WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator-based radiation sources

  1. The Elettra and FERMI: Two accelerator-based radiation sources in Trieste

    Elettra is the Italian third generation synchrotron radiation laboratory located on the Triestinian Carso plateau. It is built around a medium energy electron storage ring operated between 2 and 2.4 GeV. The Elettra beamlines cover a wide energy range, from the far infrared to the hard x-rays, as the photon energy ranges between 2 meV and 40 keV, i.e. wavelengths between 0.6 mm and 0.3 A. Moreover, an existing LINAC, previously used as injector for the storage ring is being upgraded and converted into a Free Electron Laser (FEL), FERMI at ELETTRA (Free Electron laser Radiation for Multidisciplinary Investigations at Elettra) FEL. Both sources are built and operated by the Sincrotrone Trieste public no profit company. Beamlines are often built in collaboration with external partners from different scientific institutions, both Italian and from other countries. Together with the synchrotron radiation activity, Elettra hosts several support and complementary laboratories, which makes it a multidisciplinary Research and Service center, competitive at the international level by employing advanced micro/nano analytical, photolithographic and radiographic techniques. Researchers at Elettra are active in fields as diverse as genomics, pharmacology, biomedicine, catalysis and chemical processes, microelectronics and micromechanics. This wide range of applications makes the site an international crossroad where researchers, coming from different countries and disciplines and from academic and applied research, interact and exchange in a competitive, yet friendly, atmosphere, producing new knowledge and training junior researchers. Training of younger generations of scientists and engineers for research and industry is indeed one of the missions of the Sincrotrone Trieste public company. (author)

  2. Use of accelerator based neutron sources

    With the objective of discussing new requirements related to the use of accelerator based neutron generators an Advisory Group meeting was held in October 1998 in Vienna. This meeting was devoted to the specific field of the utilization of accelerator based neutron generators. This TECDOC reports on the technical discussions and presentations that took place at this meeting and reflects the current status of neutron generators. The 14 MeV neutron generators manufactured originally for neutron activation analysis are utilised also for nuclear structure and reaction studies, nuclear data acquisition, radiation effects and damage studies, fusion related studies, neutron radiography

  3. Accelerator based steady state neutron source

    Using high current, cw linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the accelerator based neutron research facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 1016 n/cm2s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450 M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source is most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc., with the development of a multibeam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs

  4. An accelerator based steady state neutron source

    Using high current, cw linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the accelerator based neutron research facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 1016 n/cm2 s themal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of Dollar 300-450 is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of a multibeam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs. (orig.)

  5. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  6. Accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    Full text: The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk) and the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk) have proposed an accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture and fast neutron therapy for hospital. Innovative approach is based upon vacuum insulation tandem accelerator (VITA) and near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron generation. Pilot accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. In the present report, the pilot facility design is presented and discussed. Design features of facility components are discussed. Results of experiments and simulations are presented. Complete experimental tests are planned by the end of the year 2005

  7. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    Albert, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). NIF and Photon Sciences; Thomas, A. G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences; Mangles, S. P.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Corde, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Flacco, A. [ENSTA, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neely, D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Viera, J. [Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal). GoLP-Inst. de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear-Lab. Associado; Najmudin, Z. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Blackett Lab.; Bingham, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL). Central Laser Facility; Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Katsouleas, T. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Platt School of Engineering

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  8. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  9. Laser-plasma accelerators-based high energy radiation femtochemistry and spatio-temporal radiation biomedicine

    Gauduel, Y. A.; Lundh, O.; Martin, M. T.; Malka, V.

    2012-06-01

    The innovating advent of powerful TW laser sources (~1019 W cm-z) and laser-plasma interactions providing ultra-short relativistic particle beams (electron, proton) in the MeV domain open exciting opportunities for the simultaneous development of high energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) and ultrafast radiation biomedicine. Femtolysis experiments (Femtosecond radiolysis) of aqueous targets performed with relativistic electron bunches of 2.5-15 MeV give new insights on transient physicochemical events that take place in the prethermal regime of confined ionization tracks. Femtolysis studies emphasize the pre-eminence of ultra-fast quantum effects in the temporal range 10-14 - 10-11 s. The most promising advances of HERF concern the quantification of ultrafast sub-nanometric biomolecular damages (bond weakening and bond breaking) in the radial direction of a relativistic particle beam. Combining ultra-short relativistic particle beams and near-infrared spectroscopic configurations, laser-plasma accelerators based high energy radiation femtochemistry foreshadows the development of real-time radiation chemistry in the prethermal regime of nascent ionisation clusters. These physico-chemical advances would be very useful for future developments in biochemically relevant environments (DNA, proteins) and in more complex biological systems such as living cells. The first investigation of single and multiple irradiation shots performed at high energy level (90 MeV) and very high dose rate, typically 1013 Gy s-1, demonstrates that measurable assessments of immediate and reversible DNA damage can be explored at single cell level. Ultrafast in vivo irradiations would permit the development of bio-nanodosimetry on the time scale of molecular motions, i.e. angstrom or sub-angstrom displacements and open new perspectives in the emerging domain of ultrafast radiation biomedicine such as pulsed radiotherapy.

  10. Strengthening the inherent safety and security of radioactive sources: Accelerator based options

    First and foremost, radioactive sources are both useful and cost effective. If a technology can't be utilized in an effective manner, it won't be useful, no matter how clever and elegant it is. Secondly, there are safety and proliferation concerns that must be addressed. Accidents, contamination, dirty bombs, etc., all represent real concerns. A single incident can impact the cost of all uses. These issues and regulations devised to reduce these risks are driving up the costs and lowering efficiency. An alternative would be the accelerator based option, which is nothing new, it has been around for decades. Using accelerator technologies to produce radiation will address the issues I raise by limiting the production of radiation to only those times when a switch has been flipped. Producing radiation that way has one main advantage over the use of radioactive sources. When the switch is off, there is no radiation. Making instruments that are doubly fail-safe is straightforward. Issues associated with radiation safety during transport and storage disappear. There are also minimal issues of disposal and tracking of materials. There is very little potential for diverting a transportable radiography machine or portable neutron generator for nefarious uses. There is a need to carefully monitor the balance between the increasing number of radioactive sources in use, increasing concern for their location and condition, and the cost of employing radiation generators. In many cases there will be a natural progression away from using sources towards the use of radiation generators. Another key factor that would influence this balance is if an accident and or misuse of radioactive sources were to occur. The costs of dealing with sources would rapidly escalate, and would likely tip the balance sooner

  11. Observation of Neutron Skyshine from an Accelerator Based Neutron Source

    Franklyn, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    A key feature of neutron based interrogation systems is the need for adequate provision of shielding around the facility. Accelerator facilities adapted for fast neutron generation are not necessarily suitably equipped to ensure complete containment of the vast quantity of neutrons generated, typically >1011 nṡs-1. Simulating the neutron leakage from a facility is not a simple exercise since the energy and directional distribution can only be approximated. Although adequate horizontal, planar shielding provision is made for a neutron generator facility, it is sometimes the case that vertical shielding is minimized, due to structural and economic constraints. It is further justified by assuming the atmosphere above a facility functions as an adequate radiation shield. It has become apparent that multiple neutron scattering within the atmosphere can result in a measurable dose of neutrons reaching ground level some distance from a facility, an effect commonly known as skyshine. This paper describes a neutron detection system developed to monitor neutrons detected several hundred metres from a neutron source due to the effect of skyshine.

  12. Research of accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Background: 7Li (p, n) reaction of high neutron yield and low threshold energy has become one of the most important neutron generating reactions for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Purpose Focuses on neutron yield and spectrum characteristics of this kind of neutron generating reaction which serves as an accelerator-based neutron source and moderates the high energy neutron beams to meet BNCT requirements. Methods: The yield and energy spectrum of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are researched using the Monte Carlo code-MCNPX2.5.0. And the energy and angular distribution of differential neutron yield by 2.5-MeV incident proton are also given in this part. In the following part, the character of epithermal neutron beam generated by 2.5-MeV incident protons is moderated by a new-designed moderator. Results: Energy spectra of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are got through the simulation and calculation. The best moderator thickness is got through comparison. Conclusions: Neutron beam produced by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction, with the bombarding beam of 10 mA and the energy of 2.5 MeV, can meet the requirement of BNCT well after being moderated. (authors)

  13. BINP pilot accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    Neutron source based on accelerator has been proposed for neutron capture therapy at hospital. Innovative approach is based upon tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron generation. Pilot innovative accelerator based neutron source is under going to start operating now at BINP, Novosibirsk. Negative ion source with Penning geometry of electrodes has been manufactured and dc H- ion beam has been obtained. Study of beam transport was carried out using prototype of tandem accelerator. Tandem accelerator and ion optical channels have been manufactured and assembled. Neutron producing target has been manufactured, thermal regimes of target were studied, and lithium evaporation on target substrate was realized. In the report, the pilot facility design is given and design features of facility components are discussed. Current status of project realization, results of experiments and simulations are presented. (author)

  14. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  15. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  16. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  17. Industrial applications of accelerator-based infrared sources: Analysis using infrared microspectroscopy

    Bantignies, J.L.; Fuchs, G.; Wilhelm, C. [Elf Atochem, Pierre-Benite (France); Carr, G.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Dumas, P. [Centre Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)

    1997-09-01

    Infrared Microspectroscopy, using a globar source, is now widely employed in the industrial environment, for the analysis of various materials. Since synchrotron radiation is a much brighter source, an enhancement of an order of magnitude in lateral resolution can be achieved. Thus, the combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful tool enabling sample regions only few microns size to be studied. This opens up the potential for analyzing small particles. Some examples for hair, bitumen and polymer are presented.

  18. Study of medical RI production with accelerator-based neutron sources

    The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been widely adopted for nuclear medicine imaging to make diagnoses of body functions, identification of site of cancers, and so on. Now, almost all of medical radio isotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or charged particle accelerators. We propose a new route to produce the medical radio isotopes with accelerator-based neutron sources. In this paper, as an example, we introduce the proposed production method of 99Mo, which is the mother nuclide of 99mTc for SPECT. We determined the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction cross section to 1,415±82mb and it was consistent with the value (1,398mb) obtained from JENDL-4.0. Therefore, it indicates yields of produced RIs can be predicted with nuclear data based simulations. The simulation also can be used to design irradiation condition. In this paper some results of the simulations are also shown. (author)

  19. PREFACE: 6th Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS11)

    Lupi, Stefano; Perucchi, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to a subset of papers related to the work presented at the 6th edition of the international Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS), held in Trieste, Italy, September 4-8 2011. Previous editions of the conference were held in Porquerolles (France), Lake Tahoe (USA), Rathen (Germany), Awaji (Japan), and Banff (Canada). This edition was organized and chaired by Stefano Lupi (Roma La Sapienza) and co-chaired by Andrea Perucchi (Elettra), with the support of the Italian Synchrotron Light Laboratory ELETTRA, which was honored to host the WIRMS workshop in its tenth anniversary. The 6th WIRMS edition addressed several different topics, ranging from biochemistry to strongly correlated materials, from geology to conservation science, and from forensics to the study of cometary dusts. Representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities. This edition was attended by 88 participants, including representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities, who enjoyed the stimulating scientific presentations, several detailed discussions, and the beautiful weather and scenery of the Trieste gulf. Participants came from 16 different nations and four continents, including many young scientists, six of which were supported by the organizers. There were 45 scientific talks divided in 11 sessions: Facilities, Microspectroscopy (I, II, III), Time-Resolved Spectroscopies, Extreme Conditions, Condensed Matter, Near-Field, Imaging, THz Techniques and High-Resolution Spectroscopy. 37 posters were also presented at two very lively evening poster sessions. We would like to use the opportunity of writing this preface to thank all the participants of the workshop for the very high level of their scientific contribution and for the very friendly atmosphere

  20. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Herbert, Christopher, E-mail: cherbert@bccancer.bc.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McKenzie, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Redekop, Gary [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hsu, Fred [Department of Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Abbotsford, BC (Canada); Gete, Ermias; Gill, Brad; Lee, Richard; Luchka, Kurt [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Haw, Charles [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lee, Andrew [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC (Canada); Toyota, Brian [Division of Neurosurgery, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Martin, Montgomery [Department of Medical Imaging, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log-rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a V{sub x} for doses {>=}8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p < 0.05) in a multivariate model. According to the log-rank test, AVM volumes >5 cm{sup 3} and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p < 0.01). The V{sub 12} also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V{sub 12} was <28 cm{sup 3} and 53.2% if >28 cm{sup 3} (log-rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  1. Measurement and analysis of the radio frequency radiation (non-ionizing) in DC accelerator based 14 MeV neutron generator facility

    Radio frequency (RF) driven ion sources are used in various scientific applications like neutral beam injection systems for fusion reactors, particle accelerators, proton therapy machines, ion implantation systems, neutron generator and neutron spallation source. In BARC, a DC accelerator based 14 MeV neutron generator uses RF type ion source for generation of deuterium ion beam current that is used in DT reaction for neutron generation. An indigenously developed RF amplifier system, capacitively couples (via two electrode rings) the RF power at 100 MHz to deuterium gas filled RF ion source assembly. The RF radiation (non ionizing radiation) emanates from the capacitively coupling that is in the form of circular electrode (metal) rings across deuterium plasma column. A very minor RF leakage may arise from the amplifier assembly itself. This total radiation was measured at various locations within the neutron generator facility and also in two set ups. It was then quantified, analyzed and qualified from the allowed RF emissions standards. This would and have ensured equipment and personnel safety in addition to avoiding of the radio frequency interference (RFI) towards other instrumentation. This paper describes in detail all these measurements and their analysis done. (author)

  2. Design and techniques for fusion blanket neutronics experiments using an accelerator-based deuterium-tritium neutron source

    The experiments performed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute/U.S. Department of Energy collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics are designed with consideration of geometrical and material configurations. The general guide that is used to design the engineering-oriented neutronics experiment, which uses an accelerator-based 14-MeV neutron source, is discussed and compared with neutronics characteristics of the reactor models. Preparation of the experimental assembly, blanket materials, and the neutron source is described. A variety of techniques for measuring the nuclear parameters such as the tritium production rate are developed or introduced through the collaboration as a basis of the neutronics experiments. The features of these techniques are discussed with the experimental error and compared with each other. 25 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Complications following linear accelerator based stereotactic radiation for cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Roed, Henrik; Ohlhues, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    Primarily, gamma knife centers are predominant in publishing results on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) treatments including reports on risk profile. However, many patients are treated using a linear accelerator-most of these at smaller centers. Because this setting is different from a large...... gamma knife center, the risk profile at Linac departments could be different from the reported experience. Prescribed radiation doses are dependent on AVM volume. This study details results from a medium sized Linac department center focusing on risk profiles....

  4. An accelerator-based neutron microbeam system for studies of radiation effects

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Marino, Stephen A.; Bigelow, Alan W.; Akselrod, Mark S.; Sykora, Jeff G.; Brenner, David J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel neutron microbeam is being developed at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) of Columbia University. The RARAF microbeam facility has been used for studies of radiation bystander effects in mammalian cells for many years. Now a prototype neutron microbeam is being developed that can be used for bystander effect studies. The neutron microbeam design here is based on the existing charged particle microbeam technology at the RARAF. The principle of the neutron microbeam...

  5. Accelerator based neutron source for the neutron capture therapy at hospital

    Accelerator source of epithermal neutrons for the hospital-based boron neutron capture therapy is proposed and discussed. Kinematically collimated neutrons are produced via near-threshold 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction at proton energies of 1.883 - 1.9 MeV. Steady-state accelerator current of 40 mA allows to provide therapeutically useful beams with treatment times of tens of minutes. The basic components of the facility are a hydrogen negative ion source, an electrostatic tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation, a sectioned rectifier, and a thin lithium neutron generating target on the surface of tungsten disk cooled by liquid metal heat carrier. Design features of facility components are discussed. The possibility of stabilization of proton energy is considered. At proton energy of 2.5 MeV the neutron beam production for NCT usage after moderation is also considered. (author)

  6. The Argonne ACWL, a potential accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT

    THE CWDD (Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator) accelerator was designed to accelerate 80 mA cw of D- to 7.5 MeV. Most of the hardware for the first 2 MeV was installed at Argonne and major subsystems had been commissioned when program funding from the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization ended in October 1993. Renamed the Argonne Continuous Wave Linac (ACWL), we are proposing to complete it to accelerate either deuterons to 2 MeV or protons to 3-3.5 MeV. Equipped with a beryllium or other light-element target, it would make a potent source of neutrons (on the order of 1013 n/s) for BNCT and/or neutron radiography. Project status and proposals for turning ACWL into a neutron source are reviewed, including the results of a computational study that was carried out to design a target/moderator to produce an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. (orig.)

  7. Accelerator-based neutron source for the neutron-capture and fast neutron therapy at hospital

    Bayanov, B. F.; Belov, V. P.; Bender, E. D.; Bokhovko, M. V.; Dimov, G. I.; Kononov, V. N.; Kononov, O. E.; Kuksanov, N. K.; Palchikov, V. E.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Salimov, R. A.; Silvestrov, G. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Soloviov, N. A.; Taskaev, S. Yu.

    The proton accelerator complex for neutron production in lithium target discussed, which can operate in two modes. The first provides a neutron beam kinematically collimated with good forward direction in 25° and average energy of 30 keV, directly applicable for neutron-capture therapy with high efficiency of proton beam use. The proton energy in this mode is 1.883-1.890 MeV that is near the threshold of the 7Li( p, n) 7Be reaction. In the second mode, at proton energy of 2.5 MeV, the complex-produced neutron beam with maximum energy board of 790 keV which can be used directly for fast neutron therapy and for neutron-capture therapy after moderation. The project of such a neutron source is based on the 2.5 MeV original electrostatic accelerator tandem with vacuum insulation developed at BINP which is supplied with a high-voltage rectifier. The rectifier is produced in BINP as a part of ELV-type industrial accelerator. Design features of the tandem determining its high reliability in operation with a high-current (up to 40 mA) H - ion beam are discussed. They are: the absence of ceramic accelerator columns around the beam passage region, good conditions for pumping out of charge-exchange gaseous target region, strong focusing optics and high acceleration rate minimizing the space charge effects. The possibility of stabilization of protons energy with an accuracy level of 0.1% necessary for operation in the near threshold region is considered. The design description of H - continuous ion source with a current of 40 mA is also performed. To operate with a 100 kW proton beam it is proposed to use liquid-lithium targets. A thin lithium layer on the surface of a tungsten disk cooled intensively by a liquid metal heat carrier is proposed for use in case of the vertical beam, and a flat liquid lithium jet flowing through the narrow nozzle - for the horizontal beam.

  8. Development of high intensity ion sources for a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Several ion sources have been developed and an ion source test stand has been mounted for the first stage of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility For Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy. A first source, designed, fabricated and tested is a dual chamber, filament driven and magnetically compressed volume plasma proton ion source. A 4 mA beam has been accelerated and transported into the suppressed Faraday cup. Extensive simulations of the sources have been performed using both 2D and 3D self-consistent codes.

  9. India's first synchrotron radiation source Indus-1: a historical perspective

    The first Indian synchrotron radiation source Indus-l was commissioned in May 1999. This article briefs the development of accelerator based research programme in India and discusses the historical perspectives starting from the year 1953 at and goes to the development of Indus-1 and Indus-2 at Centre for Advanced Technology at Indore

  10. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  11. New sources of radiation

    Schimmerling, W.

    1979-09-01

    An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly.

  12. New sources of radiation

    An attempt is made to select examples of radiation sources whose application may make new or unconventional demands on radiation protection and dosimetry. A substantial body of knowledge about high energy facilities exists and, partly for this reason, the great high energy accelerators are mentioned only briefly

  13. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  14. Final report of the IAEA advisory group meeting on accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for characterization and source identification of aerosol particles

    The field of aerosol characterization and source identification covers a wide range of scientific and technical activities in many institutions, in both developed and developing countries. This field includes research and applications on urban air pollution, source apportionment of suspended particulate matter, radioactive aerosol particles, organic compounds carried on particulate matter, elemental characterization of particles, and other areas. The subject of this AGM focused on the use of accelerator-based nuclear analytical techniques for determination of elemental composition of particles (by either bulk or single particle analysis) and the use of accumulated knowledge for source identification

  15. Categorization of radiation sources

    The objective of this report is to develop a categorization scheme for radiation sources that could be relevant to decisions both in a retrospective application to bring sources under control and in a prospective sense to guide the application of the regulatory infrastructure. The Action Plan envisages that the preparation of guidance on national strategies and programmes for the detection and location of orphan sources and their subsequent management should commence after the categorization of sources has been carried out. In the prospective application of the system of notification, registration, and licensing, the categorization is relevant to prioritize a regulatory authority's resources and training activities; to guide the degree of detail necessary for a safety assessment; and to serve as a measure of the intensity of effort which a regulatory authority should apply to the safety and security of a particular type of source

  16. Doses from Medical Radiation Sources

    ... Radiation Protection and Measurements; NCRP Report 124; 1996. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. ... ionizing radiation, Vol. 1: Sources. New York, NY: United Nations Publishing; 2000. Russell JR, Stabin MG, Sparks RB, ...

  17. Future Synchrotron Radiation Sources

    Winick, Herman

    2003-01-01

    Sources of synchrotron radiation (also called synchrotron light) and their associated research facilities have experienced a spectacular growth in number, performance, and breadth of application in the past two to three decades. In 1978 there were eleven electron storage rings used as light sources. Three of these were small rings, all below 500 mega-electron volts (MeV), dedicated to this purpose; the others, with energy up to 5 giga-electron volts (GeV), were used parasitically during the operation of the ring for high energy physics research. In addition, at that time synchrotron radiation from nine cyclic electron synchrotrons, with energy up to 5 GeV, was also used parasitically. At present no cyclic synchrotrons are used, while about 50 electron storage rings are in operation around the world as fully dedicated light sources for basic and applied research in a wide variety of fields. Among these fields are structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, materials, analytic chemistry, micr...

  18. Factors Predictive of Symptomatic Radiation Injury After Linear Accelerator-Based Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

    Purpose: To investigate predictive factors in the development of symptomatic radiation injury after treatment with linear accelerator–based stereotactic radiosurgery for intracerebral arteriovenous malformations and relate the findings to the conclusions drawn by Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC). Methods and Materials: Archived plans for 73 patients who were treated at the British Columbia Cancer Agency were studied. Actuarial estimates of freedom from radiation injury were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of incidence of radiation injury. Log–rank test was used to search for dosimetric parameters associated with freedom from radiation injury. Results: Symptomatic radiation injury was exhibited by 14 of 73 patients (19.2%). Actuarial rate of symptomatic radiation injury was 23.0% at 4 years. Most patients (78.5%) had mild to moderate deficits according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. On univariate analysis, lesion volume and diameter, dose to isocenter, and a Vx for doses ≥8 Gy showed statistical significance. Only lesion diameter showed statistical significance (p 5 cm3 and diameters >30 mm were significantly associated with the risk of radiation injury (p 12 also showed strong association with the incidence of radiation injury. Actuarial incidence of radiation injury was 16.8% if V12 was 3 and 53.2% if >28 cm3 (log–rank test, p = 0.001). Conclusions: This study confirms that the risk of developing symptomatic radiation injury after radiosurgery is related to lesion diameter and volume and irradiated volume. Results suggest a higher tolerance than proposed by QUANTEC. The widely differing findings reported in the literature, however, raise considerable uncertainties.

  19. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  20. Development of beryllium-based neutron target system with three-layer structure for accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy.

    Kumada, Hiroaki; Kurihara, Toshikazu; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sugano, Tomei; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-12-01

    The iBNCT project team with University of Tsukuba is developing an accelerator-based neutron source. Regarding neutron target material, our project has applied beryllium. To deal with large heat load and blistering of the target system, we developed a three-layer structure for the target system that includes a blistering mitigation material between the beryllium used as the neutron generator and the copper heat sink. The three materials were bonded through diffusion bonding using a hot isostatic pressing method. Based on several verifications, our project chose palladium as the intermediate layer. A prototype of the neutron target system was produced. We will verify that sufficient neutrons for BNCT treatment are generated by the device in the near future. PMID:26260448

  1. Repeated delayed onset cerebellar radiation injuries after linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Case report

    A 63-year-old woman presented with right hearing disturbance and vertigo. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed the presence of right vestibular schwannoma (VS). Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was performed with a tumor marginal dose of 14 Gy using two isocenters. She was followed up clinically and neuroradiologically using three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo MR imaging. She experienced temporal neurological deterioration due to peritumoral edema in her right cerebellar peduncle and pons for a few months beginning 1.5 years after SRS, when she experienced transient right facial dysesthesia and hearing deterioration. Ten years after SRS, the patient presented with sudden onset of vertigo, gait disturbance, diplopia, dysarthria, and nausea. MR imaging demonstrated a new lesion in the right cerebellar peduncle, which was diagnosed as radiation-induced stroke. The patient was followed up conservatively and her symptoms disappeared within a few months. Multiple delayed onset radiation injuries are possible sequelae of SRS for VS. (author)

  2. Synchrotron radiation source Indus-1

    Indus-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for the production of the synchrotron radiation in VUV range with a critical wavelength of 61 A. In this paper we discuss the synchrotron radiation source Indus-1 and report some results of its present performance. Besides, results of beam lifetime studies are also reported. (author)

  3. Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

    Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe

    2011-01-01

    When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.

  4. Searching for Orphan radiation sources

    Full text: The problem of orphan sources cannot be left unaddressed due high probability of accidental exposure and use of sources for terrorism. Search of objects of this kind is complex particularly when search territory is large. This requires devices capable of detecting sources, identifying their radionuclide composition, and correlating scan results to geographical coordinates and displaying results on a map. Spectral radiation scanner AT6101C can fulfill the objective of search for gamma and neutron radiation sources, radionuclide composition identification, correlation results to geographical coordinates and displaying results on a map. The scanner consists of gamma radiation scintillation detection unit based on NaI(Tl) crystal, neutron detection unit based on two He3 counters, GPS receiver and portable ruggedized computer. Built-in and application software automates entire scan process, saving all results to memory for further analysis with visual representation of results as spectral information diagrams, count rate profile and gamma radiation dose rates on a geographical map. The scanner informs operator with voice messages on detection of radiation sources, identification result and other events. Scanner detection units and accessories are packed in a backpack. Weighing 7 kg, the scanner is human portable and can be used for scan inside cars. The scanner can also be used for radiation mapping and inspections. (author)

  5. Radiation sources 1977/8

    This catalogue describes the radiation sources available from The Radiochemical Centre for industrial and laboratory applications. It includes general information (e.g. on licensing and registration) and technical information (e.g. on calibration, source safety, packaging). Applications and nuclide indexes are included. (U.K.)

  6. Radiation sources working group summary

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-12-31

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

  7. Radiation sources working group summary

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations

  8. Capillary Discharge XUV Radiation Source

    M. Nevrkla

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A device producing Z-pinching plasma as a source of XUV radiation is described. Here a ceramic capacitor bank pulse-charged up to 100 kV is discharged through a pre-ionized gas-filled ceramic tube 3.2 mm in diameter and 21 cm in length. The discharge current has amplitude of 20 kA and a rise-time of 65 ns. The apparatus will serve as experimental device for studying of capillary discharge plasma, for testing X-ray optics elements and for investigating the interaction of water-window radiation with biological samples. After optimization it will be able to produce 46.9 nm laser radiation with collision pumped Ne-like argon ions active medium. 

  9. Overview of Terahertz Radiation Sources

    Gallerano, G P

    2004-01-01

    Although Terahertz (THz) radiation was first observed about hundred years ago, the corresponding portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been for long time considered a rather poorly explored region at the boundary between the microwaves and the infrared. This situation has changed during the past ten years with the rapid development of coherent THz sources, such as quantum cascade laser, diodes, optically pumped solid state devices and novel free electron devices, which have in turn stimulated a wide variety of applications from material science to telecommunications, from biology to biomedicine. In this paper we review the development and perspectives of THz radiation sources and their applications with particular emphasis on the research effort carried out and planned in the frame of various European programs.

  10. Radiation studies in the antiproton source

    Experiment E760 has a lead glass (Pb-G) calorimeter situated in the antiproton source tunnel in the accumulator ring at location A50. This location is exposed to radiation from several sources during antiproton stacking operations. A series of radiation studies has been performed over the last two years to determine the sources of this radiation and as a result, some shielding has been installed in the antiproton source in order to protect the lead glass from radiation damage

  11. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Slovakia

    In Slovakia, there are two regulatory authorities. Regulatory control of the utilization of nuclear energy, based on the Slovak National Council's law No. 130/1998 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, is exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. The second regulatory authority - the Ministry of Health - is empowered by law No. 72/1994 on the protection of human health to license radiation sources and is responsible for radiation protection supervision (there are nearly 3000 establishments with sealed sources, radiation generators and unsealed sources in Slovakia). Pursuant to a new radiation protection regulation based on international standards, radiation sources are to be categorized in six classes according to the associated exposure and contamination hazards. A national strategy for improving the safety of radiation sources over their life-cycle and for the management of disused and orphan sources is being prepared for governmental approval. (author)

  12. Regulated control of practices and radiation sources

    Excepting the radiation caused by the natural background radiation, the Executive Secretariat for Nuclear Affairs (SEAN) does not authorize any source no practice within the national territory that may imply exposure of a person to ionizing radiation unless this use is ruled. This document establishes the basic criteria to set up such system as well as to exclude or exempt practices and sources from this regulated control

  13. Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

    Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-22

    A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported.

  14. Preliminary design report of a relativistic-Klystron two-beam-accelerator based power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass next linear collider

    A preliminary point design for an 11.4 GHz power source for a 1 TeV center-of-mass Next Linear Collider (NLC) based on the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam-Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept is presented. The present report is the result of a joint LBL-LLNL systems study. consisting of three major thrust areas: physics, engineering, and costing. The new RK-TBA point design, together with our findings in each of these areas, are reported

  15. Virtual Gamma Ray Radiation Sources through Neutron Radiative Capture

    Scott Wilde, Raymond Keegan

    2008-07-01

    The countrate response of a gamma spectrometry system from a neutron radiation source behind a plane of moderating material doped with a nuclide of a large radiative neutron capture cross-section exhibits a countrate response analogous to a gamma radiation source at the same position from the detector. Using a planar, surface area of the neutron moderating material exposed to the neutron radiation produces a larger area under the prompt gamma ray peak in the detector than a smaller area of dimensions relative to the active volume of the gamma detection system.

  16. Radiation safety and inventory of sealed radiation sources in Pakistan

    Sealed radiation sources (SRS) of various types and activities are widely used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching in Pakistan. The proper maintenance of records of SRS is mandatory for users/licensees. Since 1956, more than 2000 radiation sources of different isotopes having activities of Bq to TBq have been imported. Of these, several hundred sources have been disposed of and some have been exported/returned to the suppliers. To ensure the safety and security of the sources and to control and regulate the safe use of radiation sources in various disciplines, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), the implementing arm of the regulatory authority in the country, has introduced a system for notifying, registering and licensing the use of all types of SRS. In order to update the inventory of SRS used throughout the country, the DNSRP has developed a database. (author)

  17. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe;

    2012-01-01

    An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave-conversion med......An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave......-conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580–630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. Such an all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source is promising for practical applications in biophotonics...

  18. Sources of radiation exposure - an overview

    Sources of radiation exposure are reviewed from the perspective of mining and milling of radioactive ores in Australia. The major sources of occupational and public exposure are identified and described, and exposures from mining and milling operations are discussed in the context of natural radiation sources and other sources arising from human activities. Most radiation exposure of humans comes from natural sources. About 80% of the world average of the effective dose equivalents received by individual people arises from natural radiation, with a further 15-20% coming from medical exposures*. Exposures results from human activities, such as mining and milling of radioactive ores, nuclear power generation, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and non-medical use of radioisotopes and X-rays, add less than 1% to the total. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  19. Radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources

    These Safety Fundamentals cover the protection of human beings against ionizing radiation (gamma and X rays and alpha, beta and other particles that can induce ionization as they interact with biological materials), referred to herein subsequently as radiation, and the safety of sources that produce ionizing radiation. The Fundamentals do not apply to non-ionizing radiation such as microwave, ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation. They do not apply either to the control of non-radiological aspects of health and safety. They are, however, part of the overall framework of health and safety

  20. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source.

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe; Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2012-07-01

    An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave-conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580-630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. Such an all-fiber Cherenkov radiation source is promising for practical applications in biophotonics such as bioimaging and microscopy. PMID:22743523

  1. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  2. The utilization of radiation sources in Angola

    The report describes the situation that Angola, which joined the IAEA in September 1999, is facing with the lack of an appropriate infrastructure for the control of radiation sources. It emphasizes the country's needs in technical assistance from the IAEA and other Member States for improving its regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety. (author)

  3. Management of Spent Radiation Source from Radiotherapy

    Nowadays the use of radioactive source for both radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy in Indonesia hospital increases rapidly. Sealed source used in radiotherapy among others for brachytherapy, teletherapy, bone densitometry, whole blood irradiation and gamma knife (radiosurgery). In line with this, the waste of spent radiation sources will be generated in hospitals. Of course these spent radiation sources must be treated correctly in order to maintain the safety of both the public and the environment. According to the Act No. 10/1997, BATAN, in care of the Radioactive Waste Management Center is the national appointed agency for the management of radioactive waste. The option for waste management by hospitals needs to be expound, either by re-exporting to the supplier of origin, re-exporting to other supplier, re-use by other licensee or sending to the Radioactive Waste Management Center. Usually the waste sent by the hospitals to the center comprises of sealed radiation source of 60Co, 137Cs or 226Ra. The management of spent radiation source in the center is carried out in several steps i.e. conditioning, temporary storage, and long-term storage (final disposal). The conditioning of non 226Ra is carried out by placing the waste in a 200 litter drum shell, 950 or 350 litter concrete shells, depends on the activity and dimension of the spent radiation source. The conditioning of 226Ra is carried out by encapsulating the waste in a stainless steel container for long-term storage shield which then placed in a 200 litter drum shell. The temporary storage of the conditioned spent radiation source is carried out by storing it in the center’s temporary storages, either low or medium activity waste. Finally, the conditioned spent radiation source is buried in a disposal facility. For medium half-life spent radiation source, the final disposal is burial it in a shallow-land disposal; mean while, for long half-life spent radiation source, the final disposal is burial it in a

  4. Safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials

    The activities involving the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials must be subject to the control of national authorities dedicated to their regulation. Nuclear regulatory bodies should be established with an adequate infrastructure, independence and technical competence and knowledge to provide the people with an appropriate to level of protection against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. In Argentina, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) is empowered to regulate and control all nuclear activities with regard to radiological and nuclear safety, physical protection and non proliferation matters. Its regulatory system for radiation sources and radioactive materials comprises a registration, licensing and inspection regime. Due to the appearance of a considerable number of illicit traffic events involving radiation sources and radioactive materials in several countries and at their borders, the specialized national and international community identified and adopted supplementary measures to those of 'safety' aim at preventing and responding to such events. These measures are known as 'security measures'. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the main international forum in which its Member States are discussing the problems associated with the illicit traffic of radioactive materials and radiation sources. A main product of these discussions is the implementation of an Action Plan that includes 'security' measures. The objective of this article is to analyze when the adoption of additional 'security' measures is indispensable. The analysis considers two cases of illicit trafficking: one involving radiation sources under regulatory control; and the other involving 'orphan sources'. Orphan sources constitute the most important challenge to be addressed since these radiation sources are out of adequate control. The absence of additional measures (named 'security measures') to prevent and detect such sources, reduce the possibility of

  5. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions which are not photoconductor elements each at the end of a slit. A positioner operates to change the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducing portions relative to the source, wherein each radiation transducing element is positioned within its respective slit between the slit defining walls. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  6. A Palmtop Synchrotron-like Radiation Source

    Chen, Min; Luo, Ji; Liu, Feng; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation sources are immensely useful tools for scientific researches and many practical applications. Currently, the state-of-the-art synchrotrons rely on conventional accelerators, where electrons are accelerated in a straight line and radiate in bending magnets or other insertion devices. However, these facilities are usually large and costly. Here, we propose a compact all-optical synchrotron-like radiation source based on laser-plasma acceleration either in a straight or in a curved plasma channel. With the laser pulse off-axially injected in a straight channel, the centroid oscillation of the pulse causes a wiggler motion of the whole accelerating structure including the trapped electrons, leading to strong synchrotron-like radiations with tunable spectra. It is further shown that a ring-shaped synchrotron is possible in a curved plasma channel. Due to the intense acceleration and bending fields inside plasmas, the central part of the sources can be made within palm size. With its potential...

  7. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  8. Safe management of spent radiation source

    Presented are 8 investigation reports concerning the safe management of spent radiation source (SRS) during the current 2 years. Four reports from Japan are: Scheme for SRS management (approach and present status of the SRS management and consideration toward solving problems); Current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) activities related to safety of radiation sources (Chronology of action plan development, Outline of revised action plan, and Asian regional activities); Current status of SRS management in Japan (Regulation system, Obligations of licensed users, Regulatory system on sealed sources, Status in the incidents on sources occurred, Incident of source loss, and Incidents of orphan sources); and SRS management system in Japan (Current status of using of sealed sources, collection system of SRS-Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) services, and Disposal of SRS). Four reports from the Asian countries also concern the current statuses of SRS management in the Philippine (Radioactive waste sources, Waste management strategies, Conditioning of Ra sources, Ra project action plan, as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) program, Dose assessment, Regulations on radioactive waste, Action plan on the safety and security of sources, IAEA Regional Demonstration Centers, and sitting studies for a near surface disposal facility); Thailand (Current status of using sealed sources, Inventory of SRS, and Current topics of SRS management); Indonesia (Principles of management of radiation sources, Legislative framework of SRS management practices, Regulatory on SRS, management of sealed SRS, management hurdles, and reported incidents); and Korea (Regulatory frame work, Collection systems of SRS, Radioisotope waste generation, Radiation exposure incident, and Scrap monitoring system). (N.I.)

  9. The radiating part of circular sources

    Carley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is developed linking the form of the sound field from a circular source to the radial structure of the source, without recourse to far-field or other approximations. It is found that the information radiated into the field is limited, with the limit fixed by the wavenumber of source multiplied by the source radius (Helmholtz number). The acoustic field is found in terms of the elementary fields generated by a set of line sources whose form is given by Chebyshev polynomials of the ...

  10. The safe use of radiation sources

    As a means of promoting safety in the use of radiation sources, as well as encouraging consistency in regulatory control, the IAEA has from time to time organized training courses with the co-operation of Member State governments and organizations, to inform individuals from developing countries with appropriate responsibilities on the provisions for the safe use and regulation of radiation sources. Three such courses on the safe use of radiation sources have been held in both the USA, with the co-operation of the United States Government, and in Dublin, Ireland, with the co-operation of the Irish Government. The Training Course on the Safe Use and Regulation of Radiation Sources has been successfully given to over 77 participants from over 30 countries during the last years. The course is aimed at providing a basis of radiation protection knowledge in all aspects of the uses of radiation and of radiation sources that are used today. It is the intention of this course to provide a systematic enhancement of radioisotope safety in countries with developing radiological programmes through a core group of national authorities. The IAEA's training programmes provide an excellent opportunity for direct contact with lecturers that have extensive experience in resolving issues faced by developing countries and in providing guidance documents useful in addressing their problems. This document uses this collective experience and provides valuable technical information regarding the safety aspects of the uses not only of sealed and unsealed sources of radiation, but also for those machines that produce ionizing radiation. The first of these training courses, 'Safety and Regulation of Unsealed Sources' was held in Dublin, Ireland, June through July 1989 with the co-operation of the Nuclear Energy Board and Trinity College. This was an interregional training course, the participants came from all over the world. The second and third interregional courses, 'Safety and Regulation

  11. Maximum Likelihood Localization of Radiation Sources with unknown Source Intensity

    Baidoo-Williams, Henry E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a novel and robust maximum likelihood approach to localizing radiation sources with unknown statistics of the source signal strength. The result utilizes the smallest number of sensors required theoretically to localize the source. It is shown, that should the source lie in the open convex hull of the sensors, precisely $N+1$ are required in $\\mathbb{R}^N, ~N \\in \\{1,\\cdots,3\\}$. It is further shown that the region of interest, the open convex hull of the sensors, is entirely devoid of false stationary points. An augmented gradient ascent algorithm with random projections should an estimate escape the convex hull is presented.

  12. Accelerator-based validation of shielding codes

    Zeitlin, Cary; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Miller, Jack; Wilson, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses risks to astronaut health from a diverse set of sources, ranging from low-energy protons and electrons to highly-charged, high-energy atomic nuclei and their associated fragmentation products, including neutrons. The low-energy protons and electrons are the source of most of the radiation dose to Shuttle and ISS crews, while the more energetic particles that comprise the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (protons, He, and heavier nuclei up to Fe) will be th...

  13. Devices for obtaining information about radiation sources

    The invention provides a sensitive, fast, high-resolution device for obtaining information about the distribution of gamma and X-radiation sources and provides a radiation detector useful in such a device. It comprises a slit collimator with a multiplicity of slits each with slit-defining walls of material and thickness to absorb beam components impinging on them. The slits extend further in one transverse direction than the other. The detector for separately detecting beam components passing through the slits also provides data output signals. It comprises a plurality of radiation transducing portions, each at the end of a slit. A positioner changes the transverse position of the slits and radiation transducer (a photoconductor) relative to the source. Applications are in nuclear medicine and industry. Full details and preferred embodiments are given. (U.K.)

  14. Spallation Neutron Source Radiation Shielding Issues

    This paper summarizes results of Spallation Neutron Source calculations to estimate radiation hazards and shielding requirements for activated Mercury, target components, target cooling water, and 7Be plateout. Dose rates in the accelerator tunnel from activation of magnets and concrete were investigated. The impact of gaps and other streaming paths on the radiation environment inside the test cell during operation and after shutdown were also assessed

  15. Characterization of coherent Cherenkov radiation source

    Smirnov, A.V.

    2015-01-21

    Engineering formulae for calculation of peak, and spectral brightness of resonant long-range wakefield extractor are given. It is shown that the brightness is dominated by beam density in the slow wave structure and antenna gain of the outcoupling. Far field radiation patterns and brightness of circular and high aspect ratio planar radiators are compared. A possibility to approach diffraction limited brightness is demonstrated. The role of group velocity in designing of the Cherenkov source is analyzed. The approach can be applied for design and characterization of various structure-dominated sources (e.g., wakefield extractors with gratings or dielectrics, or FEL-Cherenkov combined sources) radiating into a free space using an antenna (in microwave to sub-mm wave regions). The high group velocity structures can be also effective as energy dechirpers and for diagnostics of microbunched relativistic electron beams.

  16. Regulatory control of radiation sources in Bangladesh

    Nuclear and radiological practices are doing immense benefits to society but like all other practices nuclear and radiological practices also have risks. Necessary laws and regulatory bodies exist in many countries for a long time to control and keep the risks within acceptable limits. Bangladesh, though late, also enacted laws and initiated to implement the law. In this paper are presented the regulatory aspects of the radiation sources safety in Bangladesh, based on the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control Act and Rules. The radiation protection infrastructures and procedures are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing, regular inspection and enforcement. The issue of the security of radiation sources is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by the BAEC for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  17. Assessment of risk from radiation sources

    Assessment of risk from exposure to ionizing radiations from man-made radiation sources and nuclear installations has to be viewed from three aspects, namely, dose-effect relationship (genetic and somatic) for humans, calculation of doses or dose-commitments to population groups, assessment of risk to radiation workers and the population at large from the current levels of exposure from nuclear industry and comparison of risk estimates with other industries in a modern society. These aspects are discussed in brief. On the basis of available data, it is shown that estimated incidence of genetic diseases and cancers due to exposure of population to radiation from nuclear industry is negligible in comparison with their natural incidence, and radiation risks to the workers in nuclear industry are much lower than the risks in other occupations. (M.G.B.)

  18. [The use of radiation sources in solariums].

    Steck, B

    1975-08-01

    Solaria are increasingly in favour. As radiation sources, the following ones have proved useful: high-pressure mercury-vapour lamps, compound radiation systems consisting of high-pressure mercury-vapour burner, series coiled filament and reflector bulbs made of special glass as well as halogen metal-vapour lamps. The spectral distributions of irradiances of these emitters, the spatial and local distribution of their radiant intensity or irradiance respectively are reported as well as the balance of emitted energy, i.e. the distribution of radiant power over the different wave ranges. Demands of radiation technics are pointed out, which ought to be considered for the construction of solaria. PMID:1179451

  19. All-fiber femtosecond Cherenkov radiation source

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Møller, Uffe; Tu, Haohua; Boppart, Stephen A.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    An all-fiber femtosecond source of spectrally isolated Cherenkov radiation is reported, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time. Using a monolithic, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and the combination of photonic crystal fibers as the wave-conversion medium, we demonstrate milliwatt-level, stable, and tunable Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths 580–630 nm, with pulse duration of sub-160-fs, and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth not exceeding 36 nm. ...

  20. Occupational exposure to natural sources of radiation

    The most important natural sources of radiation are analyzed. The situation in France, Italy, and Spain concerning protection against natural radiation is described, including the identification of sources, and defined practices, organizations charged of national surveys and the responsibility of regulatory bodies and the role of operating management. The activities of the international organizations (ICRP, CEC and IAEA) are presented and discussed, and existing actions toward harmonization in the CEC, IAEA and other international programs is also discussed. (R.P.) 23 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous

  2. Radiation as a source of risk

    Essence and nature of ionizing radiation as a source of risk are reviewed. Following to the appeal of necessity and importance of campaign for enlightening risk management, of individual and of society, background knowledge and information helpful to the promotion and discussion are summarized, also. (author)

  3. Trade and transport of radiation sources

    The guide specifies the obligations pertaining to the trade in and transport of radiation sources and other matters to be taken into account in safety supervision. It also specifies obligations and procedures relating to transfrontier movements of radioactive waste contained in the EU Council Directive 92/3/Euratom. (7 refs.)

  4. Underdense radiation sources: Moving towards longer wavelengths

    Back, C.A.; Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States); Seely, J.F.; Weaver, J.L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Feldman, U. [Artep Inc., Ellicott City, MD (United States); Tommasini, R.; Glendinning, S.G.; Chung, H.K.; Rosen, M.; Lee, R.W.; Scott, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, California (United States); Tillack, M. [U. C. San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Underdense radiation sources have been developed to provide efficient laboratory multi-keV radiation sources for radiography and radiation hardening studies. In these plasmas laser absorption by inverse Bremsstrahlung leads to high x-ray conversion efficiency because of efficient ionization of the low density aerogel or gas targets. Now we performing experiments in the soft x-ray energy regime where the atomic physics models are much more complicated. In recent experiments at the NIKE laser, we have irradiated a Ti-doped SiO{sub 2} aerogel with up to 1650 J of 248 nm wavelength light. The absolute Ti L-shell emission in the 200-800 eV range is measured with a diagnostic that uses a transmission grating coupled to Si photodiodes. We will give an overview of the temporally-resolved absolutely calibrated spectra obtained over a range of conditions. (authors)

  5. Aircrew radiation exposure: sources-risks-measurement

    A short review is given on the actual aircrew exposure and its sources. The resulting risks for harmful effects to the health and discuss methods for in-flight measurements of exposure is evaluated. An idea for a fairly simple and economic approach to a practical, airborne active dosimeter for the assessment of individual crew exposure is presented. The exposure of civil aircrew to cosmic radiation, should not be considered a tremendous risk to the health, there is no reason for panic. However, being significantly higher than the average exposure to radiation workers, it can certainly not be neglected. As recommended by ICRP, aircrew exposure has to be considered occupational radiation exposure and aircrews are certainly entitled to the same degree of protection, as other ground-based radiation workers have obtained by law, since long time. (author)

  6. Network algorithms for detection of radiation sources

    Networks of radiation counters have been recently developed for detecting low-level, hazardous radiation sources, and they have been utilized in indoor and outdoor characterization tests. Subsequently, the test measurements have been “replayed” using multiple sub-networks, which enabled the analysis of various scenarios beyond the tests. We present a particle filter algorithm that combines measurements from gamma counters across the network to detect radiation sources. Using replays from an outdoor test, we construct a border monitoring scenario that consists of twelve 2 in.×2 in. NaI detectors or counters deployed on the periphery to monitor a 42×42 m2 region. A 137Cs source is moved across this region, starting several meters outside and finally moving away from it. The measurements from individual, pairs and boundary detectors are replayed using the particle filter algorithm. The algorithm outputs demonstrate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the benefits of networking all boundary counters: the source is detected meters before it enters the region, while being inside, and until moving several meters away. On the other hand, when counters are used individually or in pairs, the source is detected for much shorter durations, and sometimes not detected at all while inside the region

  7. Radiation source term reduction in BWR plants

    This series of slides presents: the collective radiation exposures at US and European BWRs; the European experience with source term reduction measures (normal water chemistry - NWC): zinc addition, stellite replacement, full system decontamination; the effects of evolving water chemistries/US experience. The conclusions are summarized as follows: worldwide reduction of collective radiation exposures at BWRs by following the ALARA principle; zinc addition proven option for source term reduction for NWC and hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) plants; reducing feedwater iron has been proven to reduce dose rates - as operational observations in the US indicate; optimized feedwater iron is very important for fuel performance under all modes of water chemistry (HWC, Zn, and noble metal chemical addition (NMCA)); minimize 59Co sources/stellite, follow the ALARA principle; full system decontamination (FSD) plus zinc injection is an attractive option for reducing reactor coolant system (RCS) dose rates of mature BWR plants

  8. Purification of 85Kr radiation source, (2)

    A gas-purification equipment was devised for 85Kr radiation source. Purification of a 210 Ci 85Kr source was performed by removing chemically dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3) contained in the 85Kr source with CuO. In order to find the optimum conditions for this purification prior to hot run, preliminary investigations were carried out about the effect of various factors (temperature, gas circulation, amount of used CuO, mode of reaction and so on) on the decomposition of CH3OCH3 with CuO using the mixtures of Ar-Ch3OCH3. The concentration of CH3OCH3 in the 85Kr source fell to 152 ppm from 38.3% by this purification. The purified 85Kr gas could be used repeatedly as radiation source for chemical reactions. It is considered that this purification method is effective for the removal of hydrocarbons (component of low boiling point) in the 85Kr source. (author)

  9. A Cherenkov radiation source for photomultiplier calibration

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) will detect the Cherenkov radiation from relativistic electrons produced from neutrino interactions in a heavy water (D2O) target. A Cherenkov radiation source is required that will enable the efficiency of the photomultipliers to detect this radiation to be calibrated in situ. We discuss such a source based upon the encapsulation of a 90Sr solution in a glass bulb, and describe its construction. The Cherenkov light output of this source is computed using the theory of Frank and Tamm and an EGS4 Monte Carlo code is used to propagate the beta decay electrons. As an example of the use of this source, the single photoelectron counting efficiency of an EMI 9350 photomultiplier was measured as a function of the applied voltages, given that the quantum efficiency of its photocathode was known. The single photoelectron counting efficiencies obtained were in the range 73-87% and these are consistent with the measurements of other authors using photomultipliers of a broadly similar design. ((orig.))

  10. Borehole Disposal for Spent Radiation Sources

    As generally, many countries in the world, Indonesia still faces some difficulties in the storage and final disposal for spent radiation sources (SRS) which categorized as high risk. Spent radiation sources that have been stored in the Interim Storage 1 and 2 (IS-1 and IS-2), and High Activity Waste Storage (PSLAT) consist of Co-50 or Cs-137 (as irradiator), Pu-238 (as power sources), Am-241 (as neutron source) and Ra-226 (as sources in the medical field). The difficulties faced on storage and disposal are reasoned by long half-life, high gamma radiation, not established disposal system, expensiveness of disposal facility, difficulties on option to reexport of the SRS, lack of skilled labour, and the activity exceed for near surface disposal. For that reason, disposal system for SRS must be developed with the small scale national facility having some advances as well as costly cheaper, fulfill the safety standard, and could avoid the possibility of human intrusion. The answer of this problem is borehole disposal concept. By using this concept can be hoped that the problems of SRS disposal can be handled well, based on site characterization, borehole technology, SRS capsule packaged design, repository facility, and safety assessment. Finally, after obtained the optimum concepts, would be applied in the future to support the national nuclear program accepted by the public. The assessment of borehole disposal technology for SRS has been done. The assessment was done descriptively, involve the waste, site, technology, and safety aspects. Some concepts of borehole have been obtained that have been recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), applicable and suitable with the waste and site condition. The concepts are Borehole Disposal of Sealed Sources (BOSS) with variation as follow: 1) Unsaturated, non-sulphate environments type; 2) Saturated, non-sulphate, non-clay environments with high to medium permeability, and 3) saturated, very low permeability

  11. Applications and opportunities for radiation sources

    An important spin-off benefit from the nuclear industry has been the ability to produce a wide variety of ionizing radiation sources for industrial, medical and scientific applications. These sources include radionuclides produced by irradiation of target material in reactors and cyclotrons or recovered from spent fuels, and accelerators. The uses of radiation in both medicine and industry can be expected to evolve. Traditional uses such as cancer therapy will mature and in some cases be displaced by new technology. Major new applications, including food processing and waste treatment, are expected to maintain the demand for isotopes such as cobalt 60 and to stimulate the development of economical and reliable accelerator systems. (L.L.) (Tab., 2 figs.)

  12. Safety of radiation sources in Slovenia

    The Republic of Slovenia, a central European country which has been independent since 1991, has about 2 million inhabitants and an area of 20,256 km2 . The Constitutional Law on Enforcement of the Basic Constitutional Charter on the Autonomy and Independence of the Republic of Slovenia, adopted on 23 June 1991 (Off. Gaz. of the R of Slovenia No. 1/91), provided that all the laws adopted by the Socialist Federal Republic (SFR) of Yugoslavia should remain in force in the Republic of Slovenia pending the adoption of appropriate legislation by the Slovene Parliament. Under the Slovene Constitution, all international treaties ratified by Slovenia constitute an integral part of Slovenia's legislation and can be applied directly. In Slovenia, all regular types of ionizing radiation source are being used for peaceful purposes and are covered by a system for their safe use and control. All radiation sources and radioactive materials are registered and under regulatory control. Inspections are carried out periodically by the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS) and, in the case of nuclear installations, the Slovene Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA). Technical checks on radiation sources are carried out periodically by technical support organizations: the Jozef Stefan Institute and the Institute for Occupational Safety (IOS). (author)

  13. The natural sources of ionizing radiation exposure

    Natural sources of ionizing radiation include external sources (cosmic rays, natural radionuclides present in the crust of the earth and in building materials) and internal sources (naturally occuring radionuclides in the human body, especially the potassium 40 and radon short lived decay products). The principal ways of human exposure to theses different components in ''normal'' areas are reviewed; some examples of the variability of exposure with respect to different regions of the world or the habits of life are given. Actual estimations of the doses delivered to the organs are presented; for the main contributors to population exposure, the conversion into effective dose equivalent has been made for allowing a better evaluation of their respective importance

  14. Inductive pulsed power source for plasma radiator

    The current fed plasmadynamic discharge is used for generation of a wide range of radiation. Such discharges have variable induction and resistance. They therefore require a definite power source to transfer energy with high efficiency. It is known that inductive storage has the larger specific energy capacity in comparison with capacitive energy storage, and better power matching. Therefore an inductive pulsed power source with current multiplication by sectioned inductive storage was designed to feed the plasma flow switch, using explosive switching technology. This report describes the design and the parameters of the inductive energy storage system, and the switches, and the test results for the model- source, where the energy scale is 1:20

  15. Sources of radiation from neutron stars

    Schutz, B F

    1998-01-01

    I give a brief introduction to the problem of detecting gravitational radiation from neutron stars. After a review of the mechanisms by which such stars may produce radiation, I consider the different search strategies appropriate to the different kinds of sources: isolated known pulsars, neutron stars in binaries, and unseen neutron stars. The problem of an all-sky survey for unseen stars is the most taxing one that we face in analysing data from interferometers. I describe the kinds of hierarchical methods that are now being investigated to reach the maximal sensitivity, and I suggest a replacement for standard Fourier-transform search methods that requires fewer floating-point operations for Fourier-based searches over large parameter spaces, and in addition is highly parallelizable, working just as well on a loosely coupled network of workstations as on a tightly coupled parallel computer.

  16. Helical Cerenkov effect, a novel radiation source

    The observability of the helical Cerenkov effect as a novel radiation source is discussed. Depending on the value of the index of refraction of the medium, the strength of the uniform magnetic field, and the electron beam energy, helical Cerenkov radiation can occur in the same spectral regions as the ordinary Cerenkov effect, that is, from microwave to visible wavelengths. From the kinematics point of view, the author argues that for a microwave wavelength of 10-1 cm this effect should be observable in a medium with an index of refraction of 1.4, with a beam energy of 3 MeV, and a uniform magnetic field of 4 T. On the specific level, however, for the sake of simplicity, he discusses the observability of this effect for visible light with the central wavelength of 5 x 10-5 cm which can be achieved with 2 MeV in beam energy, silica aerogel as a medium (with an index of refraction of 1.075), and uniform magnetic fields from 5 to 10 T. For a 10-T magnetic field, he calculates that in the visible region of 250 to 750 nm an electron will produce a photon per 10 cm of traveled length. As to the stimulated helical Cerenkov emission, the author estimates that respectable gains are possible even if the beam passes close to the dielectric rather than through it. In addition to being potentially a new radiation source, the helical Cerenkov effect could possibly be used as a detector of radiation by energetic electrons that are trapped in a medium by strong magnetic fields

  17. 21 CFR 886.5100 - Ophthalmic beta radiation source.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic beta radiation source. 886.5100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5100 Ophthalmic beta radiation source. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic beta radiation source is a device intended to apply...

  18. Ionizing radiation source detection by personal TLD

    The Laboratory for personal dosimetry has about 3000 workers under control. The most of them work in medicine. Some institutions, as big health centers, have different ionizing radiation sources. It is usefull to analyze what has been the source of irradiation, special when appears a dosimeter with high dose. Personal dosimetry equipment is Harshaw TLD Reader Model 6600 and dosimeters consist of two chips LiF TLD-100 assembled in bar-coded cards which are wearing in holders with one tissue-equivalent filter (to determine H(10)) and skin-equivalent the other (to determine H(0.07)). The calibration dosimeters have been irradiated in holders by different sources: x-ray (for 80keV and 100keV), 60Co, 90Sr (for different distances from beta source) and foton beem (at radiotherapy accelerator by 6MeV, 10MeV and 18MeV). The dose ratio for two LiF cristals was calculated and represented with graphs. So, it is possible to calculate the ratio H(10)/H(0.07) for a personal TLD and analyze what has been the source of irradiation. Also, there is the calibration for determination the time of irradiation, according to glow curve deconvolution

  19. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  20. Radiation sources safety and radioactive materials security regulation in Ukraine

    Radiation sources are widely used in Ukraine. There are about 2500 users in industry, science, education and about 2800 in medicine. About 80,000 sealed radiation sources with total kerma-equivalent of 450 Gy*M2/sec are used in Ukraine. The exact information about the radiation sources and their users will be provided in 2001 after the expected completion of the State inventory of radiation sources in Ukraine. In order to ensure radiation source safety in Ukraine, a State System for regulation of activities dealing with radiation sources has been established. The system includes the following elements: establishment of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety; authorization activity, i.e. issuance of permits (including those in the form of licences) for activities dealing with radiation sources; supervisory activity, i.e. control over observance of norms, rules and standards of radiation safety and fulfilment of conditions of licences for activities dealing with radiation sources, and also enforcement. Comprehensive nuclear legislation was developed and implemented from 1991 to 2000. Radiation source safety is regulated by three main nuclear laws in Ukraine: On the use of nuclear energy and radiation safety (passed on 8 February 1995); On Human Protection from Impact of Ionizing Radiation (passed on 14 January 1998); On permissive activity in the area of nuclear energy utilization (passed on 11 January 2000). The regulatory authorities in Ukraine are the Ministry for Ecology and Natural Resources (Nuclear Regulatory Department) and the Ministry of Health (State sanitary-epidemiology supervision). According to the legislation, activities dealing with radiation sources are forbidden without an officially issued permit in Ukraine. Permitted activities with radiation sources are envisaged: licensing of production, storage and maintenance of radiation sources; licensing of the use of radiation sources; obligatory certification of radiation sources and transport

  1. Development of radioisotopes and radiation sources

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utilizing HANARO and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The Ir-192 NDT sources of more than 50 Ci, equivalent in activity, are now available in KAERI and covers more than 90 % of the nationwide demand. For the commercial supply of Ir-192 industrial source, we developed irradiation target for mass-production and automatic fabrication system. The developed IR-Rigs have been used in production of various radioisotope and radiation sources in IR 1, 2 and CT irradiation holes. A Loop-Batch system for the mass-production of I-125 has been developed and tested its reliability and safety.The separation of I-125 formed from irradiated xenon gas was performed by column chromatographic technique using platinum coated on copper(PCC) granules as an adsorbent. For the preparation of I-125 seed, the retention of iodine on a ceramic rod coated with silver nitrate as an iodine absorbent was studied. The production possibility of Sr-89 using 89Y(n,p) and 88Sr(n,γ) in HANARO has been estimated. A new distillation process for P-33 production has been developed and applied for production of P-32. The current status of W-188/Re-188 generator production technology were reviewed. Main interests were given to the aspects of W-188 reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. To develop the Yb-169 radiographic sources for industrial NDT application, molding machine which can apply fabrications of small pellets with various size and shapes was designed and manufactured. Automatic welding system and assembly technologies for Co-60 source fabrication were developed. The developed HDR Ir-192 source was tested for application in Microselectron [32P] γ - ATP has been developed using [32P] phosphoric acid produced by KAERI. Calibration sources for correcting of energy and detection efficiency

  2. Seeding Coherent Radiation Sources with Sawtooth Modulation

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2012-03-28

    Seed radiation sources have the ability to increase longitudinal coherence, decrease saturation lengths, and improve performance of tapering, polarization control and other FEL features. Typically, seeding schemes start with a simple sinusoidal modulation, which is manipulated to provide bunching at a high harmonic of the original wavelength. In this paper, we consider seeding from sawtooth modulations. The sawtooth creates a clean phase space structure, providing a maximal bunching factor without the need for an FEL interaction. While a pure sawtooth modulation is a theoretical construct, it is possible to approach the waveform by combining two or more of the composite wavelengths. We give examples of sawtooth seeding for HGHG, EEHG and other schemes, and note that the sawtooth modulation may aid in suppression of the microbunching instability.

  3. Cesium-137 as a radiation source

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Byproducts Utilization Program (BUP) seeks to develop and encourage widespread commercial use of defense byproducts that are produced by DOE. Cesium-l37 is one such byproduct that is radioactive and decays with emission of gamma rays. The beneficial use of this radiation to disinfect sewage sludge or disinfest food commodities is actively being pursued by the program. The radiation produced by cesium-l37(Cs-l37) is identical in form to that produced by cobalt-60(Co-60), an isotope that is widely used in commercial applications such as medical product sterilization. The choice of isotope to use depends on several factors ranging from inherent properties of the isotopes to availability and cost. The BUP, although centrally concerned with the beneficial use of Cs-l37, by investigating and assessing the feasibility of various uses hopes to define appropriate circumstances where cesium or cobalt might best be used to accomplish specific objectives. This paper discusses some of the factors that should be considered when evaluating potential uses for isotopic sources

  4. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  5. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs, tabs

  6. Methods to identify and locate spent radiation sources

    The objective of this manual is to provide essential guidance to Member States with nuclear applications involving the use of a wide range of sealed radiation sources on the practical task of physically locating spent radiation sources not properly accounted for. Advice is also provided to render the located source safe on location. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. The regulatory control of radiation sources in Turkey

    In Turkey, the national competent authority for regulating activities involving radioactive sources is the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, which implements the responsibility for the safety and security of radiation sources through its Radiation Health and Safety Department. The report describes the organization of the regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety in Turkey and, after a brief explanation of the current legal framework for such purpose, it refers to how the management of radiation sources is carried out and to the new provisions regarding radiation sources, including inspections of licensees and training on source safety. Finally, the report provides information on the Ikitelli radiological accident in Turkey and the current public concern about radiation sources after it happened. (author)

  8. Radiological control in fires involving radiation sources

    The copies used during the chatter by techniques from CDTN in the I Mineiro Symposium of Fire Engineering, are presented. The chatter was based on emergency radiation control course, given by CDTN. Basic concepts, such as nuclear physics fundaments, radiation nature and detection, radiation protection and practical aspects of radiological fire emergency, were enphasized. (M.C.K.)

  9. Nature and magnitude of the problem of spent radiation sources

    Various types of sealed radiation sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research. Virtually all countries have some sealed sources. The activity in the sources varies from kilobecquerels in consumer products to hundreds of pentabecquerels in facilities for food irradiation. Loss or misuse of sealed sources can give rise to accidents resulting in radiation exposure of workers and members of the general public, and can also give rise to extensive contamination of land, equipment and buildings. In extreme cases the exposure can be lethal. Problems of safety relating to spent radiation sources have been under consideration within the Agency for some years. The first objective of the project has been to prepare a comprehensive report reviewing the nature and background of the problem, also giving an overview of existing practices for the management of spent radiation sources. This report is the fulfilment of this first objective. The safe management of spent radiation sources cannot be studied in isolation from their normal use, so it has been necessary to include some details which are relevant to the use of radiation sources in general, although that area is outside the scope of this report. The report is limited to radiation sources made up of radioactive material. The Agency is implementing a comprehensive action plan for assistance to Member States, especially the developing countries, in all aspects of the safe management of spent radiation sources. The Agency is further seeking to establish regional or global solutions to the problems of long-term storage of spent radiation sources, as well as finding routes for the disposal of sources when it is not feasible to set up safe national solutions. The cost of remedial actions after an accident with radiation sources can be very high indeed: millions of dollars. If the Agency can help to prevent even one such single accident, the cost of its whole programme in this field would be more than covered. Refs

  10. Natural radiation source fabricated from commercially available instant coffee

    Commercially available instant coffee, Nescafe Excella, contained the radionuclide 40K. From the instant coffee, sixteen coffee-block radiation sources were successfully fabricated with sufficiently low production dependences. The coffee-block radiation sources were examined their suitability for a radiation protection course. Although a part of radiation counts(cpm) obtained with 1 minute measurement were largely deviated, those determined by 5 minute measurements and five times of 1 minute measurement were less deviated, enabling better comprehension of the three cardinal principles of radiation protection. (author)

  11. Sterilization plants equipped with the isotopic gamma radiation sources

    Presentation describes different isotopic gamma radiation sources applicable for sterilization of food and medical materials. Certain gamma pallet irradiators, mini gamma irradiators and different scale gamma tote irradiators are presented. It is concluded, that about two hundreds plants with gamma radiation sources operates in different countries. However, industrially developed countries must construct much more plants than operates now

  12. New high-power source of directional electromagnetic radiation

    Kumakhov, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    A new source of electromagnetic radiation in a wide spectral range can be based on multiple contactless deflection of the beams of charged particles in a circular channel. The radiation with wavelengths ranging from submillimeter to radio ranges can be generated using nonrelativistic electrons. Directional radiation is obtained at relativistic energies. The IR, optical, and UV radiation can be generated. The X-ray and gamma-radiation can be obtained at relatively high energies. The new source is compared with the source of synchrotron radiation. The radiation intensity at energies of 1-2 GeV is relatively high, since strong currents are possible in the ring channel. The channeling and synchrotron emission are simultaneously obtained at relatively small (several tens of nanometers) internal diameters of the ring.

  13. III. Artificial sources of ionizing radiation

    A theoretical explanation is given of obtaining electrons by thermal emission. The Coolidge X-ray tube is described. The spectral composition is presented of X radiation, changes in the spectrum of X radiation bremsstrahlung in dependence on anode potential and on different shapes of the rectifier of the high voltage curve. X-ray spectrography of crystals is presented as an example of the use of X radiation. Linear accelerators (simple and multiple), microtrons, cyclotrons and betatrons are used for obtaining higher energy radiation. The principle is given for each accelerator and examples of acclerators are given such as are used in clinical practice and in radiotherapy. (E.S.)

  14. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/γ, where γ is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron's longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristics of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets

  15. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  16. Regulatory infrastructure for the control of radiation sources in Madagascar

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no. 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no. 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This body is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Waste Management.The paper includes an overview of the Regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar. (author)

  17. The safety of radiation sources and radioactive materials in China

    The report describes the present infrastructure for the safety of radiation sources in China, where applications of radiation sources have become more and more widespread in the past years. In particular, it refers to the main functions of the National Nuclear Safety Administration of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), which is acting as the regulatory body for nuclear and radiation safety at nuclear installations, the Ministry of Public Health which issues licences for the use of radiation sources, and the Ministry of Public Security, which deals with the security of radiation sources. The report also refers to the main requirements of the existing regulatory system for radiation safety, i.e. the basic dose limits for radiation workers and the public, the licensing system for nuclear installations and for radioisotope-based and other irradiation devices, and the environmental impact assessment system. Information on the nationwide survey of radiation sources carried out by SEPA in 1991 is provided, and on some accidents that occurred in China due to loss of control of radiation sources and errors in the operation of irradiation facilities. (author)

  18. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  19. Radiations and regulation (of ionizing radiations from nuclear sources)

    Some contextual aspects of the regulatory action regarding the use of ionizing radiations (X-rays excluded) are made explicit. Some sociological aspects establishing the framework for the regulatory action, a tentative definition of what a regulator is and the role of precaution on his acting are discussed. Furthermore, a unified definition of human nature and physical nature (i.e. nature) is introduced, aimed at allowing its protection regarding ionizing radiation and, at the same time, the ethical framework for the application of radiation protection actions is defined. (author)

  20. Synchrotron radiation sources: general features and vacuum system

    In the last years the electron or positron storage rings, which were until 1970 only used for high energy physics experiments, begun to be built in several countries exclusively as electromagnetic radiation source (synchrotron radiation). The sources are generally made up by injector (linear accelerator or microtron), 'booster' (synchrotron), storage ring, insertions ('Wigglers' and ondulators) and light lines. The interest by these sources are due to the high intensity, large spectrum (from infrared to the X-rays), polarization and pulsed structure of the produced radiation. For the ultra-vacuum obtainement, necessary for the functioning storage rings (p=10-9 Torr), several special procedures are used. In Brazil the Synchrotron Radiation National Laboratory of the CNPq worked out a conceptual project of synchrotron radiation source, whose execution should begin by the construction of the several components prototypes. (L.C.)

  1. Radiation Protection for Manned Interplanetary Missions - Radiation Sources, Risks, Remedies

    Facius, R.; Reitz, G.

    Health risks in interplanetary explorative missions differ in two major features significantly from those during the manned missions experienced so far. For one, presently available technologies lead to durations of such missions significantly longer than so far encountered - with the added complication that emergency returns are ruled out. Thus radiation exposures and hence risks for late radiation sequelae like cancer increase proportional to mission duration - similar like most other health and many technical risks too. Secondly, loss of the geomagnetic shielding available in low earth orbits (LEO) does increase the radiation dose rates from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) since significant fractions of the GCR flux below about 10 GeV/n now can reach the space vehicle. In addition, radiation from solar particle events (SPE) which at most in polar orbit segments can contribute to the radiation exposure during LEO missions now can reach the spaceship unattenuated. Radiation doses from extreme SPEs can reach levels where even early acute radiation sickness might ensue - with the added risks from potentially associated crew performance decrements. In contrast to the by and large predictable GCR contribution, the doses and hence risks from large SPEs can only stochastically be assessed. Mission designers face the task to contain the overall health risk within acceptable limits. Towards this end they have to transport the particle fluxes of the radiation fields in free space through the walls of the spaceship and through the tissue of the astronaut to the radiation sensitive organs. To obtain a quantity which is useful for risk assessment, the radiobiological effectiveness as well as the specific sensitivity of a given organ has to be accounted for in such transport calculations which of course require a detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution and the atomic composition of the surrounding shielding material. In doing so the mission designer encounters two major

  2. The regulatory control of ionizing radiation sources in Lithuania

    The Radiation Protection Centre of the Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of the public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. One of its responsibilities is the control of radioactive sources, which includes keeping the registry, investigating persons arrested while illegally carrying or in possession of radioactive material, decision making and control of users of radioactive sources. The computer based registry contains a directory of more than 24,000 sources and some 800 users in research, medicine and industry. Most of these sources are found in smoke detectors and X ray equipment. The potentially most dangerous sources for therapy and industry (sealed and unsealed) are also listed in this registry. Problems connected with the regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania are presented and their solution is discussed. (author)

  3. Natural sources of ionizing radiation in Europe

    This publication maps levels of radiation of natural origin throughout the European Community (except in the Lander of the former German Democratic Republic), in Scandinavia and in Austria. The booklet explains in simple terms the basic properties and origin of different types of radiation (cosmic rays, gamma rays and radon) and their contribution to the overall exposure of the population. A glossary, a list of administrative regions used in the maps and detailed references to the data for each country are included

  4. Rendering harmless and deposition of spent sealed radiation sources

    The sealed radiation sources are commonly used in medicine, agriculture, industry and scientific research. There is millions of such sources being used all over the world. The purpose of this article is to present a modes of management and disposal of spent sealed radioactive sources in different countries as well as methods being recommended in Poland

  5. Natural radiation sources fabricated from potassic chemical fertilizers and application to radiation education

    Potassic chemical fertilizers contain potassium, a small part of which is potassium-40. Since potassium-40 is a naturally occurring radioisotope, potassic chemical fertilizers are often used for demonstrations of the existence of natural radioisotopes and radiation. To fabricate radiation sources as educational tools, the compression and formation method developed by our previous study was applied to 13 brands of commercially available chemical fertilizers containing different amounts of potassium. The suitability (size, weight, and solidness) of thus fabricated sources was examined and 12 of them were selected as easy-to-use radiation sources at radiation educational courses. The radiation strength (radiation count rate measured by a GM survey meter) and potassium content of the 12 sources were examined. It was found that the count rate was wholly proportional to the percentage of potassium, and a new educational application was proposed and discussed for understanding that the substance emitting radiation must be the potassium present in the raw fertilizers. (author)

  6. RASTA: A generalized tool for radiation source term analysis

    A FORTRAN computer code has been written for generalized radiation source term preparation. The RASTA (Radiation Source Term Analysis) code calculates the neutron and photon sources for any input isotopic combination and collapses to a user-selected multigroup format. The code is very easy to use, requiring minimal input. It provides extensive output edits suitable for data analysis or direct input into radiation transport codes. RASTA runs on the SRS RS6000 workstation cluster, but it should be easily portable to other computers

  7. Synchrotron radiation sources INDUS-1 and INDUS-2

    The synchrotron radiation sources, INDUS-1 and INDUS-2 are electron storage rings of 450 MeV and 2 GeV beam energies respectively. INDUS-1 is designed to produce VUV radiation whereas INDUS-2 will be mainly used to produce x-rays. INDUS-1 is presently undergoing commissioning whereas INDUS-2 is under construction. Both these rings have a common injector system comprising of a microtron and a synchrotron. Basic design features of these sources and their injector system are discussed in this paper. The radiation beamlines to be set up on these sources are also described. (author)

  8. Introduction to radiation protection practical knowledge for handling radioactive sources

    Grupen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The book presents an accessible account of the sources of ionising radiation and the methods of radiation protection. The basics of nuclear physics which are directly related to radiation protection are briefly discussed. The book describes the units of radiation protection, the measurement techniques, biological effects of radiation, environmental radiation, and many applications of radiation. For each chapter there is a problem section with full solutions. A detailed glossary and many useful information in appendixes complete the book. The author has addressed the issue of internationality to make sure that the text and, in particular, the complicated regulations can be easily interpreted not only in Europe and the United States but also in other countries. The subject of radiation protection requires a certain amount of mathematics. For those who have forgotten the basic rules of calculus a short refresher course in the form of a mathematical appendix is added.

  9. Radiation safety aspects in the use of radiation sources in industrial and heath-care applications

    The principle underlying the philosophy of radiation protection and safety is to ensure that there exists an appropriate standard of protection and safety for humans, without unduly limiting the benefits of the practices giving rise to exposure or incurring disproportionate costs in interventions. To realise these objectives, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP-60) and IAEA's Safety Series (IAEA Safety Series 120, 1996) have enunciated the following criteria for the application and use of radiation: (1) justification of practices; (2) optimisation of protection; (3) dose limitation and (4) safety of sources. Though these criteria are the basic tenets of radiation protection, the radiation hazard potentials of individual applications vary and the methods to achieve the above mentioned objectives principles are different. This paper gives a brief overview of the various applications of radiation and radioactive sources in India, their radiation hazard perspective and the radiation safety measures provided to achieve the basic radiation protection philosophy. (author)

  10. Stability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation sources

    This paper discusses the following topics: characteristics of synchrotron radiation sources; stability of the orbits; orbit control; nonlinear dynamic stability; and coherent stability and control. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Regulatory aspects of radiation sources safety in Albania

    In this paper are presented the regulatory aspects of the radiation sources safety in Albania, based in the new Radiological Protection Act and Regulations. The radiation protection infrastructures and procedures are described as well as their functioning for the implementation of relevant activities such as licensing and regular inspection, personal dose monitoring, emergency preparedness which are developed in the frame of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme. The issue of the security of radiation sources is dealt in close relation with the preparation and use of the inventory of all radiation sources in the country. A special attention is paid to the identification and location of lost sources for their finding and secure storage. (author)

  12. Rules and regulations on ionizing radiations sources installations

    The finality of this legislative text is to establish the standards and procedures for site, design, building, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations, radioactive installations and ionizing radiations sources. This text include the commercialization of radioactive substances and equipment fabrication

  13. Accelerator based atomic physics experiments: an overview

    Atomic Physics research with beams from accelerators has continued to expand and the number of papers and articles at meetings and in journals reflects a steadily increasing interest and an increasing support from various funding agencies. An attempt will be made to point out where interdisciplinary benefits have occurred, and where applications of the new results to engineering problems are expected. Drawing from material which will be discussed in the conference, a list of the most active areas of research is presented. Accelerator based atomic physics brings together techniques from many areas, including chemistry, astronomy and astrophysics, nuclear physics, solid state physics and engineering. An example is the use of crystal channeling to sort some of the phenomena of ordinary heavy ion stopping powers. This tool has helped us to reach a better understanding of stopping mechanisms with the result that now we have established a better base for predicting energy losses of heavy ions in various materials

  14. Control of sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania

    Aspects connected with regulatory control of radioactive sources in Lithuania, such as keeping of the computer-based registry, investigation of arrested illegal radioactive material, decision making, control of users of radioactive sources are discussed. Most of the sources of ionizing radiation are smoke detectors and x-ray equipment. Potentially most dangerous sources (both sealed and unsealed) of therapy and industry are also presented

  15. Detecting small low emission radiating sources

    Allmaras, Moritz; Hristova, Yulia; Kanschat, Guido; Kuchment, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The article addresses the possibility of robust detection of geometrically small, low emission sources on a significantly stronger background. This problem is important for homeland security. A technique of detecting such sources using Compton type cameras is developed, which is shown on numerical examples to have high sensitivity and specificity and also allows to assign confidence probabilities of the detection. 2D case is considered in detail.

  16. Diffraction measurements at sources of synchrotron radiation

    Hašek, Jindřich

    Vol. 2a. Praha : Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association, 2008, s. 15-16. ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura 2008 - Colloquium of the Czech and Slovak Crystallographic Association. Valtice (CZ), 16.06.2008-20.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : synchrotron radiation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  17. Background radiation and man-made and sources of radiation

    This paper describes the development of the use of the atom and its present applications in food and agriculture, industry medicine and health care, energy-environment and research. These applications have inevitably led to concerns about nuclear safety and radioactive waste management and the need for the adoption of procedures for control, safe use and disposal of radioactive sources

  18. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) Radiation Safety System

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a 1.5 Gev synchrotron light source facility consisting of a 120 kev electron gun, 50 Mev linear accelerator, 1.5 Gev booster synchrotron, 200 meter circumference electron storage ring, and many photon beamline transport systems for research. Figure 1. ALS floor plan. Pairs of neutron and gamma radiation monitors are shown as dots numbered from 1 to 12. The Radiation Safety System for the ALS has been designed and built with a primary goal of providing protection against inadvertent personnel exposure to gamma and neutron radiation and, secondarily, to enhance the electrical safety of select magnet power supplies

  19. Diffractive triangulation of radiative point sources

    Vespucci, Stefano; Maneuski, Dzmitry; O'Shea, Val; Winkelmann, Aimo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general method to determine the location of a point source of waves relative to a two-dimensional active pixel detector. Based on the inherent structural sensitivity of crystalline sensor materials, characteristic detector diffraction patterns can be used to triangulate the location of a wave emitter. As a practical application of the wide-ranging principle, a digital hybrid pixel detector is used to localize a source of electrons for Kikuchi diffraction pattern measurements in the scanning electron microscope. This provides a method to calibrate Kikuchi diffraction patterns for accurate measurements of microstructural crystal orientations, strains, and phase distributions.

  20. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  1. Radiation properties of Turkish light source facility TURKAY

    Nergiz, Zafer

    2015-09-01

    The synchrotron light source TURKAY, which is one of the sub-project of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC), has been supported by Ministry of Development of Turkey since 2006. The facility is designed to generate synchrotron radiation (SR) in range 0.01-60 keV from a 3 GeV storage ring with a beam emittance of 0.51 nm rad. Synchrotron radiation will be produced from the bending magnets and insertion devices in the storage ring. In this paper design studies for possible devices to produce synchrotron radiation and radiation properties of these devices with TURKAY storage ring parameters are presented.

  2. Radiation properties of Turkish light source facility TURKAY

    Nergiz, Zafer, E-mail: znergiz@nigde.edu.tr

    2015-09-21

    The synchrotron light source TURKAY, which is one of the sub-project of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC), has been supported by Ministry of Development of Turkey since 2006. The facility is designed to generate synchrotron radiation (SR) in range 0.01–60 keV from a 3 GeV storage ring with a beam emittance of 0.51 nm rad. Synchrotron radiation will be produced from the bending magnets and insertion devices in the storage ring. In this paper design studies for possible devices to produce synchrotron radiation and radiation properties of these devices with TURKAY storage ring parameters are presented.

  3. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85Kr, 147Pm, 3H and 232Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications in Brazil

    Preliminary data about ionizing radiation sources used in medical applications and obtained through a national programme by IRD/CNEN together with Brazilian health authorities are presented. The data presentation follows, as close as possible, recommendations given by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). This programme has two main aims: First: to contribute for research in the field of ionizing radiation effects and risks including information about equipment quality control and procedures adopted by professionals working in Radiation Medicine. Second: to investigate the radiation protection status in Brazil, in order to give assistance to Brazilian health authorities for planning regional radiation programmes and training programmes for medical staffs. (F.E.). 13 refs, 19 figs, 34 tabs

  5. Solar radiation data sources, applications, and network design

    None

    1978-04-01

    A prerequisite to considering solar energy projects is to determine the requirements for information about solar radiation to apply to possible projects. This report offers techniques to help the reader specify requirements in terms of solar radiation data and information currently available, describes the past and present programs to record and present information to be used for most requirements, presents courses of action to help the user meet his needs for information, lists sources of solar radiation data and presents the problems, costs, benefits and responsibilities of programs to acquire additional solar radiation data. Extensive background information is provided about solar radiation data and its use. Specialized information about recording, collecting, processing, storing and disseminating solar radiation data is given. Several Appendices are included which provide reference material for special situations.

  6. Training of human resources on radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. Argentine experience

    Argentina has a long experience in Radiation Protection training since 25 years ago. In the present work we analyse those variable and non variable training aspects according to scientific development, increasing radiation source diversity (including new concepts like orphan sources and security), mayor concern about patient in Radiation Protection, previous exposures, etc. We comment what we consider the main steps in the training of Radiation Protection specialists, like university degree, post graduate education distinguishing between formative and informative contents and on the job training. Moreover, we point out the trainees aptitudes and attitudes to be developed in order to work properly in this interdisciplinary field. (author)

  7. First accelerator-based physics of 2014

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the East Area received their first beams from the PS this week. Theirs is CERN's first accelerator-based physics since LS1 began last year.   For the East Area, the PS performs a so-called slow extraction, where beam is extracted during many revolution periods (the time it take for particles to go around the PS, ~2.1 μs). The yellow line shows the circulating beam current in the PS, decreasing slowly during the slow extraction, which lasts 350 ms. The green line is the measured proton intensity in the transfer line toward the East Area target. Although LHC physics is still far away, we can now confirm that the injectors are producing physics! In the East Area - the experimental area behind the PS - the T9 and T10 beam lines are providing beams for physics. These beam lines serve experiments such as AIDA - which looks at new detector solutions for future accelerators - and the ALICE Inner Tracking System - which tests components for the ALICE experiment. &qu...

  8. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  9. Radiation protection and regulatory aspects in the use of radiation sources

    The uses of ionising radiation sources (i.e. radioisotopes and radiation generating equipment such as accelerators and X-ray machines) for multifarious applications in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching have been significantly increasing all over the world. In India, the application of radiation sources in various fields has registered phenomenal growth during the last decade. The use of radiation sources mainly include radiation processing for food preservation and sterilization of healthcare products, radiotherapy for treatment of cancer, nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy, gamma chambers for several R and D studies, blood irradiators, industrial radiography for non destructive examinations of steel structures, industrial ionising radiation gauging devices for monitoring/measurement of on-line quality control parameters (e.g. thickness, level, density, moisture, elemental analysis), consumer products such as gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS), gaseous tritium light devices (GTLD), ionisation chamber smoke detectors (ICSD), fluorescent light starters, antistatic devices and incandescent gas mantles containing thorium etc. All these beneficial applications involve use of both sealed and unsealed radioactive sources and amount of radioactivity varies from few kBq (μCi) to hundreds of TBq (thousands of curies). Radiation sources emit ionising radiations and if not handled properly and safely, may give rise to potential exposures leading to an unacceptable hazard. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure a high standard of safety and reliability in handling of radiation equipment and sources through their careful design by ensuring adequate built-in-safety as per applicable national/international standard, safe operation and periodic maintenance procedures, safe transport from one place to another, secured storage when not in use, physical security to radiation sources, effective emergency response plans and preparedness, including safe

  10. Radiating sources in higher-dimensional gravity

    Liu, Hongya; Wesson, Paul S.

    2001-01-01

    We study a time-dependent 5D metric which contains a static 4D sub-metric whose 3D part is spherically symmetric. An expansion in the metric coefficient allow us to obtain close-to Schwarzschild approximation to a class of spherically-symmetric solutions. Using Campbell's embedding theorem and the induced-matter formalism we obtain two 4D solutions. One describes a source with the stiff equation of state believed to be applicable to dense astrophysical objects, and the other describes a spher...

  11. Regulatory control for safe usage of radiation sources in India

    The widespread applications of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment in the field of industry, medicine agriculture and research in India necessitated the establishment of an efficient regulatory framework and consequently the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) was constituted to exercise regulatory control over the safe usage of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment. The Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 promulgated under the Act forms the basis of radiation safety in India and Chairman, AERB is the Competent Authority to enforce the regulatory provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, for safe use of radiation source in the country. AERB has published a number of documents such as Radiation Surveillance Procedures, Standards, Codes, Guides and Manuals for safe use and handling of radioactive materials and radiation generating equipment. Apart from nuclear fuel cycle documents, these publications pertain to industrial radiography, medical application of radiation, transport of radioactive material, industrial gamma irradiators, X-ray units etc. AERB safety related publications are based on international standards e.g. BSS, IAEA, ICRP, ISO etc. This paper outlines the methodology of regulatory control exercised by AERB for safe use of the radioactive materials and the radiation generating equipment in the country. (author)

  12. Radiation in the living environment: sources, exposure and effects

    We are living in a milieu of radiations and continuously exposed to radiations from natural sources from conception to death. We are exposed to radiation from Sun and outer space, radioactive materials present in the earth, house we live in, buildings and workplace, food we eat and air we breath. Each flake of snow, grain of soil, drop of rain, a flower, and even each man in the street is a source of this radiation. Even our own bodies contain naturally occurring radioactive elements. The general belief is that the radiations are harmful and everybody is scared of the same. The cancer is the most important concern on account of exposure to Ionizing Radiation which is initiated by the damage to DNA. The level of exposure depends on the environmental and working conditions and may vary from low to moderate to high and depending on the same the exposed humans can be classified as general public, non nuclear workers (NNW) and nuclear workers (NW). Though, the LNT theory which is considered to be the radiation paradigm considers all radiation at all levels to be harmful and the -severity of the deleterious effect increases with the increase in dose, however, the available literature, data and reports (epidemiological and experimental) speaks otherwise particularly at low levels. The purpose of this paper is to address the question, whether the radiation is harmful at all levels or it is simply media hype and the truth is different, and to promote harmony with nature and to improve our quality of life with the knowledge that cancer mortality rates decrease following exposure to LLIR. Various sources of radiation exposure and the subsequent consequences will be discussed. (author)

  13. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and 238PuO2 aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of 238PuO2 pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of 238PuO2 as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent

  14. Environmental radiation safety source term evaluation program

    Moss, O.R.; Filipy, R.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Craig, D.K.

    1977-04-01

    Plutonium-238 is currently used in the form of a pure refractory oxide as a power source on a number of space vehicles that have already been or will be launched during the next few years. Although the sources are designed and built to withstand re-entry into the earth's atmosphere and impact with the earth's surface without releasing any plutonium, the possibility of such an event can never be absolutely excluded. Three separate tasks were undertaken in this study. The interactions between soils and /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ aerosols which might be created in a space launch about environment were examined. Aging of the plutonium-soil mixture under a humid atmosphere showed a trend toward the slow coagulation of two dilute aerosols. Studies on marine animals were conducted to assess the response of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ pellets to conditions found 60 feet below the ocean surface. Ultrafilterability studies measured the solubility of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ as a function of time, temperature, suspension concentration and molality of solvent. (ACR)

  15. Possible sources of radiation in indoor environment

    More locations and building material will be needed to solve the housing needs, actually the future quantities will equal the total of all the previous building. And presently one quarter of the world population is already homeless. The development of human civilization in the new technological era goes on extremely quickly. In the search for new spaces, in the last decade of the 20th century, in town renovation planning the application of subterranean civil engineering is very popular. Below ground level, the new towns are built with many stories, with exclusively artificial light and artificial climate. There is not the slightest possibility of natural ventilation. These spaces have not been investigated as regards the contents of radon. Man is not adapted to spend most of the time in under artificial conditions. It is still to be discovered how it will affect humans and what is the degree of exposure to ionizing radiation in such conditions. It might be better to abandon underground construction before the adverse effects are proved. Previous mistakes in building must be overcome and new technologies applied as well as sustainable development in the future. (author)

  16. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  17. Protection from potential exposures: application to selected radiation sources

    This ICRP Report begins with the general principles of radiation protection in the case of potential exposures, followed by special issues in application and compliance with regulatory aims. The rest of the report uses event trees or fault trees to derive the logical structure of six scenarios of potential exposure, i.e. two irradiators, a large research accelerator, an accelerator for industrial isotope production, an industrial radiography device using a mobile source of radiation, and finally a medical gamma radiotherapy device. (UK)

  18. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  19. Radiation sources generated by TRIGA - INR reactor operation

    The main radioisotopes occurring in TRIGA reactor and in its accessories and irradiation devices during reactor operation, that determine the radiation fields in the adjacent technological halls are presented. The source data covering, the period November 1979 to May 200, were gamma spectrometric analysis reports for the liquid radioactive waste as well as analysis reports of water, gas or refuse samples and filters for radioactive aerosols retained from installations and adjacent rooms. The main radiation sources inside the reactor building are: - fission products; - radioactive wastes; - from the reactor cooling water and water additions (intrinsic activation products); - activated products of corrosion leavings. These radiation sources are analyzed in details and their occurrence and strength interpreted as probes of reactor operation. For instance, occurrence of delayed neutrons in cooling systems indicates can failure

  20. Safety of radiation sources: basic requirements for the regulatory control

    All countries of the world use radiation sources in medicine, industry, scientific research and teaching. Radioactivity is also part of our planet and the space. Man has ever been exposed to natural radiation. Accidents with radioactive sources, specially the ones occurred in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, in 1983-1984 and in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987, made the nuclear community face up the necessity of a through revision of their basic safety requirements. The accidents caused the death of exposed persons and other serious consequences. It is extremely important to maintain an effective control of sources in order to prevent these serious accidents. The normative structure must follow international principles where workers exposure to ionizing radiation is restricted and the environment is protected (author)

  1. Radiation problems expected for the German spallation neutron source

    The German project for the construction of a Spallation Neutron Source with high proton beam power (5.5 MW) will have to cope with a number of radiation problems. The present report describes these problems and proposes solutions for keeping exposures for the staff and release of activity and radiation into the environment as low as reasonably achievable. It is shown that the strict requirements of the German radiation protection regulations can be met. The main problem will be the exposure of maintenance personnel to remanent gamma radiation, as is the case at existing proton accelerators. Closed ventilation and cooling systems will reduce the release of (mainly short-lived) activity to acceptable levels. Shielding requirements for different sections are discussed, and it is demonstrated by calculations and extrapolations from experiments that fence-post doses well below 150 mrem/y can be obtained at distances of the order of 100 metres from the principal source points. The radiation protection system proposed for the Spallation Neutron Source is discussed, in particular the needs for monitor systems and a central radiation protection data base and alarm system. (orig.)

  2. Exposure of the Spanish population to radiation from natural sources

    Garcia-Talavera, M.; Suarez, E.; Matarranz, J.L.; Salas, R.; Ramos, L. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Justo Dorado, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    We have assessed the exposure of the Spanish population to natural radiation sources. The annual average effective dose is estimated to be 2.38 mSv, taking into account contributions from cosmic radiation (13.8%), terrestrial gamma radiation (39%), radon and thoron inhalation (34%) and ingestion (13.2%). Cosmic radiation doses were calculated from town altitude data. Terrestrial gamma ray exposure outdoors was derived from the M.A.R.N.A. (natural gamma radiation map of Spain). Indoor gamma ray exposure was calculated by multiplying the corresponding outdoor value conversion factor, which was obtained by a linear least-squares fit of experimental measurements. Radon doses were estimated from national surveys carried out throughout the country. To assess doses by ingestion of water and foodstuffs we considered the results from a detailed study on consumption habits by age and geographical area in Spain, promoted by C.S.N., and average radioactivity values from UNSCEAR. (authors)

  3. Dosimetric analysis of radiation sources for use dermatological lesions

    Skin lesions undergoing therapy with radiation sources may have different patterns of malignancy. Malignant lesions or cancer most commonly found in radiotherapy services are carcinomas. Radiation therapy in skin lesions is performed with low penetration beams and orthovoltage X-rays, electron beams and radioactive sources (192Ir, 198Au, e 90Sr) arranged on a surface mold or in metal applicator. This study aims to analyze the therapeutic radiation dose profile produced by radiation sources used in skin lesions radiotherapy procedures . Experimental measurements for the analysis of dosimetric radiation sources were compared with calculations obtained from a computer system based on the Monte Carlo Method. Computational results had a good agreement with the experimental measurements. Experimental measurements and computational results by the MCNP4C code were both physically consistent as expected. These experimental measurements compared with calculations using the MCNP-4C code have been used to validate the calculations obtained by MCNP code and to provide a reliable medical application for each clinical case. (author)

  4. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  5. Producing Terahertz Conherent Synchrotron Radiation Based On Hefei Light Source

    De-Rong, Xu; Yan, Shao

    2014-01-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an ac sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the ac sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. We calculate the radiation spectral distribution from the wavy bunch in Hefei Light Source(HLS). If we reduce electron energy to 400MeV, it can produce extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation(CSR) at 0.115THz.

  6. Producing terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at the Hefei Light Source

    Xu, De-Rong; Xu, Hong-Liang; Shao, Yan

    2015-07-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in the THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an AC sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the AC sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. The radiation spectral distribution was calculated from the wavy bunch parameters at the Hefei Light Source (HLS). When the electron energy is reduced to 400 MeV, extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at 0.115 THz should be produced. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375176)

  7. History and design of the Karlsruhe synchroton radiation source ANKA

    The first proposal for constructing a synchrotron radiation source at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe dates back to 1986. Nevertheless, it took an additional 14 years until the state-of-the-art ANKA facility could commence with operation in year 2000. ANKA will provide radiation for two main areas, fabrication of micro-components and for analytical applications. The goals of the ANKA concept are in applying synchrotron radiation to issues relevant for industrial companies, in involving programs and units of Forschungszentrum, and in operating a facility for the research community. (orig.)

  8. MCNP model for the many KE-Basin radiation sources

    This document presents a model for the location and strength of radiation sources in the accessible areas of KE-Basin which agrees well with data taken on a regular grid in September of 1996. This modelling work was requested to support dose rate reduction efforts in KE-Basin. Anticipated fuel removal activities require lower dose rates to minimize annual dose to workers. With this model, the effects of component cleanup or removal can be estimated in advance to evaluate their effectiveness. In addition, the sources contributing most to the radiation fields in a given location can be identified and dealt with

  9. MCNP model for the many KE-Basin radiation sources

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1997-05-21

    This document presents a model for the location and strength of radiation sources in the accessible areas of KE-Basin which agrees well with data taken on a regular grid in September of 1996. This modelling work was requested to support dose rate reduction efforts in KE-Basin. Anticipated fuel removal activities require lower dose rates to minimize annual dose to workers. With this model, the effects of component cleanup or removal can be estimated in advance to evaluate their effectiveness. In addition, the sources contributing most to the radiation fields in a given location can be identified and dealt with.

  10. Romanian experience on safety and security of radiation sources

    Romania has established the first administrative structure for controlling the deployment of the nuclear activities in 1961 and the first Romanian nuclear law was published in 1974. In the present, it is in force the Law no. 111, published in 1996 and republished in 2003. Moreover, there are available facilities and services to the persons authorized to manage radioactive sources. The regulation for safety and security of radioactive sources was amended two times in order to implement the international recommendations for setting up the national system for accounting and control of radiation sources and to coordinate the recovery activities. As part of national control programme, the national inventory of sources and devices is updated permanently, when issuing a new authorization, when modifying an existing one, or when renewing an authorization system and records in the database. The government responsibility for the orphan sources is stated in the law on radioactive waste management and decommissioning fund. There is a protocol between CNCAN, Ministry of Internal and Ministry of Health and Family regarding the co-operation in the case of finding orphan sources. When a radiation source is spent, it becomes radioactive waste that has to be disposed off properly. Depending on the case, the holder of a spent source has the possibility either to return the radioactive source to its manufacturer for regeneration or to transfer it to the Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility. (author)

  11. The THz Radiation Source at the SPARC Facility

    The interest for Terahertz (THz) radiation is rapidly growing, both as it is a powerful tool for investigating the behavior of matter at low energy, and as it allows for a number of possible spectroscopic applications spanning from medical science to security. The linac-driven THz source at the SPARC facility can deliver broadband THz pulses with femtosecond shaping and can be used for electron beam diagnostics to fully reconstruct the longitudinal charge distribution. Beyond this application, the possibility to store much more energy in a single THz pulse than table-top sources renders the SPARC THz source very interesting for a spectroscopic use. In addition, taking advantage from electron beam manipulation techniques, high power, narrow-band THz radiation can be also generated. Those source characteristics provide a unique chance to realize THz-pump/THz-probe spectroscopy, a technique practically unexplored up to now.

  12. The German radiation protection infrastructure with emphasis on the safety of radiation sources and radioactive material

    Through federalism, Germany has a complicated but well functioning regulatory infrastructure for the safety and security of radiation sources based on a clear legal system. The main features of this infrastructure include the legal framework, the authorization and control systems and the responsibilities of different regulatory authorities, which this paper will describe. In connection with the legal framework, the provisions to control the import/export of radiation sources are briefly discussed and some information is given about the registries of sources. Protection and response measures related to unusual events concerning radiation sources, including orphan sources, will be cited. Also, the education and training of different target groups and punitive actions are touched upon in the paper. Conclusions will be drawn for future national and international actions. (author)

  13. International basic safety standards for protecting against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources

    The purpose of the Standards is to establish basic requirements for protection against the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiation (hereinafter termed radiation) and for the safety of radiation sources that may deliver such exposure. The Standards have been developed from widely accepted radiation protection and safety principles, such as those published in the Annals of the ICRP and the IAEA Safety Series. They are intended to ensure the safety of all types of radiation sources and, in doing so, to complement standards already developed for large and complex radiation sources, such as nuclear reactors and radioactive waste management facilities. For the sources, more specific standards, such as those issued by the IAEA, are typically needed to achieve acceptable levels of safety. As these more specific standards are generally consistent with the Standards, in complying with them, such more complex installations will also generally comply with the Standards. The Standards are limited to specifying basic requirements of radiation protection and safety, with some guidance on how to apply them. General guidance on applying some of the requirements is available in the publications of the Sponsoring Organizations and additional guidance will be developed as needed in the light of experience gained in the application of the Standards. Tabs

  14. Overview in Argentina on spent/disused radiation sources

    Argentine nuclear activities have begun since about 1950. Since those days the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have been developed and together with then radioactive wastes have taken more and more relevance day by day. To deal with this special subject the Radioactive Waste Management Programme (RWMP) has been established. Spent/disused radiation sources are a very important task to consider in the management of radioactive waste. A great number of sources have been received along these years by the RWMP. Different sources categories handled together with their figures and radionuclide activities will be presented. Also described will be the steps that have to be followed by the users/owners of spent/disused radiation sources to transfer them to the RWMP. Once the sources are in the RWMP custody, they can be stored or they can be conditioned in order to be stored in an interim storage or disposed of. It is shown how the different sources are managed, taking into account the radionuclide's half life, its activity and the available facilities. Besides a record-keeping system for tracking all spent/disused radiation sources has been developed. It consists on a computerized database that contains essential information about the sources as well as the whole radioactive wastes managed by the RWMP. The main objective of the waste management registry-database system is to collect, identify, process and follow the related information about the radioactive wastes among al the management steps. It is also able to calculate the actualized activity inventory for the storage and final disposal facilities. In order to implement this system, it was necessary to write the related technical documentation. These documents established the radioactive waste acceptance requirements, that together with others integrates the Quality Assurance System applied to the radioactive waste management. Regarding the disused sources little could be done. They are stored in an appropriate

  15. Terrestrial radiation sources at the place of work

    An altogether new Part 3 of the draft amendment contains the substantive provisions for ''protection of the population and the environment from the hazards of natural sources of ionizing radiation''. The regulatory provisions have been formulated in compliance with the requirements and principles of the EURATOM Directive. (orig./CB)

  16. Sources of ionizing radiation in industry: licensing and control

    In this paper are presented several methods, which the Inspection on the Safe Use of Atomic Energy applies for the control on the use of sources of ionizing radiation in industry. It reviews some problems, which we have to solve during our inspections. An analysis and assessment of them is done. The prescribed safety ensuring measures are discussed. (author)

  17. Thermophotoelectric converter with radioisotope source of thermal radiation

    Results of investigating a thermophotoelectric converter with a radioisotope heat source to warm up a radiating surface are presented. Results are given of calculating the efficiency of thermophotoelectric converters with germanium and silicon photocells in the temperature range from 1000 to 1300 K, and of the comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical values of thermophotoelectric converter efficiencies. The possibility of developing a thermophotoconverter with a radioisotope source of thermal energy which has an efficiency of up to 15% is substantiated. It is shown that for effective energy conversion at radiator temperatures of 1000-1300 K it is necessary to use Ge, GaSb, InAs, PbS and PbTe semiconducting materials, and to increase to maximum the reflection coefficient of the photocell back contact and the radiation blackness

  18. Control of radiation sources and general regulations for accidental situations

    In order to prevent accidents caused by application of radiation sources the Tunisian O.N.P.C. established straightforward strategy made up of 3 phases: prevention, planning and intervention. Civil Protection conducts prevention studies of all radiation sources by examining normal application conditions as well as possible accidental situations. It keeps up with scientific, technical and statistical aspects of radiation risks, elaborates specific plans and programs for intervention operations and cooperates with administrative and security services as well as international organisations. The O.N.P.C. established a model intervention plan based on observation (according to preliminary information), evaluation of the situation (according to the head of operation) intervention (specialized units) and post intervention (testing of personnel)

  19. Superlattice Photocathodes for Accelerator-Based Polarized Electron Source Applications

    A major improvement in the performance of the SLC was achieved with the introduction of thin strained-layer semiconductor crystals. After some optimization, polarizations of 75-85% became standard with lifetimes that were equal to or better than that of thick unstrained crystals. Other accelerators of polarized electrons, generally operating with a much higher duty factor, have now successfully utilized similar photocathodes. For future colliders, the principal remaining problem is the limit on the total charge that can be extracted in a time scale of 10 to 100 ns. In addition, higher polarization is critical for exploring new physics, especially supersymmetry. However, it appears that strained-layer crystals have reached the limit of their optimization. Today strained superlattice crystals are the most promising candidates for better performance. The individual layers of the superlattice can be designed to be below the critical thickness for strain relaxation, thus in principle improving the polarization. Thin layers also promote high electron conduction to the surface. In addition the potential barriers at the surface for both emission of conduction-band electrons to vacuum and for tunneling of valence-band holes to the surface can be significantly less than for single strained-layer crystals, thus enhancing both the yield at any intensity and also decreasing the limitations on the total charge. The inviting properties of the recently developed AlInGaAs/GaAs strained superlattice with minimal barriers in the conduction band are discussed in detail

  20. Small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies

    The small compact pulsed electron source for radiation technologies is considered in the report. The electron source consists of pulsed high voltage Marx generator and vacuum diode with explosive emission cathode. The main parameters of electron source are next: kinetic energy is 100-150 keV, beam current is 5-200 A and pulse duration is 100-400 nsec. The distribution of absorbed doses in irradiated materials is considered. The physical feasibility of pulsed low energy electron beam for applications is considered

  1. Cumulation in the exposure to sources of ionizing radiation

    The Dutch National Institute of Public health and Environmental protection (RIVM) has investigated if the maximum permissible risk of 10-6 a-1 for a single source and 10-5a-1 for all sources of ionizing radiation, as defined in the framework of BNS (policy notice regarding the regulation of ionizing radiation), are exceeded in the Dutch population due to the exposure by one single source or all sources respectively. The following sources were considered: radionuclide laboratories, nuclear installations, nuclear waste, sources and devices, conventional energy plants, phosphate fertilizer plants, other non-nuclear industries, transport of radioactive sources and consumer goods. A distinction was made between 'critical' groups due to geographical factors and due to behaviour, such as consumption of special food-stuffs. For risk assessment a uniform risk factor of 0.025 Sv-1 was used, as proposed in BNS. This factor is based on the life-time risk of women and includes the higher risk factors for children. (author). 15 refs.; 4 figs.; 9 tabs

  2. Large radiation sources in industry. Proceedings of a conference on the application of large radiation sources in industry. V. I

    Uses of radiation in industry are among the most effective ways in which atomic energy can help economic development. The benefits to industry, which are already substantial, have so far been mostly derived from the application of radioisotopes and other small sources of radiation as tools of scientific investigation, detection, measurement or control. The use of radiation as a direct agent in initiating industrial processes, which has now become possible with the availability of large radiation sources, will perhaps result in ever greater and wider development. Work in this new field of research and development has already been undertaken in some countries and a beginning is being made in many others. In view of a widely felt need for an exchange of information and views on the new techniques and results, the International Atomic Energy Agency organized a conference at Warsaw in September 1959 on the Application of Large Radiation Sources in Industry and Especially to Chemical Processes. This was the first international scientific meeting at which the whole subject was reviewed in detail.

  3. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial

  4. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of

  5. Training in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources

    The need for education and training in the various disciplines of radiation protection has long been recognized by the IAEA, the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). This need has been partially met through the many training courses undertaken by these organizations, either individually or in collaboration. The IAEA has assisted developing Member States in the training of specialists in radiation protection and safety through its organized educational and specialized training courses, workshops, seminars, fellowships and scientific visits. Training is an important means of promoting safety culture and enhancing the level of competence of personnel involved in radiation protection activities, and has acquired a place in the IAEA's programme accordingly. For example, the IAEA Post-graduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources is regularly offered in countries around the world, and has been provided in Arabic, English, French, Spanish and Russian. The training provided by the IAEA is primarily aimed at regulators, professionals working in radiation protection and those responsible for the development of training programmes in their own countries. The importance of adequate and appropriate training for all those working with ionizing radiation has been highlighted by the results of the IAEA's investigations of radiological accidents. A significant contributory factor in a number of the accidents has been a lack of adequate training, which gave rise to errors with serious consequences. This report provides assistance in organizing training and complying with the requirements on training of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS). The previous version of this report. Technical Reports

  6. Protection of loading and unloading machines. General considerations, radiation sources

    The first part of this report states several general considerations regarding the protection during loading and unloading operations of an operating atomic pile, i.e. the introduction of a fuel element or a control bar into a pressurized enclosure, and the removal from a pressurized enclosure of a radioactive element the radioactivity of which decreases, and the transfer of this element into a pool. These handling operations are associated with different risks: external neutron or gamma irradiation, installation contamination, and effluent leakages presenting chemical or radioactive hazards. The authors indicate or address the admissible radiation level, the dose level at the vicinity of loading machines, the distribution of radiation sources, the distribution of dose rates between neutron and gamma rays, the material selection, issues related to heating, the subsequent transfer of the fuel to the storage pool, and the unloading of control bars with non fissile bodies. The second part addresses the radiation sources: gamma radiations from fission product, delayed neutrons, neutrons from the reactor, thermal capture gamma radiations, heating

  7. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  8. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  9. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist

  10. Radiation efficiency of earthquake sources at different hierarchical levels

    Such factors as earthquake size and its mechanism define common trends in alteration of radiation efficiency. The macroscopic parameter that controls the efficiency of a seismic source is stiffness of fault or fracture. The regularities of this parameter alteration with scale define several hierarchical levels, within which earthquake characteristics obey different laws. Small variations of physical and mechanical properties of the fault principal slip zone can lead to dramatic differences both in the amplitude of released stress and in the amount of radiated energy

  11. Radiation efficiency of earthquake sources at different hierarchical levels

    Kocharyan, G. G., E-mail: gevorgkidg@mail.ru [Institute of Dynamics of Geospheres RAS, Moscow, 119334 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny, 117303 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Such factors as earthquake size and its mechanism define common trends in alteration of radiation efficiency. The macroscopic parameter that controls the efficiency of a seismic source is stiffness of fault or fracture. The regularities of this parameter alteration with scale define several hierarchical levels, within which earthquake characteristics obey different laws. Small variations of physical and mechanical properties of the fault principal slip zone can lead to dramatic differences both in the amplitude of released stress and in the amount of radiated energy.

  12. High-power bremsstrahlung sources for radiation sterilization

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the radiation processing rate that can be achieved using Bremsstrahlung radiation produced by electrons from an electrostatic accelerator. Computer calculations were made using experimentally measured angular distributions to calculate the spatial distribution of Bremsstrahlung produced by scanned electron beams of 4 and 5 MeV. The calculations take into account scan angle, scan height, and source-product distance to calculate the dose distribution in a homogeneous absorber of uniform density. Several conveyor configurations are examined in order to determine the optimum in terms of overall power efficiency for a given dose uniformity requirement. (author)

  13. Operation of INDUS-1, India's first synchrotron radiation source

    INDUS-1 is a 450 MeV electron storage ring for the production of Synchrotron Radiation in Visible Ultra Violet (VUV) range with a critical wavelength of 61 A deg. The ring was commissioned in June 1999. Since then it is in regular operation. This Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) facility consists of a 20 MeV injector microtron, a 450 MeV booster synchrotron and a storage ring. In this paper operation aspects of INDUS-1 SRS facility will be presented. (author)

  14. Present situation of regulatory control of radiation sources in Cuba

    The report explains the basis for an effective regulatory control and in particular refers to the system established in Cuba for such purposes. Reference is made to the new Decree-Law No. 207 'On the Use of Nuclear Energy' and the main topics it covers and to the 'Rules for Authorization of Practices Involving the use of Radiation Sources' which have been in force since 1998. Following it, the report illustrates the existing Cuban system of notification, registration and licensing, and of inspection and enforcement, including information of the established classification of radiation practices in the country. (author)

  15. Gamma radiation levels from a line source of monazite

    Monazite contains some 6% thorium and the thorium decay chain gives rise to gamma radiation emissions. It is often desirable to predict the gamma radiation levels associated with the radioactive decay of the thorium chain in monazite, particularly in situations where storage and transport are involved . The mathematics associated with a radioactive line source are considered and an expression is derived for the prediction of gamma radiation levels from the line source. This is applied to practical situations involving monazite and a mathematical model specifically for monazite is developed. As monazite is transported in bulk bags which are placed inside transport containers, beyond a certain distance from such containers or similar storage devices, the monazite may be considered to approximate a line source. The validity of approximating monazite containers to a line source is checked by comparing the gamma levels predicted by the model with those actually measured in a field situation where transport containers of monazite are involved. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Reactor - and accelerator-based filtered beams

    The neutrons produced in high flux nuclear reactors and in accelerator, induced fission and spallation reactions, represent the most intense sources of neutrons available for research. However, the neutrons from these sources are not monoenergetic, covering the broad range extending from 10-3 eV up to 107 eV or so. In order to make quantitative measurements of the effects of neutrons and their dependence on neutron energy it is desirable to have mono-energetic neutron sources. The paper describes briefly methods of obtaining mono-energetic neutrons and different methods of filtration. This is followed by more detailed discussion of neutron window filters and a summary of the filtered beam facilities using this technique. The review concludes with a discussion of the main applications of filtered beams and their present and future importance

  17. Accelerator-based neutron radioscopic systems

    There is interest in non-reactor source, thermal neutron inspection systems for applications in aircraft maintenance, explosive devices, investment-cast turbine blades, etc. Accelerator sources, (d-T), RFQ accelerators and cyclotrons as examples, are available for either transportable or fixed neutron inspection systems. Sources are reviewed for neutron output, portability, ease of use and cost, and for use with an electronic neutron imaging camera (image intensifier or scintillator-camera system) to provide a prompt response, neutron inspection system. Particular emphasis is given to the current aircraft inspection problem to detect and characterize corrosion. Systems are analyzed to determine usefulness in providing an on-line inspection technique to detect corrosion in aluminum honeycomb aircraft components, either on-aircraft or in a shop environment. The neutron imaging sensitivity to hydrogenous aluminum corrosion product offers early detection advantages for aircraft corrosion, to levels of aluminum metal loss as small as 25 μm. The practical capability for a continuous scan thermal neutron radioscopic system to inspect up to 500 square feet of component surface per day is used as an evaluation criterion, with the system showing contrast sensitivity of at least 5% and image detail in the order of 4 mm for parts 10 cm thick. Under these practical conditions and 3-shift operation, the source must provide an incident thermal neutron flux of 5.6x104 n cm-2 s-1 at an L/D of 30. A stop and go inspection approach, offering improved resolution, would require a source with similar characteristics

  18. Source term calculations for assessing radiation dose to equipment

    This study examines results of analyses performed with the Source Term Code Package to develop updated source terms using NUREG-0956 methods. The updated source terms are to be used to assess the adequacy of current regulatory source terms used as the basis for equipment qualification. Time-dependent locational distributions of radionuclides within a containment following a severe accident have been developed. The Surry reactor has been selected in this study as representative of PWR containment designs. Similarly, the Peach Bottom reactor has been used to examine radionuclide distributions in boiling water reactors. The time-dependent inventory of each key radionuclide is provided in terms of its activity in curies. The data are to be used by Sandia National Laboratories to perform shielding analyses to estimate radiation dose to equipment in each containment design. See NUREG/CR-5175, ''Beta and Gamma Dose Calculations for PWR and BWR Containments.'' 6 refs., 11 tabs

  19. Transition radiation as an x-ray source for lithography

    The authors demonstrate that high-intensity soft x-rays from transition radiation can be generated by passing moderate-energy electron beams through targets consisting of multiple foils of beryllium and aluminum. The authors measured the absolute photon flux from five foil targets using a 44-μA, 109-MeV-electron beam, and estimated the photon flux by exposing 4'' silicon wafers coated with PGMA photoresist. All previous measurements of photon production used photon-counting methods. They destructively tested foils at high-average currents for the first time. They exposed photoresist using a mask to produce a soft-x-ray lithograph. This research constitutes the first use of transition radiation as a source of soft x rays for lithography. The results are discussed in this paper. They indicate that moderate-energy linacs with transition radiators offer an alternative method of high power production of soft x rays for lithography

  20. Radiological protection issues in endovascular use of radiation sources

    The use of radiation from radioactive materials for cancer treatment is well established. However, examples of uses of radiation therapy for benign conditions have been limited. Placing a radioactive source in the blood vessel so as to irradiate the surrounding inner periphery of the vessel has been attempted in recent years to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions. This kind of endovascular application provides treatment options that are less invasive for various vascular conditions compared with open surgery. As a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) function for providing for application of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) that were jointly sponsored by the IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO, the IAEA planned a coordinated research project (CRP) that was to start in 2002 on radiological protection problems in endovascular use of radiation sources. However, as experts soon realized that the interest in this modality was waning, the CRP was not initiated. Nevertheless, it was felt that it would be appropriate to compile the information available on radiological protection problems observed so far and their possible solutions. This work was seen as part of a broader IAEA programme that covered accident prevention in radiotherapy. Publications on this topic have included, inter alia, Lessons Learned from Accidental Exposures in Radiotherapy (Safety Reports Series No. 17); Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Bialystok; Investigation of an Accidental Exposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Panama; Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in San Jose, Costa Rica; and Investigation of an Accidental Exposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Poland. Keeping in mind that endovascular applications involve specialists such as cardiologists, angiologists and surgeons, all of whom might not have a

  1. Helium Reionization Simulations. I. Modeling Quasars as Radiation Sources

    La Plante, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new project to understand helium reionization using fully coupled $N$-body, hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer simulations. This project aims to capture correctly the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) as a result of reionization and make predictions about the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest and baryon temperature-density relation. The dominant sources of radiation for this transition are quasars, so modeling the source population accurately is very important for making reliable predictions. In this first paper, we present a new method for populating dark matter halos with quasars. Our set of quasar models include two different light curves, a lightbulb (simple on/off) and symmetric exponential model, and luminosity-dependent quasar lifetimes. Our method self-consistently reproduces an input quasar luminosity function (QLF) given a halo catalog from an $N$-body simulation, and propagates quasars through the merger history of halo hosts. After calibrating quasar clustering using measurem...

  2. Regulatory control of radiation sources in the Philippines

    This paper is concerned with the radiation protection and safety infrastructure providing emphasis on the regulation and control of radiation sources in the Philippines. It deals with the experiences of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, as a regulatory body, in the regulation and control of radioactive materials in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, industrial radiography, industrial gauges, industrial irradiators, and well logging. This paper includes an inventory of the sources and types of devices/equipment used by licensed users of radioactive materials in the Philippines as a contribution to the data base being prepared by the IAEA. The problems encountered by the regulatory body in the licensing and enforcement process, as well as the lessons learned from incidents involving radioactive materials are discussed. Plans for improving compliance to the regulations and enhancing the effectiveness of PNRI's regulatory functions are presented. (author)

  3. Cosmic Radiation Fields: Sources in the early Universe

    Raue, Martin; Kneiske, Tanja; Horns, Dieter; Elsaesser, Dominik; Hauschildt, Peter

    The workshop "Cosmic Radiation Fields - Sources in the Early Universe" (CRF 2010) focuses on the connection between the extragalactic infrared background and sources in the early universe, in particular stars powered by dark matter burning (Dark Stars; DS). The workshop covers the following topics: the cosmic infrared background, formation of early stars, dark stars, effect of dark matter in the early universe, dark matter halos, primordial star formation rate, and reionization. Further information can be found on the conference webpage: http://www.desy.de/crf2010/. Organizing committee: Tanja Kneiske, Martin Raue, Dominik Elsaesser, Alexander Gewering-Peine, Peter Hausschildt, Dieter Horns, and Andreas Maurer.

  4. Postgraduate educational course in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. Standard syllabus

    The aim of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources is to meet the needs of professionals at graduate level, or the equivalent, for initial training to acquire a sound basis in radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources. The course also aims to provide the necessary basic tools for those who will become trainers in radiation protection and in the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. It is designed to provide both theoretical and practical training in the multidisciplinary scientific and/or technical bases of international recommendations and standards on radiation protection and their implementation. The participants should have had a formal education to a level equivalent to a university degree in the physical, chemical or life sciences or engineering and should have been selected to work in the field of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources in their countries. The present revision of the Standard Syllabus takes into account the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), IAEA Safety Series No. 115 (1996) and recommendations of related Safety Guides, as well as experience gained from the Postgraduate Educational Course on Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources held in several regions in recent years. The general aim of the course, as mentioned, is the same. Some of the improvements in the present version are as follows: The learning objective of each part is specified. The prerequisites for each part are specified. The structure of the syllabus has been changed: the parts on Principles of Radiation Protection and on Regulatory Control were moved ahead of Dose Assessment and after Biological Effects of Radiation. The part on the interface with nuclear safety was dropped and a module on radiation protection in nuclear power plants has been included. A

  5. The ALS -- A high-brightness XUV synchrotron radiation source

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is scheduled to be operational in the spring of 1993 as a US Department of Energy national user facility. The ALS will be a next-generation source of soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) synchrotron radiation. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation oat photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes approaching 20 keV. The ALS will support an extensive research program in which XUV radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. the high brightness will open new areas of research from the materials sciences, such as spatially resolved spectroscopy, to the life sciences, such as x-ray microscopy with element-specific sensitivity. Experimental facilities (insertion devices, beamlines, and end stations) will be developed and operated by participating research teams working with the ALS staff. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. RF gun for an intense THz radiation source

    GU Qiang; ZHAO Zhen-Tang; TONG De-Chun; CHEN Li-Fang; XU Xiu-Min

    2008-01-01

    A new facility is under construction at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics,to generate femto-second electron bunches and intense coherent THz radiation pulses.A thermionic RF-gun is used to be the electron source of the linac,which is 1.6 cell,π/2,side coupled in design.In the following of this paper,the design,manufacture and beam operation of this gun are presented.

  7. Experiments planned to be made with the synchrotron radiation source

    For this working meeting, various research groups from the Land Sachsen and from the neighbouring countries Poland and the Czech Republic have been invited in order to present their materials research programmes or task-specific experiments intended to be carried out with the synchrotron radiation source to be installed in the near future. The proceedings volume in hand presents the discussion papers, which have been directly reproduced from the original foils. (orig.)

  8. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. Volume I: Sources

    Over the past few years the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation has undertaken a broad review of the sources and effects of ionizing radiation. In the present report, the Committee, drawing on the main conclusions of its scientific assessment summarizes the developments in radiation science in the years leading up to the next millennium. It covers the following: the effects of radiation exposure; levels of radiation exposure; radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident; sources of radiation exposure including natural exposures, man-made environmental exposures, medical and occupational exposures; radiation associated cancer. This volume includes five Annexes covering: dose assessment methodologies; exposure from natural sources; exposures to the public from man-made sources of radiation and occupational radiation exposures

  9. System of the radiation safety provisions during application of the ionizing radiation sources in the radiation technology

    It is noted that in the connection with expansion of the scale of the ionozing radiation sources application in the radiation technology, contingent of persons engaged in operations connected with ionizing radiations application is continiously growing. In this connection, necessity appears to ensure safety of the personnel and population and also to provide radioisotopic purity of the items produced. One of the indices of the radiation safety system is the personnel irradiation level. It is shown that in the exploitation of such a powerful radiation technique as the gamma-irradiation installations and electron accelerators, the doses of the personnel irradiation do not exceed 1.5 ber/year. The personnel irradiation levels in performing gamma-flaw detection in the stationary conditions equals to 0.3 - 0.5 ber/year, and during application of the portable flaw-detectors equals to 2 - 3 ber/year. The radioisotope radiation sources produced nowdays, practically exclude possibilities for radioactive contaminations of the environment and the products subject to irradiations. It is noted that in the USSR some sanitary-legislative and metodological documents have been developed, regulating projecting, constructing and exploitation of different types of radiation technique. Such documents (ESP-gamma, ESP-electron) have been developed and continue to be developed for the CMEA member-states. It is noted that carrying out the complex technical and organizational arrangements aimed at the securing radiation protection during the ionizing radiation sources application has permitted to improve working conditions and to lower considerably the personnel irradiation levels (up to 1.5 -2 times in the period from 1960 to 1975)

  10. Regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Ireland

    The primary legislation governing safety in uses of ionizing radiation in Ireland is the Radiological Protection Act, 1991. This Act provided for the establishment in 1992 of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, and gives the Institute the functions and powers which enable it to be the regulatory body for all matters relating to ionizing radiation. A Ministerial Order made under the Act in 2000 consolidates previous regulations and, in particular, provides for the implementation in Irish law of the 1996 European Union Directive which lays down basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation. Under the legislation, the custody, use and a number of other activities involving radioactive substances and irradiating apparatus require a licence issued by the Institute. Currently some 1260 licences are in force. Of these, some 850 are in respect of irradiating apparatus only and are issued principally to dentists and veterinary surgeons. The remaining licences involve sealed radiation sources and/or unsealed radioactive substances used in medicine, industry or education. A schedule attached to each licence fully lists the sealed sources to which the licence applies, and also the quantities of radioactive substances which may be acquired or held under the licence. It is an offence to dispose of, or otherwise relinquish possession of, any licensable material other than in accordance with terms and conditions of the licence. Disused sources are returned to the original supplier or, where this is not possible, stored under licence by the licensee who used them. Enforcement of the licensing provisions relies primarily on the programme of inspection of licensees, carried out by the Institute's inspectors. The Institute's Regulatory Service has a complement of four inspectors, one of whom is the Manager of the Service. The Manager reports to one of the Institute's Principal

  11. Accelerator-based studies of intercombination transitions

    Intercombination transitions in multiply-charged few-electron ions have been studied for a number of years now by a number of methods, including beam-foil spectroscopy. Only very recently it has been realized that the intrinsic properties of the beam-foil light source, in particular the time resolution, offer means to single out and measure such transitions from the multiline spectra of many-electron ions where the exploitation of other light sources has been less successful. Wavelengths and transition rates of these lines provide both a test of many-electron atomic theory and tools for plasma diagnostics. As examples, data on Mg-, Al- and Si-like ions of elements Ti-Zn are presented and compared with tokamak, laser-produced plasma and solar flare data. It turns out that the level of adequacy reached by the various theoretical approaches for predictions of wavelengths and transition probabilities in the individual isoelectronic sequences is very different. However, even calculational schemes which are successful for one sequence are much worse for others. The variety of isoelectronic sequences and the ranges of ionic charge for each of the sequences which are accessible at typical heavy-ion accelerator laboratories are outlined in order to encourage the use of existing facilities for this type of spectroscopy. (orig.)

  12. Testing the integrity of packaging radiation shielding by scanning with radiation source and detector

    This specification deals with the radiological scanning method of inspection for biological shielding (to be used in transport packaging for gamma emitting sources of radiation), of regular thickness, when the sections are to be checked for integrity and homogeneity; it does not establish the adequacy of design. The shielding materials may be lead, iron, steel, heavy alloy (tungsten), and depleted uranium. (author)

  13. An ultrashort pulse ultra-violet radiation undulator source driven by a laser plasma wakefield accelerator

    Anania, M.P.; Brunetti, E; Wiggins, S M; Grant, D W; Welsh, G. H.; Issac, R.C.; Cipiccia, S.; Shanks, R. P.; Manahan, G. G.; Aniculaesei, C.; van der Geer, S. B.; De Loos, M.J.; Poole, M.W.; Shepherd, B. J. A.; Clarke, J A

    2014-01-01

    Narrow band undulator radiation tuneable over the wavelength range of 150–260 nm has been produced by short electron bunches from a 2 mm long laser plasma wakefield accelerator based on a 20 TW femtosecond laser system. The number of photons measured is up to 9 × 106 per shot for a 100 period undulator, with a mean peak brilliance of 1 × 1018 photons/s/mrad2/mm2/0.1% bandwidth. Simulations estimate that the driving electron bunch r.m.s. duration is as short as 3 fs when the electron beam has ...

  14. Fabrication of radiation sources for educational purposes from chemical fertilizers using compressing and forming method

    Chemical fertilizers contain potassium, which is composed of a small amount of naturally occurring potassium-40. The potassium-40 radionuclide emits beta and gamma radiation. Three brands of chemical fertilizer were used to fabricate disk-shaped radiation sources and the fabricated radiation sources were examined for applicability to an educational radiation course. In the examination, tests to determine dependence of count rate on distance, shielding thickness, and shielding materials were conducted using the radiation sources. Results showed that radiation sources fabricated from the three brands of chemical fertilizer were equivalent for explaining radiation characteristics, particularly those related to the dependence of radiation strength on distance and shielding thickness. The relation between shielding effect and mass density can be explained qualitatively. Thus, chemical fertilizer radiation sources can be a useful teaching aid for educational courses to better promote understanding of radiation characteristics and the principles of radiation protection. (author)

  15. Accelerator based techniques for aerosol analysis

    At the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of the LABEC laboratory of INFN (Florence, Italy) an external beam facility is fully dedicated to PIXE-PIGE measurements of elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols. Examples regarding recent monitoring campaigns, performed in urban and remote areas, both on a daily basis and with high time resolution, as well as with size selection, will be presented. It will be evidenced how PIXE can provide unique information in aerosol studies or can play a complementary role to traditional chemical analysis. Finally a short presentation of 14C analysis of the atmospheric aerosol by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for the evaluation of the contributions from either fossil fuel combustion or modern sources (wood burning, biogenic activity) will be given. (author)

  16. Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International basic safety standards. General safety requirements. Pt. 3

    This publication is the new edition of the International Basic Safety Standards. The edition is co-sponsored by seven other international organizations — European Commission (EC/Euratom), FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO, UNEP and WHO. It replaces the interim edition that was published in November 2011 and the previous edition of the International Basic Safety Standards which was published in 1996. It has been extensively revised and updated to take account of the latest finding of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the latest recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The publication details the requirements for the protection of people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. All circumstances of radiation exposure are considered

  17. Health risk assessment of jobs involving ionizing radiation sources

    Spasojević-Tišma Vera D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 75 subjects exposed to low doses of external ionizing radiation and 25 subjects from the control group, all male. The first group (A consisted of 25 subjects employed in the production of technetium, with an average job experience of 15 years. The second group (B consisted of 25 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation from enclosed sources, working in jobs involving the control of X-ray devices and americium smoke detectors, their average work experience being 18.5 years. The third group (C consisted of 25 subjects involved in the decontamination of the terrain at Borovac from radioactive rounds with depleted uranium left over after the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999, their average job experience being 18.5 years. The control group (K consisted of 25 subjects who have not been in contact with sources of ionizing radiation and who hold administrative positions. Frequencies of chromosome aberrations were determined in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and compared to the control group. The average annual absorbed dose determined by thermoluminescent dosimeters for all three groups did not exceed 2 mSv. In the present study, the largest number of observed changes are acentric fragments and chromosome breaks. The highest occupational risk appears to involve subjects working in manufacturing of the radio-isotope technetium.

  18. Blast wave radiation source measurement experiments on Z

    The Dynamic Hohlraum (DH) radiation on the Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories is a bright source of radiant energy that has proven useful for High Energy Density (HED) physics experiments. To be useful for HED experiments, where computer simulations need to be compared with experimental measurements, the radiation output from a DH on Z needs to be well-known. We present in this paper a new method for measuring the delivered radiation energy deposited in an experiment, specifically, an experiment driven by a Z DH. This technique uses a blast wave produced in a SiO2 foam, which is initially super-sonic but transitions to sub-sonic, producing a shock at the transition point that is observable via radiography. The position of this shock is a sensitive measure of the radiation drive energy from the Z DH. Computer simulations have been used to design and analyze a Z foam blast wave experiment. This experiment has been shot on Z and experimental results compare favorably with the computations. (authors)

  19. Radiation damage of the ILC positron source target

    Ushakov, A.; Riemann, S.

    2007-11-15

    The radiation damage of the positron source target for the International Linear Collider (ILC) has been studied. The displacement damage in target material due to multi-MeV photons has been calculated by combining FLUKA simulations for secondary particle production, SPECTER data for neutron displacement cross-sections and the Lindhard model for estimations of displacement damage by ions. The radiation damage of a stationary Ti6Al4V target in units of displacements per atom (dpa) has been estimated for photons from an undulator with strength 0.92 and period 1.15 cm. The calculated damage is 7 dpa. Approximately 12.5% of displacement damage result from neutrons. (orig.)

  20. 76 FR 76327 - Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 73 Installation of Radiation Alarms for Rooms Housing Neutron Sources AGENCY: Nuclear... radiation alarms in rooms housing neutron sources. DATES: Submit comments by February 21, 2012. Comments..., Radiation Safety for Research. Mr. Hamawy is concerned about the security of neutron sources. III....

  1. National system of notification, authorization and inspection for the control of radiation sources in Ghana

    The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) was established in 1993 in Ghana as the regulatory authority for radiation protection and safety of radiation sources; its functions are prescribed in the 1993 national radiation protection regulation. The report describes how the country's radiation protection and safety infrastructure have been established, including the RPB's organizational structure, with reference in particular to the main activities carried out by both the Regulatory Control Department and the Radiation and Waste Safety Department. It also briefly mentions the existing RPB human resources; the national system of notification, authorization and inspection of radiation sources; the inventory of radiation sources; and the management of disused radiation sources. Finally, the report identifies the two main problem areas regarding the regulatory control of radiation sources in the country. (author)

  2. Manufacture of 60Co source irradiation facility and measurement of radiation filed

    60Co source radiation facility is an important equipment to produce reference radiation filed, according to national standard, the scattered dose rate must be less than 5% of the total dose rate in the reference radiation filed. Scattered radiation contribution and uniformity of reference radiation field are important parameters to describe the radiation performance of 60CO source irradiation device, Monte Carlo method was used to study the scattered radiation and uniformity of the reference radiation filed to provide theoretical basis for the design of 60CO source irradiating device in order to avoid economic losses caused by design mistakes. When 60CO source irradiating device was manufactured, PTW ionization chamber was used to measure the irradiation field. The results showed that the scattered radiation and uniformity of the radiation filed were in good agreement with the simulation results. The radiation performance met the design requirements. (authors)

  3. Magnetic mirror cavities as terahertz radiation sources and a means of quantifying radiation friction

    Holkundkar, Amol R., E-mail: amol.holkundkar@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: amol.holkundkar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Harvey, Chris, E-mail: cnharvey@physics.org [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    We propose a radiation source based on a magnetic mirror cavity. Relativistic electrons are simulated entering the cavity and their trajectories and resulting emission spectra are calculated. The uniformity of the particle orbits is found to result in a frequency comb in terahertz range, the precise energies of which are tunable by varying the electron's γ-factor. For very high energy particles, radiation friction causes the spectral harmonics to broaden and we suggest this as a possible way to verify competing classical equations of motion.

  4. Magnetic mirror cavities as THz radiation sources and a means of quantifying radiation friction

    Holkundkar, Amol R

    2014-01-01

    We propose a radiation source based on a magnetic mirror cavity. Relativistic electrons are simulated entering the cavity and their trajectories and resulting emission spectra are calculated. The uniformity of the particle orbits is found to result in a frequency comb in terahertz range, the precise energies of which are tuneable by varying the electron's $\\gamma$-factor. For very high energy particles radiation friction causes the spectral harmonics to broaden and we suggest this as a possible way to verify competing classical equations of motion.

  5. Radiation protection for the illegal governmental use of radiation sources. A case study

    Probably for the first time, illegal governmental uses of radiation sources, including the administrative infrastructure such as special radiation protection regulation, an advisory body etc., have been documented by the evaluation of the documents of the Ministry of State Security in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Over a thousand persons, but also documents, money bills etc. were marked with a wide variety of radionuclides and traced with specially developed detectors. Among the many different nuclides provided regularly from the Rossendorf Research Center near Dresden, in particular 46Sc was popular. (orig.)

  6. Radiation protection data sheet. Radiation protection data sheets for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources

    These radiation protection data sheet are devoted to responsible persons and employees of various laboratories or medical, pharmaceutical, university and industrial departments where radionuclides are handled as well as all the persons who attend to satisfy in this field. They contain the essential radiation protection data for the use of unsealed sources: physical characteristics, risk assessment, administrative procedures, recommendations, regulations and bibliography. This new series includes the following radionuclides: californium 252, curium 244, gallium 67, indium 113m, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, polonium 210, potassium 42, radium 226, thorium 232, uranium 238 and zinc 65. (O.M.)

  7. Capillary pinching discharge as water window radiation source

    Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Jančárek, A.; Nevrkla, M.; Tamáš, M.; Stefanovic, M.

    Cancún: Institute of Physics(IOP), 2009 - (Juárez Reyes, A.), PB15-5-PB15-5. (ICPIG. 29). ISBN N. [The 29th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases 2009. Cancún (MX), 12.07.2009-17.07.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/07/0275 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk.(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Capillary Z-pinch * water window radiation source * RHMD Z* engine Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://www.icpig2009.unam.mx

  8. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source

    Ghodke, A. D.; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T. A. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, 452013, Indore (India)

    2012-10-15

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  9. AREAL test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts

    Tsakanov, V. M.; Amatuni, G. A.; Amirkhanyan, Z. G.; Aslyan, L. V.; Avagyan, V. Sh.; Danielyan, V. A.; Davtyan, H. D.; Dekhtiarov, V. S.; Gevorgyan, K. L.; Ghazaryan, N. G.; Grigoryan, B. A.; Grigoryan, A. H.; Hakobyan, L. S.; Haroutiunian, S. G.; Ivanyan, M. I.; Khachatryan, V. G.; Laziev, E. M.; Manukyan, P. S.; Margaryan, I. N.; Markosyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, N. V.; Mehrabyan, Sh. A.; Mkrtchyan, T. H.; Muradyan, L. Kh.; Nikogosyan, G. H.; Petrosyan, V. H.; Sahakyan, V. V.; Sargsyan, A. A.; Simonyan, A. S.; Toneyan, H. A.; Tsakanian, A. V.; Vardanyan, T. L.; Vardanyan, A. S.; Yeremyan, A. S.; Zakaryan, S. V.; Zanyan, G. S.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced Research Electron Accelerator Laboratory (AREAL) is a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator project with a laser driven RF gun being constructed at the CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute. In addition to applications in life and materials sciences, the project aims as a test facility for advanced accelerator and radiation source concepts. In this paper, the AREAL RF photoinjector performance, the facility design considerations and its highlights in the fields of free electron laser, the study of new high frequency accelerating structures, the beam microbunching and wakefield acceleration concepts are presented.

  10. Design of an electron gun for terahertz radiation source

    Li, Ji; Hu, Tongning; Chen, Qushan; Feng, Guangyao; Shang, Lei; Li, Chenglong

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to obtain short-pulse bunches with high peak current for a terahertz radiation source, an EC-ITC (External-Cathode Independently Tunable Cells) RF gun was employed. As the external injecting electron source of the ITC RF gun, a gridded DC gun plays a key role, the performance of which determines the beam quality in the injector and transport line. In order to make the beam well compressed in the ITC RF gun, the energy of the electrons acquired from the gridded DC gun should be 15 KeV at most. A proper structure of the gridded gun is shown to overcome the strong space- charge force on the cathode, which is able to generate 6 {\\mu}s beam with 4.5A current successfully.

  11. Design of an electron gun for terahertz radiation source

    An EC-ITC (External-Cathode Independently Tunable Cells) RF gun was employed with the aim of obtaining short-pulse bunches with high peak current for a terahertz radiation source. A gridded DC gun plays a key role as the external injecting electron source of the ITC RF gun, the performance of which determines the beam quality in the injector and transport line. In order to make the beam well compressed in the ITC RF gun, the energy of the electrons acquired from the gridded DC gun should be 15 keV at most. A proper structure of the gridded gun with double-anode is shown to overcome the strong space-charge force on the cathode, which is able to generate 6 μs beam with 4.5 A current successfully. (authors)

  12. Connecting device for radiation source column and film case carriage

    The device consists of an articulated folding arm whose one part is pivoted on a plate attached to the radiation source column while the other is provided with springs and with a stirrup and a recess between the springs. The extended pin on the tomographic part is slidably fitted in the stirrup with recess. The pin is provided with an adjustable contact linked to the microswitch contact. In tomography, the operator mechanically connects the tomography bar fitted in a sleeve to the source, thus disconecting the articulated folding arm from the extended pin of the tomograph. The disconnected arm will then be folded in the vertical position by the action of gravity. At the same time, the microswitch contact displaying the arm position breaks. The double-sided stirrup design makes it possible to use the device in both right-hand and left-hand operation. (J.B.). 2 figs

  13. Categorization of radioactive sources. Revision of IAEA-TECDOC-1191, Categorization of radiation sources

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world for a wide variety of peaceful purposes in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and education; and they are also used in military applications. The International Basic Safety Standards provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation. Because of the wide variety of uses and activities of radiation sources, a categorization system is necessary so that the controls that are applied to the sources are commensurate with the radiological risks. In September 1998, following an assessment of the major findings of the first International Conference on the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials, held in Dijon, France, from 14 to 18 September 1998 (the Dijon Conference), the IAEA's General Conference (in resolution GC(42)/RES/12), inter alia, encouraged all governments 'to take steps to ensure the existence within their territories of effective national systems of control for ensuring the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials' and requested the Secretariat 'to prepare for the consideration of the Board of Governors a report on: (i) how national systems for ensuring the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials can be operated at a high level of effectiveness; and, (ii) whether international undertakings concerned with the effective operation of such systems and attracting broad adherence could be formulated'. In February 1999, the Secretariat submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors a report prepared in response to the request made of it by the General Conference. The Board took up the report at its March 1999 session and, inter alia, requested the Secretariat to prepare an action plan that took into account the conclusions and recommendations in the report, and the Board's discussion of the report. In August 1999, the Secretariat circulated a proposed Action Plan for

  14. Insurance of Radioisotopes and Ionizing Radiation Sources in France

    Since the early sixties, Assuratome has amassed quite a long experience in the insurance of radioisotopes and more generally of ionising radiation sources when they are used transported or stored outside a nuclear installation. Aware of the specific dangers of such devices, and having no experience in this domain French insurers were looking for a pragmatic solution which would permit to continue to provide cover for users or fabricants of small radioactive sources and in the meantime to keep a rigorous control on the claims and on the loss ratio which would be achieved over the years. Hence the decision was taken by the French Insurance market to entrust the French Nuclear Insurance Pool, Assuratome, as the recommended body for delivering specific 'nuclear policies' as an expert for this category of business. The next step was to make sure that the 'conventional policies' would not provide the same cover. Therefore, an appropriate exclusion clause was introduced in all the general conditions of the TPL Policies of the conventional market and consequently in the majority, if not all, the reinsurance treaties. Besides the obvious advantage resulting in the management of this category of business in a centralised body, a major benefit of this situation is based on the strict control by the insurer of the compulsory authorisation delivered by the authorities to the owner of the radioactive source. Unofficial sources having in principal no insurance possibilities in France their use would be virtually impossible.(author)

  15. Borehole disposal of spent radiation sources: 2. initial safety assessment

    Large numbers of spent radiation sources from the medical and other technical professions exist in many countries, even countries that do not possess facilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, that have to be disposed. This is particularly the case in Africa, South America and some members of the Russian Federation. Since these sources need to be handled separately from the other types of radioactive waste, mainly because of their activity to volume ratio, countries (even those with access to operational repositories) find it difficult to manage and dispose this waste. This has led to the use of boreholes as disposal units for these spent sources by some members of the Russian Federation and in South Africa. However, the relatively shallow boreholes used by these countries are not suitable for the disposal of isotopes with long half-lifes, such as 226Ra and 241Am. With this in mind the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa initiated the development of the BOSS disposal concept n-tilde an acronym for Borehole disposal Of Spent Sources n-tilde as part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) AFRA 1-14 Technical Corporation (TC) project. In this paper, an initial assessment of long-term postclosure safety of the concept is discussed. (author)

  16. Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. Safety guide (Arabic ed.)

    This Safety Guide makes recommendations concerning the building of competence in protection and safety within a national radiation protection infrastructure and provides guidance for setting up the structure for a national strategy. It relates to the training and assessment of qualification of new personnel and the retraining of existing personnel in order to develop and maintain appropriate levels of competence. It provides the necessary guidance to meet the requirements laid down in Safety Series No. 115, International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Responsibilities for building competence in protection and safety; 3. Education, training and work experience; 4. A national strategy for building competence in protection and safety.

  17. Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources. Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    This Safety Guide is intended to assist States in implementing the requirements established in Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1, Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, for a national regulatory infrastructure to regulate any practice involving radiation sources in medicine, industry, research, agriculture and education. The Safety Guide provides advice on the legislative basis for establishing regulatory bodies, including the effective independence of the regulatory body. It also provides guidance on implementing the functions and activities of regulatory bodies: the development of regulations and guides on radiation safety; implementation of a system for notification and authorization; carrying out regulatory inspections; taking necessary enforcement actions; and investigating accidents and circumstances potentially giving rise to accidents. The various aspects relating to the regulatory control of consumer products are explained, including justification, optimization of exposure, safety assessment and authorization. Guidance is also provided on the organization and staffing of regulatory bodies. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal framework for a regulatory infrastructure; 3. Principal functions and activities of the regulatory body; 4. Regulatory control of the supply of consumer products; 5. Functions of the regulatory body shared with other governmental agencies; 6. Organization and staffing of the regulatory body; 7. Documentation of the functions and activities of the regulatory body; 8. Support services; 9. Quality management for the regulatory system.

  18. Radiation sources for engineering and medicine. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    The book on radiation sources for engineering and medicine includes the following issues: Part I: Particle accelerators: review on radiation sources; fundamentals on particle accelerators and radiation optics; electron an ion sources, the X-ray tube; DC accelerators; high-frequency generators; hollow wave guides and cavity resonators; linear accelerators; medical electron linear accelerators; ring accelerators; synchrotron radiation and storage rings. Part II: Nuclear reactors and neutron sources: nuclear reactors; neutron sources and their applications. Part III: Radionuclides and their application: radionuclide production; radionuclides in medicine; cobalt radiation facilities for medicine; afterloading facilities for medicine; technical applications for radionuclides. Part IV: Attachments: tables; literature.

  19. Photoluminescence and Photonics: from miniaturised light sources to radiation detectors

    Photonics is the science of the harnessing of light. Photonics encompasses the generation of light, the detection of light, the management of light through guidance, manipulation, and amplification. Luminescence phenomena are widely used in solid state light sources and radiation detectors based on point defects in insulators. Among them, 2 ed F3+ aggregate colour centres are induced in lithium fluoride (LiF) by various kinds of ionizing radiation and are laser active in the visible spectral region. They have been studied and successfully used at Frascati ENEA Research Centre for realizing prototypes of both miniaturized light sources, in the form of waveguides and vertical optical micro cavities for integrated optics, and of novel X-ray imaging detectors, based on the optical reading of photoluminescence of the locally induced defects. The highest intrinsic spatial resolution on a wide field of view and their versatility, achieved by the growth of LiF thin films by thermal evaporation, allow using such detectors in the frameworks of nano photonics, life science and energy. Recently, they have been also used in the advanced diagnostics of proton beams, with promising results in imaging and dosimetry based on photoluminescence

  20. The IAEA Regional Training Course on Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources

    Materials of the IAEA Regional Training Course contains 8 presented lectures. Authors deals with regulatory control of radiation sources. The next materials of the IAEA were presented: Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. (IAEA-TECDOC-1067); Safety assessment plants for authorization and inspection of radiation sources (IAEA-TECDOC-1113); Regulatory authority information system RAIS, Version 2.0, Instruction manual

  1. Design of a photoneutron source for time-of-flight experiments at the radiation source Elbe

    The new radiation source ELBE uses the high brilliance electron beam from a superconducting LINAC to produce various secondary beams. Electron beam intensities of up to 1 mA at energies between 12 MeV and 40 MeV can be delivered with a wide variability in the electron pulse structure. The small emittance of the electron beam permits the irradiation of very small volumes. These main beam parameters led to the idea to convert the intense picosecond electron pulses into sub-ns neutron pulses by stopping the electrons in a heavy (high atomic number) radiator and to produce neutrons by Bremsstrahlung photons through (γ,n)-reactions. In order to enable the measurements of energy resolved neutron cross sections with a time-of-flight arrangement with a short flight path of only a few meters, it is necessary to keep the volume of the radiator for neutron production as small as possible to avoid multiple scattering of the emerging neutrons which would broaden the neutron pulses. The energy deposition of the electron beam in the small neutron radiator is that high that any solid material would melt. Therefore, the neutron radiator consists of liquid lead flowing through a channel of 11.2*11.2 mm2 cross section. From the thermal and mechanical point of view molybdenum turned out to be the most suited channel wall (thickness 0.5 mm) material. Depending on the electron energy and current up to 20 kW power will be deposited into a radiator volume of 3 cm3. This heating power is removed through the heat exchanger in the liquid lead circuit. Typical flow velocities of the lead are in the range of 2 m/s in the radiator section. Particle transport calculations were carried out using the Monte Carlo codes MCNP and FLUKA. These calculations predict a neutron source strength of 7.88 1012 and 2.67 1013 n/s for electron energies between 20 and 40 MeV. At the measuring place 362 cm away from the radiator, neutron fluxes of 1.7 107 n/cm2*s) will be obtained. The mentioned time

  2. Calculating the background radiation in the vicinity of the beam catchers of the ELBE radiation source

    The ELBE radiation sources comprises beam catchers in the experimenting sites which absorb the primary electron beam as well as the generated secondary radiation. The beam catcher consists of an ultrapure graphite absorber enclosed in a water-cooled stainless steel shell. Background radiation is shielded by iron, lead and heavy concrete. The beam parameters and the position of the beam catchers differ between experimenting sites. In order to determine the dose dependence of photon and neutron fluence and the dose equivalent at the cooling shell of the beam catcher, simulations were carried out using the FLUKA code. Radiation energies of 20 MeV and 50 MeV and electron fluxes of 1 mA were considered. The spatial and energetic distributions of the dose rate equivalent provide a basis for dimensioning of the radiation shields. The calculated distributions of the energy dose rate in the beam catcher serve as a basis for assessing thermal loads on materials and for designing the cooling system. (orig.)

  3. Safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection of radiation sources

    The objective of this TECDOC is to enhance the efficacy, quality and efficiency of the whole regulatory process. It provides advice on good practice administrative procedures for the regulatory process for preparation of applications, granting of authorizations, inspection, and enforcement. It also provides information on the development and use of standard safety assessment plans for authorization and inspection. The plans are intended to be used in conjunction with more detailed advice related to specific practices. In this sense, this TECDOC provides advice on a systematic approach to evaluations of protection and safety while other IAEA Safety Guides assist the user to distinguish between the acceptable and the unacceptable. This TECDOC covers administrative advice to facilitate the regulatory process governing authorization and inspection. It also covers the use of standard assessment and inspection plans and provides simplified plans for the more common, well established uses of radiation sources in medicine and industry, i.e. sources for irradiation facilities, industrial radiography, well logging, industrial gauging, unsealed sources in industry, X ray diagnosis, nuclear medicine, teletherapy and brachytherapy

  4. SU-C-16A-06: Optimum Radiation Source for Radiation Therapy of Skin Cancer

    Safigholi, Habib [Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Fars, Persepolis (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A S. [Comprehensive cancer center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, different applicators are designed for treatment of the skin cancer such as scalp and legs, using Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Sources (IR-HDRS), Miniature Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (MEBXS), and External Electron Beam Radiation Therapy (EEBRT). Although, all of these methodologies may deliver the desired radiation dose to the skin, the dose to the underlying bone may become the limiting factor for selection of the optimum treatment technique. In this project the radiation dose delivered to the underlying bone has been evaluated as a function of the radiation source and thickness of the underlying bone. Methods: MC simulations were performed using MCNP5 code. In these simulations, the mono-energetic and non-divergent photon beams of 30 keV, 50 keV, and 70 keV for MEBXS, 380 keV photons for IR-HDRS, and 6 MeV mono-energetic electron beam for EEBRT were modeled. A 0.5 cm thick soft tissue (0.3 cm skin and 0.2 cm adipose) with underlying 0.5 cm cortical bone followed by 14 cm soft tissue are utilized for simulations. Results: Dose values to bone tissue as a function of beam energy and beam type, for a delivery of 5000 cGy dose to skin, were compared. These results indicate that for delivery of 5000 cGy dose to the skin surface with 30 keV, 50 keV, 70 keV of MEBXS, IR-HDRS, and EEBRT techniques, bone will receive 31750 cGy, 27450 cGy, 18550 cGy, 4875 cGy, and 10450 cGy, respectively. Conclusion: The results of these investigations indicate that, for delivery of the same skin dose, average doses received by the underlying bone are 5.2 and 2.2 times larger with a 50 keV MEBXS and EEBRT techniques than IR-HDRS, respectively.

  5. SU-C-16A-06: Optimum Radiation Source for Radiation Therapy of Skin Cancer

    Purpose: Recently, different applicators are designed for treatment of the skin cancer such as scalp and legs, using Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Sources (IR-HDRS), Miniature Electronic Brachytherapy Sources (MEBXS), and External Electron Beam Radiation Therapy (EEBRT). Although, all of these methodologies may deliver the desired radiation dose to the skin, the dose to the underlying bone may become the limiting factor for selection of the optimum treatment technique. In this project the radiation dose delivered to the underlying bone has been evaluated as a function of the radiation source and thickness of the underlying bone. Methods: MC simulations were performed using MCNP5 code. In these simulations, the mono-energetic and non-divergent photon beams of 30 keV, 50 keV, and 70 keV for MEBXS, 380 keV photons for IR-HDRS, and 6 MeV mono-energetic electron beam for EEBRT were modeled. A 0.5 cm thick soft tissue (0.3 cm skin and 0.2 cm adipose) with underlying 0.5 cm cortical bone followed by 14 cm soft tissue are utilized for simulations. Results: Dose values to bone tissue as a function of beam energy and beam type, for a delivery of 5000 cGy dose to skin, were compared. These results indicate that for delivery of 5000 cGy dose to the skin surface with 30 keV, 50 keV, 70 keV of MEBXS, IR-HDRS, and EEBRT techniques, bone will receive 31750 cGy, 27450 cGy, 18550 cGy, 4875 cGy, and 10450 cGy, respectively. Conclusion: The results of these investigations indicate that, for delivery of the same skin dose, average doses received by the underlying bone are 5.2 and 2.2 times larger with a 50 keV MEBXS and EEBRT techniques than IR-HDRS, respectively

  6. Effect of solar-radiation density and angular size of radiation source on efficiency of solar power plants

    Krasina, E.A.; Nevezhin, O.A.; Rubanovich, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    The example of a solar thermoemission power plant is used for the analysis of certain features of solar-power-plant operating regimes for various radiation densities and angular sizes of the radiation source. The calculations are performed both on the assumption of exact pointing of the collector optical axis at the radiation source and with allowance for error. Results are reported for plant-efficiency optimization calculations, together with data on the permissible error angles of the solar tracking system.

  7. Crystal Undulator As A Novel Compact Source Of Radiation

    Bellucci, S; Biryukov, V M; Britvich, G I; Chesnokov, Yu A; Giannini, G; Guidi, V; Ivanov, Y M; Kotov, V I; Maisheev, V A; Malagu, C; Martinelli, G; Petrunin, A A; Pikalov, V A; Skorobogatov, V V; Stefancich, M; Tombolini, F; Vincenzi, D; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, Yu. M.

    2004-01-01

    A crystalline undulator (CU) with periodically deformed crystallographic planes is capable of deflecting charged particles with the same strength as an equivalent magnetic field of 1000 T and could provide quite a short period L in the sub-millimeter range. We present an idea for creation of a CU and report its first realization. One face of a silicon crystal was given periodic micro-scratches (grooves), with a period of 1 mm, by means of a diamond blade. The X-ray tests of the crystal deformation have shown that a sinusoidal-like shape of crystalline planes goes through the bulk of the crystal. This opens up the possibility for experiments with high-energy particles channeled in CU, a novel compact source of radiation. The first experiment on photon emission in CU has been started at LNF with 800 MeV positrons aiming to produce 50 keV undulator photons.

  8. Locating radiating sources for Maxwell's equations using the approximate inverse

    We present a new approach to solve inverse source problems for the three-dimensional time-harmonic Maxwell's equations using boundary measurements of the radiated fields. The modelling is based on the formulation as a system of integro-differential equations for the electric field. We introduce a method to recast the intertwined vector equations of Maxwell into decoupled scalar problems. The method of the approximate inverse is used both for regularization and the development of fast algorithms. We make the analysis of the method when data are collected on a spherical setting around the object. Based on the singular value decomposition, we study the smoothing properties for the underlying operator and derive an error estimate for the regularized solution in a Sobolev-space framework. Numerical simulations illustrate the efficiency and practical usefulness of the developed method

  9. ENHANCEMENT OF HYGIENIC REQUIREMENTS TO THE LIMITATION OF THE POPULATION EXPOSURE FROM NATURAL RADIATION SOURCES

    I. K. Romanovich; I. P. Stamat

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the issues of regulation system development for the population radiation protection due to the exposurefrom natural radiation. Justification of necessity of separate requirements introduction for population radiation protection from exposure due to natural and artificial radiation sources is done.

  10. Strengthening national infrastructures for the control of radiation sources in Armenia

    The paper describes the work carried out in Armenia to establish and strengthen regulatory control over radiation sources, including the development of legislation and regulations, the establishment of a national registry of sources, and the development of licensing procedures and training programmes in the area of radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. The paper also describes the Regulatory Information System of ANRA, inventarization and licensing process of radiation sources, implementation of the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Armenia. (author)