4 nucleon cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1. These capabilities are being used in a broad experimental program to study the structure and interactions of mesons, nucleons, and nuclei using polarize...

  8. Public acceptance of nuclear power in Japan

    Japan has a fragile energy supply structure, with 84% of its energy depending on import; for example, 99.6% of the oil comes from overseas, which makes Japan's economic base rather vulnerable. In order to ensure constant energy supply, it is indispensable to diversify the energy sources and to create indigenous energy. In view of this, nuclear energy is considered to be the main alternative to crude oil because it has several advantages over other energy sources, such as stable supply of uranium and the fact that it is compatible with efforts to find solutions to global environmental problems. However, since the general public is not familiar with nuclear technology, it is difficult to get the understanding and co-operation of people. In view of this, public relations activities providing information on the need and safety of nuclear power generation have been performed. As a result, in recent years, about 70% of the people came to recognize the need for nuclear power generation. Although people's recognition of this need has increased substantially, it is still difficult for them to accept the construction of nuclear facilities, because of their anxiety regarding the safety of such plants and the lack of information by the government and electric utilities. This makes the acquisition of new sites for nuclear power plants difficult, so that the time required for developing such plants becomes longer. In order to eliminate people's anxieties, both the government and electric utilities should provide accurate information, at the proper time and using a method that makes it easy for the people to understand the problems involved. It is also important for the government and the electric utilities to listen carefully to the opinions and questions of people and to increase friendly communications with them. The government, electric utilities and constructors of nuclear facilities have to co-operate in order to improve the measures taken to gain public acceptance of

  9. Visually Impaired Children's Acceptances on Assistive Courseware

    Nurulnadwan Aziz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The government of Malaysia is considering serious efforts in promoting the usage of computers among disabled people. Currently, the availability of computer applications especially related to creative contents for disabled people in Malaysia is infancy and very expensive. Research and expertise in the area of Assistive Technology (AT in Malaysia is still uncommon and not extensively utilized. Therefore research involving special communities such as disabled people on the usage of electronic applications should be focused because records show that their population populations are increasing. Hence, this research will be tailored for Visually-Impaired (VI learners. In Malaysia, visual impairment is one of the highest registered disabilities. Approach: This study presents an ongoing project that determines whether the VI children can accept the Assistive Courseware (AC as one of the effective tools in their learning process. Specification identification, AC development and testing and evaluation are three activities involved in this study. In addition, data have been collected through qualitative approaches. Results: The results highlight four important elements for incorporated in an AC for VI children. Through the testing and evaluation, it was found that the VI children accept the AC due to interesting usage of audio, graphic, text and easy navigation method. Conclusion: In a nutshell, the positive responses prove that the AC not only exposes the VI children to the world of technology but also educates them in terms of interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills and motivation. The recommended future work is to produce a much comprehensive AC which focuses on interactivity, various multimedia elements, multiple intelligence elements and multiple stages of exercise in granting value-added AC not only for VI children in Malaysia but also to other world VI communities in the world.

  10. Public acceptance of radioactive waste transportation systems

    As the thoughts of the country concentrate on the problems of transportation of waste through high traffic urban areas, the problem of how to deal directly and honestly with the public takes on greater significance in the nuclear industry. Non-technical aspects of the methods of transportation, especially by railroad and highway, enter into the total scheme of moving radioactive waste from both weapon and nuclear power plant sources to final processing and disposal. Factors such as shape, color, size, familiarity, and industrial designing are necessary ingredients that take on equal or more significance that the designing of containers to survive the hypothetical accident conditions of the present, or even of the future. Protective Packaging, Inc. has been a leader in the presentation of containers to the private and public sector of the nuclear industry. The products have undergone very open testing, in public, with both invited and uninvited witnesses. In those experiences, dating back to 1969, the problems of public acceptance will be related between the technical problems and the associated social and political problems that relate to container acceptance by the public in today's world. Proven experience data, relative to the safety of the present day systems will be discussed, as well as methods of improving the image in the future. Review will also be given to the effort by industry to discuss the proven record with parties outside the nuclear industry, i.e., individuals and pressure groups that are diametrically opposed to review the facts relative to safety as opposed to other, but more traditional industries

  11. Acceptance of food irradiation in western markets

    This paper reviews the status and acceptance of food irradiation worldwide, focusing on Europe and the United States. Today no less than 38 countries including the USA and 14 European countries, have approved the irradiation of food. Across Europe there is a very wide variation, with a variety of foods being irradiated and eaten in Belgium and France but a total ban on food irradiation in Germany. Progress towards a directive harmonising the position across all countries in the European Union is slow. In the USA there is a growing awareness of the advantages of using food irradiation to combat the increasing risk of the food-borne diseases, and media coverage and consumer attitudes are considerably more favourable than previously. The use of irradiation instead of pesticides for spice treatment is gaining acceptance within the North American spice industry and the NA meat industry is recognising the potential of food irradiation as one way of meeting its obligations under the new HACCP regulations. Food irradiation is also being seriously considered as an alternative to the use of methyl bromide for quarantine treatment of fruit and vegetables. The establishment of the World Trade Organisation in 1995 to enforce various agreements concluded during the GATT Uruguay Round is expected to impact trade liberalisation. In particular the agreements pertaining to the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) have particular reference to track in irradiated food. In this respect, it is particularly important for potential training partners (food producing countries) to ensure that they have domestic approvals in place for any irradiated foods they provide to western countries. (author). countries. (author)

  12. New gas-filled mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS

    A new gas-filled operation mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS at GANIL is reported. A beam rejection factor greater than 1010 is obtained for the 40Ca+150Sm system at 196 MeV. The unprecedented transmission efficiency for the evaporation residues produced in this reaction is estimated to be around 80% for αx n channels and above 95% for x ny p channels. A detailed study of the performance of the gas-filled VAMOS and future developments are discussed. This new operation mode opens avenues to explore the potential of fusion reactions in various kinematics.

  13. Factory acceptance test of COLDDIAG: A cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics

    Gerstl, Stefan; Baumbach, Tilo; Casalbuoni, Sara; Grau, Andreas; Hagelstein, Michael; Saez de Jauregui, David; Holubek, Tomas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boffo, Cristian; Sikler, Guenther [Babcock Noell GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany); Baglin, Vincent [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Cox, Matthew; Schouten, Jos [Diamond Light Source, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Cimino, Roberto; Commisso, Mario; Spataro, Bruno [INFN/LNF, Frascatti (Italy); Mostacci, Andrea [Rome University La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Wallen, Eric [MAX-Lab, Lund (Sweden); Weigel, Ralf [Max-Planck Institute for Metal Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Clarke, Jim; Scott, Duncan [STFC/ASTeC, Daresbury (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Tom [STFC/RAL, Chilton (United Kingdom); Jones, Roger; Shinton, Ian [University Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-01

    Superconductive insertion devices (IDs) have higher fields for a given gap and period length compared with the state of the art technology of permanent magnet IDs. This technological solution is very interesting for synchrotron light sources since it permits to increase the brilliance and/or the photon energy at moderate costs. One of the key issues for the development of superconducting IDs is the understanding of the beam heat load to the cold vacuum chamber. Therefore a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostic was built. Here we report about the design, planned measurements and the factory acceptance test of COLDDIAG.

  14. New gas-filled mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS

    Schmitt, C., E-mail: schmitt@ganil.f [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Lecornu, B.; Jacquot, B.; France, G. de; Lemasson, A.; Shrivastava, A. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Greenlees, P.; Uusitalo, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014, Jyvaskyla (Finland); Subotic, K. [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Gaudefroy, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Theisen, Ch.; Sulignano, B. [CEA-Saclay DSM/IRFU/SPhN, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L. [IPHC, UMR7178, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Louis Pasteur, BP28, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-09-21

    A new gas-filled operation mode of the large-acceptance spectrometer VAMOS at GANIL is reported. A beam rejection factor greater than 10{sup 10} is obtained for the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 150}Sm system at 196 MeV. The unprecedented transmission efficiency for the evaporation residues produced in this reaction is estimated to be around 80% for {alpha}x n channels and above 95% for x ny p channels. A detailed study of the performance of the gas-filled VAMOS and future developments are discussed. This new operation mode opens avenues to explore the potential of fusion reactions in various kinematics.

  15. Factory acceptance test of COLDDIAG: A cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics

    Superconductive insertion devices (IDs) have higher fields for a given gap and period length compared with the state of the art technology of permanent magnet IDs. This technological solution is very interesting for synchrotron light sources since it permits to increase the brilliance and/or the photon energy at moderate costs. One of the key issues for the development of superconducting IDs is the understanding of the beam heat load to the cold vacuum chamber. Therefore a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostic was built. Here we report about the design, planned measurements and the factory acceptance test of COLDDIAG.

  16. Acceptance tests of a new gamma camera

    For best patient service, a QA programme is needed to produce quantitative/qualitative data and keep records of the results and equipment faults. Gamma cameras must be checked against the manufacturer's specifications.The service manual is usually useful to achieve this goal. Acceptance tests are very important not only to accept a new gamma camera system for routine clinical use but also to have a role in a reference for future measurements. In this study, acceptance tests were performed for a new gamma camera in our department. It is a General Electric MG system with two detectors, two collimators. They are low energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium energy general purpose (MEGP). All intrinsic calibrations and corrections were done by the service engineer at installation (PM tune, dynamic correction, energy calibration, geometric calibration, energy correction, linearity correction and second order corrections).After installation, calibrations and corrections, a close physical inspection of the mechanical and electrical safety aspects of the cameras were done by the responsible physicist of the department. The planar system is based on measurement of system uniformity, resolution/linearity and multiple window spatial registration. All test procedures were performed according to NEMA procedures developed by the manufacturer. Intrinsic uniformity: NEMA uniformity was done first by using service manual and then other isotope uniformities were acquired with 99mTc, 131I, 201Tl and 67Ga. They were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, but non-uniformities were observed, especially for detector II, The service engineers repeated all tests and made necessary corrections. We repeated all the intrinsic uniformity tests. 99mTc intrinsic images were also performed at 'no correction', 'no energy correction', 'no linearity correction', 'all correction' and '±10% off peak', and compared. Extrinsic uniformity: At the beginning, collimators were checked for defects

  17. SPECT: How much acceptance testing is reasonable?

    Full text: Whereas in radiology national standards for acceptance testing of medical instrumentation are available, in nuclear medicine this is not the case. This resulted in some kind of uncertainty, so that the Austrian Societies for Nuclear Medicine and for Medical Physics decided to establish a task group for developing guidelines for acceptance testing. One important item that has to be kept in mind is the fact that acceptance testing of radiological equipment has to assure the observation of prescribed limits of radiation. Otherwise there would arise the risk of increased radiation exposure of the patient. On the other hand, the aim of acceptance testing of gamma cameras is only to assure that the specifications are observed. There are no prescribed limits and there is no risk for the patient. There are two standards for defining specifications of gamma cameras: the NEMA standards and the IEC standards. Most of the manufacturers determine the specifications of their gamma cameras according to the NEMA standards, so if we want to check the specifications in the field, we have to use the same methods as the manufacturer, that is the NEMA standards. The questions are: Should we check all parameters defined in the NEMA standards? That would not be possible in the field. Which parameters should we select? In which extent and how precisely should we check? In any case, there must be a reasonable balance between time and financial effort and technical information obtained. Facing these problems our task group decided to propose the following procedure: First, we apply all tests which are called 'primary tests' in the NEMA standards: 1. Intrinsic spatial resolution 2. Intrinsic energy resolution 3. Intrinsic flood field uniformity 4. System spatial resolution without scatter 5. System alignment 6. SPECT reconstructed spatial resolution without scatter 7. Whole body system spatial resolution without scatter. All these tests are basically performed according to the

  18. Acceptance threshold theory can explain occurrence of homosexual behaviour

    Engel, Katharina C.; Männer, Lisa; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been documented in a wide range of animals, but its evolutionary causes are not well understood. Here, we investigated SSB in the light of Reeve's acceptance threshold theory. When recognition is not error-proof, the acceptance threshold used by males to recognize potential mating partners should be flexibly adjusted to maximize the fitness pay-off between the costs of erroneously accepting males and the benefits of accepting females. By manipulating male b...

  19. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions

    Torres Moreno, Míriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell Ibáñez, Elvira; Blanch i Colat, Consol

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. RESULTS: Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences ...

  20. Blog acceptance model: An empirical study on exploring users’ acceptance and continual usage of blogs

    ZHAO; Yuxiang; ZHU; Qinghua

    2009-01-01

    Blogs have permeated into our daily lives at a fast speed,and various kinds of blog spaces have attracted our attention.However,little effort has been made on studying the users’motivation to participate in blog activities.This paper aims to construct a theoretical model about the blog adoption based on technology acceptance model(TAM theory),social capital theory and social exchange theory,and put forward 18 related hypotheses.Then the survey method is adopted to analyze the data from 208 questionnaires using the SPSS and LISREL tools,and to examine the theoretical model and hypotheses.Finally,the paper makes a discussion from five aspects due to the results of data analysis,including individual driving factors,group driving factors,community driving factors,technology acceptance factors and moderating variables.The results show that curiosity/enjoyment,user’s experience,social interaction and social identification will greatly affect users’motivation to accept a blog;meanwhile,perceived ease of use,exchange cost and trust will partially influence users’intention to participate in blog activities.The results also suggest that age and education degrees have significant moderating effects on users’acceptance and updating of blogs.

  1. Analytical comparison of Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action about mobile advertising acceptance

    Mohamad Tabatabaei Nasab

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of high speed wireless network technologies and the increasing market penetration of cell phones the global advertising industry’s interest in using this medium as a means of marketing communication is rising. However, in spite of the increasing number of companies investing in mobile marketing campaigns, there is, as yet, little academic research on this topic and the nature and implications of this channel are not yet understood fully.Mobile advertising refers to advertisements delivered through a mobile device in form of text message. Current research is considered as applied objectively and its methodology is descriptive-analytical. Research data is gathered through distribution of questionnaire among a sample of 578 Yazd university students. To study users' attitude and intention, Technology Acceptance Model and theory of reasoned action are applied for accepting mobile advertising. Also SPSS16 and Lisrel 850 softwares are used for data analysis and research models are compared according to goodness of fit indices. On the basis of Lisrel structural equation results, both aforementioned models of mobile advertising acceptance were well-fitted and it is proved that the theory of reasoned action was fitted better than Technology Acceptance Model.

  2. Acceptance- versus Change-Based Pain Management: The Role of Psychological Acceptance

    Blacker, Kara J.; Herbert, James D.; Forman, Evan M.; Kounios, John

    2012-01-01

    This study compared two theoretically opposed strategies for acute pain management: an acceptance-based and a change-based approach. These two strategies were compared in a within-subjects design using the cold pressor test as an acute pain induction method. Participants completed a baseline pain tolerance assessment followed by one of the two…

  3. User Acceptance of YouTube for Procedural Learning: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

    Lee, Doo Young; Lehto, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was framed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to identify determinants affecting behavioral intention to use YouTube. Most importantly, this research emphasizes the motives for using YouTube, which is notable given its extrinsic task goal of being used for procedural learning tasks. Our conceptual framework included two…

  4. Examining Engineering & Technology Students' Acceptance of Network Virtualization Technology Using the Technology Acceptance Model

    Yousif, Wael K.

    2010-01-01

    This causal and correlational study was designed to extend the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and to test its applicability to Valencia Community College (VCC) Engineering and Technology students as the target user group when investigating the factors influencing their decision to adopt and to utilize VMware as the target technology. In…

  5. Damping of a vibrating beam

    Hietanen, Jarmo; Bomer, Johan; Jonsmann, Jacques; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; Kaski, Kimmo

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the vibration in a beam with one fixed end. The set-up consisted of a beam with one end clamped and a rigid plate having the same thickness of the beam, located adjacent to the unfixed end of the beam. The gap between the beam and the plate varied from 4 to 128 μm depending on th

  6. Ionization beam scanner

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  7. Cavity beam position monitors

    Beam-based alignment and feedback systems are essential for the operation of future linear colliders and free electron lasers. A certain number of beam position monitors with a resolution in the submicron range are needed at selected locations. Most beam position monitors detect the electric or the magnetic field excited by a beam of charged particles at different locations around the beam pipe. In resonant monitors, however, the excitation of special field configurations by an off-center beam is detected. These structures offer a large signal per micron displacement. This paper is an attempt to summarize the fundamental characteristics of resonant monitors, their advantages and shortcomings. Emphasis will be on the design of cylindrical cavities, in particular on the estimation of expected signals, of resolution limits and the resulting beam distortion. This includes also a short introduction into numerical methods. Fabrication, tuning, and other practical problems will be reviewed briefly. Finally, some resonant devices used for beam position diagnostics will be discussed and listed

  8. VIVITRON beam transport

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined

  9. Airy beams and paraxiality

    The ‘paraxiality’ of some Airy-function-related beams is discussed specifically on the basis of two paraxiality criteria, the paraxiality estimator and the degree of paraxiality, that have been recently introduced in the literature with the intent of assessing the limits of the paraxial approach to light field propagation analysis and of quantifying the paraxiality of a light beam. (paper)

  10. Beaming teaching application

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophone...

  11. Apertured paraxial Bessel beams.

    Umul, Yusuf Z

    2010-03-01

    The paraxial Bessel beam is obtained by applying an approximation in the wavenumbers. The scattering of the beams by a circular aperture in an absorbing screen is investigated. The scattered fields are expressed in terms of the Fresnel integrals by evaluating the Kirchhoff diffraction integral in the paraxial approximation. The results are examined numerically. PMID:20208927

  12. Switchable circular beam deflectors

    Shang, Xiaobing; Joshi, Pankaj; Tan, Jin-Yi; De Smet, Jelle; Cuypers, Dieter; Baghdasaryan, Tigran; Vervaeke, Michael; Thienpont, Hugo; De Smet, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we report two types of electrically tunable photonic devices with circularly symmetric polarization independent beam steering performance (beam condensing resp. beam broadening). The devices consist of circular micro grating structures combined with nematic liquid crystal (LC) layers with anti-parallel alignment. A single beam deflector converts a polarized and monochromatic green laser beam (λ =543.5 nm) into a diffraction pattern, with the peak intensity appearing at the third order when 0~{{V}\\text{pp}} is applied and at the zeroth order (no deflection) for voltages above 30~{{V}\\text{pp}} . Depending on the shape of the grating structure (non-inverted or inverted), the deflection is inwards or outwards. Both grating types can be made starting from the same diamond-tooled master mold. A polarized white light beam is symmetrically condensed resp. broadened over 2° in the off state and is passed through unchanged in the on state. By stacking two such devices with mutually orthogonal LC alignment layers, polarization independent switchable circular beam deflectors are realized with a high transmittance (>80%), and with the same beam steering performance as the polarization dependent single devices.

  13. Dosimetry of pion beams

    Negative pion beams are probably the most esoteric and most complicated type of radiation which has been suggested for use in clinical radiotherapy. Because of the limited availability of pion beams in the past, even to nuclear physicists, there exist relatively fewer basic data for this modality. Pion dosimetry is discussed

  14. Exposure to Pornography and Acceptance of Rape Myths.

    Allen, Mike; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the literature examining the association between acceptance of rape myths and exposure to pornography. States that nonexperimental methodology shows that exposure to pornography does not increase rape myth acceptance, while experimental studies show that exposure to pornography increases rape myth acceptance. Concludes that experimental…

  15. Social Acceptance of Wind: A Brief Overview (Presentation)

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses concepts and trends in social acceptance of wind energy, profiles recent research findings, and discussions mitigation strategies intended to resolve wind power social acceptance challenges as informed by published research and the experiences of individuals participating in the International Energy Agencies Working Group on Social Acceptance of Wind Energy

  16. 46 CFR 164.023-9 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted for acceptance. Application samples. A product sample submitted for acceptance as required by... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.023-9 Section 164.023-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION,...

  17. 20 CFR 229.81 - Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation... Refusal to accept vocational rehabilitation. The DIB O/M is not payable for any month in which the disabled employee refuses, without good reason, to accept vocational rehabilitation services...

  18. 5 CFR 531.409 - Acceptable level of competence determinations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptable level of competence... REGULATIONS PAY UNDER THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.409 Acceptable level of competence... delegated shall determine which employees are performing at an acceptable level of competence. (b) Basis...

  19. A Note on Risk Acceptance, Bankruptcy Avoidance and Riskiness Measures

    Chamorro Elosua, Arritokieta; Usategui Díaz de Otalora, José María

    2013-01-01

    In this work we clarify the relationships between riskiness, risk acceptance and bankruptcy avoidance. We distinguish between the restriction on the current wealth required to make a gamble acceptable to the decision maker and the restriction on the current wealth required to guarantee no bankruptcy if a gamble is accepted. We focus on the measure of riskiness proposed by Foster and Hart.

  20. Preparation of HEC Serial Modules for Beam and Cold Tests at CERN in 2000

    Fischer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Three mated HEC-1 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 2 - Three mated HEC-1 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 3 - Three mated HEC-2 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 4 - Three mated HEC-2 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 5 - Close-up of the inner-connecting bars of three mated HEC-2 modules, prepared for beam tests. Photo 6 - Mechanical acceptance tests for HEC serial modules at CERN. Photo 7 - Mechanical acceptance tests for HEC serial modules at CERN. Photo 8 - Four HEC-2 modules in the cryostat, prepared for cold tests.

  1. Linearizing Intra-Train Beam-Beam Deflection Feedback

    Beam-beam deflection feedback acting within the crossing time of a single bunch train may be needed to keep linear collider beams colliding at high luminosity. In a short-pulse machine such as the Next Linear Collider (NLC) this feedback must converge quickly to be useful. The non-linear nature of beam-beam deflection vs. beam-beam offset in these machines precludes obtaining both rapid convergence and a stable steady-state lock to beam offsets with a linear feedback algorithm. We show that a simply realizable programmable non-linear amplifier in the feedback loop can linearize the feedback loop, approximately compensating the beam-beam deflection non-linearity. Performance of a prototype non-linear amplifier is shown. Improvement of convergence and stability of the beam-beam feedback loop is simulated

  2. Beam director design report

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  3. Beam director design report

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 300 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  4. The H line: a brand new beam line for fundamental physics at the J-PARC muon facility

    The muon facility, J-PARC (Muon Science Establishment; MUSE), has been operated since first beam in 2008. Starting with a 200 kW proton beam, the beam intensity has reached 3×106/ muons/s, the most intense pulsed muon beam in the world. A 2 cm thick graphite target permits the extraction of four secondary muon beams. A brand new beam line, the H line, is planned to be constructed. The new beam line is designed to have a large acceptance, will provide the ability to tune the momentum, and use a kicker magnet and/or Wien filter. This beam line will provide an intense beam for experiments that require high statistics and must occupy the experimental areas for a relatively long period.

  5. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  6. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  7. Multi-Bunch Beam Dynamics Studies for the European XFEL

    Baboi, N

    2004-01-01

    In the X-ray free electron laser planned to be built at DESY (TESLA XFEL) the acceleration of the electron bunches will be made with 9-cell superconducting cavities. These cavities have been initially developed within the TESLA linear collider study. The impact of the higher order modes (HOM) has been shown to be within the acceptable beam dynamics limits for the collider. For the XFEL the dynamics is relaxed from point of view of multi-bunch effects (e.g. shorter length, higher emittance). However the lower energy and different time structure of the beam make the study of the HOM effects in the XFEL linac necessary. Multi-bunch beam dynamics studies are ongoing. The results of the HOM measurements at the TESLA Test Facility are used. Several options for the beam structure, as necessary for various applications, are studied. The results will be discussed.

  8. Design Study of a Superconducting Gantry for Carbon Beam Therapy

    Kim, J

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design study of a gantry for a carbon beam. The designed gantry is compact such that its size is comparable to the size of the proton gantry. This is possible by introducing superconducting double helical coils for dipole magnets. The gantry optics is designed in such a way that it provides rotation-invariant optics and variable beam size as well as point-to-parallel scanning of a beam. For large-aperture magnet, three-dimensional magnetic field distribution is obtained by invoking a computer code, and a number of particles are tracked by integrating equations of motion numerically together with three-dimensional interpolation. The beam-shape distortion due to the fringe field is reduced to an acceptable level by optimizing the coil windings with the help of genetic algorithm. Higher-order transfer coefficients are calculated and shown to be reduced greatly with appropriate optimization of the coil windings.

  9. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Beschleunigerlabor MLL, 85478 Garching (Germany); Peeper, K.; Reichart, P.; Urban, B.; Vallentin, T. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Dollinger, G., E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction.

  10. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction

  11. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  12. Public acceptance in radioactive waste management

    Radioactive waste, unavoidable by-products of economically developed societies, arises from the production of energy by nuclear fission reactors as well as from medical, research and industrial applications of radioactive materials. The main objective of radioactive waste management is the safety as well the protection of public health and the environment. The first approach for the disposal of radioactive waste was based on the traditional 'decide, announce and defend' model, focused almost exclusively on technical content. In spite of the significant technical progress that would ensure long-term safety, the rate of progress towards implementing such solutions has been slower than expected, partly attributable to an earlier technical optimism and to an underestimation of the societal and political dimensions. It is now broadly recognized that radioactive waste management involves both technical and societal dimensions which cannot be dissociated. Because of changes in society's decision-making environment and heightened public sensitivity to all matters connected with environmental protection, nuclear power, radioactivity, and especially radioactive waste, any decision regarding whether, when and how to implement waste management solutions will typically require thorough public examination and the involvement of many relevant stakeholders. The building of a long-term relationship with the local communities and the waste management facility is one of the most important contributors to sustainable radioactive waste management solutions. A new approach in now in place at international level, based on 'engage, interact and co-operate', for which both technical and societal issues are to be reconciled. That means that the involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is a condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such a project. A central role in the public acceptance of nuclear technologies play the management and

  13. An approach for determining the acceptable levels of nuclear risk

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for determining the acceptable levels of risk with respect to nuclear energy. It was concluded that the Atomic Energy Control Board should identify the interest groups that affect its choice of an acceptable level of risk, determine their expectations, and balance the expectations of the various groups such that the resulting acceptable level of risk is still acceptable to the Board. This would be done by interviewing experts on the subject of nuclear safety, developing and pretesting a public questionnaire, and surveying the public on acceptable cost-risk combinations

  14. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  15. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    Amit, Guy; Marshall, Andrea [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Purdie, Thomas G., E-mail: tom.purdie@rmp.uhn.ca; Jaffray, David A. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Techna Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Levinshtein, Alex [Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Hope, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Patricia [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Pekar, Vladimir [Philips Healthcare, Markham, Ontario L6C 2S3 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    coverage and organ at risk sparing and were superior over plans produced with fixed sets of common beam angles. The great majority of the automatic plans (93%) were approved as clinically acceptable by three radiation therapy specialists. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing a learning-based approach for automatic selection of beam angles in thoracic IMRT planning. The proposed method may assist in reducing the manual planning workload, while sustaining plan quality.

  16. Automatic learning-based beam angle selection for thoracic IMRT

    coverage and organ at risk sparing and were superior over plans produced with fixed sets of common beam angles. The great majority of the automatic plans (93%) were approved as clinically acceptable by three radiation therapy specialists. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing a learning-based approach for automatic selection of beam angles in thoracic IMRT planning. The proposed method may assist in reducing the manual planning workload, while sustaining plan quality

  17. Assessing acceptance sampling application in manufacturing electrical and electronic products

    B.M. Deros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper discusses the use of acceptance sampling technique as a practical tool for quality assuranceapplications to decide whether the lot is to be accepted or rejected.Design/methodology/approach: In Malaysia, single attribute acceptance sampling plan is widely practicedfor quality assurance purposes in manufacturing companies. Literature showed that majority of past studies onacceptance sampling had focused on the development and establishment of new methods for acceptance-samplingapplication. However, there is none that had investigated the relationship between acceptance sampling planselection and effectiveness of the selection. Therefore, in this study, the authors had analyzed the effectivenessthe acceptance sampling plan application method and its implementation problems in manufacturing electricaland electronics products. The study was conducted by using case study methodology at three manufacturingcompanies’ coded names: company A, B and C. In this paper, the authors would like to share the case studycompanies’ experienced of acceptance sampling plan selection and difficulties that they had faced during thecourse of implementing acceptance sampling in their production lines.Findings: The result from the three case study companies showed by implementing acceptance samplingthey could easily investigate and diagnose their suppliers’ product quality immediately upon their arrivalat the company premise.Practical implications: The continuous improvement and review of acceptance sampling plan is important toimprove the products quality and ensure continuous customer satisfaction.Originality/value: All the three case study companies agreed that acceptance sampling implementation hadimproved their product’s quality in the market place.

  18. On acceptance criteria for Mochovce startup physical tests

    Paper is focused on new acceptance criteria for physical startup tests of Mochovce Units 1, 2. The acceptance criteria are discussed at the stage of their development. The acceptance criteria determination is based on statistical processing of differences between the experimental and theoretical values of neutron-physical characteristics. The experimental values were taken from physical startup tests of Bohunice Unit 1, 2 and 4 and Dukovany Unit 1 - 4. The theoretical values were calculated by code BIPR-7. The acceptance criteria were established for critical boron concentration, core loading symmetry measurement, boric acid worth, temperature reactivity coefficient, 'ejected' control rod worth, pressure reactivity coefficient and power reactivity coefficient. The new acceptance criteria were applied to evaluate results of physical startup tests of Mochovce Unit 1 in June 1998. The acceptance criteria showed to be adequate. The summary results of statistical processing and the comparison of earlier, new and US acceptance criteria for physical startup tests are presented.(Authors)

  19. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous...... abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women...... who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non-planners with...

  20. The temporal dynamics of emotional acceptance: Experience, expression, and physiology.

    Dan-Glauser, Elise S; Gross, James J

    2015-05-01

    Emotional acceptance has begun to attract considerable attention from researchers and clinicians alike. It is not yet clear, however, what effects emotional acceptance has on early emotion response dynamics. To address this question, participants (N = 37) were shown emotional pictures and cued either to simply attend to them, or to accept or suppress their emotional responses. Continuous measures of emotion experience, expressive behavior, and autonomic responses were obtained. Results indicated that, compared to no regulation, acceptance led to more positive emotions, transiently enhanced expressivity, and lowered respiratory rate. Compared to suppression, acceptance led to more positive emotions, stronger expressivity, and smaller changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and pulse amplitude, as well as greater oxygenation. Acceptance and suppression thus have opposite effects on emotional response dynamics. Because acceptance enhances positive emotion experience and expression, this strategy may be particularly useful in facilitating social interactions. PMID:25782407

  1. The promise of acceptance as an NGO security management approach.

    Fast, Larissa; Freeman, Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores three questions related to acceptance as a security management approach. Acceptance draws upon relationships with community members, authorities, belligerents and other stakeholders to provide consent for the presence and activities of a non-governmental organisation (NGO), thereby reducing threats from these actors. Little is documented about how NGOs gain and maintain acceptance, how they assess and monitor the presence and degree of acceptance, or how they determine whether acceptance is effective in a particular context. Based on field research conducted in April 2011 in Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda, we address each of these three issues and argue that acceptance must be actively sought as both a programme and a security management strategy. In the paper we delineate elements common to all three contexts as well as missed opportunities, which identify areas that NGOs can and should address as part of an acceptance approach. PMID:25440000

  2. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures

  3. Primary Beam Steering Due To Field Leakage From Superconducting SHMS Magnets

    Moore, Michael; Covrig, Silviu; Carlini, Roger; Waidyawansa, Buddhini; Benesch, Jay

    2014-03-01

    The Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) was designed for the 12 GeV/c physics program in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator (JLab). At JLab an electron beam impinges on a fixed target and scattered particles are analyzed with magnetic spectrometers. The SHMS angular acceptance is 5 .5° 51.8 m from the target. The effects of these magnetic fields on the primary beam line downstream of the target are studied using Opera 3-D and TOSCA. A solution is presented that uses passive elements to shape these fields and assure that the primary beam is steered onto the beam dump window.

  4. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  5. Electron beam optics design of variable energy beam transport line for a tunable infra-red free electron laser at RRCAT

    A variable energy electron beam transport line has been designed to transport a 15-25 MeV electron beam from the injector linac to the undulator of a tuneable infra-red free electron laser (IR-FEL) being built at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology ( RRCAT). Beam optics of this transport line, which uses a dog-leg type bend, has been designed to match the twiss parameters of the beam to that of the undulator as per FEL design requirements and keep the beam envelop within acceptable limits through out the transport line. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of design of electron beam optics from the linac to the undulator. (author)

  6. Heat exchanger, head and shell acceptance criteria

    Instability of postulated flaws in the head component of the heat exchanger could not produce a large break, equivalent to a DEGB in the PWS piping, due to the configuration of the head and restraint provided by the staybolts. Rather, leakage from throughwall flaws in the head would increase with flaw length with finite leakage areas that are bounded by a post-instability flaw configuration. Postulated flaws at instability in the shell of the heat exchanger or in the cooling water nozzles could produce a large break in the Cooling Water System (CWS) pressure boundary. An initial analysis of flaw stability for postulated flaws in the heat exchanger head was performed in January 1992. This present report updates that analysis and, additionally, provides acceptable flaw configurations to maintain defined structural or safety margins against flaw instability of the external pressure boundary components of the heat exchanger, namely the head, shell, and cooling water nozzles. Structural and flaw stability analyses of the heat exchanger tubes, the internal pressure boundary of the heat exchangers or interface boundary between the PWS and CWS, were previously completed in February 1992 as part of the heat exchanger restart evaluation and are not covered in this report

  7. STUDENTS' ATTITUDE AND ACCEPTANCE OF MATH STUDIES

    Sead Rešić

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to ascertain the type of relation elementary school students have toward mathematics classes. Through employing technical and scientific methods, a basis was constructed which can provide answers to numerous questions related to math classes, relation of students towards the subject matter, as well as to results being achieved in the subject mathematics during elementary education. The fact is that elementary school students exhibit difficulties in accepting the subject and achieve lower results in mathematics in comparison to other school subjects. Likewise, it is a fact that students upon gradating elementary school opt for high schools which have less mathematics in their curricula, and this state of affair continues when choosing higher education area. In the first theoretical part, certain fundamental concepts regarding this research topic have been clarified. The second part relates to the methodology of research of the above-mentioned problem. In the third part an analysis and interpretation of the results of conducted research has been provided.

  8. Social acceptance of carbon dioxide storage

    This article discusses public acceptance of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Responses by citizens are described in relation to responses by professionally involved actors. Interviews with members of the government, industry and environmental NGOs showed that these professional actors are interested in starting up storage projects, based on thorough evaluation processes, including discussions on multi-actor working groups. As appeared from a survey among citizens living near a potential storage site (N=103), public attitudes in general were slightly positive, but attitudes towards storage nearby were slightly negative. The general public appeared to have little knowledge about CO2-storage, and have little desire for more information. Under these circumstances, trust in the professional actors is particularly important. NGOs were found to be trusted most, and industry least by the general public. Trust in each of the three actors appeared to depend on perceived competence and intentions, which in turn were found to be related to perceived similarity of goals and thinking between trustee and trustor. Implications for communication about CCS are discussed

  9. Nuclear public acceptance and 'imaginary and reality

    Recently, anti-nuclear movement is going down, and couple reactor construction has been seemed to be accepted. Even Uranium production will be coming down, Plutonium, fast reactor and nuclear fusion reactor will coming in future. An unfortunate reactivity accident in a nuclear fuel factory in Tokai village has occurred by lack of the very essential nuclear technology which is not believable. This comes the reality has been included in an imaginary region in the brain. So picking up the reality from the imaginary region in brain is due to knowing the separation of the reality from the imaginary region by knowledge on the very essential nuclear technology. A man knowing the very essential nuclear technology can avoid this kind of accident. For the most people does not like to meet with the problems of atomic bomb and hi-radiation level waste. There two problems will be understood by knowing the reality point the imaginary area. It is easily understandable, if it is the essential nuclear technology. (author)

  10. Public acceptance of transport: international status

    In the framework of reprocessing-recycling policy chosen by the Japanese utilities in order to satisfy Japan's energy need, sea transports of spent fuel have been carried out for twenty years between Japan and Europe. All these sea shipments have been realized without any specific public interest. In 1992, the voyage of the Akatsuki Maru, carrying Japanese plutonium from COGEMA-La Hague reprocessing plant to Japan marked the beginning of interest to this kind of transports. Some concerns have been voiced by en-route States having the feeling that nuclear material is shipped 'through their backyard', and in the same time anti-nuclear organizations generated some issues on this activity. Suddenly, transportation issues which had for many years taken a back seat to other nuclear topics, have met an increasing global questioning. These circumstances went on during the first return of vitrified residues in 1995. Facing this situation, the industrial community - COGEMA, in close cooperation with its Japanese and British partners - has decided to implement a dedicated communication. It works to facilitate each on-going shipment, but also to help acceptance of coming transport campaign: for instance, one has indeed to keep in mind that one or two shipments by year of vitrified residues will take place in the next ten years. (authors)

  11. Exploring technology acceptance for mobile services

    Kenny Phan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mobile phone industries are no longer relying on voice services. It is predicted that data services are expected to be a remediation for the declining of average revenue per user (ARPU in telecommunication market. The purpose of this paper is to find the factors that influence the acceptance/adoption of mobile services.Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes quantitative method. Questionnaire were distributed to collect the data. The questionnaires are designed specifically to address the factors related to mobile services. Later on, this paper uses Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP and Cluster analysis to identify the factors that influence the adoption of mobile services.Findings: The results show that ease of use and usefulness are top two factors that influence the adoption of mobile services.Research limitations/implications: The sample for the study is relatively small. For future research, the sample should be increased. The data collection should also look into different devices and operating system of mobile phones to find if there is any significant difference in adopting mobile services.Practical implications: This framework is expected to be able to help the mobile services provider to design better mobile services that can attract users to adopt them. Originality/value: This is the follow on research on the previous study that employed different method. This study is to confirm and support the findings from previous study.

  12. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers. PMID:8332588

  13. Grout Treatment Facility waste feed acceptance criteria

    This document establishes criteria for the acceptance of grout waste feed to provide assurance that the final grout form produced by the Grout Disposal Facility (GDF) will meet the regulatory, design, product, and process requirements. Contained in the report is an evaluation of the regulatory requirements associated with the grout disposal option along with a description of the waste currently stored on the site. An evaluation of the heat generation requirements for the waste feed stream is presented. This evaluation includes the heat resulting from the grout curing process as well as heat associated with the radiolytic decay of the radioisotopes present. Limits for individual elements as well as limits for classes of materials such as organics, sulfates, etc. are presented in Table 1-1. These values are based on regulatory, heat generation, and compositional limits to assure the integrity of the final grout products. Some compositional limits such as heavy metals will require Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing to demonstrate regulatory compliance

  14. Public acceptance action plan for transportation

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is currently evaluating the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada for the potential development of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository. Identification of the site for evaluation as a potential HLW disposal site sparked intense opposition by the state of Nevada. This opposition affects every aspect of dealing with the public, making treatment of transportation issues in isolation difficult. Unsafe transportation is often cited as one reason of opposition of the site. However, the excellent safety record and the well-defined transportation system (relative to the site) means transportation issues can be addressed as site evaluations progress. Transportation items raised by the public in Nevada include items that are encountered in essentially every public discussion of spent-fuel transportation and unique items as a result of negative imaging by opponents, errors in government reports, and gaps in public information efforts. A number of actions have been taken to build public acceptance of HLW transportation in Nevada. Some technical and institutional staff approaches that have been used are described

  15. Public Health Acceptance of Irradiated Food

    At its 1976 meeting the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation had indicated in its Report that the irradiation of food was a process akin to other food preservation processes using physical means. On the basis of a large body of data on the microbiology, nutritional aspects and toxicology of numerous foods treated by irradiation the Committee was able to recommend unconditional acceptance for the following five foods: wheat, potato, papaya, strawberry and chicken. It also recommended provisional clearance for three other foods — rice, onion and fish — for which the results of some investigations were still outstanding. Since 1976 a considerable amount of further data have been accumulated to show that foods preserved by irradiation at doses averaging 1 Mrad (10 kGy) were wholesome and could be consumed by the public without any hazard to health. These data derived partly from extensive investigations into the radiation chemistry of irradiated food components and partly from further animal feeding studies and genetic toxicity investigations. Much of the data was generated as a result of the activities of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation, situated in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany.

  16. Beam distributions beyond RMS

    The beam is often represented only by its position (mean) and the width (rms = root mean squared) of its distribution. To achieve these beam parameters in a noisy condition with high backgrounds, a Gaussian distribution with offset (4 parmeters) is fitted to the measured beam distribution. This gives a very robust answer and is not very sensitive to background subtraction techniques. To get higher moments of the distribution, like skew or kurtosis, a fitting function with one or two more parameters is desired which would model the higher moments. In this paper we will concentrate on an Asymmetric Gaussian and a Super Gaussian function that will give something like the skew and the kurtosis of the distribution. This information is used to quantify special beam distribution. Some are unwanted like beam tails (skew) from transverse wakefields, higher order dispersive aberrations or potential well distortion in a damping ring. A negative kurtosis of a beam distribution describes a more rectangular, compact shape like with an over-compressed beam in z or a closed to double-homed energy distribution, while a positive kurtosis looks more like a ''Christmas tree'' and can quantify a beam mismatch after filamentation. Besides the advantages of the quantification, there are some distributions which need a further investigation like long flat tails which create background particles in a detector. In particle simulations on the other hand a simple rms number might grossly overestimate the effective size (e.g. for producing luminosity) due to a few particles which are far away from the core. This can reduce the practical gain of a big theoretical improvement in the beam size

  17. Nondiffracting transversally polarized beam.

    Yuan, G H; Wei, S B; Yuan, X-C

    2011-09-01

    Generation of a nondiffracting transversally polarized beam by means of transmitting an azimuthally polarized beam through a multibelt spiral phase hologram and then highly focusing by a high-NA lens is presented. A relatively long depth of focus (∼4.84λ) of the electric field with only radial and azimuthal components is achieved. The polarization of the wavefront near the focal plane is analyzed in detail by calculating the Stokes polarization parameters. It is found that the polarization is spatially varying and entirely transversally polarized, and the polarization singularity disappears at the beam center, which makes the central bright channel possible. PMID:21886250

  18. Polarized atomic hydrogen beam

    Chan, N.; Crowe, D.M.; Lubell, M.S.; Tang, F.C.; Vasilakis, A.; Mulligan, F.J.; Slevin, J.

    1988-12-01

    We describe the design and operating characteristics of a simple polarized atomic hydrogen beam particularly suitable for applications to crossed beams experiments. In addition to experimental measurements, we present the results of detailed computer models, using Monte-Carlo ray tracing techniques, optical analogs, and phase-space methods, that not only provide us with a confirmation of our measurement, but also allow us to characterize the density, polarization, and atomic fraction of the beam at all points along its path. As a subsidiary result, we also present measurements of the relative and absolute efficiencies of the V/G Supavac mass analyzer for masses 1 and 2.

  19. Beam instrumentation performance overview

    Sapinski, M

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 run has proven that LHC can operate safely and stably with higher bunch intensity and smaller transverse emittance than foreseen in the Technical Design Report. In this presentation the performance of the Beam Position Monitoring (BPM) system is discussed. The improvements to the system, those made during the last year and those expected to be done for 2012 run are presented. The status of the three types of devices measuring the transverse beam emittance, wire scanners (BWS), synchrotron radiation monitors (BSRT) and beam gas ionization monitors (BGI), are shown. The control room applications are reviewed and a set of improvements proposed by the operation team is presented.

  20. Short bunched beam monitor

    In order to monitor the short bunched beam, two types of monitors were developed and tested. A core monitor using a Co-based amorphous core which has high μ characteristics and high frequency response can be used as a non-destructive current monitor for the beam in the range of 1ns to several μs pulse width. A wall current monitor designed carefully has been also tested. The wall current monitor has measured the beam shape with the pulse width of 200ps or less. In this paper the characteristics and overall performance of these monitors are described. (author)

  1. Electron Beam for LHC

    Krasny, M W

    2005-01-01

    A method of delivering a monochromatic electron beam to the LHC interaction points is proposed. In this method, heavy ions are used as carriers of the projectile electrons. Acceleration, storage and collision-stability aspects of such a hybrid beam is discussed and a new beam-cooling method is presented. This discussion is followed by a proposal of the Parasitic Ion-Electron collider at LHC (PIE@LHC). The PIE@LHC provides an opportunity, for the present LHC detectors, to enlarge the scope of their research program by including the program of electron-proton and electron-nucleuscollisions with minor machine and detector investments.

  2. Examining the Factors Affecting PDA Acceptance among Physicians: An Extended Technology Acceptance Model

    Basak, Ecem; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Calisir, Fethi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the factors affecting the intention to use personal digital assistant (PDA) technology among physicians in Turkey using an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A structural equation-modeling approach was used to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to use PDA technology. The data were collected from 339 physicians in Turkey. Results indicated that 71% of the physicians’ intention to use PDA technology is explained by perceived us...

  3. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  4. LEDA BEAM DIAGNOSTICS INSTRUMENTATION: BEAM POSITION MONITORS

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7-MeV and current of 100-mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Of key importance to the commissioning and operations effort is the Beam Position Monitor system (BPM). The LEDA BPM system uses five micro-stripline beam position monitors processed by log ratio processing electronics with data acquisition via a series of custom TMS32OC40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of the system, the log ratio processing, and the system calibration technique. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system

  5. Beam Characterizations at Femtosecond Electron Beam Facility

    Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Kangrang, Nopadol; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W; Saisut, Jatuporn; Thongbai, Chitrlada; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    The SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) has been established and is being commissioning to generate femtosecond electron pulses. Theses short pulses are produced by a system consisting of an S-band thermionic cathode RF-gun, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator. The characteristics of its major components and the beam characterizations as well as the preliminary experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  6. Beam dynamics studies in a tesla positron pre-accelerator

    Moiseev, V A; Flöttmann, K

    2001-01-01

    The TESLA linear collider is based on superconducting accelerating cavities.Behind the positron production target normal conducting cavities have to be used in order to cope with high particle losses and with focusing solenoid surrounding the cavities.The main purpose of this pre-accelerator is to provide maximum capture efficiency for the useful part of the totally acceptable positron beam with technically reasonable parameters of the linac.The coupled optimization of the capture optics behind the target and pre-accelerator rf-operation has been carried out.The beam dynamics simulation results as well as the pre-accelerator peculiarities are presented.

  7. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Wei, Jie

    1992-09-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  8. Bunched beam stochastic cooling

    Wei, Jie.

    1992-01-01

    The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.

  9. Longitudinal Beam Dynamics

    Tecker, F.

    2016-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  10. Final focus test beam

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  11. High frequency beam protection

    This report describes the design and construction of a high-frequency beam protecting device. This apparatus controls a number of functions in a modulator. Furthermore it drives the phase shifter and the attenuator. (author). 6 figs

  12. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    Zschornacka, G; Thorn, A

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  13. Longitudinal beam dynamics

    Tecker, F

    2014-01-01

    The course gives a summary of longitudinal beam dynamics for both linear and circular accelerators. After discussing different types of acceleration methods and synchronism conditions, it focuses on the particle motion in synchrotrons.

  14. HIRENASD Beam FEM

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This contains attempts to create BEAM FEM model. I have started a Blog to discuss this... please put your comments there and I will attempt to keep everything...

  15. Neutrino beams and experiments

    After a brief review of the early history of neutrino experiments, the principle of neutrino beams at proton accelerators is described and a survey of neutrino experiments since 1963 is given. ((orig.))

  16. Geothermal technology in Australia: Investigating social acceptance

    Dowd, Anne-Maree, E-mail: Anne-Maree.Dowd@csiro.au [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), PO Box 883, Kenmore 4069 (Australia); Boughen, Naomi; Ashworth, Peta; Carr-Cornish, Simone [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), PO Box 883, Kenmore 4069 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions and reactions, can affect low emission energy technology development, despite general support observed for reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Negative community reactions and lack of understanding have affected geothermal developments, as demonstrated by the fearful community reactions and negative media experienced in response to seismic disturbances caused by 'hot rock' geothermal energy generation in Switzerland and Germany. Focusing on geothermal energy, this paper presents the results of using a participatory action research methodology to engage diverse groups within the Australian public. A key finding is that the majority of the Australian public report limited the knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology and have various concerns including water usage and seismic activity instigated by geothermal drilling. However, geothermal energy receives general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources in preference to traditional forms of energy generation and controversial technologies. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of using an engagement process to explore public understanding of energy technologies in the context of climate change, and suggests a way forward for governments and industry to allocate resources for greatest impact when communicating about geothermal technology. - Highlights: > Majority of Australians have limited knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology. > Various concerns, including water usage and seismic activity instigated by drilling, were raised. > Geothermal energy has general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources. > Methodology shows the effectiveness of an engagement process to explore public understanding. > Participants expressed intention to change behaviours, which can be a catalyst for change.

  17. Factors affecting the acceptance of nuclear energy

    Nuclear energy all over Europe faces political resistance. Politicians refer to the results of public opinion polls that show considerable resistance towards the use of nuclear power. However, responses to general questions on nuclear energy are 'soft', depending on the design of the questions, and, above all, on the situation at hand. Provided there is a need for nuclear energy, the ambivalent majority accepts this source of power. However, there is no doubt that a hard core of opponents to the use of nuclear energy under all circumstances is slowly increasing. While leadership groups prefer to explain their lack of, or only lukewarm, support for nuclear energy as being the result of public resistance, this resistance is to a large extent the result of the behaviour of key groups in opinion formation. The public has little competence in such technical issues, and also little patience in evaluating information remote from its daily concerns. The most important message the public in various countries believes it is getting from leadership groups is the impression that nuclear energy is controversial among experts. This impression is a consequence of the preferred source of information, namely television and newspapers. Surveys of journalists, politicians, scientists in general and those specializing in nuclear issues demonstrate that the farther one of the groups important in the formation of public opinion is, the more critical is its stance with regard to nuclear power. Among specialists, issues surrounding the use of nuclear power are only marginally controversial. The communications elite and cultural intelligentsia are sending the wrong messages to the general public. Thus, the first priority in rectifying this erroneous impression is to change the perceptions and attitudes of key groups involved in the formation of public opinion. 12 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Geothermal technology in Australia: Investigating social acceptance

    Issues of social acceptance, such as lack of awareness and negative community perceptions and reactions, can affect low emission energy technology development, despite general support observed for reducing carbon emissions and mitigating climate change. Negative community reactions and lack of understanding have affected geothermal developments, as demonstrated by the fearful community reactions and negative media experienced in response to seismic disturbances caused by 'hot rock' geothermal energy generation in Switzerland and Germany. Focusing on geothermal energy, this paper presents the results of using a participatory action research methodology to engage diverse groups within the Australian public. A key finding is that the majority of the Australian public report limited the knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology and have various concerns including water usage and seismic activity instigated by geothermal drilling. However, geothermal energy receives general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources in preference to traditional forms of energy generation and controversial technologies. This paper also demonstrates the effectiveness of using an engagement process to explore public understanding of energy technologies in the context of climate change, and suggests a way forward for governments and industry to allocate resources for greatest impact when communicating about geothermal technology. - Highlights: → Majority of Australians have limited knowledge or understanding of geothermal technology. → Various concerns, including water usage and seismic activity instigated by drilling, were raised. → Geothermal energy has general support due to a common trend to champion renewable energy sources. → Methodology shows the effectiveness of an engagement process to explore public understanding. → Participants expressed intention to change behaviours, which can be a catalyst for change.

  19. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams.

    Kainz, K K; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Hogstrom, K R

    2005-03-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  20. Dual scattering foil design for poly-energetic electron beams

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) mechanism can accelerate electrons to energies within the 6-20 MeV range desired for therapy application. However, the energy spectrum of LWFA-generated electrons is broad, on the order of tens of MeV. Using existing laser technology, the therapeutic beam might require a significant energy spread to achieve clinically acceptable dose rates. The purpose of this work was to test the assumption that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam would be suitable for a poly-energetic beam with a significant energy spread. Dual scattering foil systems were designed for mono-energetic beams using an existing analytical formalism based on Gaussian multiple-Coulomb scattering theory. The design criterion was to create a flat beam that would be suitable for fields up to 25 x 25 cm2 at 100 cm from the primary scattering foil. Radial planar fluence profiles for poly-energetic beams with energy spreads ranging from 0.5 MeV to 6.5 MeV were calculated using two methods: (a) analytically by summing beam profiles for a range of mono-energetic beams through the scattering foil system, and (b) by Monte Carlo using the EGS/BEAM code. The analytic calculations facilitated fine adjustments to the foil design, and the Monte Carlo calculations enabled us to verify the results of the analytic calculation and to determine the phase-space characteristics of the broadened beam. Results showed that the flatness of the scattered beam is fairly insensitive to the width of the input energy spectrum. Also, results showed that dose calculated by the analytical and Monte Carlo methods agreed very well in the central portion of the beam. Outside the useable field area, the differences between the analytical and Monte Carlo results were small but significant, possibly due to the small angle approximation. However, these did not affect the conclusion that a scattering foil system designed for a mono-energetic beam will be suitable for a poly

  1. Enhancing Stakeholder Acceptance Of Bioremediation Technologies

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  2. ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER ACCEPTANCE OF BIOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Focht, Will; Albright, Matt; Anex, Robert P., Jr., ed.

    2009-04-21

    This project inquired into the judgments and beliefs of people living near DOE reservations and facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Hanford, Washington; and Los Alamos, Tennessee about bioremediation of subsurface contamination. The purpose of the investigation was to identify strategies based on these judgments and beliefs for enhancing public support of bioremediation. Several methods were used to collect and analyze data including content analysis of transcripts of face-to-face personal interviews, factor analysis of subjective perspectives using Q methodology, and statistical analysis of results from a large-sample randomized telephone survey. Content analysis of interview transcripts identified themes about public perceptions and constructions of contamination risk, risk management, and risk managers. This analysis revealed that those who have no employment relationship at the sites and are not engaged in technical professions are most concerned about contamination risks. We also found that most interviewees are unfamiliar with subsurface contamination risks and how they can be reduced, believe they have little control over exposure, are frustrated with the lack of progress in remediation, are concerned about a lack of commitment of DOE to full remediation, and distrust site managers to act in the public interest. Concern is also expressed over frequent site management turnover, excessive secrecy, ineffective and biased communication, perceived attempts to talk the public into accepting risk, and apparent lack of concern about community welfare. In the telephone survey, we asked respondents who were aware of site contamination about their perceptions of risk from exposure to subsurface contamination. Response analysis revealed that most people believe that they are at significant risk from subsurface contamination but they acknowledge that more education is needed to calibrate risk perceptions against scientific risk assessments. Most rate their personal

  3. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  4. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    LHCb, Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  5. Neutral beams for mirrors

    An important demonstration of negative ion technology is proposed for FY92 in the MFTF-α+T, an upgrade of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This facility calls for 200-keV negative ions to form neutral beams that generate sloshing ions in the reactor end plugs. Three different beam lines are considered for this application. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  6. LHC First Beam 2008

    Tuura, L

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Centre played a major part in the LHC First Beam Event on September 10th 2008: it was a central point for CMS, hosting journalists from all over the world and providing live link-ups to collaborating institutes as well as, of course, monitoring events as they happened at Point 5. It was also a venue for celebration as the beam completed circuits of the LHC in both directions, passing successfully through the detector (Courtesy of Lassi Tuura)

  7. Cluster ion beam facilities

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  8. The beam quality parameter of spirally polarized beams

    Ramírez-Sánchez, V.; Piquero, G.

    2008-12-01

    Starting from the expression for the quality parameter of a superposition of two general fields, the case of beams that can be written in terms of the polarization basis introduced by Gori is investigated. Different types of this class of beam are studied and compared. In particular, spirally polarized beams are considered. As an example, polarized Bessel-Gauss beams are analyzed in detail.

  9. Beam-beam interaction in P-P colliding accelerators

    One model for beam growth due to the beam-beam interaction in P-P colliding accelerators is that it is due to the presence of non-linear forces generated by the fields produced by the beam plus some radomizing effect like noise, or a tune modulation. According to this model, to limit beam-beam effects, one should try to limit the size of the non-linear forces and the sources of noise or tune modulation. This model can also be used to compare the severity of beam-beam effects in two situations by comparing the size of the non-linear forces. In this paper, this approach will be used to study three problems: to compare the effects of beam-beam non-linear resonances in the ISR with those in ISABELLE; to estimate the strength of a spectrometer magnet that may be placed at one of the beam crossing points, without appreciably increasing the beam-beam effects; and to compare the beam-beam interaction for colliding beam accelerators with different crossing-angles and different ν/sub x/ and ν/sub y/ at the crossing points

  10. Operational studies and expected performance of superconducting quadrupole magnets in the first stages of secondary beams

    A low current, large bore, epoxy impregnated superconducting quadrupole magnet was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory as a possible prototype for secondary beam use. The quadrupole magnet was placed in the Fermilab P-West High Intensity Area beam for beam quenching tests. Tests were performed by targetting a primary proton beam directly onto the quadrupole coil and by using the quadrupole in its anticipated role as part of the first stage flux collection triplet for a zero degree anti-proton secondary beam formed from the decays of neutral Lambda particles. Comparing the results with similar tests performed using forced flow Energy Saver dipoles shows that the epoxy impregnated quadrupoles have a much greater sensitivity to beam induced quenching at a similar fraction of the conductor short sample limit. Using the CASIM program, calculations indicate that such eopxy impregnated coils would not be viable as first stage flux collection elements without appreciable collimation and subsequent loss of secondary beam acceptance. Quadrupoles based on Energy Saver technology appear capable of tolerating acceptable primary beam intensities. The momentum dispersing bends will require even larger aperture superconducting dipoles or neutral beam dump within the bend string

  11. Opal neutron beams shutters

    Full text: The Opal Reactor has five beam tubes for neutron beams. Of these 5 tubes, two come from a cold neutron source, another two from thermal sources, and a fifth is ready for a future hot neutron source. Neutron guides come from the cold and thermal beam tubes. Neutron beams are enabled/disabled through shutters located inside the reactor pool's radial shield. These shutters were specially designed by INVAP for the OPAL reactor. They comprise fixed and movable shields. The movable part allows neutron beam enabling or disabling. The design of these shutters demanded the construction of prototypes that were further submitted to comprehensive tests to be qualified in light of the strict movement precision and high reliability requirements involved. The shielding material - a plastic and steel mix - was also specifically designed for this facility. The design required great efforts as to shield calculation and energy deposition. A heat removal system was designed to dissipate the energy absorbed by the shields. The cold and thermal beam shutters are built following a single vertical axis design. The hot shutter, due to different requirements, was designed with a horizontal axis

  12. Beam optics test stand

    The authors have constructed a beam optics test stand in order to study adaptive charged particle optics. A low energy, continuous electron beam is used to model a high energy negative ion beam. In addition, the beam can be used as a diagnostic probe to study the correction of spherical aberrations in a solenoid lens. The authors test stand design stresses versatility. The conical glass vacuum system has reentrant electron and diagnostic chambers that allow immediate experimental modifications. As an integral part of the vacuum system, the solenoid lens also serves as structural support for grid focusing systems. Vacuum pumping is provided by an 8'' cryopump and the entire system can be moved about freely. Computer control and data acquisition are interfaced to the beam control and diagnostics. A post acceleration grid and deflection plates have been added to a commercial electron gun to produce a 10 keV beam at 100 μA. The diagnostics consist of phosphor screens, a charge-coupled photodiode array, and an image dissector

  13. Proton injector acceptance tests for a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA):characterisation of Advanced Injection System of Light Ions (AISLI)

    Peng, S.X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H.T.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, T.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, A.L.; Guo, Z.Y.; Chen, J.E.

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate the acceleration capability of a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a proton injector has been developed at Peking University (PKU). It is composed of a compact permanent magnet 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (PKU PMECRIS) associated with a LEBT of two electrostatic Einzel lenses [1]. This injector is named as Advanced Injector System of Light Ions (AISLI). The acceptance tests have been performed with a 40 keV–55 mA hydrogen beam successfully passing through a ϕ 10 mm aperture diaphragm. This diaphragm is located 200 mm downstream the plasma emission hole at the location of the future DWA entrance flange. The beam rms emittance reached about 0.10 π mm mrad in pulsed mode. This article describes the AISLI experimental setup, the measurement principle and the obtained beam characteristics.

  14. Proton injector acceptance tests for a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA):characterisation of Advanced Injection System of Light Ions (AISLI)

    To demonstrate the acceleration capability of a Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a proton injector has been developed at Peking University (PKU). It is composed of a compact permanent magnet 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (PKU PMECRIS) associated with a LEBT of two electrostatic Einzel lenses [1]. This injector is named as Advanced Injector System of Light Ions (AISLI). The acceptance tests have been performed with a 40 keV–55 mA hydrogen beam successfully passing through a ϕ 10 mm aperture diaphragm. This diaphragm is located 200 mm downstream the plasma emission hole at the location of the future DWA entrance flange. The beam rms emittance reached about 0.10 π mm mrad in pulsed mode. This article describes the AISLI experimental setup, the measurement principle and the obtained beam characteristics

  15. Beam-beam diagnostics from closed-orbit distortion

    We study the applicability of beam-beam deflection techniques as a tuning tool for asymmetric B factories, focusing on PEP-II as an example. Assuming that the closed orbits of the two beams are separated vertically at the interaction point by a local orbit bump that is nominally closed, we calculate the residual beam orbit distortions due to the beam-beam interaction. Difference orbit measurements, performed at points conveniently distant from the interaction point (IP), provide distinct signatures that can be used to maintain the beams in collision and perform detailed optical diagnostics at the IP. A proposal to test this method experimentally at the TRISTAN ring is briefly discussed

  16. Beam-beam studies for the High-Energy LHC

    Ohmi, K; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    LHC upgrades are being considered both towards higher luminosity (HL-LHC) and towards higher energy (HE-LHC). In this paper we report initial studies of the beam-beam effects in the HE-LHC [1]. The HE-LHC aims at beam energies of 16.5 TeV, where the transverse emittance decreases due to synchrotron radiation with a 2-hour damping time. As a result of this emittance, shrinkage the beam-beam parameter increases with time, during a physics store. The beam-beam limit in the HE-LHC is explored using computer simulations.

  17. Beam current measurement and beam positioning for baby-ebm

    This paper describes the electron beam detection of Baby EBM. The detection is divided by two categories; beam current measurement and beam positioning under the scanning window. The beam detector system was completely fabricated and tested and the detector was able to detect the electron beam of Baby EBM. It has been found that the beam current of this EBM is 1.62 mA for energy of 0.14 MeV. A higher beam current can be obtained if a proper cooling system to the window foil is installed. (Author)

  18. Beam-target interaction and intrabeam scattering in the HESR ring. Emittance, momentum resolution and luminosity

    The beam-target interaction is studied with respect to the transverse and longitudinal emittance growth of the HESR antiproton beam. The transverse emittance growth caused by the small angle Coulomb scattering can be described analytically using the differential cross section of the Coulomb interaction. Similarly, the longitudinal emittance growth caused by the energy loss of the beam can be calculated using the differential cross section of the energy-loss distribution. It is shown that particles with energy losses near the maximum energy loss in a head-on collision with a target electron are lost due to momentum acceptance of the HESR ring. Taking a relative momentum acceptance of about 1 x 10-3 into account yields an order of magnitude smaller growth rate of the mean square momentum deviation. The necessary cooling rates for the High Resolution mode and the High Luminosity mode are deduced assuming that the beam-target interaction is the dominant beam heating process. For comparison the effects of intrabeam scattering are estimated. For electron and stochastic cooling, analytic expressions are quoted in order to evaluate the momentum resolution and cooling rate. The potentialities of electron and stochastic cooling are discussed with respect to the achievable momentum resolution and beam-target overlap. Beam loss rates and average luminosities are evaluated taking the total hadronic cross section, the restricted momentum acceptance of the HESR ring, the large angle Coulomb scattering and the Touschek effect into account. (orig.)

  19. Beam-target interaction and intrabeam scattering in the HESR ring. Emittance, momentum resolution and luminosity

    Hinterberger, F. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2006-02-15

    The beam-target interaction is studied with respect to the transverse and longitudinal emittance growth of the HESR antiproton beam. The transverse emittance growth caused by the small angle Coulomb scattering can be described analytically using the differential cross section of the Coulomb interaction. Similarly, the longitudinal emittance growth caused by the energy loss of the beam can be calculated using the differential cross section of the energy-loss distribution. It is shown that particles with energy losses near the maximum energy loss in a head-on collision with a target electron are lost due to momentum acceptance of the HESR ring. Taking a relative momentum acceptance of about 1 x 10{sup -3} into account yields an order of magnitude smaller growth rate of the mean square momentum deviation. The necessary cooling rates for the High Resolution mode and the High Luminosity mode are deduced assuming that the beam-target interaction is the dominant beam heating process. For comparison the effects of intrabeam scattering are estimated. For electron and stochastic cooling, analytic expressions are quoted in order to evaluate the momentum resolution and cooling rate. The potentialities of electron and stochastic cooling are discussed with respect to the achievable momentum resolution and beam-target overlap. Beam loss rates and average luminosities are evaluated taking the total hadronic cross section, the restricted momentum acceptance of the HESR ring, the large angle Coulomb scattering and the Touschek effect into account. (orig.)

  20. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A

    1999-01-01

    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.