WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerators devices

  1. Quantum optical device accelerating dynamic programming

    Grigoriev, D.; Kazakov, A.; Vakulenko, S

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we discuss analogue computers based on quantum optical systems accelerating dynamic programming for some computational problems. These computers, at least in principle, can be realized by actually existing devices. We estimate an acceleration in resolving of some NP-hard problems that can be obtained in such a way versus deterministic computers

  2. Railgun type double stage acceleration device

    Existent railgun type double stage acceleration devices for use in a thermonuclear device involved a problem so far that releasing amount of secondary electrons is reduced and destruction of electric insulation between rail electrodes is made unstable to increase a possibility of operation failure. In the present invention, there is disposed a means for accelerating plasmas to generate electric discharge between the rail electrodes by electric fields generated by a needle electrode disposed in the insulation material which supports the rail electrodes. Since ions of plasmas generated by laser beams are accelerated by high electric fields generated to the needle electrode, and collide against the rail electrodes at high energy, a large amount of secondary electrons are generated and the destruction of the electric insulation between a pair of rail electrodes is stabilized, to improve possibility of operation failure. (N.H.)

  3. Code generation of RHIC accelerator device objects

    A RHIC Accelerator Device Object is an abstraction which provides a software view of a collection of collider control points known as parameters. A grammar has been defined which allows these parameters, along with code describing methods for acquiring and modifying them, to be specified efficiently in compact definition files. These definition files are processed to produce C++ source code. This source code is compiled to produce an object file which can be loaded into a front end computer. Each loaded object serves as an Accelerator Device Object class definition. The collider will be controlled by applications which set and get the parameters in instances of these classes using a suite of interface routines. Significant features of the grammar are described with details about the generated C++ code

  4. The positioning device of beam probes for accelerator LUE-200

    The description of a device for the positioning of sliding beam probes which is the part of the beam diagnostic system for the LUE-200 electron linac of IREN installation is presented. The device provides remote control of input-output operation of beam probes of five diagnostic stations established in an accelerating tract and in the beam transportation channel of the accelerator

  5. Cryogenic devices attached to electron accelerators

    The cryoeenic equipement attached to electron accelerators used at the CEN.G for fundamental research on point defects in solids is presented and some of their essential technical characteristics are briefly described

  6. Device Configuration Handler for Accelerator Control Applications at Jefferson Lab

    The accelerator control system at Jefferson Lab uses hundreds of physical devices with such popular instrument bus interfaces as Industry Pack (IPAC), GPIB, RS-232, etc. To properly handle all these components, control computers (IOCs) must be provided with the correct information about the unique memory addresses of the used interface cards, interrupt numbers (if any), data communication channels and protocols. In these conditions, the registration of a new control device in the control system is not an easy task for software developers. Because the device configuration is distributed, it requires the detailed knowledge about not only the new device but also the configuration of all other devices on the existing system. A configuration handler implemented at Jefferson Lab centralizes the information about all control devices making their registration user-friendly and very easy to use. It consists of a device driver framework and the device registration software developed on the basis of ORACLE database and freely available scripting tools (perl, php)

  7. A MEMS Energy Harvesting Device for Vibration with Low Acceleration

    Triches, Marco; Wang, Fei; Crovetto, Andrea;

    2012-01-01

    We propose a polymer electret based energy harvesting device in order to extract energy from vibration sources with low acceleration. With MEMS technology, a silicon structure is fabricated which can resonate in 2D directions. Thanks to the excellent mechanical properties of the silicon material...

  8. Mobile Devices and Apps as Accelerators for OER

    De Vries, Fred; Thuss, Frank

    2013-01-01

    De Vries, F., & Thuss, F. (2013). Mobile Devices and Apps as accelerators for OER. In R. Jacobi, H. Jelgerhuis, & N. Van der Woert (Eds.), Trendreport Open Educational Resources 2013 (pp. 49-52). Utrecht: SURF Foundation - Special Interest Group Open Educational Resources SURF.

  9. Crystal devices for beam steering in the IHEP accelerator

    Different crystal devices are described, which provide an extraction and splitting of beams for a long period of time at the U-70 accelerator of IHEP. The modes of channeling and volume reflections in the bent crystals are used for these tasks. In regular accelerator runs crystals produce the particle beams in a wide range of intensity, from 106 up to 1012 particles in a cycle. Novel crystal techniques suitable for charged particle beams deflection and focus as well as photon generation are presented also.

  10. Statistical analysis of accelerated temperature aging of semiconductor devices

    Johnson, W. A.; Milles, M. F.

    1981-05-01

    A number of semiconductor devices taken from a distribution were operated at several elevated temperatures to induce failure in all devices within a reasonable time. Assuming general characteristics of the device failure probability density function (pdf) and its temperature dependence, the expected cumulative failure function (cff) for devices in normal operation were estimated based on statistical inference, taking the average probability of a random device (from the same distribution but operated at a normal temperature) failing as a function of time. A review of the mathematical formalism employed in semiconductor reliability discussions is included. Three failure pdf's at particular usefulness to this analysis--exponential, normal, and lognormal - are discussed. The cff, at times orders of magnitude loss then, at times comparable to the desired system useful, life (*10 to the 4th power to 10 to the 5th power hr) is considered. A review of accelerated temperature aging is presented, and the assumption concerning the general characteristics of the failure pdf, which are fundamental to this analysis, are emphasized.

  11. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream

  12. Accelerated Aging System for Prognostics of Power Semiconductor Devices

    Celaya, Jose R.; Vashchenko, Vladislav; Wysocki, Philip; Saha, Sankalita

    2010-01-01

    Prognostics is an engineering discipline that focuses on estimation of the health state of a component and the prediction of its remaining useful life (RUL) before failure. Health state estimation is based on actual conditions and it is fundamental for the prediction of RUL under anticipated future usage. Failure of electronic devices is of great concern as future aircraft will see an increase of electronics to drive and control safety-critical equipment throughout the aircraft. Therefore, development of prognostics solutions for electronics is of key importance. This paper presents an accelerated aging system for gate-controlled power transistors. This system allows for the understanding of the effects of failure mechanisms, and the identification of leading indicators of failure which are essential in the development of physics-based degradation models and RUL prediction. In particular, this system isolates electrical overstress from thermal overstress. Also, this system allows for a precise control of internal temperatures, enabling the exploration of intrinsic failure mechanisms not related to the device packaging. By controlling the temperature within safe operation levels of the device, accelerated aging is induced by electrical overstress only, avoiding the generation of thermal cycles. The temperature is controlled by active thermal-electric units. Several electrical and thermal signals are measured in-situ and recorded for further analysis in the identification of leading indicators of failures. This system, therefore, provides a unique capability in the exploration of different failure mechanisms and the identification of precursors of failure that can be used to provide a health management solution for electronic devices.

  13. Coupling of Laser-Generated Electrons with Conventional Accelerator Devices

    Antici, P; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Rossi, A.R.; Serafini, L.

    2011-01-01

    Laser-based electron acceleration is attracting strong interest from the conventional accelerator community due to its outstanding characteristics in terms of high initial energy, low emittance and high beam current. Unfortunately, such beams are currently not comparable to those of conventional accelerators, limiting their use for the manifold applications that a traditional accelerator can have. Besides working on the plasma source itself, a promising approach to shape the laser-generated b...

  14. An Accelerated Stress Test Method for Electrostatically Driven MEMS Devices

    Ruan, Jinyu Jason; Monnereau, Nicolas; Trémouilles, David; Mauran, Nicolas; Coccetti, Fabio; Nolhier, Nicolas; Plana, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses an innovative solution to develop a circuit to perform accelerated stress tests of capacitive microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) switches and shows the use of instruments and equipment to monitor physical aging phenomena. A dedicated test circuit was designed and fabricated in order to meet the need for accelerated techniques for those structures. It integrated an in-house miniaturized circuit connected to additional test equipment (e.g., oscilloscopes and capacitance m...

  15. Electron linear accelerator with synchronous power supply of a HF device and an electron gun

    The paper presents synchronous pulse power supply circuits of HF-generator and of the cathode of an electron gun of LUE-8/5 electron linear accelerator. Application of the given circuit of pulse power supply enables to reduce accelerator device dimensions. 1 fig

  16. Spallation products in the Accelerator Production of Tritium device

    When the 1,700 MeV protons strike the materials of the Accelerator Production of Tritium target, hundreds of different kinds of isotopes (spallation products) of varying energies are produced. Because the spallation products are born with kinetic energy, they can be born in one material and be deposited in another. In this paper, the authors present their estimates of the spallation product contamination of the 3He gas and heavy-water coolant streams

  17. Hardware Accelerated Compression of LIDAR Data Using FPGA Devices

    Franc Novak

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR has become a mainstream technology for terrain data acquisition and mapping. High sampling density of LIDAR enables the acquisition of high details of the terrain, but on the other hand, it results in a vast amount of gathered data, which requires huge storage space as well as substantial processing effort. The data are usually stored in the LAS format which has become the de facto standard for LIDAR data storage and exchange. In the paper, a hardware accelerated compression of LIDAR data is presented. The compression and decompression of LIDAR data is performed by a dedicated FPGA-based circuit and interfaced to the computer via a PCI-E general bus. The hardware compressor consists of three modules: LIDAR data predictor, variable length coder, and arithmetic coder. Hardware compression is considerably faster than software compression, while it also alleviates the processor load.

  18. High-frequency driving device with wide-range phase control at the I-2 accelerator

    Ahigh-frequency driving device, providing pulse excitation of three high-power RF generators at the frequency of 148.5 MHz,and also assigning drive and maintaining of any ratios between HF oscillation phases in accelerator cavity resonators is designed for the I-2 proton accelerator. Pghase shifters are designed on the basis of artificial lines with LC-sections. 3 refs.; 4 figs

  19. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Abánades, A.; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Rafael; GARCÍA FAJARDO, LAURA; Escrivá, A.; Pérez-Navarro Gómez, Ángel; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel f...

  20. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Abánades Velasco, Alberto; C. García; García, L.; Escrivá, A.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fu...

  1. Induction charging device for the MGU NIIYaF electrostatic accelerator

    Operation principle for induction-type charging device set on the MGU NIIYaF electrostatic accelerator is presented. Design of units is described and main parameters of induction charging device (ICD) are given. Comparison of ICD with foreign charging devices of induction-type allows to speak about certain advantages of ICD. Current transfered by ICD transport unit is higher by several times than that of pelletron. ICD transport unit is comparable with laddetron according to value of transfered current. Weight of length unit of ICD transport part is however by 2-3 times less than that of laddetron. 6 refs.; 9 figs

  2. Vertical accelerator device to apply loads simulating blast environments in the military to human surrogates.

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Schlick, Michael; Humm, John R; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael

    2015-09-18

    The objective of the study was to develop a simple device, Vertical accelerator (Vertac), to apply vertical impact loads to Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) or dummy surrogates because injuries sustained in military conflicts are associated with this vector; example, under-body blasts from explosive devices/events. The two-part mechanically controlled device consisted of load-application and load-receiving sections connected by a lever arm. The former section incorporated a falling weight to impact one end of the lever arm inducing a reaction at the other/load-receiving end. The "launch-plate" on this end of the arm applied the vertical impact load/acceleration pulse under different initial conditions to biological/physical surrogates, attached to second section. It is possible to induce different acceleration pulses by using varying energy absorbing materials and controlling drop height and weight. The second section of Vertac had the flexibility to accommodate different body regions for vertical loading experiments. The device is simple and inexpensive. It has the ability to control pulses and flexibility to accommodate different sub-systems/components of human surrogates. It has the capability to incorporate preloads and military personal protective equipment (e.g., combat helmet). It can simulate vehicle roofs. The device allows for intermittent specimen evaluations (x-ray and palpation, without changing specimen alignment). The two free but interconnected sections can be used to advance safety to military personnel. Examples demonstrating feasibilities of the Vertac device to apply vertical impact accelerations using PMHS head-neck preparations with helmet and booted Hybrid III dummy lower leg preparations under in-contact and launch-type impact experiments are presented. PMID:26159057

  3. Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in high energy heavy ion accelerators

    Belousov, Anton

    2014-10-20

    Radiation effects on semiconductor devices in GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research are becoming more and more significant with the increase of beam intensity due to upgrades. Moreover a new accelerator is being constructed on the basis of GSI within the project of facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). Beam intensities will be increased by factor of 100 and energies by factor of 10. Radiation fields in the vicinity of beam lines will increase more than 2 orders of magnitude and so will the effects on semiconductor devices. It is necessary to carry out a study of radiation effects on semiconductor devices considering specific properties of radiation typical for high energy heavy ion accelerators. Radiation effects on electronics in accelerator environment may be divided into two categories: short-term temporary effects and long-term permanent degradation. Both may become critical for proper operation of some electronic devices. This study is focused on radiation damage to CCD cameras in radiation environment of heavy ion accelerator. Series of experiments with irradiation of devices under test (DUTs) by secondary particles produced during ion beam losses were done for this study. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to simulate the experiment conditions and conditions expected in future accelerator. Corresponding comparisons and conclusions were done. Another device typical for accelerator facilities - industrial Ethernet switch was tested in similar conditions during this study. Series of direct irradiations of CCD and MOS transistors with heavy ion beams were done as well. Typical energies of the primary ion beams were 0.5-1 GeV/u. Ion species: from Na to U. Intensities of the beam up to 10{sup 9} ions/spill with spill length of 200-300 ns. Criteria of reliability and lifetime of DUTs in specific radiation conditions were formulated, basing on experimental results of the study. Predictions of electronic device reliability and lifetime were

  4. Accelerated Development of CuSbS2 Thin Film Photovoltaic Device Prototypes

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Zawadzki, Pawel; DeHart, Clay; Johnston, Steve; Lany, Stephan; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-07-01

    Development of alternative thin film photovoltaic technologies is an important research topic because of the potential of low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells to produce terawatt levels of clean power. However, this development of unexplored yet promising absorbers can be hindered by complications that arise during solar cell fabrication. Here, a high-throughput combinatorial method is applied to accelerate development of photovoltaic devices, in this case, using the novel CuSbS2 absorber via a newly developed three-stage self-regulated growth process to control absorber purity and orientation. Photovoltaic performance of the absorber, using the typical substrate CuInxGa1 - xSe2 (CIGS) device architecture, is explored as a function of absorber quality and thickness using a variety of back contacts. This study yields CuSbS2 device prototypes with ~1% conversion efficiency, suggesting that the optimal CuSbS2 device fabrication parameters and contact selection criteria are quite different than for CIGS, despite the similarity of these two absorbers. The CuSbS2 device efficiency is at present limited by low short-circuit current because of bulk recombination related to defects, and a small open-circuit voltage because of a theoretically predicted cliff-type conduction band offset between CuSbS2 and CdS. Overall, these results illustrate both the potential and limits of combinatorial methods to accelerate the development of thin film photovoltaic devices using novel absorbers.

  5. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors. PMID:27493624

  6. Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices: Design Considerations.

    Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors. PMID:27493624

  7. The intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring devices at accelerator centres (1988)

    The intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring devices at accelerator centres such as IHEP, IAE, JINR, LINP and CERN has been carried out on an experimental basis at the IHEP. Reference radiation fields situated directly behind the biological shield of the IHEP's accelerator and created using radionuclide sources in order to simulate real fields have been used for this purpose. It was found that personal dosemeters from all organisations measured photon dose equivalent with sufficient accuracy for routine personal monitoring (30%) whereas accurate results of a measured neutron dose equivalent were given only by a few dosemeters. General analysis of uncertainties has been performed; the data that allow us to exclude the uncertainties concerned with the dosemeters' neutron response functions and with differences in calibration procedures are given. (author)

  8. The intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring devices at accelerator centres (1988)

    Golovachik, V.T.; Lebedev, V.N.; Kharlampiev, S.A. (Inst. for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (USSR)); Kaskanov, G.Ja; Komochkov, M.M.; Mokrov, Ju.V. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    The intercomparison of personal radiation monitoring devices at accelerator centres such as IHEP, IAE, JINR, LINP and CERN has been carried out on an experimental basis at the IHEP. Reference radiation fields situated directly behind the biological shield of the IHEP's accelerator and created using radionuclide sources in order to simulate real fields have been used for this purpose. It was found that personal dosemeters from all organisations measured photon dose equivalent with sufficient accuracy for routine personal monitoring (30%) whereas accurate results of a measured neutron dose equivalent were given only by a few dosemeters. General analysis of uncertainties has been performed; the data that allow us to exclude the uncertainties concerned with the dosemeters' neutron response functions and with differences in calibration procedures are given. (author).

  9. Ion Acceleration in Plasmas Emerging from a Helicon-heated Magnetic-mirror Device

    Using laser-induced fluorescence, measurements have been made of metastable argon-ion, Ar+*(3d4 f7/2), velocity distributions on the major axis of an axisymmetric magnetic-mirror device whose plasma is sustained by helicon wave absorption. Within the mirror, these ions have sub-eV temperature and, at most, a subthermal axial drift. In the region outside the mirror coils, conditions are found where these ions have a field-parallel velocity above the acoustic speed, to an axial energy of ∼30 eV, while the field-parallel ion temperature remains low. The supersonic Ar+*(3d4 f7/2) are accelerated to one-third of their final energy within a short region in the plasma column, (le)1 cm, and continue to accelerate over the next 5 cm. Neutral gas density strongly affects the supersonic Ar+*(3d4 f7/2) density

  10. Improvement of accelerator of negative ion source on the Large Helical Device

    Kisaki, M., E-mail: kisaki.masashi@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Ikeda, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Geng, S. [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To improve the performance of negative-ion based neutral beam injection on the Large Helical Device, the accelerator was modified on the basis of numerical investigations. A field limiting ring was installed on the upper side of a grounded grid (GG) support and a multi-slot GG was adopted instead of a multi-aperture GG. As a result, the voltage holding capability is improved and the heat load on the GG decreases by 40%. In addition, the arc efficiency is improved significantly only by replacing the GG.

  11. Improvement of accelerator of negative ion source on the Large Helical Device

    Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Geng, S.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.

    2016-02-01

    To improve the performance of negative-ion based neutral beam injection on the Large Helical Device, the accelerator was modified on the basis of numerical investigations. A field limiting ring was installed on the upper side of a grounded grid (GG) support and a multi-slot GG was adopted instead of a multi-aperture GG. As a result, the voltage holding capability is improved and the heat load on the GG decreases by 40%. In addition, the arc efficiency is improved significantly only by replacing the GG.

  12. Towards a table-top accelerator mass spectrometry device-status and perspectives

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has proven to be a very powerful technique for single atom counting of rare isotopes. Best known is the determination of 14C for dating purposes (radiocarbon dating). This nuclide as well as many other rare isotopes have found widespread application-s such10Be, 26Al and 36Cl in geology for exposure dating, 10Be in climate physics to study solar forcing, 14C in atmospheric chemistry to assign sources of carbonaceous particles, 129I and 239Pu to trace nuclear emissions and fallout, to mention a few examples only. So far, AMS facilities were operated with several MV terminal voltage by specialists at nuclear (or particles) physics institutes. We have therefore made efforts to miniaturize tandem accelerators to a as low as possible accelerator voltages at no (or little) loss of sensitivity. In two steps, first a 0.5 MV device TANDY was developed that proved to fulfil all requirements for most AMS applications. This facility is now commercially available. A further step showed that even 200 kV acceleration voltage is sufficient to still run a tandem facility (MICADAS) that can be used for 14C and 239Pu counting and probably also some other isotopes such as 129I, 26Al and 10Be. MICADAS is a device of only 2.3 m x 3 m size (see figure). Its operation is designed for non-specialists in the field of accelerator physics. This opens up new perspectives for dedicated applications at various research institutes. In the talk an overview is given on the current status of min-tandems. In addition, some applications are presented where mini-AMS facilities were used in e.g. micro-14C determinations down to the 10 μg total carbon level to study emission sources (biogenic/anthropogenic) of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere or for ultra-trace determinations of 239Pu in environmental samples as e.g. in glacier archives down to the 107 atoms/kg level.

  13. Analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices by using an accelerated finite element contact block reduction approach

    Li, H.; Li, G.

    2014-08-01

    An accelerated Finite Element Contact Block Reduction (FECBR) approach is presented for computational analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale electronic devices with arbitrary geometry and unstructured mesh. Finite element formulation is developed for the theoretical CBR/Poisson model. The FECBR approach is accelerated through eigen-pair reduction, lead mode space projection, and component mode synthesis techniques. The accelerated FECBR is applied to perform quantum mechanical ballistic transport analysis of a DG-MOSFET with taper-shaped extensions and a DG-MOSFET with Si/SiO2 interface roughness. The computed electrical transport properties of the devices obtained from the accelerated FECBR approach and associated computational cost as a function of system degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained from the original CBR and direct inversion methods. The performance of the accelerated FECBR in both its accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated.

  14. Analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale devices by using an accelerated finite element contact block reduction approach

    An accelerated Finite Element Contact Block Reduction (FECBR) approach is presented for computational analysis of ballistic transport in nanoscale electronic devices with arbitrary geometry and unstructured mesh. Finite element formulation is developed for the theoretical CBR/Poisson model. The FECBR approach is accelerated through eigen-pair reduction, lead mode space projection, and component mode synthesis techniques. The accelerated FECBR is applied to perform quantum mechanical ballistic transport analysis of a DG-MOSFET with taper-shaped extensions and a DG-MOSFET with Si/SiO2 interface roughness. The computed electrical transport properties of the devices obtained from the accelerated FECBR approach and associated computational cost as a function of system degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained from the original CBR and direct inversion methods. The performance of the accelerated FECBR in both its accuracy and efficiency is demonstrated

  15. Microwave device development activities at CEERI for accelerators: present status and future plans

    CEERl, Pilani has taken up a major programme to develop a variety of klystrons, magnetrons, TWTs, Gyrotrons and high power RF components to meet the diverse needs in communication, defense and atomic energy sectors in the country. Currently design and development work on four types of klystrons including a 6MW S-band, 100 kW CW, 352.2 MHz and 5 GHz, 250 kW CW klystrons and two types of magnetrons have been taken up which for using as RF source for particle accelerators. Some of these devices are at final stage of development and shall be subjected to user trials shortly. High power RF couplers and windows are also under development for such applications. The talk will present an overview of requirement of high power sources at national level for various applications. The current status of their development at CSIR-CEERl and the future road map will be presented in detail. (author)

  16. Acceleration of ensemble machine learning methods using many-core devices

    Tamerus, A.; Washbrook, A.; Wyeth, D.

    2015-12-01

    We present a case study into the acceleration of ensemble machine learning methods using many-core devices in collaboration with Toshiba Medical Visualisation Systems Europe (TMVSE). The adoption of GPUs to execute a key algorithm in the classification of medical image data was shown to significantly reduce overall processing time. Using a representative dataset and pre-trained decision trees as input we will demonstrate how the decision forest classification method can be mapped onto the GPU data processing model. It was found that a GPU-based version of the decision forest method resulted in over 138 times speed-up over a single-threaded CPU implementation with further improvements possible. The same GPU-based software was then directly applied to a suitably formed dataset to benefit supervised learning techniques applied in High Energy Physics (HEP) with similar improvements in performance.

  17. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  18. Development and optimization of a beam shaper device for a mobile dedicated IOERT accelerator

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and build a prototype beam shaper to be used on a dedicated mobile accelerator that protects organs at risk within the radiation field and conforms the beam to the target geometry during intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). A dosimetric characterization of the beam shaper device was performed based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, as well as experimental data, at different energies, field sizes, and source to skin distances. Methods: A mobile light intraoperative accelerator (LIAC®, Sordina, Italy) was used. The design of the beam shaper prototype was based on MC simulations (BEAMnrc/OMEGA and DOSXYZnrc code) for a selection of materials and thicknesses, as well as for dosimetric characterization. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and profile measurements were performed using a p-type silicon diode and a commercial water phantom, while output factors were measured using a PinPoint ion chamber in a PMMA phantom. Planar doses in planes of interest were carried out using radiochromic films (GafchromicTM EBT and EBT2) in PMMA and in a Solid Water® phantom. Several experimental set-ups were investigated with the beam shaper device fixed on the top of the phantom, varying both the short side of the rectangular field and the air gap between the device and the phantom surface, simulating the clinical situation. The output factors (OFs) were determined using different geometrical set-ups and energies. Results: The beam shaper prototype consists of four blades sliding alongside each other and mounted on a special support at the end of the 10 cm diameter PMMA circular applicator. Each blade is made of an upper layer of 2.6 cm of Teflon® and a lower layer of 8 mm of stainless steel. All rectangles inscribed in a 5 cm diameter can be achieved in addition to any “squircle-shaped” field. When one side of the rectangular field is held constant and the second side is reduced, both R50 and Rmax move towards the phantom surface

  19. Development and optimization of a beam shaper device for a mobile dedicated IOERT accelerator

    Soriani, Antonella; Iaccarino, Giuseppe; Felici, Giuseppe; Ciccotelli, Alessia; Pinnaro, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Benassi, Marcello; D' Andrea, Marco; Bellesi, Luca; Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Sordina S.p.A Technical Division, Rome 00126 (Italy); Radiation Oncology Department, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy); Medical Physics Department, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei tumori, 47014 Meldola (Italy); Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, 00144 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to design and build a prototype beam shaper to be used on a dedicated mobile accelerator that protects organs at risk within the radiation field and conforms the beam to the target geometry during intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT). A dosimetric characterization of the beam shaper device was performed based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, as well as experimental data, at different energies, field sizes, and source to skin distances. Methods: A mobile light intraoperative accelerator (LIAC{sup Registered-Sign }, Sordina, Italy) was used. The design of the beam shaper prototype was based on MC simulations (BEAMnrc/OMEGA and DOSXYZnrc code) for a selection of materials and thicknesses, as well as for dosimetric characterization. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and profile measurements were performed using a p-type silicon diode and a commercial water phantom, while output factors were measured using a PinPoint ion chamber in a PMMA phantom. Planar doses in planes of interest were carried out using radiochromic films (Gafchromic{sup TM} EBT and EBT2) in PMMA and in a Solid Water{sup Registered-Sign} phantom. Several experimental set-ups were investigated with the beam shaper device fixed on the top of the phantom, varying both the short side of the rectangular field and the air gap between the device and the phantom surface, simulating the clinical situation. The output factors (OFs) were determined using different geometrical set-ups and energies. Results: The beam shaper prototype consists of four blades sliding alongside each other and mounted on a special support at the end of the 10 cm diameter PMMA circular applicator. Each blade is made of an upper layer of 2.6 cm of Teflon{sup Registered-Sign} and a lower layer of 8 mm of stainless steel. All rectangles inscribed in a 5 cm diameter can be achieved in addition to any 'squircle-shaped' field. When one side of the rectangular field is held constant and the second

  20. Design and implementation of a device for measuring radiation energy of an electron accelerator

    Our work is part of a graduation project at the School of Technology and Computing, to obtain a master's degree in electrical engineering specialty industrial computer. Throughout the four-month internship at the National Center for Nuclear Science and Technology (CNSTN), we have learned to practice the knowledge acquired during the formative years and to manage our working time. Our job was to design and implementation of a device for measuring the energy of radiation. Our project meets the needs of users in the radio treatment Unit, which amount to automate measurement of radiation energy from the electron accelerator. This project has been beneficial on several levels: it was an opportunity to achieve better control of printed circuits, especially when they are dual layer and learning a new programming language that is actually BASIC. In human terms, this work has given us the opportunity to learn to manage our time, and learn teamwork. However, we are convinced that this project can be enhanced on various levels. It can be considered as a starting point of a contribution to the real-time measurement of the energy of radiation.

  1. A contraband detection system proof-of-principle device using electrostatic acceleration

    A new Contraband Detection System (CDS) Proof-of- Principle (POP) device is nearing completion at Northrop Grumman's Advanced Technology and Development Center. We employ gamma resonance absorption (GRA) to detect nitrogen or chlorine in explosives and certain forms of illegal drugs. Using tomography, 3-D images of the total density and selected element density are generated. These characteristics together may be utilized with considerable confidence in determining if contraband is present in baggage or cargo. The CDS employs a high current (10 mA) DC electrostatic accelerator that provides a beam of protons at either 1.75 or 1.89 MeV. These high energy particles impinge upon a target coated with 13C or 34S. The resultant resonant gamma rays are preferentially absorbed in either 14N or 35Cl. Because of the penetrating power of the gamma rays, this approach can be utilized for inspection of fully loaded aircraft containers such as the LD3. Our current program calls for testing of the POP CDS by late 1996. This paper presents the overall design and characteristics of the CDS POP. (author)

  2. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  3. Design of spheromak injector using conical accelerator for large helical device

    Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, H.; Yasui, K.; Kato, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Optimization of CT injector for LHD has been carried out and conical electrode for adiabatic CT compression is adopted in the design. Point-model of CT acceleration in a co-axial electrode is solved to optimize the electrode geometry and the power supplies. Large acceleration efficiency of 34% is to be obtained with 3.2 m long conical accelerator and 40 kV - 42 kJ power supply. The operation scenario of a CT injector named SPICA mk. I (SPheromak Injector using Conical Accelerator) consisting of 0.8 m conical accelerator is discussed based on this design. (author)

  4. The overview and history of permanent magnet devices in accelerator technology

    This paper reviews the early history of accelerator development with a particular focus on the important discoveries that opened the door for the application of permanent-magnet materials to this area of science. Researchers began to use permanent-magnet materials in particle accelerators soon after the invention of the alternating gradient principle, that showed magnetic fields could be used to control the transverse envelope of charged-particle beams. Since that time, permanent-magnet materials have found wide application in the modern charged particle accelerator. The history of permanent-magnet use in accelerator physics and technology is outlined, general design considerations are presented, and material properties of concern for particle accelerator applications are discussed

  5. Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing (SSADT) for Photovoltaic (PV) Devices and Cells (Presentation)

    Lee, J.; Elmore, R.; Suh, C.; Jones, W.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) for photovoltaics (PV). Developed are a step-stress degradation test (SSADT) for PV reliability tests and a lifetime prediction model for PV products.

  6. Water and sludge treatment device provided with a system for irradiating by accelerated charged particles

    Treatment system for a fluid made up of water and sludge, provided with a system for irradiating the fluid by a beam of accelerated charged particles comprising means for obtaining a constant flow of the fluid to be treated, facilities for monitoring this flow, an irradiation channel located on the path of the beam, in which the fluid to be treated can flow, a portion of this channel having at least one window transparent to the beam of accelerated particles. A safety system associated with the system for monitoring the characteristics of the beam and with the system for monitoring the flow of the fluid to be treated, stops the flow of the fluid and the recycling of the fluid defectively treated

  7. An innovative accelerator-driven inertial electrostatic confinement device using converging ion beams

    Bauer, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    1999-12-08

    Fundamental physics issues facing development of fusion power on a small-scale are assessed with emphasis on the idea of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). The authors propose a new concept of accelerator-driven IEC fusion, termed Converging Beam Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (CB-IEC). CB-IEC offers a number of innovative features that make it an attractive pathway toward resolving fundamental physics issues and assessing the ultimate viability of the IEC concept for power generation.

  8. A proposal on fundamental experimental device and R and D of nuclear astrophysics accelerator driven system using neutron beam line in the matter and life science; experimental facility

    Nuclear astrophysics and nuclear data section propose construction and establishment of 'nuclear a strophic accelerator drive system R and D fundamental experimental device' in 'the matter and life science experimental facility' of 'High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project'. This report states background of proposal on the device, summary and characteristics of the device, research themes and program after completion of it. An accurate data of neutron induced reaction cross section, neutron capture cross section, neutron capture rate and fission cross section are necessary to solve the problems on nuclear a strophic and to treat and transform LLFP (long-lived fission product) and MA (minor actinides). (S.Y.)

  9. Quirks and strings attached as the ultimate communication and acceleration devices

    Nussinov, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    We point out that if a certain variant of "Quirks", particles that carry ordinary color and some other color' exist, then we can have a completely novel and efficient mode of long distance communications and of acceleration to very high energies. For very low scale $\\Lambda'$ the scale of the new gauge group in the theory, and associated string tension of the new color' the Quirks can be captured in ordinary materials. Having then the Quirk Q' and anti-Quirk $\\bar{Q}'$ in two separate piezoel...

  10. Sows’ activity classification device using acceleration data – A resource constrained approach

    Marchioro, Gilberto Fernandes; Cornou, Cécile; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard;

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the main architectural alternatives and design decisions in order to implement a sows’ activity classification model on electronic devices. The different possibilities are analyzed in practical and technical aspects, focusing on the implementation metrics, like cost......, performance, complexity and reliability. The target architectures are divided into: server based, where the main processing element is a central computer; and embedded based, where the processing is distributed on devices attached to the animals. The initial classification model identifies the activities...... of a heuristic classification approach, focusing on the resource constrained characteristics of embedded systems. The new approach classifies the activities performed by the sows with accuracy close to 90%. It was implemented as a hardware module that can easily be instantiated to provide preprocessed...

  11. Quirks and strings attached as the ultimate communication and acceleration devices

    Nussinov, Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    We point out that if a certain variant of "Quirks", particles that carry ordinary color and some other color' exist, then we can have a completely novel and efficient mode of long distance communications and of acceleration to very high energies. For very low scale $\\Lambda'$ the scale of the new gauge group in the theory, and associated string tension of the new color' the Quirks can be captured in ordinary materials. Having then the Quirk Q' and anti-Quirk $\\bar{Q}'$ in two separate piezoelectric crystals at arbitrarily far out points A and B allows Alice and Bob at these locations to communicate by generating transverse waves along the connecting color' string. Also releasing the Quirks allows them to collide at extremely high energies.

  12. Acceleration Sensing, Feedback Cooling, and Nonlinear Dynamics with Nanoscale Cavity-Optomechanical Devices

    Krause, Alexander Grey

    Light has long been used for the precise measurement of moving bodies, but the burgeoning field of optomechanics is concerned with the interaction of light and matter in a regime where the typically weak radiation pressure force of light is able to push back on the moving object. This field began with the realization in the late 1960's that the momentum imparted by a recoiling photon on a mirror would place fundamental limits on the smallest measurable displacement of that mirror. This coupling between the frequency of light and the motion of a mechanical object does much more than simply add noise, however. It has been used to cool objects to their quantum ground state, demonstrate electromagnetically-induced-transparency, and modify the damping and spring constant of the resonator. Amazingly, these radiation pressure effects have now been demonstrated in systems ranging 18 orders of magnitude in mass (kg to fg). In this work we will focus on three diverse experiments in three different optomechanical devices which span the fields of inertial sensors, closed-loop feedback, and nonlinear dynamics. The mechanical elements presented cover 6 orders of magnitude in mass (ng to fg), but they all employ nano-scale photonic crystals to trap light and resonantly enhance the light-matter interaction. In the first experiment we take advantage of the sub-femtometer displacement resolution of our photonic crystals to demonstrate a sensitive chip-scale optical accelerometer with a kHz-frequency mechanical resonator. This sensor has a noise density of approximately 10 micro-g/rt-Hz over a useable bandwidth of approximately 20 kHz and we demonstrate at least 50 dB of linear dynamic sensor range. We also discuss methods to further improve performance of this device by a factor of 10. In the second experiment, we used a closed-loop measurement and feedback system to damp and cool a room-temperature MHz-frequency mechanical oscillator from a phonon occupation of 6.5 million down to

  13. Development of control system for critical parameters of medical device sterilization at an electron accelerator

    The hard- and software interfaces that provide on-line control and archiving of the basic parameters of the medical device sterilization (electron energy, beam current, width and shape of the beam scan, the conveyor speed and the absorbed dose in the treated products) have been developed at a radiation-industrial installation LU-10 of NSC KIPT. The main primary sensor of the control system is a stack-type monitor-absorber of the beam located behind the line of movement of the processed objects. Continuous monitoring of the processing parameters is performed by measuring and analyzing the currents from the plates of the monitor in a mode of ''radiation shadow'' created by irradiated objects. The structure of the control system, how it works and the calibration procedures for measuring channels are described.

  14. In Vitro Validation of a Sector-Switching HIFU Device for Accelerated Treatment

    A sector-switching method that increases the HIFU sequence duty-cycle and reduces the equivalent treatment time was tested in vitro. The MR-compatible HIFU device used consisted of 2 symmetric sectors arranged on a truncated spherical cap (focus = 45 mm, long diameter = 57.5 mm, short diameter = 35 mm). A MR-compatible, 2D positioning system provided 0.5 mm accuracy. Two sonication sequences were considered, each with the same pattern for the focal point trajectory and with identical on-state power. First, both sectors radiated simultaneously, with a power duty cycle of 60%. Second, the sectors radiated separately with balanced temporally-interleaved sonication and a power duty cycle of 87.5%. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the shape of the lesion for a given set of sequence parameters, according to a theoretical model. Fast MR thermometry (voxel size: 0.85x0.85x4.25 mm3; temporal resolution: 2 sec) was performed in two orthogonal planes (sagittal and transverse) while the 2D sonication pattern was contained in the coronal plane. Fresh samples of degassed porcine liver were used, and the macroscopic lesions were measured after HIFU. The 14400 s equivalent thermal dose isolevel was compared respectively for the two sonication sequences, both with numerical simulations and experimental MR data. No susceptibility or RF artifacts could be detected on MR data. The lesion's size ratio between reference versus the sector-switched sequence was 1.12 from simulations and 1.25 (±3.2%) from MRI derived TD. Switching the device sectors reduced the treatment time by 20% while the shape and size of the lesions were maintained. In vivo studies are required for pre-clinical validation.

  15. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Linear Accelerator A linear accelerator (LINAC) customizes high energy x-rays to ... ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the device most commonly used ...

  16. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  17. A flexible and testable software architecture: applying presenter first to a device server for the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL

    Presenter First (PF) uses a variant of Model View Presenter design pattern to add implementation flexibility and to improve testability of complex event-driven applications. It has been introduced in the context of GUI applications, but can easily be adapted to server applications. This paper describes how Presenter First methodology is used to develop a device server for the Programmable Logic Controls (PLC) of the European XFEL undulator systems, which are Windows PCs running PLC software from Beckhoff. The server implements a ZeroMQ message interface to the PLC allowing the DOOCS accelerator control system of the European XFEL to exchange data with the PLC by sending messages over the network. Our challenge is to develop a well-tested device server with a flexible architecture that allows integrating the server into other accelerator control systems like EPICS. (author)

  18. Does One Need a 4.5 K Screen in Cryostats of Superconducting Accelerator Devices Operating in Superfluid Helium? Lessons from the LHC

    Lebrun, Ph; Tavian, L

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large proj...

  19. Stress of Kindergarten teachers: How we tried to detect and to reduce it by using a small and wearable ECG and acceleration measuring device?

    Shirouzu, Shigenori; Seno, Yumeka; Tobioka, Ken; Masaki, Takeo; Yasumatsu, Kiyotaka; Mishima, Norio; Sugano, Hisanobu

    2015-08-01

    In 2014 school year, four female teachers of Nazareth Kindergarten decided to resign (DRT) due to workplace stress caused by human relationships between themselves. Our preliminary interview investigation revealed there was a stressor (STR), a certain elder female teacher and her less polite words and attitude. Using small and wearable ECG and acceleration measuring device, we measured 24 hour's autonomic nervous system's activity (ASNA) and sleep behavior of the STR and surrounding teachers, and tried to evaluate their stress objectively and to understand the reason of STR's less polite behaviors. For comparison, we also measured female Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) patients suffering adjustment disorder and clinical depression. PMID:26737766

  20. Application of the Reduction of Scale Range in a Lorentz Boosted Frame to the Numerical Simulation of Particle Acceleration Devices

    It has been shown (1) that it may be computationally advantageous to perform computer simulations in a boosted frame for a certain class of systems: particle beams interacting with electron clouds, free electron lasers, and laser-plasma accelerators. However, even if the computer model relies on a covariant set of equations, it was also pointed out that algorithmic difficulties related to discretization errors may have to be overcome in order to take full advantage of the potential speedup (2) . In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the complication of data input and output in a Lorentz boosted frame simulation, and describe the procedures that were implemented in the simulation code Warp(3). We present our most recent progress in the modeling of laser wakefield acceleration in a boosted frame, and describe briefly the potential benefits of calculating in a boosted frame for the modeling of coherent synchrotron radiation.

  1. Induction accelerators

    Takayama, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  2. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  3. Advanced accelerators

    This report discusses the suitability of four novel particle acceleration technologies for multi-TeV particle physics machines: laser driven linear accelerators (linac), plasma beat-wave devices, plasma wakefield devices, and switched power and cavity wakefield linacs. The report begins with the derivation of beam parameters practical for multi-TeV devices. Electromagnetic field breakdown of materials is reviewed. The two-beam accelerator scheme for using a free electron laser as the driver is discussed. The options recommended and the conclusions reached reflect the importance of cost. We recommend that more effort be invested in achieving a self-consistent range of TeV accelerator design parameters. Beat-wave devices have promise for 1-100 GeV applications and, while not directly scalable to TeV designs, the current generation of ideas are encouraging for the TeV regime. In particular, surfatrons, finite-angle optical mixing devices, plasma grating accelerator, and the Raman forward cascade schemes all deserve more complete analysis. The exploitation of standard linac geometry operated in an unconventional mode is in a phase of rapid evolution. While conceptual projects abound, there are no complete designs. We recommend that a fraction of sponsored research be devoted to this approach. Wakefield devices offer a great deal of potential; trades among their benefits and constraints are derived and discussed herein. The study of field limitation processes has received inadequate attention; this limits experiment designers. The costs of future experiments are such that investment in understanding these processes is prudent. 34 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  4. A Novel Device for the Measurement of the Mechanical and Magnetic Axes of Superconducting Magnet Assemblies for Accelerators

    Aznar, S; Fischer, F; Galbraith, Peter; García-Pérez, J; Goy, S; Mermillod, N; Peiro, G; Patti, G; Rathjen, C

    2002-01-01

    In the context of the LHC superconducting magnet production, especially for dipoles and quadrupoles due to their complexity, it is foreseen to perform acceptance tests, at an early production stage, to detect possible significant deviations from the design values. The knowledge of the magnetic field geometry is very important, especially for the main magnets. In order to get this information a new device has been conceived that measures the magnets at room temperature during different stages of construction. This device incorporates a sensitive measuring probe and an efficient data acquisition system because the coils are only powered at about 10-5 of the nominal D.C. current. It is dedicated to Quadrupole and Dipole (by using Quadrupole-Configured Dipole (QCD) transformation) magnets, but is also easily adaptable to higher order magnets (n = 3, 4 and 5) by specific orientation of the search coils. It is equipped with magnetic sensors (4 fixed tangential coils and AC excitation current for the magnet) and p...

  5. Using compute unified device architecture-enabled graphic processing unit to accelerate fast Fourier transform-based regression Kriging interpolation on a MODIS land surface temperature image

    Hu, Hongda; Shu, Hong; Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Jianhui

    2016-04-01

    Kriging interpolation provides the best linear unbiased estimation for unobserved locations, but its heavy computation limits the manageable problem size in practice. To address this issue, an efficient interpolation procedure incorporating the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was developed. Extending this efficient approach, we propose an FFT-based parallel algorithm to accelerate regression Kriging interpolation on an NVIDIA® compute unified device architecture (CUDA)-enabled graphic processing unit (GPU). A high-performance cuFFT library in the CUDA toolkit was introduced to execute computation-intensive FFTs on the GPU, and three time-consuming processes were redesigned as kernel functions and executed on the CUDA cores. A MODIS land surface temperature 8-day image tile at a resolution of 1 km was resampled to create experimental datasets at eight different output resolutions. These datasets were used as the interpolation grids with different sizes in a comparative experiment. Experimental results show that speedup of the FFT-based regression Kriging interpolation accelerated by GPU can exceed 1000 when processing datasets with large grid sizes, as compared to the traditional Kriging interpolation running on the CPU. These results demonstrate that the combination of FFT methods and GPU-based parallel computing techniques greatly improves the computational performance without loss of precision.

  6. Diamagnetic composite material structure for reducing undesired electromagnetic interference and eddy currents in dielectric wall accelerators and other devices

    Caporaso, George J.; Poole, Brian R.; Hawkins, Steven A.

    2015-06-30

    The devices, systems and techniques disclosed here can be used to reduce undesired effects by magnetic field induced eddy currents based on a diamagnetic composite material structure including diamagnetic composite sheets that are separated from one another to provide a high impedance composite material structure. In some implementations, each diamagnetic composite sheet includes patterned conductor layers are separated by a dielectric material and each patterned conductor layer includes voids and conductor areas. The voids in the patterned conductor layers of each diamagnetic composite sheet are arranged to be displaced in position from one patterned conductor layer to an adjacent patterned conductor layer while conductor areas of the patterned conductor layers collectively form a contiguous conductor structure in each diamagnetic composite sheet to prevent penetration by a magnetic field.

  7. Study of protection devices against the effects of electric discharges inside a very high voltage generator: the Vivitron accelerator

    The Vivitron tandem is a large electrostatic accelerator comprising a Van de Graaff generator designed to reach terminal voltages of around 30 MV. The machine is limited at rather lower nominal voltages (about 20 MV) due to the sensitivity of the insulating column structure to transient overvoltages. These are induced by electrical discharges in compressed SF6. This thesis first aims at analysing the fundamental reasons of electrical discharges in order to limit the probability of their occurrence. Then we simulate the transient overvoltages induced and present some improvements which may lead to a stable behaviour of the Vivitron at nominal voltages higher than 20 MV. Initially we deduce discharge onset voltages and actual breakdown field limitations in the different gap geometries from analysis of possible breakdown mechanisms in compressed SF6. In a second part, some electrical characteristics of the insulating column structure are measured at high voltage. Fast rising oscillating waves induced by sparking in the Vivitron, along with the associated energies,are determined in the third part. The last part deals with new surge protections of the insulating column structure. Spark gaps with precise onset voltage and optimized shielding electrodes are discussed. ZnO-based varistors designed for operation at very high fields have also been developed in order to reduce transient overvoltage values. (author)

  8. Accelerated Thermal-Aging-Induced Degradation of Organometal Triiodide Perovskite on ZnO Nanostructures and Its Effect on Hybrid Photovoltaic Devices.

    Kumar, S; Dhar, A

    2016-07-20

    Organometal halide perovskite materials are presently some of the pacesetters for light harvesting in hybrid photovoltaic devices because of their excellent inherent electrical and optical properties. However, long-term durability of such perovskite materials remains a major bottleneck for their commercialization especially in countries with hot and humid climatic conditions, thus violating the international standards for photovoltaic technology. Albeit, TiO2 as an electron-transport layer has been well investigated for perovskite solar cells; the high-temperature processing makes it unsuitable for low-cost and large-scale roll-to-roll production of flexible photovoltaic devices. Herein, we have chosen low-temperature (perovskite, which is viable for flexible photovoltaic devices. We have also elaborately addressed the effect of the annealing duration on the conversion of a precursor solution into the required perovskite phase on ZnO nanostructures. The investigations show that the presence of ZnO nanostructures accelerates the rate of degradation of MAPbI3 films under ambient annealing and thus requires proper optimization. The role of ZnO in enhancing the degradation kinetics of the perovskite layer has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a buffer layer passivation technique. The effect of the annealing duration of the MAPbI3 perovskite on the optical, morphological, and compositional behavior has been closely studied and correlated with the photovoltaic efficiency. The study captures the degradation behavior of the commercially interesting MAPbI3 perovskite on a ZnO electron-transport layer and thus can provide insight for developing alternative families of perovskite material with better thermal and environmental stability for application in low-cost flexible photovoltaic technology. PMID:27351932

  9. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  10. NT-08A NOVEL HIGH-THROUGHPUT MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE DESIGNED TO ACCELERATE THE DISCOVERY OF GLIOBLASTOMA-TARGETING LIGANDS FROM OBOC LIBRARIES

    Cho, Choi-Fong; Viapiano, Mariano; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Lawler, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Molecular targeting using ligands specific to glioblastoma (GBM) markers has shown great promise for the early detection of the pathology and directed therapy of the disease. Although conventional screening strategies of combinatorial libraries have demonstrated great potential for the discovery of novel targeting ligands, it is usually challenging and immensely costly. High-throughput screening approaches that exploit the tendency of magnetic "prey" beads (2-microns) coated with the target protein to specifically associate with the larger peptide-coated "bait" library beads (90-microns) are inexpensive, and have significantly accelerated the identification of targeting probes from one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) libraries. Using this approach, our objective is to utilize magnetic beads coated with a GBM-specific target protein to screen and capture novel GBM-binding peptides from an OBOC library. To facilitate high-throughput separation of positive hit beads from the rest of the library, we implemented a microfluidic magnetic flow system of our own design. Here, we describe a miniature microfluidic device designed to divert library beads coated with magnetic beads from one laminar flow path to another using an external magnetic force. Microfluidic channels connected to two inlets and two outlets are built using soft lithography, with dimensions of 2cm x 0.6mm x 0.2mm (L x W x H). A negative mold is created using SU-8 photoresist, and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is poured onto the mold to fabricate the channels. A strong neodymium magnet is placed adjacent to the channel to pull positive magnetic beads from the source flow path into the collection flow stream, allowing these beads to exit through the collection outlet. This novel on-chip technology can facilitate screening of large OBOC libraries (> 1 million beads) with great accuracy in a matter of hours, paving the way for rapid and efficient identification of targeting ligands specific to pathological targets in

  11. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  12. IGBT accelerated aging data set.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Preliminary data from thermal overstress accelerated aging using the aging and characterization system. The data set contains aging data from 6 devices, one device...

  13. Controllable Laser Ion Acceleration

    Kawata, S.; Kamiyama, D.; Ohtake, Y.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Gu, Y. J.; Wang, W. M.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A.; Bulanov, S. V.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Li, X. F.; Yu, Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper a future laser ion accelerator is discussed to make the laser-based ion accelerator compact and controllable. Especially a collimation device is focused in this paper. The future laser ion accelerator should have an ion source, ion collimators, ion beam bunchers, and ion post acceleration devices [Laser Therapy 22, 103(2013)]: the ion particle energy and the ion energy spectrum are controlled to meet requirements for a future compact laser ion accelerator for ion cancer therapy or for other purposes. The energy efficiency from the laser to ions is improved by using a solid target with a fine sub-wavelength structure or a near-critical density gas plasma. The ion beam collimation is performed by holes behind the solid target or a multi-layered solid target. The control of the ion energy spectrum and the ion particle energy, and the ion beam bunching would be successfully realized by a multistage laser-target interaction.

  14. Devices for launching 0.1-g projectiles to 150 km/s or more to initiate fusion. Part 2. Railgun accelerators

    The possibility of using a railgun accelerator to launch 0.1-g projectiles to hypervelocities (150 km/s or more) to initiate thermonuclear fusion is studied. The analysis revealed that a railgun with a plasma-arc armature is a viable approach to the goal. When calculating the railgun's probable performance, it was discovered that this launch system might possibly be designed to avoid adverse effects from boundary layer drag. An appendix provided by A.C. Buckingham summarizes his calculations that predict the amount of erosive drag between projectile and rail. Finally, it was found that certain properties of railgun and projectile materials can impose operational limits. Using these limits, single- and multistage accelerators were designed. Within such limits, a railgun could accelerate a 0.1-g projectile to hypervelocities

  15. Devices for launching 0. 1-g projectiles to 150 km/s or more to initiate fusion. Part 2. Railgun accelerators

    Hawke, R.S.

    1979-07-06

    The possibility of using a railgun accelerator to launch 0.1-g projectiles to hypervelocities (150 km/s or more) to initiate thermonuclear fusion is studied. The analysis revealed that a railgun with a plasma-arc armature is a viable approach to the goal. When calculating the railgun's probable performance, it was discovered that this launch system might possibly be designed to avoid adverse effects from boundary layer drag. An appendix provided by A.C. Buckingham summarizes his calculations that predict the amount of erosive drag between projectile and rail. Finally, it was found that certain properties of railgun and projectile materials can impose operational limits. Using these limits, single- and multistage accelerators were designed. Within such limits, a railgun could accelerate a 0.1-g projectile to hypervelocities.

  16. Switched Matrix Accelerator

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm-wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We provide also an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392. GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high-power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium

  17. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX—Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF{sub 6} instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  18. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Pilan, N.; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  19. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming

  20. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  1. Plasma accelerators

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  2. Linear Accelerators

    Vretenar, M

    2014-01-01

    The main features of radio-frequency linear accelerators are introduced, reviewing the different types of accelerating structures and presenting the main characteristics aspects of linac beam dynamics.

  3. Compact pulsed accelerator

    The formation of fast pulses from a current charged transmission line and opening switch is described. By employing a plasma focus as an opening switch and diode in the prototype device, a proton beam of peak energy 250 keV is produced. The time integrated energy spectrum of the beam is constructed from a Thomson spectrograph. Applications of this device as an inexpensive and portable charged particle accelerator are discussed. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Future accelerators (?)

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made

  5. Future accelerators (?)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  6. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar

    2015-01-01

    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also......Accelerators can help to accelerate value creation. Accelerators are short-term programs that have the objective of creating innovative and fast growing ventures. They have gained attraction as larger corporations like Microsoft, Barclays bank and Nordea bank have initiated and sponsored...

  7. Miniature Swine for Preclinical Modeling of Complexities of Human Disease for Translational Scientific Discovery and Accelerated Development of Therapies and Medical Devices.

    Schomberg, Dominic T; Tellez, Armando; Meudt, Jennifer J; Brady, Dane A; Dillon, Krista N; Arowolo, Folagbayi K; Wicks, Joan; Rousselle, Serge D; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan

    2016-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer, are the leading cause of death in the world. The cost, both monetary and time, of developing therapies to prevent, treat, or manage these diseases has become unsustainable. A contributing factor is inefficient and ineffective preclinical research, in which the animal models utilized do not replicate the complex physiology that influences disease. An ideal preclinical animal model is one that responds similarly to intrinsic and extrinsic influences, providing high translatability and concordance of preclinical findings to humans. The overwhelming genetic, anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological similarities to humans make miniature swine an ideal model for preclinical studies of human disease. Additionally, recent development of precision gene-editing tools for creation of novel genetic swine models allows the modeling of highly complex pathophysiology and comorbidities. As such, the utilization of swine models in early research allows for the evaluation of novel drug and technology efficacy while encouraging redesign and refinement before committing to clinical testing. This review highlights the appropriateness of the miniature swine for modeling complex physiologic systems, presenting it as a highly translational preclinical platform to validate efficacy and safety of therapies and devices. PMID:26839324

  8. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Advanced accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 2

    This advanced course on general accelerator physics is the second of the biennial series given by the CERN Accelerator School and follows on from the first basic course given at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, in 1984. Stress is placed on the mathematical tools of Hamiltonian mechanics and the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, which are widely used in accelerator theory. The main topics treated in this present work include: nonlinear resonances, chromaticity, motion in longitudinal phase space, growth and control of longitudinal and transverse beam emittance, space-charge effects and polarization. The seminar programme treats some specific accelerator techniques, devices, projects and future possibilities. (orig.)

  9. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Advanced accelerator physics. Proceedings. Vol. 1

    This advanced course on general accelerator physics is the second of the biennial series given by the CERN Accelerator School and follows on from the first basic course given at Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, in 1984. Stress is placed on the mathematical tools of Hamiltonian mechanics and the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, which are widely used in accelerator theory. The main topics treated in this present work include: nonlinear resonances, chromaticity, motion in longitudinal phase space, growth and control of longitudinal and transverse beam emittance, space-charge effects and polarization. The seminar programme treats some specific accelerator techniques, devices, projects and future possibilities. (orig.)

  10. Electron accelerators for environmental protection

    The primary objective of this publication is to provide information suitable for electron accelerators implementation in facilities applying radiation technology for environmental protection. It should be noticed that radiation processing has been successfully used in the fields of crosslinking polymer curing and medical products sterilization for more than 40 years. Practical application of radiation technology today extends on SO2 and NOx removal from the flue gas (one of major power intensive radiation processing), destruction and removal of organic chemicals from water, decreasing bacteria content in the irradiated sludge and waste water. On the other hand the increased awareness of environmental pollution hazards and more stringent waste regulations in many countries may open stronger support for environmentally oriented technologies. This publication provides an evaluation of electron accelerators capabilities in respect of environmental applications where technological and economical criteria are now well defined. In order to determine the potential of electron accelerators, the literature data were examined as well visits and meetings with various accelerator manufacturers were performed by the author. Experience of the author in accelerator facilities construction and exploitation including those which were used for environmental protection are significant part of this publication. The principle of accelerator action was described in Chapter 1. Early development, accelerator classification and fields of accelerators application were included to this chapter as well. Details of accelerator construction was described in Chapter 2 to illustrate physical capability of accelerators to perform the function of ionizing radiation source. Electron beam extraction devices, under beam equipment, electron beam parameters and measuring methods were characterized in this chapter as well. Present studies of accelerator technology was described in Chapter 3, where direct

  11. Laser accelerator

    Vigil, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In 1979,W. B. Colson and S. K. Ride proposed a new kind of electron accelerator using a uniform magnetic field in combination with a circularly-polarized laser field. A key concept is to couple the oscillating electric field to the electron’s motion so that acceleration is sustained. This dissertation investigates the performance of the proposed laser accelerator using modern high powered lasers and mag-netic fields that are significan...

  12. LIBO accelerates

    2002-01-01

    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  13. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    2005-01-01

    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  14. SU-E-J-138: An IGRT QA Device for Measuring with Tenths-Millimeter Accuracy KV and MV Isocenter Congruence, Couch Travel and Laser Alignment of Accelerators Used for SRS and SBRT

    Purpose: To develop a practical device having sufficient accuracy for daily QA tests of accelerators used for SRS and SBRT. Methods: The UAB (Universal Alignment Ball) consists of a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) diameter tungsten sphere located concentrically within a 25.4 mm (1 inch) diameter acrylic plastic (PMMA) sphere. The spheres are embedded in polystyrene foam, which, in turn, is surrounded by a cylindrical PMMA shell. The UAB is placed on the couch and aligned with wall lasers according to marks that have known positions in relation to the center of the spheres. Using planar and cone beam images the couch is shifted till the surface of the PMMA sphere matches Eclipse-generated circular contours. Anterior and lateral MV images taken with small MLC openings allow measurement of distance between kV and MV isocenter, laser and MLC alignment. Measurements were taken over a one-month period. Results: Artifacts from the tungsten sphere were confined within the PMMA sphere and did not affect cone beam localization of the sphere boundary, allowing 0.1 mm precise alignment with a computer-generated circle centered at kV isocenter. In tests extending over a one-month period, the distance between kV and MV isocenters along the vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions was 0.125 +/−0.06, 0.19 +/−0.08, and 0.02 +/−0.08 mm, respectively. Laser misalignment along these directions was 0.34 +/- 0.15, 0.74 +/−0.29, and 0.49 +/−0.22 mm. Automated couch shifts moved the spheres to within 0.1 mm of the selected position. The center of a 1cmx1cm MLC-defined field remained within +/−0.2 mm of the tungsten sphere center as the gantry was rotated. Conclusion: The UAB is practical for daily end-to-end QA tests of accelerator alignment. It provides tenths-mm accuracy for measuring agreement of kV and MV isocenters, couch motions, gantry flex and laser alignment

  15. 用于器件级真空封装的MEMS加速度传感器的设计与制作%Design and fabrication of MEMS acceleration sensor for device-level vacuum packaging

    蔡梅妮; 林友玲; 车录锋; 苏荣涛; 周晓峰; 黎晓林

    2012-01-01

    设计了一种可用于器件级真空封装的三明治电容式MEMS加速度传感器.该传感器被设计为四层硅结构,其中上下两层为固定电极,中间两层为硅-硅直接键合的双面梁-质量块结构的可动电极.利用自停止腐蚀工艺在中间质量块键合层上腐蚀出2个深入腔内的V型抽气槽,使得MEMS器件在后续的封装中能够实现内部真空.为防止V型抽气槽在划片中被水或硅渣堵塞,采用双面划片工艺.划片后,器件的总尺寸为6.8mm ×5.6mm ×1.72 mm,其中,敏感质量块尺寸为3.2mm×3.2mm ×0.86mm,检测电容间隙2.1 μm.对器件级真空封装后的MEMS加速度传感器进行了初步测试,结果表明:制作的传感器的谐振频率为861 Hz,品质因数Q为76,灵敏度为1.53 V/gn,C-V特性正常,氦气细漏<1×10-9 atm-cm3/s,粗漏无气泡.%A sandwich type of capacitive MEMS acceleration sensor used for device-level vacuum packaging is designed. The sensor is made of four-layer silicon wafers bonded together while the top and bottom wafers are the fixed electrodes and the cantilever-mass structure is made on the middle two wafers. Two grooves are etched in the middle mass block bonding layer by self-stopped etching process and used to remove air from cavity within the acceleration sensor, creating vacuum environment in subsequent packaging. A double-sided dicing process is developed to protect V-shaped grooves from water or silicon scrap. The total size of the sensor is 6.8 mm ×5.6 mm × 1. 72 mm and the size of mass is 3.2 mm ×3. 2 mm ×0. 86 mm. The interval of detecting capacitor is 2.1 μm. The performance of the device-level vacuum packaged sensor is tested. The C-V plot is normal and the sensitivity is about 1.53 V/gn. The resonant frequency is 861 Hz and quality factor Q is 76. The fine leakage of He is lower than 1 ×10-9 atm-cm3/s and has no bubbles during gross leakage test.

  16. Accelerator operation management using objects

    Conflicts over control of shared devices or resources in an accelerator control system, and problems that can occur due to applications performing conflicting operations, are usually resolved by accelerator operators. For these conflicts to be detected by the control system, a model of accelerator operation must be available to the system. The authors present a design for an operation management system addressing the issues of operations management using the language of Object-Oriented Design (OOD). A possible implementation using commercially available software tools is also presented

  17. Tandem accelerators

    After the installation of Ti-acceleration tubes and substantial modifications and additions to the EN tandem accelerator the performance of the machine has stabilized. The voltage behaviour of the tubes obviously improves as conditioning times necessary to run up to 6 MV decrease. A gridded lens has been added at the entrance of the first acceleration tube, and a second foil stripper is now installed in the short dead section between the high-energy tubes. The MP tandem also has been running stably during most of the year. However, beam instabilities originating from the last tube section and wear problems at the low-energy set of pelletron-chains caused some loss of beam time. During the fall, one set of pelletron charging chains has to be replaced after 49,000 hours of operation. In the course of the year, the MP and the EN tandem accelerators finished their 100,000th and 150,000th hours of operations, respectively. Preparations for the installation of the 3 MV negative heavy ion injector for the MP are progressing steadily. External beam transport, terminal ion optics, and data acquisition and control systems are to a major extent completed; the integration of the terminal power supplies has started. After the final assembly of the accelerator column structure, first voltage runs can be performed. (orig.)

  18. Broadband accelerator control network

    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel

  19. The intelligent gate control for the induction acceleration system in the KEK digital accelerator

    The renovation of the KEK PS-Booster as a digital accelerator (DA) is going on. Our plan is to accelerate Argon ion beam in the KEK-DA using the induction acceleration system, which was developed at KEK. An outline of the acceleration scenario is described and a necessary control system fully integrating the induction acceleration devices is given in details. For the induction acceleration in the KEK-DA, beam monitors and front-end processors to pick up information of the beam timing with accuracy are quite important. R and D works of those components are discussed. (author)

  20. Accelerator design

    The feasibility of constructing a TeV region electron-positron linear collider in Japan is discussed. The design target of the collider is given as follows: Energy, 1 TeV + 1 TeV; luminosity, 1032-1033/cm2/s; total length, 25km; electric power, 250MW; energy dispersion, 1%-10%; the start of the first experiment, early 1990s. For realizing the above target, the following research and developmental works are necessary. (a) Development of an acceleration tube with short filling time and high shunt resistance. (b) Short pulse microwave source with high peak power. (c) High current, single bunch linac. (d) Beam dynamics. As for the acceleration tube, some possibility is considered: For example, the use of DAW (Disk and Washer) which is being developed for TRISTAN as a traveling-wave tube; and the Jungle Gym-type acceleration tube. As a promising candidate for the microwave source, the Lasertron has been studied. The total cost of the collider construction is estimated to be about 310 billion yen, of which 120 billion yen is for the tunnel and buildings, and 190 billion yen for the accelerator facilities. The operation cost is estimated to be about 3 billion yen per month. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Particle acceleration

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  2. Accelerator operations

    This section is concerned with the operation of both the tandem-linac system and the Dynamitron, two accelerators that are used for entirely different research. Developmental activities associated with the tandem and the Dynamitron are also treated here, but developmental activities associated with the superconducting linac are covered separately because this work is a program of technology development in its own right

  3. RFQ accelerator development

    Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerators have established themselves as highly efficient and potential tools for delivering intense beams of the order of 100 mA or more. They are being employed as injectors to high energy machines used for basic sciences, spallation neutron sources, fusion devices and accelerator breeders. They have also made their mark as neutron generators, ion implanters, x-ray generators, etc. Realising the importance of this programme, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre initiated a totally indigenous effort to develop RFQs for the light as well as heavy ion beams. A low power RFQ for the proton and deuteron beams is already in the final phase of commissioning. (author). 30 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  4. The CERN accelerators controls convergence project

    Van den Eynden, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. The CERN PS and SL Accelerators controls groups have started in March 1998 a convergence effort aimed at building a common controls infrastructure for year 2001. The first activities concentrated on the definition of an object oriented Accelerator Device Model and Application Programming Interface (API) aimed at offering to high level application software developers a narrow and coherent view of the accelerator components. Efforts have also started to build the underlying middleware architecture that will support this model, including services based on the publish- subscribe paradigm. This presentation will highlight some aspects of this Accelerator Device model as seen form the application software level. A logical view of the associated middleware architecture that will transport Accelerator device data will also be discussed.

  5. Research of Virtual Accelerator Control System

    DongJinmei; YuanYoujin; ZhengJianhua

    2003-01-01

    A Virtual Accelerator is a computer process which simulates behavior of beam in an accelerator and responds to the accelerator control program under development in a same way as an actual accelerator. To realize Virtual Accelerator, control system should provide the same program interface to top layer Application Control Program, it can make 'Real Accelerator' and 'Virtual Accelerator'use the same GUI, so control system should have a layer to hide hardware details, Application Control Program access control devices through logical name but not through coded hardware address. Without this layer, it is difficult to develop application program which can access both 'Virtual' and 'Real' Accelerators using same program interfaces. For this reason, we can create CSR Runtime Database which allows application program to access hardware devices and data on a simulation process in a unified way. A device 'is represented as a collection of records in CSR Runtime Database. A control program on host computer can access devices in the system only through names of record fields, called channel.

  6. MUON ACCELERATION

    BERG,S.J.

    2003-11-18

    One of the major motivations driving recent interest in FFAGs is their use for the cost-effective acceleration of muons. This paper summarizes the progress in this area that was achieved leading up to and at the FFAG workshop at KEK from July 7-12, 2003. Much of the relevant background and references are also given here, to give a context to the progress we have made.

  7. KEKB accelerator

    KEKB, the B-Factory at High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) recently achieved the luminosity of 1 x 1034 cm-2s-1. This luminosity is two orders higher than the world's level at 1990 when the design of KEKB started. This unprecedented result was made possible by KEKB's innovative design and technology in three aspects - beam focusing optics, high current storage, and beam - beam interaction. Now KEKB is leading the luminosity frontier of the colliders in the world. (author)

  8. Accelerating networks

    Evolving out-of-equilibrium networks have been under intense scrutiny recently. In many real-world settings the number of links added per new node is not constant but depends on the time at which the node is introduced in the system. This simple idea gives rise to the concept of accelerating networks, for which we review an existing definition and-after finding it somewhat constrictive-offer a new definition. The new definition provided here views network acceleration as a time dependent property of a given system as opposed to being a property of the specific algorithm applied to grow the network. The definition also covers both unweighted and weighted networks. As time-stamped network data becomes increasingly available, the proposed measures may be easily applied to such empirical datasets. As a simple case study we apply the concepts to study the evolution of three different instances of Wikipedia, namely, those in English, German, and Japanese, and find that the networks undergo different acceleration regimes in their evolution

  9. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  10. accelerating cavity

    On the inside of the cavitytThere is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  11. Phononic crystal devices

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  12. Electron Accelerator Facilities

    Lecture presents main aspects of progress in development of industrial accelerators: adaptation of accelerators primary built for scientific experiments, electron energy and beam power increase in certain accelerator constructions, computer control system managing accelerator start-up, routine operation and technological process, maintenance (diagnostics), accelerator technology perfection (electrical efficiency, operation cost), compact and more efficient accelerator constructions, reliability improvement according to industrial standards, accelerators for MW power levels and accelerators tailored for specific use

  13. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Zhang, Yongpeng [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices.

  14. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices

  15. OpenMP for Accelerators

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R

    2011-03-15

    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  16. Generating clock signals for a cycle accurate, cycle reproducible FPGA based hardware accelerator

    Asaad, Sameth W.; Kapur, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A method, system and computer program product are disclosed for generating clock signals for a cycle accurate FPGA based hardware accelerator used to simulate operations of a device-under-test (DUT). In one embodiment, the DUT includes multiple device clocks generating multiple device clock signals at multiple frequencies and at a defined frequency ratio; and the FPG hardware accelerator includes multiple accelerator clocks generating multiple accelerator clock signals to operate the FPGA hardware accelerator to simulate the operations of the DUT. In one embodiment, operations of the DUT are mapped to the FPGA hardware accelerator, and the accelerator clock signals are generated at multiple frequencies and at the defined frequency ratio of the frequencies of the multiple device clocks, to maintain cycle accuracy between the DUT and the FPGA hardware accelerator. In an embodiment, the FPGA hardware accelerator may be used to control the frequencies of the multiple device clocks.

  17. High-frequency charged particle accelerator

    The device is refered to technical physics and may be used as a source of accelerated particles for irradiation of different objects in industry and agriculture. The device is aimed at increase of the power and enhancement of stability of the accelerator operation and decrease of its dimensions. High-frequency accelerator is composed of an accelerating cavity resonator a charged particle source and HF power supply. The aim is attained by the fact, that HF power source anode is made as one of coupling capasitor plates, the second plate of which is the nearest to anode HF power supply grid. The coupling capacitor plalte functional union with the HF power supply electrodes (anode and grid) reduces to spirious inductances of HF power supply circuit to minimum. Besides, the accelerator structure is simplified, as additional cooling system for the charged particle source is not necessary

  18. A power measuring device

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  19. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  20. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  1. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  2. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  3. Development of S-band accelerating structure

    In Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) in Korea construction of XFEL (X-ray Free electron Lazar) institution is under construction aiming at the completion in 2014. Energy 10 GeV of the linac part of this institution and main frequency are planned in S-band (2856 MHz), and about 178 S-band 3m accelerating structures are due to be used for this linac. The oscillation of an X-ray laser requires very low emittance electron beam. On the other hand, since the accelerating structure which accelerates an electron beam has a feed port of microwave (iris), the electromagnetic field asymmetry of the microwave feeding device called coupler worsens the emittance of an electron beam. MHI manufactured two kinds of S-band accelerating structures with which the electromagnetic field asymmetry of coupler cavity was compensated for PALXFEL linac. We report these accelerating structures. (author)

  4. Elements of a dielectric laser accelerator

    McNeur, Joshua; Schönenberger, Norbert; Leedle, Kenneth J; Deng, Huiyang; Ceballos, Andrew; Hoogland, Heinar; Ruehl, Axel; Hartl, Ingmar; Solgaard, Olav; Harris, James S; Byer, Robert L; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of high energy particle beams in basic research, medicine and coherent X-ray generation coupled with the large size of modern radio frequency (RF) accelerator devices and facilities has motivated a strong need for alternative accelerators operating in regimes outside of RF. Working at optical frequencies, dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) - transparent laser-driven nanoscale dielectric structures whose near fields can synchronously accelerate charged particles - have demonstrated high-gradient acceleration with a variety of laser wavelengths, materials, and electron beam parameters, potentially enabling miniaturized accelerators and table-top coherent x-ray sources. To realize a useful (i.e. scalable) DLA, crucial developments have remained: concatenation of components including sustained phase synchronicity to reach arbitrary final energies as well as deflection and focusing elements to keep the beam well collimated along the design axis. Here, all of these elements are demonstrated wit...

  5. Photovoltaic device

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  6. Photovoltaic device

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  7. Concentration device

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  8. Some Considerations on the Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasma

    Thio, Y. C. F.; Markusic, T. E.; Cassibry, J. T.; Sommers, J. C.; Turchi, P. J.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In applying pulsed electromagnetic acceleration of plasma to space propulsion (known as pulsed plasma thrusters in the community), the mode of acceleration used has been mostly in the collisionless or near-collisionless regime. The preparation of the initial plasma is given scant attention. Collisional regime of accelerating the plasma, however, have been encountered in a variety of plasma accelerating devices. Both of these modes of acceleration are reviewed in a companion paper. In this paper, we discuss the considerations governing the controlled introduction and preparation of the initial plasma, so that the collisional mode of accelerating the plasma may be suitably enhanced.

  9. Pulsed DC accelerator for laser wakefield accelerator

    For the acceleration of ultra-short, high-brightness electron bunches, a pulsed DC accelerator was constructed. The pulser produced megavolt pulses of 1 ns duration in a vacuum diode. Results are presented from field emission of electrons in the diode. The results indicate that the accelerating gradient in the diode is approximately 1.5 GV/m

  10. Derivation of Hamiltonians for accelerators

    Symon, K.R.

    1997-09-12

    In this report various forms of the Hamiltonian for particle motion in an accelerator will be derived. Except where noted, the treatment will apply generally to linear and circular accelerators, storage rings, and beamlines. The generic term accelerator will be used to refer to any of these devices. The author will use the usual accelerator coordinate system, which will be introduced first, along with a list of handy formulas. He then starts from the general Hamiltonian for a particle in an electromagnetic field, using the accelerator coordinate system, with time t as independent variable. He switches to a form more convenient for most purposes using the distance s along the reference orbit as independent variable. In section 2, formulas will be derived for the vector potentials that describe the various lattice components. In sections 3, 4, and 5, special forms of the Hamiltonian will be derived for transverse horizontal and vertical motion, for longitudinal motion, and for synchrobetatron coupling of horizontal and longitudinal motions. Hamiltonians will be expanded to fourth order in the variables.

  11. Microfluidic Device

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  12. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    Henderson, S., E-mail: stuarth@fnal.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Abraham, W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aleksandrov, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allen, C. [Techsource, Inc., 1475 Central Avenue, Suite 250, Los Alamos, NM 87544-3291 (United States); Alonso, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Anderson, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Arthur, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assadi, S. [Techsource, Inc., 1475 Central Avenue, Suite 250, Los Alamos, NM 87544-3291 (United States); Ayers, J.; Bach, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Badea, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Battle, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beebe-Wang, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ∼100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ∼400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ∼400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ∼100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  13. Radiotherapy using a laser proton accelerator

    Murakami, Masao; Miyajima, Satoshi; Okazaki, Yoshiko; Sutherland, Kenneth L; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Bulanov, Sergei V; Daido, Hiroyuki; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Koga, James; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Tajima, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    Laser acceleration promises innovation in particle beam therapy of cancer where an ultra-compact accelerator system for cancer beam therapy can become affordable to a broad range of patients. This is not feasible without the introduction of a technology that is radically different from the conventional accelerator-based approach. The laser acceleration method provides many enhanced capabilities for the radiation oncologist. It reduces the overall system size and weight by more than one order of magnitude. The characteristics of the particle beams (protons) make them suitable for a class of therapy that might not be possible with the conventional accelerator, such as the ease for changing pulse intensity, the focus spread, the pinpointedness, and the dose delivery in general. A compact, uncluttered system allows a PET device to be located in the vicinity of the patient in concert with the compact gantry. The radiation oncologist may be able to irradiate a localized tumor by scanning with a pencil-like particle...

  14. Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators

    Griffin, J. E.

    1988-04-01

    The electrical and mechanical properities of particle accelerator rf cavities are described in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion is limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common practice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text.

  15. Rf cavity primer for cyclic proton accelerators

    The purpose of this note is to describe the electrical and mechanical properites of particle accelerator rf cavities in a manner which will be useful to physics and engineering graduates entering the accelerator field. The discussion will be limited to proton (or antiproton) synchrotron accelerators or storage rings operating roughly in the range of 20 to 200 MHz. The very high gradient, fixed frequency UHF or microwave devices appropriate for electron machines and the somewhat lower frequency and broader bandwidth devices required for heavy ion accelerators are discussed extensively in other papers in this series. While it is common pratice to employ field calculation programs such as SUPERFISH, URMEL, or MAFIA as design aids in the development of rf cavities, we attempt here to elucidate various of the design parameters commonly dealt with in proton machines through the use of simple standing wave coaxial resonator expressions. In so doing, we treat only standing wave structures. Although low-impedance, moderately broad pass-band travelling wave accelerating systems are used in the CERN SPS, such systems are more commonly found in linacs, and they have not been used widely in large cyclic accelerators. Two appendices providing useful supporting material regarding relativistic particle dynamics and synchrotron motion in cyclic accelerators are added to supplement the text

  16. Acceleration without Horizons

    Doria, Alaric; Munoz, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    We derive the metric of an accelerating observer moving with non-constant proper acceleration in flat spacetime. With the exception of a limiting case representing a Rindler observer, there are no horizons. In our solution, observers can accelerate to any desired terminal speed $v_{\\infty} < c$. The motion of the accelerating observer is completely determined by the distance of closest approach and terminal velocity or, equivalently, by an acceleration parameter and terminal velocity.

  17. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development

  18. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  19. Thermonuclear device

    Purpose: To provide a thermonuclear device which causes the thermal expansion of a vacuum vessel to freely escape without refraining and is provided with a vacuum vessel having an excellently large rigidity against an electromagnetic force transiently acting whils retaining a predetermined position. Constitution: The device for supporting the vacuum vessel comprises piston cylinder means in which a pressurized fluid is sealed in cylinder chambers at both sides of a piston and with which these cylinder chambers are liquidly communicated through throttling means, and means for fixing any of the piston and the cylinder of said piston cylinder means to a bed-plate retaining the support device and another to the vacuum vessel. The vacuum vessel is retained through a connecting rod or the like connected to the cylinder of the support device. (Aizawa, K.)

  20. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    Cleland, M R

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  1. Multistage linear electron acceleration using pulsed transmission lines

    A four-stage linear electron accelerator is described which uses pulsed radial transmission lines as the basic accelerating units. An annular electron beam produced by a foilless diode is guided through the accelerator by a strong axial magnetic field. Synchronous firing of the injector and the acccelerating modules is accomplished with self-breaking oil switches. The device has accelerated beam currents of 25 kA to kinetic energies of 9 MV, with 90% current transport efficiency. The average accelerating gradient is 3 MV/m

  2. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs

  3. Characteristics of an electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator

    Tsai, C.C.; Foster, C.A.; Schechter, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    An electron-beam rocket pellet accelerator has been designed, built, assembled, and tested as a proof-of-principle (POP) apparatus. The main goal of accelerators based on this concept is to use intense electron-beam heating and ablation of a hydrogen propellant stick to accelerate deuterium and/or tritium pellets to ultrahigh speeds (10 to 20 km/s) for plasma fueling of next-generation fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER). The POP apparatus is described and initial results of pellet acceleration experiments are presented. Conceptual ultrahigh-speed pellet accelerators are discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Ferroelectric devices

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  5. Controlling electron injection in laser plasma accelerators using multiple pulses

    Use of counter-propagating pulses to control electron injection in laser-plasma accelerators promises to be an important ingredient in the development of stable devices. We discuss the colliding pulse scheme and associated diagnostics.

  6. The direction of acceleration

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  7. High intensity hadron accelerators

    In this paper we give an introductory discussion of high intensity hadron accelerators with special emphasis on the high intensity feature. The topics selected for this discussion are: Types of acclerator - The principal actions of an accelerator are to confine and to accelerate a particle beam. Focusing - This is a discussion of the confinement of single particles. Intensity limitations - These are related to confinement of intense beams of particles. Power economics - Considerations related to acceleration of intense beams of particles. Heavy ion kinematics - The adaptation of accelerators to accelerate all types of heavy ions

  8. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  9. Accelerator as a repairable system

    An accelerator is a prime example of a repairable system which is the type of device that can be restored to a fully operational condition via a process of repair other than replacement of the entire system. Since repairable systems can fail two or more times, the analysis of their reliability focuses on predicting the trends in the pattern of failures and repairs rather than the time to first failure. Thus, it needs to focus on the underlying random processes rather than the probability distribution function of the component failures. This paper summarises the analysis methods available today and proposes an approach to development of a simulation. (author)

  10. VEDs for charged particle accelerators: Indian scenario

    In the initial times after their invention, the charged particle accelerators have, primarily, been used for fundamental studies on nuclei and atoms. From the first modern accelerator, the cathode ray tube, used by J.J. Thomson for the discovery of electron, very recently the gigantic 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is operational in the search of Higg's boson and related physics issues. Particle accelerators have emerged as powerful microscopes for investigating the finest details of cells, genes, molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, muons, electrons, quarks and, possibly, still undiscovered even more fundamental constituents of the universe, such as dark matter and dark energy. Several noble prize winning discoveries have been made using accelerators. Accelerators are now being used in a wide area of industrial and medical applications. They are used for the production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, cancer therapy, food sterilization, treatment of waste water, sterilization of medical equipment, material modification, mass spectroscopy, cargo scanning, fabrication of semiconductors etc. Ongoing effort towards the development of accelerators with megawatt beam power is showing hope for a cleaner source of nuclear energy and treatment of nuclear waste. Several tens of thousands of accelerators are presently operational in the world for basic research and applications. Development of new accelerators has several times been driven by new technologies and materials and sometimes they have driven the technological developments towards cutting edge. Some examples are ultra-high vacuum in large volumes, superfluid helium in cryogenics, cryocoolers, superconducting magnets and RF cavities, high power vacuum electronic devices, global control systems, superfast computing and communication networks, giant data storage/processing systems etc. India has been pursuing a fairly robust programme of accelerator development at various institutions. It

  11. On acceleration dependence of Doppler effect in light

    Sanjay M Wagh

    2013-09-01

    Using only the geometric relationships of suitable locations, we analyse Doppler effect in light to show how the acceleration of the source also contributes to the Doppler shift. We further propose that an experiment be performed using cyclotron-type devices to determine the acceleration dependence of the Doppler shift.

  12. International symposium on utilization of accelerators. Book of extended synopses

    Papers presented at this meeting were devoted to accelerator facilities design, improvements, for electron, neutron, or ion beams applications in radiotherapy, industry, material testing, isotope production. A number of presentations were dealing with accelerator driven systems as a possible power production device

  13. Trial manufacture of x-band accelerator disks

    In the X-band accelerator scheme of future linear colliders with normal conductor technology, major issue was the mass production of accelerator structures and microwave transmission devices with ultrahigh precision. Hitachi Ltd. has a technology of ultrahigh precision machining of soft metals, and made trial manufacturing of accelerator disks with ultrahigh precision during half a year from the spring of 2004 based on the blueprint prepared by KEK. The results of this trial are reported. (K.Y.)

  14. Improved plasma accelerator

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  15. San Francisco Accelerator Conference

    'Where are today's challenges in accelerator physics?' was the theme of the open session at the San Francisco meeting, the largest ever gathering of accelerator physicists and engineers

  16. Dielectric Laser Acceleration

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Wu, Ziran; Qi, Minghao

    2013-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of particle acceleration using dielectric near-field structures driven by infrared lasers, which we refer to as Dielectric Laser Accelerators. Implications for high energy physics and other applications are discussed.

  17. Standing wave linear accelerator

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  18. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York

    1960-01-01

    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  19. Systems and methods for cylindrical hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages

    Diamant, Kevin David; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel Joseph

    2014-05-13

    Systems and methods may be provided for cylindrical Hall thrusters with independently controllable ionization and acceleration stages. The systems and methods may include a cylindrical channel having a center axial direction, a gas inlet for directing ionizable gas to an ionization section of the cylindrical channel, an ionization device that ionizes at least a portion of the ionizable gas within the ionization section to generate ionized gas, and an acceleration device distinct from the ionization device. The acceleration device may provide an axial electric field for an acceleration section of the cylindrical channel to accelerate the ionized gas through the acceleration section, where the axial electric field has an axial direction in relation to the center axial direction. The ionization section and the acceleration section of the cylindrical channel may be substantially non-overlapping.

  20. Superconducting device

    The present invention provides a superconducting device to be used in a thermonuclear device and capable of unifying a current distribution in a parallel superconducting main line without consumption of liquid helium caused by Joule loss. That is, the device has a paired coils comprising a coil comprising one of plurality of superconducting wires and another coil comprising the other of plurality of superconducting wires and having a reverse winding or negative mutual inductance relative to the coil. A circuit comprising a portion of a main line is disposed to the one coil of the paired coils, and a circuit comprising the remainder of the main line is connected to the other coil each in series. The circuit has a parallel constitution. Such a constitution can provide an effect of unifying the current distribution in the main line without consumption of liquid helium due to Joule loss. (I.S.)

  1. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, Don N.

    1997-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruenc...

  2. Accelerators at school

    Latest subject covered by the CERN Accelerator School was 'Applied Geodesy of Particle Accelerators', which attracted an impressive number of outside participants to CERN for a week in April. Since the forerunners of today's particle accelerators were demonstrated over 50 years ago, the positioning of accelerator components has progressed from the laboratory bench-top to tunnels tens of kilometres long. Despite this phenomenal growth in size, sub-millimetre accuracy is still required

  3. A Solid state accelerator

    We present a solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible, but channeling radiation limits the maximum attainable energy to 105 TeV for protons. Beam dechanneling due to multiple scattering is substantially reduced by the high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed

  4. Superconducting accelerator technology

    Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost

  5. Applications of particle accelerators

    Particle accelerators are now widely used in a variety of applications for scientific research, applied physics, medicine, industrial processing, while possible utilisation in power engineering is envisaged. Earlier presentations of this subject, given at previous CERN Accelerator School sessions have been updated with papers contributed to the first European Conference on Accelerators in Applied Research and Technology (ECAART) held in September 1989 in Frankfurt and to the Second European Particle Accelerator Conference in Nice in June 1990. (orig.)

  6. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  7. The CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  8. Accelerator development in BARC

    Charged particle accelerators have played crucial role in the field of both basic and applied sciences. This has been possible because the accelerators have been extensively utilized from unraveling the secrets of nature to diverse applications such as implantation, material modification, medical diagnostics and therapy, nuclear energy and clean air and water. The development of accelerators in BARC can be categorized in two broad categories namely proton and heavy ion based accelerators and electron based accelerators. The heavy ion accelerators with sufficiently high energies are currently being used for conducting frontline nuclear and allied research whereas the electron accelerators are being routinely used for various industrial applications. Recently, there is a strong interest for developing the high energy and high intensity accelerators due to their possibility of effective utilization towards concept of energy amplification (Accelerator Driven System), incineration nuclear waste and transmutation. This talk will discuss details of the accelerator development program in BARC with particular emphasis on the recent development at Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) Facility in Ion Accelerator Development Division, BARC. (author)

  9. Far field acceleration

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail

  10. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  11. A high-current racetrack induction accelerator

    In this paper, the energy and system scaling laws of the Racetrack Induction Accelerator are determined and its operating principles are discussed. This device is a cyclic accelerator that is capable of multi-kiloamp operation. Long pulse induction linac technology is used to obtain short acceleration times. The accelerator consists of a long-pulse linear induction module and a racetrack beam transport system. For detailed studies of the particle dynamics in a racetrack, a numerical model is required to integrate the fully-relativistic single-particle equations of motion in an externally applied magnetic field. The numerical model is a compromise between the need for a large rotational transform and the need for a reasonable volume within the separatrix

  12. Application of high power microwave vacuum electron devices

    High power microwave vacuum electron devices can work at high frequency, high peak and average power. They have been widely used in military and civil microwave electron systems, such as radar, communication,countermeasure, TV broadcast, particle accelerators, plasma heating devices of fusion, microwave sensing and microwave heating. In scientific research, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on high energy particle accelerator and fusion research. The devices include high peak power klystron, CW and long pulse high power klystron, multi-beam klystron,and high power gyrotron. In national economy, high power microwave vacuum electron devices are used mainly on weather and navigation radar, medical and radiation accelerator, TV broadcast and communication system. The devices include high power pulse and CW klystron, extended interaction klystron, traveling wave tube (TWT), magnetron and induced output tube (IOT). The state of art, common technology problems and trends of high power microwave vacuum electron devices are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  13. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Labuthe, A. [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)

    1996-12-31

    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  14. Control and accelerating voltage automatic pulse acquisition system for ''LIU-5/5000'' linear accelerators

    A system prowiding continuous control and automatic correction of actuation of accelerating voltage pulse generators of a linear induction accelerator is described. TGI-2500/50 thyratrons are switching elements of the generators. Shaped pulses have a bell form, their duration on the foundation constitues 300 ns. The device operation is based on the determination of a sign of time error between generator and reference pulses. Depending on the error sign performed is correction of the delay value included into the actuation circuit of the corresponding generator. Such operation is accomplished in each working pulse of the accelerator. Data on the delay condition go to the digital panel and digital print-out. Technical characteristics of the system are the following: 56 cynchronization channels, 155 ns control interval, 5 ns control pitch, error of the error determination is not worse than +-2.5 ns. The system permitted to improve accelerated beam stability and to simplify accelerator tuning and control

  15. Stratification devices

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet...

  16. Equipment for controlling test benches charged particle accelerator pulse power supply systems

    Composition of the off-line and manual control device system designed for experimental testing the pulse supply systems of charged particle accelereators is considered. The system includes following devices: a manual remote control desk, a sysnchronization device with fibre-optical commutation programmed pulse shape generator digital sources of reference voltage. Performances of all these devices are presented. 1 ref

  17. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  18. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators

    Shaw, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation, the direct laser acceleration (DLA) of ionization-injected electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) operating in the quasi-blowout regime has been investigated through experiment and simulation. In the blowout regime of LWFA, the radiation pressure of an intense laser pulse can push a majority of the plasma electrons out and around the main body of the pulse. The expelled plasma electrons feel the electrostatic field of the relatively-stationary ions and are t...

  19. The Development of ADS Virtual Accelerator Based on XAL

    Peng-Fei, Wang; Qiang, Ye

    2013-01-01

    XAL is a high level accelerator application framework originally developed by the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It has advanced design concept and adopted by many international accelerator laboratories. Adopting XAL for ADS is a key subject in the long term. This paper will present the modifications to the original XAL applications for ADS. The work includes proper relational database schema modification in order to better suit ADS configuration data requirement, redesigning and re-implementing db2xal application and modifying the virtual accelerator application. In addition, the new device types and new device attributes for ADS online modeling purpose is also described here.

  20. The future of particle accelerators

    Plasma-based accelerators are developing as credible, and compact, accelerators for the future. We review the status and prospects for electron and proton accelerators using laser Wakefield acceleration. (author)

  1. CAS CERN Accelerator School vacuum technology. Proceedings

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twelfth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Vacuum Technology'. Despite the importance of vacuum technology in the design and operation of particle accelerators at CERN and at the many other accelerators already installed around the world, this was the first time that CAS has organized a course devoted entirely to this topic. Perhaps this reflects the facts that vacuum has become one of the more critical aspects of future accelerators, and that many of the pioneers in the accelerator field are being replaced by new, younger personnel. The lectures start with the basic concepts of the physics and technology of vacuum followed by detailed descriptions of the many different types of gas-pumping devices and methods to measure the pressures achieved. The outgassing characteristics of the different materials used in the construction of vacuum systems and the optimisation of cleaning methods to reduce this outgassing are then explained together with the effects of the residual gases on the particle beams. Then follow chapters on leak detection, materials and vacuum system engineering. Finally, seminars are presented on designing vacuum systems, the history of vacuum devices, the LHC (large hadron collider) vacuum system, vacuum systems for electron storage rings, and quality assurance for vacuum. (orig.)

  2. Stabilization of electrostatic accelerator charging belt current

    For the purpose of improving reliability and quality of electrostatic accelerator basic parameters the stabilizer of charging belt current is developed. The stabilizer consists of two units: high-voltage unit and control unit. The charging rectifier assures voltage up to 60 kV at total current load of 750 μA. For the EG- 2.5 and the EGP-10 M accelerators supply circuits of charging device with an earth screen and posAitive voltage supply the needles. t the EGP-10-1 accelerator negative charging voltage is supplied to the screens of the charging device. ''Plus'' of the rectifier is earthed. Charging and recharging are performed by means of brushes slipping over the internal belt side. At all accelerators the stability of charging current mean value is not worse 0.1%. The highest response of the system are obtained at the EG-2.5 accelerator for account of rectifier load by charging current and instrument resistor from 140 to 400 MOhm

  3. Particle-accelerator decommissioning

    Generic considerations involved in decommissioning particle accelerators are examined. There are presently several hundred accelerators operating in the United States that can produce material containing nonnegligible residual radioactivity. Residual radioactivity after final shutdown is generally short-lived induced activity and is localized in hot spots around the beam line. The decommissioning options addressed are mothballing, entombment, dismantlement with interim storage, and dismantlement with disposal. The recycle of components or entire accelerators following dismantlement is a definite possibility and has occurred in the past. Accelerator components can be recycled either immediately at accelerator shutdown or following a period of storage, depending on the nature of induced activation. Considerations of cost, radioactive waste, and radiological health are presented for four prototypic accelerators. Prototypes considered range from small accelerators having minimal amounts of radioactive mmaterial to a very large accelerator having massive components containing nonnegligible amounts of induced activation. Archival information on past decommissionings is presented, and recommendations concerning regulations and accelerator design that will aid in the decommissioning of an accelerator are given

  4. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration

  5. Accelerator and radiation physics

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  6. Accelerator reliability workshop

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  7. Leaky Fermi accelerators

    Shah, Kushal; Rom-Kedar, Vered; Turaev, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    A Fermi accelerator is a billiard with oscillating walls. A leaky accelerator interacts with an environment of an ideal gas at equilibrium by exchange of particles through a small hole on its boundary. Such interaction may heat the gas: we estimate the net energy flow through the hole under the assumption that the particles inside the billiard do not collide with each other and remain in the accelerator for sufficiently long time. The heat production is found to depend strongly on the type of the Fermi accelerator. An ergodic accelerator, i.e. one which has a single ergodic component, produces a weaker energy flow than a multi-component accelerator. Specifically, in the ergodic case the energy gain is independent of the hole size, whereas in the multi-component case the energy flow may be significantly increased by shrinking the hole size.

  8. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  9. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  10. Accelerated Aging with Electrical Overstress and Prognostics for Power MOSFETs

    Saha, Sankalita; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Vashchenko, Vladislav; Mahiuddin, Shompa; Goebel, Kai F.

    2011-01-01

    Power electronics play an increasingly important role in energy applications as part of their power converter circuits. Understanding the behavior of these devices, especially their failure modes as they age with nominal usage or sudden fault development is critical in ensuring efficiency. In this paper, a prognostics based health management of power MOSFETs undergoing accelerated aging through electrical overstress at the gate area is presented. Details of the accelerated aging methodology, modeling of the degradation process of the device and prognostics algorithm for prediction of the future state of health of the device are presented. Experiments with multiple devices demonstrate the performance of the model and the prognostics algorithm as well as the scope of application. Index Terms Power MOSFET, accelerated aging, prognostics

  11. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: RF for Accelerators

    2012-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the twenty-fourth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held in Ebeltoft, Denmark, from 8-17 June, 2010 in collaboration with Aarhus University, with the topic 'RF for Accelerators' While this topic has been covered by CAS previously, early in the 1990s and again in 2000, it was recognized that recent advances in the field warranted an updated course. Following introductory courses covering the background physics, the course attempted to cover all aspects of RF for accelerators; from RF power generation and transport, through cavity and coupler design, electronics and low level control, to beam diagnostics and RF gymnastics. The lectures were supplemented with several sessions of exercises, which were completed by discussion sessions on the solutions.

  12. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author)

  13. The foxhole accelerating structure

    This report examines some properties of a new type of open accelerating structure. It consists of a series of rectangular cavities, which we call foxholes, joined by a beam channel. The power for accelerating the particles comes from an external radiation source and enters the cavities through their open upper surfaces. Analytic and computer calculations are presented showing that the foxhole is a suitable structure for accelerating relativistic electrons

  14. Japan Accelerator Conference

    At the international level, the high energy accelerator scene evolves rapidly and the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators is where its strong pulse can best be felt. This year, the Conference was held for the first time in Japan, with the 14th meeting in the series having been hosted in August by the Japanese KEK National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba. The venue was a recognition of the premier accelerator physics and technology status achieved by this diligent nation

  15. Accelerator shielding benchmark problems

    Hirayama, H.; Ban, S.; Nakamura, T. [and others

    1993-01-01

    Accelerator shielding benchmark problems prepared by Working Group of Accelerator Shielding in the Research Committee on Radiation Behavior in the Atomic Energy Society of Japan were compiled by Radiation Safety Control Center of National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Twenty-five accelerator shielding benchmark problems are presented for evaluating the calculational algorithm, the accuracy of computer codes and the nuclear data used in codes. (author).

  16. Accelerated ion beams for in-beam e-gamma spectroscopy

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Varley, BJ; Durell, JL; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; Jones, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Folger, H; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    A few accelerated ion beam requirements for in-beam e-gamma spectroscopy are briefly reviewed as well as several features of the MP Tandem accelerator of IPN-Orsay and the accelerated ion-beam transport devices leading to the experimental area of in-beam e-gamma spectroscopy. In particular, the main

  17. Superconducting accelerator magnets

    In the near future, a large number of high quality superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets will be required for construction of the next generation multi-TeV high energy hadron accelerator-colliders. To establish the construction technology of such accelerator- colliders, extensive and world-wide R and D programs are now carrying out at several laboratories. In this paper the important issues in superconducting accelerator magnets such as cables, design, fabrication, testing and cryogenic system are discussed together with some details on coil cross- sectional current configurations, quality control of materials, quench protections, radiation heating and etc. The key technology in superconducting accelerator magnets is summarized

  18. High-intensity accelerators

    The design of high-intensity accelerators is described, using examples of machines being built at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The major design problem with these accelerators is associated with control of beam loss when accelerator intensity is increased. Beam dynamics, beam loss, and the radio-frequency quadrupole structure are discussed in the first part of the chapter followed by an explanation of plans to achieve high-intensity operation in three projects: the Fusion Material Irradiation Tests (a joint effort with the Hanford Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington), the Proton Storage Ring (an addition to the LAMPF accelerator), and the Racetrack Microtron Project

  19. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    2016-07-12

    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  20. Radiographic device

    The unit is used to represent the absorption coefficients with respect to the X-radiation used (e.g., 10 keV) by means of plane sections of a body under examination, which sections are located normal to the longitudinal axis of the body. The output signals of the detector unit are passed on to data processing. To accelerate the examination of successive parallel sections of the body the electron beam generating the X-ray beam is deflected, e.g., by means of electrostatic deflector plates along the anode in a direction normal to the sectional plane. Hence, there is no need for linear movements of the support of the body and the examination cycles can follow upon each other without interruption. (DG)

  1. An Accelerator Control Middle Layer Using MATLAB

    Matlab is a matrix manipulation language originally developed to be a convenient language for using the LINPACK and EISPACK libraries. What makes Matlab so appealing for accelerator physics is the combination of a matrix oriented programming language, an active workspace for system variables, powerful graphics capability, built-in math libraries, and platform independence. A number of software toolboxes for accelerators have been written in Matlab--the Accelerator Toolbox (AT) for machine simulations, LOCO for accelerator calibration, Matlab Channel Access Toolbox (MCA) for EPICS connections, and the Middle Layer. This paper will describe the ''middle layer'' software toolbox that resides between the high-level control applications and the low-level accelerator control system. This software was a collaborative effort between ALS (LBNL) and SPEAR3 (SSRL) but easily ports to other machines. Five accelerators presently use this software. The high-level Middle Layer functionality includes energy ramp, configuration control (save/restore), global orbit correction, local photon beam steering, insertion device compensation, beam-based alignment, tune correction, response matrix measurement, and script-based programs for machine physics studies

  2. Study on an Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine with Collection Device

    Yasuyuki Nishi; Terumi Inagaki; Kaoru Okubo; Norio Kikuchi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new type of portable hydraulic turbine that uses the kinetic energy of flow in open channels. The turbine comprises a runner with an appended collection device that includes a diffuser section in an attempt to improve the output by catching and accelerating the flow. With such turbines, the performance of the collection device, and a composite body comprising the runner and collection device were studied using numerical analysis. Among four stand-alone collection devices, the inl...

  3. Scalable devices

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  4. Thermonuclear device

    Purpose: To absorb fabrication errors in radial toroidal coils and a spacer and completely fill the gap between them by the provision of an expansion device between the coils and the supporting spacer by injecting fillers of a predetermined composition. Constitution: An expansion device comprising an expansion plate, packings inserted into grooves formed in the outer circumference of the expansion plate and a recessed pressure receiving plate is inserted between the wall surface of radial toroidal coils and a spacer for maintaining the gap between the toroidal coils. Then, filler comprising polyester resin and glass beads incorporated therein is injected from an injection aperture of the recessed pressure receiving plate having an exhaust aperture at the upper part. The filler is solidified and enables the fabrication error in the coils and the spacer to be absorbed. Since the gap between the coils and the spacer is completely filled, the tumbling force of the coils can surely be transmitted by way of the spacer to upper and lower racks. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  6. Accelerator Modeling with MATLAB Accelerator Toolbox

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model storage rings and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. The objective is to illustrate the flexibility and efficiency of the AT-MATLAB framework. The paper discusses three examples of problems that are analyzed frequently in connection with ring-based synchrotron light sources

  7. The SM-200 step motor control device

    One of the main nodes of the stand for testing and modeling solenoid coils, which define the focus of the beam of charged particles in the accelerator LUE-200 (IREN), is a device for positioning Hall sensors (HS). The mechanism of movement of the platform where HS are installed is activated by the step motor. This paper describes the control device of the step motor SM-200

  8. Accelerators for Medical Applications Accelerators for Medical Application: What is so Special?

    Schippers, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Specific requirements of accelerators for radiation therapy with protons or ions will be discussed. The focus will be on accelerator design, operational and formal aspects. We will discuss the special requirements to reach a high reliability for patient treatments as well as an accurate delivery of the dose at the correct position in the patient using modern techniques like pencil beam scanning. It will be shown that the requirements of the accelerated beam differ from those in a nuclear physics laboratory. The way of operating such a medical device requires not only operators, but also the possibility to have a safe machine operation by non accelerator specialists at different operating sites (treatment rooms). It will be shown that the organisation and role of the control/interlock system can be considered as being the most dedicated in a particle-therapy providing facility.

  9. Hamburg Accelerator Conference (2)

    From 20-24 July, Hamburg welcomed the Fifteenth International Conference on High Energy Accelerators (HEACC). The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval

  10. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    2010-01-01

    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  11. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  12. COLLECTIVE-FIELD ACCELERATION

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1969-07-04

    Diverse methods proposed for the acceleration of particles by means of collective fields are reviewed. A survey is made of the various currently active experimental programs devoted to investigating collective acceleration, and the present status of the research is briefly noted.

  13. Racetrack linear accelerators

    An improved recirculating electron beam linear accelerator of the racetrack type is described. The system comprises a beam path of four straight legs with four Pretzel bending magnets at the end of each leg to direct the beam into the next leg of the beam path. At least one of the beam path legs includes a linear accelerator. (UK)

  14. Thoughts of accelerator tubes

    A brief, subjective review is given of mechanisms that may be limiting electrostatic accelerator tubes to present levels of performance. Suggestions are made for attacking these limitations with the purpose of stimulating the thinking of designers and users of electrostatic accelerators

  15. Accelerators for energy production

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  16. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  17. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program

  18. KEK digital accelerator

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  19. Practical microwave electron devices

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  20. Maximal Acceleration Is Nonrotating

    Page, D N

    1998-01-01

    In a stationary axisymmetric spacetime, the angular velocity of a stationary observer that Fermi-Walker transports its acceleration vector is also the angular velocity that locally extremizes the magnitude of the acceleration of such an observer, and conversely if the spacetime is also symmetric under reversing both t and phi together. Thus a congruence of Nonrotating Acceleration Worldlines (NAW) is equivalent to a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Locally Extremely (SCALE). These congruences are defined completely locally, unlike the case of Zero Angular Momentum Observers (ZAMOs), which requires knowledge around a symmetry axis. The SCALE subcase of a Stationary Congruence Accelerating Maximally (SCAM) is made up of stationary worldlines that may be considered to be locally most nearly at rest in a stationary axisymmetric gravitational field. Formulas for the angular velocity and other properties of the SCALEs are given explicitly on a generalization of an equatorial plane, infinitesimally near a symmetry...

  1. Collinear wake field acceleration

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  2. Plasma based accelerators

    Caldwell, Allen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    The concept of laser-induced plasma wakefields as a technique to accelerate charged particles was introduced 35 years ago as a means to go beyond the accelerating gradients possible with metallic cavities supporting radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Significant developments in laser technology have made possible the pulse intensity needed to realize this concept, and rapid progress is now underway in the realization of laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. It has also been realized that similar accelerating gradients can be produced by particle beams propagating in plasmas, and experimental programs have also been undertaken to study this possibility. Positive results have been achieved with electron-driven plasma wakefields, and a demonstration experiment with proton-driven wakefields is under construction at CERN. The concepts behind these different schemes and their pros and cons are described, as well as the experimental results achieved. An outlook for future practical uses of plasma based accelerators will also be given.

  3. Linear induction accelerator

    This paper examines a new layout for the injector and accelerating sectins of a linear induction accelerator. The sections are combined in a single housing: an induction system with a current-pulse generator based on double strip shaping lines laid over ferromagnetic cores; a multichannel spark discharger with forced current division among channels; and a system for core demagnetization and electron-beam formation and transport. The results of formation of an electron beam in the injector system and its acceleration in the first accelerating section of the accelerator for injection of beams with energies of 0.2-0.4 MeV, currents of 1-2 kA, and pulse durations of 60 nsec are given

  4. Production of neutrons in particle accelerators: a PNRI safety concern

    In the safety assessment made for the first cyclotron facility in the Philippines, that is the cyclotron in the P.E.T. (Positron Emission Tomography) center of the St. Luke's Medical Center, the concern on the production of neutrons associated with the operation of particle accelerators has been identified. This takes into consideration the principles in the operation of particle accelerators and the associated production of neutrons resulting from their operation, the hazards and risks in their operation. The Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (BHDT) of the Department of Health in the Philippines regulates and controls the presently existing six (6) linear accelerators distributed in different hospitals in the country, being classified as x-ray producing devices. From the results of this study, it is evident that the production of neutrons from the operation of accelerators, produces neutrons and that activation due to neutrons can form radioactive materials. The PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) being mandated by law to regulate and control any equipment or devices producing or utilizing radioactive materials should take the proper steps to subject all accelerator facilities and devices in the Philippines such as linear accelerators under its regulatory control in the same manner as it did with the first cyclotron in the country. (Author)

  5. The beam business: Accelerators in industry

    Most physicists know that particle accelerators are widely used for treating cancer. But few are acquainted with the depth and breadth of their use in a myriad of applications outside of pure science and medicine. Society benefits from the use of particle beams in the areas of communications, transportation, the environment, security, health, and safety - in terms both of the global economy and quality of life. On the manufacturing level, the use of industrial accelerators has resulted in the faster and cheaper production of better parts for medical devices, automobiles, aircraft, and virtually all modern electronics. Consumers also benefit from the use of accelerators to explore for oil, gas, and minerals; sterilize food, wastewater, and medical supplies; and aid in the development of drugs and biomaterials.

  6. PLASMA DEVICE

    Baker, W.R.

    1961-08-22

    A device is described for establishing and maintaining a high-energy, rotational plasma for use as a fast discharge capacitor. A disc-shaped, current- conducting plasma is formed in an axinl magnetic field and a crossed electric field, thereby creating rotational kinetic enengy in the plasma. Such energy stored in the rotation of the plasma disc is substantial and is convertible tc electrical energy by generator action in an output line electrically coupled to the plasma volume. Means are then provided for discharging the electrical energy into an external circuit coupled to the output line to produce a very large pulse having an extremely rapid rise time in the waveform thereof. (AE C)

  7. Development project of small accelerator

    Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project is demonstration of a small proton and heavy ion synchrotron and a small hard X-ray photon radiation source by using new technology and application of them to therapy, diagnosis, material science and life science. In this paper, a part of small proton and heavy ion synchrotron is discussed. Nine organizations joined in this project. There are four development themes such as optimization of laser-ion 100 TW class source target, beam storage and cooling device, small synchrotron ring and FFAG accelerator. Outline and contents of development of them are explained. This project is planning to generate a few MeV/u carbon ions in fully ionized states by impact of laser with about 100 TW output. 3 T maximum bending magnetic field using normal conduction AC magnet will be actualized for synchrotron with 200 MeV proton beam. (S.Y.)

  8. An advanced scheme of compressed sensing of acceleration data for telemonintoring of human gait

    Wu, Jianning; Xu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Background The compressed sensing (CS) of acceleration data has been drawing increasing attention in gait telemonitoring application. In such application, there still exist some challenging issues including high energy consumption of body-worn device for acceleration data acquisition and the poor reconstruction performance due to nonsparsity of acceleration data. Thus, the novel scheme of compressive sensing of acceleration data is needed urgently for solutions that are found to these issues....

  9. Accelerated Aging System for Prognostics of Power Semiconductor Devices

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prognostics is an engineering discipline that focuses on estimation of the health state of a component and the prediction of its remaining useful life (RUL) before...

  10. Accelerator programme at CAT

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  11. Large electrostatic accelerators

    Jones, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing importance of energetic heavy ion beams in the study of atomic physics, nuclear physics, and materials science has partially or wholly motivated the construction of a new generation of large electrostatic accelerators designed to operate at terminal potentials of 20 MV or above. In this paper, the author briefly discusses the status of these new accelerators and also discusses several recent technological advances which may be expected to further improve their performance. The paper is divided into four parts: (1) a discussion of the motivation for the construction of large electrostatic accelerators, (2) a description and discussion of several large electrostatic accelerators which have been recently completed or are under construction, (3) a description of several recent innovations which may be expected to improve the performance of large electrostatic accelerators in the future, and (4) a description of an innovative new large electrostatic accelerator whose construction is scheduled to begin next year. Due to time and space constraints, discussion is restricted to consideration of only tandem accelerators.

  12. The miniature accelerator

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  13. Collective ion acceleration

    Godfrey, B.B.; Faehl, R.J.; Newberger, B.S.; Shanahan, W.R.; Thode, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed.

  14. Collective ion acceleration

    Progress achieved in the understanding and development of collective ion acceleration is presented. Extensive analytic and computational studies of slow cyclotron wave growth on an electron beam in a helix amplifier were performed. Research included precise determination of linear coupling between beam and helix, suppression of undesired transients and end effects, and two-dimensional simulations of wave growth in physically realizable systems. Electrostatic well depths produced exceed requirements for the Autoresonant Ion Acceleration feasibility experiment. Acceleration of test ions to modest energies in the troughs of such waves was also demonstrated. Smaller efforts were devoted to alternative acceleration mechanisms. Langmuir wave phase velocity in Converging Guide Acceleration was calculated as a function of the ratio of electron beam current to space-charge limiting current. A new collective acceleration approach, in which cyclotron wave phase velocity is varied by modulation of electron beam voltage, is proposed. Acceleration by traveling Virtual Cathode or Localized Pinch was considered, but appears less promising. In support of this research, fundamental investigations of beam propagation in evacuated waveguides, of nonneutral beam linear eigenmodes, and of beam stability were carried out. Several computer programs were developed or enhanced. Plans for future work are discussed

  15. Programming High-Performance Clusters with Heterogeneous Computing Devices

    Aji, Ashwin M.

    2015-01-01

    Today's high-performance computing (HPC) clusters are seeing an increase in the adoption of accelerators like GPUs, FPGAs and co-processors, leading to heterogeneity in the computation and memory subsystems. To program such systems, application developers typically employ a hybrid programming model of MPI across the compute nodes in the cluster and an accelerator-specific library (e.g.; CUDA, OpenCL, OpenMP, OpenACC) across the accelerator devices within each compute node. Such explicit manag...

  16. ACCELERATORS: School prizes

    Dedicated to its goal of encouraging scientists and students to work in the field of particle accelerators, the US Particle Accelerator School (operating since 1981) has switched to a new format. Starting this year, it will offer in alternate years basic accelerator physics plus advanced subjects in both university and symposium styles over four weeks. Expanding the school from two to four weeks gives additional flexibility, and undergraduate participation should be encouraged by university credits being offered for particular courses. In the intervening years, the school will organize six-day topical courses

  17. FMIT accelerator vacuum system

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility accelerator is being designed to continuously accelerate 100-mA deuterons to 25 MeV. High vacuum pumping of the accelerator structure and beam lines will be done by ion pumps and titanium sublimation pumps. The design of the roughing system includes a Roots blower/mechanical pump package. For economy the size of the system has been designed to operate at 10-6 torr, where beam particle scattering on residual gases is negligible. For minimum maintenance in this neutron factory, the FMIT vacuum system is designed from the point of view of simplicity and reliability

  18. Hadron accelerators in medicine

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadron-therapy Project is then described in some detail, with reference ro both the National Centre for Oncological Hadron-therapy and the design of different types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large umber of hospitals. (author)

  19. The auroral electron accelerator

    A model of the auroral electron acceleration process is presented in which the electrons are accelerated resonantly by lower-hybrid waves. The essentially stochastic acceleration process is approximated for the purposes of computation by a deterministic model involving an empirically derived energy transfer function. The empirical function, which is consistent with all that is known of electron energization by lower-hybrid waves, allows many, possibly all, observed features of the electron distribution to be reproduced. It is suggested that the process occurs widely in both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  20. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration

    Murphy, Thomas W.

    2016-05-01

    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  1. Accelerated simulated tempering

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method

  2. Accelerated simulated tempering

    Li, Yaohang; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Gorin, Andrey

    2004-08-01

    We propose a new stochastic global optimization method by accelerating the simulated tempering scheme with random walks executed on a temperature ladder with various transition step sizes. By suitably choosing the length of the transition steps, the accelerated scheme enables the search process to execute large jumps and escape entrapment in local minima, while retaining the capability to explore local details, whenever warranted. Our simulations confirm the expected improvements and show that the accelerated simulated tempering scheme has a much faster convergence to the target distribution than Geyer and Thompson's simulated tempering algorithm and exhibits accuracy comparable to the simulated annealing method.

  3. RF linear accelerators

    Wangler, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  4. Entropic accelerating universe

    Easson, Damien A., E-mail: easson@asu.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and School of Earth and Space Exploration and Beyond Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4030 (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Smoot, George F., E-mail: gfsmoot@lbl.go [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University and Advanced Academy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chaire Blaise Pascale, Universite Paris Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    2011-01-31

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  5. Entropic accelerating universe

    To accommodate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe, one popular idea is to invoke a driving term in the Friedmann-Lemaitre equation of dark energy which must then comprise 70% of the present cosmological energy density. We propose an alternative interpretation which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there. Dark energy is thereby obviated and the acceleration is due to an entropic force naturally arising from the information storage on the horizon surface screen. We consider an additional quantitative approach inspired by surface terms in general relativity and show that this leads to the entropic accelerating universe.

  6. Accelerator Toolbox for MATLAB

    This paper introduces Accelerator Toolbox (AT)--a collection of tools to model particle accelerators and beam transport lines in the MATLAB environment. At SSRL, it has become the modeling code of choice for the ongoing design and future operation of the SPEAR 3 synchrotron light source. AT was designed to take advantage of power and simplicity of MATLAB--commercially developed environment for technical computing and visualization. Many examples in this paper illustrate the advantages of the AT approach and contrast it with existing accelerator code frameworks

  7. Auroral electron acceleration

    Two theories of auroral electron acceleration are discussed. Part 1 examines the currently widely held view that the acceleration is an ordered process in a quasi-static electric field. It is suggested that, although there are many factors seeming to support this theory, the major qualifications and uncertainties that have been identified combine to cast serious doubt over its validity. Part 2 is devoted to a relatively new interpretation in terms of stochastic acceleration in turbulent electric fields. This second theory, which appears to account readily for most known features of the electron distribution function, is considered to provide a more promising approach to this central question in magnetospheric plasma physics. (author)

  8. The particle accelerator

    As the Palais de la Decouverte (in Paris) is the sole scientific vulgarization establishment in the world to operate an actual particle accelerator able to provoke different types of nuclear reactions, the author recalls some historical aspects of the concerned department since the creation of the 'Radioactivity - Atom synthesis' department in 1937. He recalls the experiments which were then performed, the installation of the particle accelerator in 1964 and its renewal. He describes what's going on in this accelerator. He gives an overview of the difficulties faced after it has been decided to move it, of the works which had to be performed, and of radiation protection measures

  9. Electron beam sterilisation of heterogeneous medical devices

    Sadat, T.; Morisseau, MrD.; Ross, MissA.

    1993-07-01

    Electron beam radiation is used in the sterilisation of medical disposable devices. High energy, 10 MeV, electron beam linear accelerators are in use worldwide for this purpose. The dose distribution achieved in the products treated influences the efficiency of treatment. This paper looks at the dose distribution achieved with such machines and the methods used to define it in heterogeneous products.

  10. Electron beam sterilisation of heterogeneous medical devices

    Electron beam radiation is used in the sterilization of medical disposable devices. High energy, 10 MeV, electron beam linear accelerators are in use worldwide for this purpose. The dose distribution achieved in the products treated influences the efficiency of treatment. This paper looks at the dose distribution achieved with such machines and the methods used to define it in heterogeneous products. (author)