WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator-based plutonium conversion

  1. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper

  2. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of reactor and weapons plutonium

    Jensen, R.J.; Trapp, T.J.; Arthur, E.D.; Bowman, C.D.; Davidson, J.W.; Linford, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    An accelerator-based conversion (ABC) system is presented that is capable of rapidly burning plutonium in a low-inventory sub-critical system. The system also returns fission power to the grid and transmutes troublesome long-lived fission products to short lived or stable products. Higher actinides are totally fissioned. The system is suited not only to controlled, rapid burning of excess weapons plutonium, but to the long range application of eliminating or drastically reducing the world total inventory of plutonium. Deployment of the system will require the successful resolution of a broad range of technical issues introduced in the paper.

  3. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R ampersand D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ''strawman'' or ''point-of-departure'' plant layout that resulted from this study

  4. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) refers to a concept for a system that uses a blanket assembly driven by a source of neutrons produced when high-energy protons from an accelerator strike a heavy metal target. One application for such a system is called Accelerator-Based Plutonium Conversion, or ABC. Currently, the version of this concept being proposed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory features a liquid lead target material and a blanket fuel of molten fluorides that contain plutonium. Thus, the materials to be used in such a system must have, in addition to adequate mechanical strength, corrosion resistance to molten lead, corrosion resistance to molten fluoride salts, and resistance to radiation damage. In this report the corrosion properties of liquid lead and the LiF-BeF2 molten salt system are reviewed in the context of candidate materials for the above application. Background information has been drawn from extensive past studies. The system operating temperature, type of protective environment, and oxidation potential of the salt are shown to be critical design considerations. Factors such as the generation of fission products and transmutation of salt components also significantly affect corrosion behavior, and procedures for inhibiting their effects are discussed. In view of the potential for extreme conditions relative to neutron fluxes and energies that can occur in an ADTT, a knowledge of radiation effects is a most important factor. Present information for potential materials selections is summarized

  5. Accelerator-based systems for plutonium destruction and nuclear waste transmutation

    Accelerator-base systems are described that can eliminate long-lived nuclear materials. The impact of these systems on global issues relating to plutonium minimization and nuclear waste disposal can be significant. An overview of the components that comprise these systems is given, along with discussion of technology development status and needs. A technology development plan is presented with emphasis on first steps that would demonstrate technical performance

  6. Pyrochemical conversion of weapon-grade plutonium into plutonium oxide

    One of the objectives of the French-Russian studies conducted from 1993 to 1996 under the AIDA-MOX 1 program was to define a reference process for converting the weapon-grade plutonium excess (designated W-Pu) into plutonium dioxide for further use as MOX fuel in existing nuclear reactors. Among the different selected options, one is performed in molten alkali chlorides bath at high temperature. Several laboratory-scale tests have permitted to demonstrate the feasibility of this conversion in this medium. The main results described in this paper -conversion yield, plutonium purification beside gallium, americium and other impurities, - tend to confirm that pyrochemical processes could offer potential interests if however the plutonium oxide sinterability is proved in next tests. (authors)

  7. Thermodynamics of the conversion of plutonium dioxide to plutonium monocarbide

    The present study contains an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis of the Pu--C--O system and a discussion from an equilibrium thermodynamic point of view of the direct carbothermic reduction and two-step carbothermic-hydrogen reduction of PuO2 to PuC/sub 1-x/. Included are considerations of the partial pressures of the various species in the Pu--C--O and Pu--C--H systems, the process parameters required for conversion of the oxide to the carbide, and the loss of plutonium due to vapor species

  8. Renovation work at plutonium conversion development facility

    At Plutonium Conversion Development Facility, we carried out planned stoppage about for 1 year from 1993 to 1994 and did renovation work, mainly renovated Calcination-Reduction Furnace and Evaporator which passed away the life we designed, for continuous stable operation in the future. As for the way of renovation, it wasn't the former one that renovated the whole Glove Box holding equipments. We adopted the way of taking apart the panels from Glove Box and renovated only inside equipments. Because we planned to shorten the work term, cut off the radioactive waste and reduce operator dose. By this work, the material of Calcination-Reduction Furnace was changed, and its efficiency of heating was improved. As a result of that, we got improved properties of Mixed Oxide Powder, extended the life of Calcination-Reduction Furnace, improved corrosion resistance of Evaporator by changing its material, improved the function of operation by adopting automatic operation control and shortened the operating time. On the other hand, the quality of produced radioactive waste became less 27% (150 drums) totally by adopting the way of taking apart the panels from Glove Box than by the former way, and we also got shortening the work term and reducing operator dose. (author)

  9. The US plutonium materials conversion program in Russia

    Progress has been made in Russia towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO2) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease the available weapons-grade Pu. A similar agenda is being followed in the US to address disposition of US surplus weapons-grade Pu. In Russia a conversion process has been selected and a site proposed. This paper discusses the present state of the program in support of this future operating facility that will process up to 5 metric tons of plutonium a year. (authors)

  10. Discriminators for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) concept using a subcritical molten salt system

    Discriminators are described that quantify enhancements added to plutonium destruction and/or nuclear waste transmutation systems through use of an accelerator/fluid fuel combination. This combination produces a robust and flexible nuclear system capable of the destruction of all major long-lived actinides (including plutonium) and fission products. The discriminators discussed in this report are (1) impact of subcritical operation on safety, (2) impact of subcritical and fluid fuel operation on plutonium burnout scenarios, and (3) neutron economy enhancements brought about by subcritical operation. Neutron economy enhancements are quantified through assessment of long-term dose reduction resulting from transmutation of key fission products along with relaxation of processing frequencies afforded by subcritical operation

  11. Development of a fast and efficient separation for short-lived plutonium isotopes produced in accelerator-based irradiations

    A novel, fast and simple separation procedure is presented for separation of plutonium from lighter actinides and fission products. Classical methods, such as TTA-extraction and anion exchange resin techniques, were examined but failed to provide sufficient separation from lighter actinides. A successful procedure based on solid phase extraction chromatography was developed. Plutonium was effectively separated from interfering activities within 8 minutes using TEVA-resino, a quaternary amine-based liquid anion exchanger sorbed on an inert support. Recoveries of about 70 percent were achieved for plutonium with decontamination factors of 105 to 106 from neptunium, uranium and thorium

  12. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively

  13. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    Schwartz, K.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1998-10-01

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3--7%, a burnup of 20,000--40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2--6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

  14. Materials considerations for molten salt accelerator-based plutonium conversion systems

    DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Eatherly, W.P.; Keiser, J.R.; Klueh, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    A Molten-Salt Reactor Program for power applications was initiated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1956. In 1965 the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) went critical and was successfully operated for several years. Operation of the MSRE revealed two deficiencies in the Hastelloy N alloy that had been developed specifically for molten-salt systems. The alloy embrittled at elevated temperatures as a result of exposure to thermal neutrons (radiation damage) and grain boundary embrittlement occurred in materials to fuel salt. Intergranular cracking was found to be associated with fission products, viz. tellurium. An improved Hastelloy N composition was subsequently developed that had better resistance to both of these problems. However, the discovery that fission product cracking could be significantly decreased by making the salt sufficiently reducing offers the prospect of improved compatibility with molten salts containing fission products and resistance to radiation damage in ABC applications. Recommendations are made regarding the types of corrosion tests and mechanistic studies needed to qualify materials for operation with PuF{sub 3}-containing molten salts.

  15. Continuous monitoring of plutonium solution in a conversion plant

    This paper describes the implementation of a safeguards Tank Monitoring System (TAMS) in a Plutonium Conversion Plant (PCP). TAMS main objective is to provide the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (the Agency) with continuous data for safeguards evaluation and review of inventories and flows of plutonium solutions. It has been designed to monitor, in unattended mode, the inventory of each tank and transactions of solutions between tanks, as well as to confirm the absence of borrowing plutonium solutions from and to a neighboring reprocessing plant. The instrumentation consists of one electronic scanner that collects pressure data from electromanometers connected to the tank dip tubes, one uninterruptable power supply and one personal computer operating in a Windows-NT environment. The pressure data transmitted to the acquisition system is saved and converted to volume and density values, coupled with a graph capability to display events in each tank at intervals of 15 seconds. The system operation has not only strengthened the safeguards measures in PCP but also reduced inspection effort while minimizing intrusion to normal plant activities and radiation exposure to personnel. TAMS is a powerful, reliable tool that has significantly improved the effectiveness of safeguards implementation at PCP. The future combined use of TAMS with remote monitoring (RM) will further enhance efficiency of the safeguards measures at PCP. (author)

  16. Conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to boroilicate glass using the GMODS process

    Plutonium scrap and residue represent major national and international concerns because (1) significant environmental, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) problems have been identified with their storage; (2) all plutonium recovered from the black market in Europe has been from this category; (3) storage costs are high; and (4) safeguards are difficult. It is proposed to address these problems by conversion of plutonium scrap and residue to a CRACHIP (CRiticality, Aerosol, and CHemically Inert Plutonium) glass using the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS). CRACHIP refers to a set of requirements for plutonium storage forms that minimize ES ampersand H concerns. The concept is several decades old. Conversion of plutonium from complex chemical mixtures and variable geometries into a certified, qualified, homogeneous CRACHIP glass creates a stable chemical form that minimizes ES ampersand H risks, simplifies safeguards and security, provides an easy-to-store form, decreases storage costs, and allows for future disposition options. GMODS is a new process to directly convert metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidize organics with the residue converted to glass; and convert chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, and other materials to glass. GMODS is an enabling technology that creates new options. Conventional glassmaking processes require conversion of feeds to oxide-like forms before final conversion to glass. Such chemical conversion and separation processes are often complex and expensive

  17. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Preparation results for lifetime test of conversion LEU fuel in plutonium production reactors

    The program of converting Russian production reactors for the purpose to stop their plutonium fabrication is currently in progress. The program also provides for operation of these reactors under the conversion mode with using of low-enriched fuel (LEU). LEU fuel elements were developed and activities related to their preparation for reactor tests were carried out. (author)

  19. Plutonium

    This report contains with regard to 'plutonium' statements on chemistry, occurrence and reactions in the environment, handling procedures in the nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection methods, biokinetics, toxicology and medical treatment to make available reliable data for the public discussion on plutonium especially its use in nuclear power plants and its radiological assessment. (orig.)

  20. Plutonium

    Miner, William N

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses plutonium from discovery to its production, separation, properties, fabrication, handling, and uses, including use as a reactor fuel and use in isotope power generators and neutron sources.

  1. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications

  2. Materials measurement and accounting in an operating plutonium conversion and purification process. Phase I. Process modeling and simulation. [PUCSF code

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.; Ostenak, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Dayem, H.A.; Kern, E.A.

    1981-04-01

    A model of an operating conversion and purification process for the production of reactor-grade plutonium dioxide was developed as the first component in the design and evaluation of a nuclear materials measurement and accountability system. The model accurately simulates process operation and can be used to identify process problems and to predict the effect of process modifications.

  3. Equipments removal and renewal at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility. The Secondary removal and renewal program

    The Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) periodically carried out old equipment removal / renewal work for stable operation. The First removal / renewal program was carried out from 1993 to 1994. The Secondary removal / renewal of equipment (filter casings, microwave heating denitration apparatus, blender and glove boxes) was carried out from 1998 to 1999. Two new type air-line suits (double-layered type air-line suits and water flushing-decontamination-type air-line suits) were developed. These air-line suits were used for the Secondary removal / renewal program. The results of using these air-line suits the resistance test of the greenhouse against earthquakes and the contamination behavior of the glove box, which is independent from the ventilation system, are reported in this paper. (author)

  4. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale

  5. A pyrochemical procedure for the conversion of military origin metallic plutonium into MOX fuel

    For the decision of a problem of the weapon-grade plutonium introduction in the MOX fuel is offered to use of pyro-electrochemical technology. The given technology is based on processes of metal plutonium dissolution in molten chlorides with the following obtaining of PuO2 or UO2-PuO2. The crystalline products can be used for manufacture of pellet and vibro-packed fuel. For the foundation of the prospective technological flow-sheet the investigations were carried out on plutonium dissolution in molten salt, on plutonium purification from gallium and the tests on sintering were carried out, with use of pyro-electrochemical UO2, as a simulator. Basic opportunity of the process realization is shown. (authors)

  6. Accelerator-based BNCT

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the 9Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. - Highlights: • The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. • Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. • The present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. • Topics cover intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams and beam diagnostics, among others

  7. Research of natural resources saving by design studies of Pressurized Light Water Reactors and High Conversion PWR cores with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3. generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. This study has two main objectives: first the design of High Conversion PWR (HCPWR) with mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium/uranium/plutonium, and secondly the setting up of multi-recycling strategies of both plutonium and 233U, to better natural resources economy. The approach took place in four stages. Two ways of introducing thorium into PWR have been identified: the first is with low moderator to fuel volume ratios (MR) and ThPuO2 fuel, and the second is with standard or high MR and ThUO2 fuel. The first way led to the design of under-moderated HCPWR following the criteria of high 233U production and low plutonium consumption. This second step came up with two specific concepts, from which multi-recycling strategies have been elaborated. The exclusive production and recycling of 233U inside HCPWR limits the annual economy of natural uranium to approximately 30%. It was brought to light that the strong need in plutonium in the HCPWR dedicated to 233U production is the limiting factor. That is why it was eventually proposed to study how the production of 233U within PWR (with standard MR), from 2020. It was shown that the anticipated production of 233U in dedicated PWR relaxes the constraint on plutonium inventories and favours the transition toward a symbiotic reactor fleet composed of both PWR and HCPWR loaded with thorium fuel. This strategy is more adapted and leads to an annual economy of natural uranium of about 65%. (author)

  8. Rough order of magnitude cost estimate for immobilization of 50 MT of plutonium sharing existing facilities at Hanford with pit disassembly and conversion facility: alternative 11

    The purpose of this Cost Estimate Report is to identify preliminary capital and operating costs for a facility to immobilize 50 metric tons (nominal) of plutonium as a ceramic in an existing facility at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), which is being costed in a separate report by LANL, will also be located in the FMEF in this co-location option

  9. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  10. Recherche de l'économie des ressources naturelles par des études de conception de coeurs de réacteurs à eau et à haut facteur de conversion à combustibles mixtes Thorium / Uranium / Plutonium

    Vallet, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of innovative neutronic conception of Pressurized Light Water Reactors (PWR) of 3rd generation, saving of natural resources is of paramount importance for sustainable nuclear energy production. This study consists in the one hand to design high Conversion Reactors exploiting mixed oxide fuels composed of thorium / uranium / plutonium, and in the other hand, to elaborate multirecycling strategies of both plutonium and 233U, in order to maximize natural resources economy. T...

  11. Precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and calcination to plutonium oxide

    The plutonium based fuel fabrication requires the conversion of the plutonium nitrate solution from nuclear fuel reprocessing into pure PuO2. The conversion method based on the precipitation of plutonium (III) oxalate and subsequent calcination has been studied in detail. In this procedure, plutonium (III) oxalate is precipitated, at room temperature, by the slow addition of 1M oxalic acid to the feed solution, containing from 5-100 g/l of plutonium in 1M nitric acid. Before precipitation, the plutonium is adjusted to trivalent state by addition of 1M ascorbic acid in the presence of an oxidation inhibitor such as hydrazine. Finally, the precipitate is calcinated at 700 deg C to obtain PuO2. A flowsheet is proposed in this paper including: a) A study about the conditions to adjust the plutonium valence. b) Solubility data of plutonium (III) oxalate and measurements of plutonium losses to the filtrate and wash solution. c) Characterization of the obtained products. Plutonium (III) oxalate has several potential advantages over similar conversion processes. These include: 1) Formation of small particle sizes powder with good pellets fabrication characteristics. 2) The process is rather insensitive to most process variables, except nitric acid concentration. 3) Ambient temperature operations. 4) The losses of plutonium to the filtrate are less than in other conversion processes. (Author)

  12. Utilization of excess weapon plutonium: scientific and technological aspects of the conversion of military capacities for civilian use and sustainable development

    The scientific and technological aspects of the conversion of military capacities for civilian use and sustainable development concerning the utilisation of excess weapon plutonium consist of the following main issues: The new understanding of 'security'; industrial restructuring for sustainable development; human resources issues; cleaning up of the world legacy; developing timely alternate use plans for military facilities. The issues and problems of nuclear disarmament management are linked to sustainable development and are related to safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes, meaning also safe transport, storage and disposal with a view to protect human health and the environment. Special emphasis is laid on the international and regional cooperation as the main basis for action

  13. Plutonium fires

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  14. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy's response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department's Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B

  15. Stop plutonium

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  16. Plutonium controversy

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated

  17. Use of accelerator based neutron sources

    With the objective of discussing new requirements related to the use of accelerator based neutron generators an Advisory Group meeting was held in October 1998 in Vienna. This meeting was devoted to the specific field of the utilization of accelerator based neutron generators. This TECDOC reports on the technical discussions and presentations that took place at this meeting and reflects the current status of neutron generators. The 14 MeV neutron generators manufactured originally for neutron activation analysis are utilised also for nuclear structure and reaction studies, nuclear data acquisition, radiation effects and damage studies, fusion related studies, neutron radiography

  18. Laboratory-scale evaluations of alternative plutonium precipitation methods

    Plutonium(III), (IV), and (VI) carbonate; plutonium(III) fluoride; plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate; and plutonium(IV) and (VI) hydroxide precipitation methods were evaluated for conversion of plutonium nitrate anion-exchange eluate to a solid, and compared with the current plutonium peroxide precipitation method used at Rocky Flats. Plutonium(III) and (IV) oxalate, plutonium(III) fluoride, and plutonium(IV) hydroxide precipitations were the most effective of the alternative conversion methods tested because of the larger particle-size formation, faster filtration rates, and the low plutonium loss to the filtrate. These were found to be as efficient as, and in some cases more efficient than, the peroxide method. 18 references, 14 figures, 3 tables

  19. Potential role of ABC-assisted repositories in U.S. plutonium and high-level waste disposition

    This paper characterizes the issues involving deep geologic disposal of LWR spent fuel rods, then presents results of an investigation to quantify the potential role of Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) in an integrated national nuclear materials and high level waste disposition strategy. The investigation used the deep geological repository envisioned for Yucca Mt., Nevada as a baseline and considered complementary roles for integrated ABC transmutation systems. The results indicate that although a U.S. geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of plutonium, the minor actinides, and selected long-lived fission products can result in the following substantial benefits: plutonium burndown to near zero levels, a dramatic reduction of the long term hazard associated with geologic repositories, an ability to place several-fold more high level nuclear waste in a single repository, electricity sales to compensate for capital and operating costs

  20. Accelerator based steady state neutron source

    Using high current, cw linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the accelerator based neutron research facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 1016 n/cm2s thermal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of $300-450 M is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source is most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc., with the development of a multibeam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs

  1. An accelerator based steady state neutron source

    Using high current, cw linear accelerator technology, a spallation neutron source can achieve much higher average intensities than existing or proposed pulsed spallation sources. With about 100 mA of 300 MeV protons or deuterons, the accelerator based neutron research facility (ABNR) would initially achieve the 1016 n/cm2 s themal flux goal of the advanced steady state neutron source, and upgrading could provide higher steady state fluxes. The relatively low ion energy compared to other spallation sources has an important impact on R and D requirements as well as capital cost, for which a range of Dollar 300-450 is estimated by comparison to other accelerator-based neutron source facilities. The source is similar to a reactor source in most respects. It has some higher energy neutrons but fewer gamma rays, and the moderator region is free of many of the design constraints of a reactor, which helps to implement sources for various neutron energy spectra, many beam tubes, etc. With the development of a multibeam concept and the basis for currents greater than 100 mA that is assumed in the R and D plan, the ABNR would serve many additional uses, such as fusion materials development, production of proton-rich isotopes, and other energy and defense program needs. (orig.)

  2. Accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    Neutrino oscillations were first discovered by experiments looking at neutrinos coming from extra-terrestrial sources, namely the sun and the atmosphere, but we will be depending on earth-based sources to take many of the next steps in this field. This article describes what has been learned so far from accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments, and then describe very generally what the next accelerator-based steps are. In section 2 the article discusses how one uses an accelerator to make a neutrino beam, in particular, one made from decays in flight of charged pions. There are several different neutrino detection methods currently in use, or under development. In section 3 these are presented, with a description of the general concept, an example of such a detector, and then a brief discussion of the outstanding issues associated with this detection technique. Finally, section 4 describes how the measurements of oscillation probabilities are made. This includes a description of the near detector technique and how it can be used to make the most precise measurements of neutrino oscillations.

  3. Accelerator based atomic physics experiments: an overview

    Atomic Physics research with beams from accelerators has continued to expand and the number of papers and articles at meetings and in journals reflects a steadily increasing interest and an increasing support from various funding agencies. An attempt will be made to point out where interdisciplinary benefits have occurred, and where applications of the new results to engineering problems are expected. Drawing from material which will be discussed in the conference, a list of the most active areas of research is presented. Accelerator based atomic physics brings together techniques from many areas, including chemistry, astronomy and astrophysics, nuclear physics, solid state physics and engineering. An example is the use of crystal channeling to sort some of the phenomena of ordinary heavy ion stopping powers. This tool has helped us to reach a better understanding of stopping mechanisms with the result that now we have established a better base for predicting energy losses of heavy ions in various materials

  4. Plutonium solubilities

    Thermochemical data has been selected for plutonium oxide, hydroxide, carbonate and phosphate equilibria. Equilibrium constants have been evaluated in the temperature range 0 to 300 degrees C at a pressure of 1 bar to T≤100 degrees C and at the steam saturated pressure at higher temperatures. Measured solubilities of plutonium that are reported in the literature for laboratory experiments have been collected. Solubility data on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and phosphates have been selected. No solubility data were found at temperatures higher than 60 degrees C. The literature solubility data have been compared with plutonium solubilities calculated with the EQ3/6 geochemical modelling programs, using the selected thermodynamic data for plutonium. (authors)

  5. Conversion of an Alpha CAM Monitor of Victoreen calibrated of factory for plutonium in a measurement monitor of radon in the atmosphere; Conversion de un monitor Alpha CAM de la Victoreen calibrado de fabrica para plutonio en un monitor para medicion de radon en la atmosfera

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    It is presented in this work the conversion of a monitor ALPHA CAM of the monitor Victoreen gauged of it manufactures for plutonium in a monitor for radon mensuration in the atmosphere. Those units in that the radon measures are expressed are: peak curies/unit of volume of air to sampling. This way one has to gauge and to supplement the software and the parts that the old one monitor for plutonium. It requires. This task implies: a) To calibrate and to determine the efficiency of the detector of accustomed to state of 1700 mm{sup 2} for alpha particles coming from the radioactive series of the radon. b) to connect in series and to calibrate a flow measurer of air in it lines with the detector. Measures are presented of the ambient air and other places of the the historical area of the city of Puebla obtained with the team Converted ALPHA-CAM. (Author)

  6. First accelerator-based physics of 2014

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Experiments in the East Area received their first beams from the PS this week. Theirs is CERN's first accelerator-based physics since LS1 began last year.   For the East Area, the PS performs a so-called slow extraction, where beam is extracted during many revolution periods (the time it take for particles to go around the PS, ~2.1 μs). The yellow line shows the circulating beam current in the PS, decreasing slowly during the slow extraction, which lasts 350 ms. The green line is the measured proton intensity in the transfer line toward the East Area target. Although LHC physics is still far away, we can now confirm that the injectors are producing physics! In the East Area - the experimental area behind the PS - the T9 and T10 beam lines are providing beams for physics. These beam lines serve experiments such as AIDA - which looks at new detector solutions for future accelerators - and the ALICE Inner Tracking System - which tests components for the ALICE experiment. &qu...

  7. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition

  8. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 2: Comparison of plutonium disposition options

    Brownson, D.A.; Hanson, D.J.; Blackman, H.S. [and others

    1993-06-01

    The Secretary of Energy requested the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control to evaluate disposition options for weapons-grade plutonium. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) offered to assist the NAS in this evaluation by investigating the technical aspects of the disposition options and their capability for achieving plutonium annihilation levels greater than 90%. This report was prepared for the NAS to document the gathered information and results from the requested option evaluations. Evaluations were performed for 12 plutonium disposition options involving five reactor and one accelerator-based systems. Each option was evaluated in four technical areas: (1) fuel status, (2) reactor or accelerator-based system status, (3) waste-processing status, and (4) waste disposal status. Based on these evaluations, each concept was rated on its operational capability and time to deployment. A third rating category of option costs could not be performed because of the unavailability of adequate information from the concept sponsors. The four options achieving the highest rating, in alphabetical order, are the Advanced Light Water Reactor with plutonium-based ternary fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with plutonium-based fuel, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor with uranium-plutonium-based fuel, and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor with plutonium-based fuel. Of these four options, the Advanced Light Water Reactor and the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor do not propose reprocessing of their irradiated fuel. Time constraints and lack of detailed information did not allow for any further ratings among these four options. The INEL recommends these four options be investigated further to determine the optimum reactor design for plutonium disposition.

  9. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    MARUSICH, R.M.

    1998-10-21

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide.

  10. An analysis of the impact of having uranium dioxide mixed in with plutonium dioxide

    An assessment was performed to show the impact on airborne release fraction, respirable fraction, dose conversion factor and dose consequences of postulated accidents at the Plutonium Finishing Plant involving uranium dioxide rather than plutonium dioxide

  11. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  12. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  13. Plutonium story

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope 238Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope 239Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements

  14. Plutonium Story

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  15. Validity of using UPuO2 vibropack experimental fuel pins in reactors on fast and thermal neutrons: First experiments on conversion of weapons grade plutonium into nuclear fuel

    Extensive scope of scientific and technological work has been carried out in SSC RF RIAR to substantiate usage of vibropack oxide fuel pins in fast and thermal neutron reactors. In fulfilling the work, physical-mechanical and technological characteristics of granulated fuel have been studied, radiation tests and material science investigations of mock-up, experimental and research fuel pins of BN-type (in BOR-60 and BN-600 reactors) and WWER-1000 type (in SM-2 and MIR reactors) have been carried out. Total quantity of fabricated fuel pins is about 30 000 pieces. In BOR-60 reactor, maximum burn-up attained 30% h.a. for regular SA and burnup was of 32,3% h.a. for experimental fuel pins of the dismantled SA. In testing UPuO2 vibropack fuel pins in BN-600 reactor, maximum burn-up of -10,8% h.a. was attained. Post irradiation examinations of fuel pins have revealed that since the problems of both chemical and thermo-mechanical fuel-cladding interactions have been solved, the resource of the fuel pins like these would only depend on the choice of cladding material. Vibropack fuel pins, containing UPuO2 under conditions of MIR reactor attained burn-up more than 30 MW day/kg U both under nominal operation and under load-following modes. The experience in designing, manufacturing and operating the facilities on fabrication of granulated uranium and MOX fuel and fuel pins is gained. The data bank and calculation codes, describing vibropack fuel pin behavior under different operation modes is created. According to the Concept of RF Minatom on recovery of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, resulting from disarmament, the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation RIAR (Dimitrovgrad) has begun a practical realization of the technology on conversion of metal weapon-grade plutonium into mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel. Processing has been carried out and granulated UPuO2 fuel for BOR-60, BN-600 reactors and experimental batches of granulated fuel for mock-up and experimental

  16. Seaborg's Plutonium ?

    Norman, Eric B; Telhami, Kristina E

    2014-01-01

    Passive x-ray and gamma-ray analysis was performed on UC Berkeley's EH&S Sample S338. The object was found to contain Pu-239 and no other radioactive isotopes. The mass of Pu-239 contained in this object was determined to be 2.0 +- 0.3 micrograms. These observations are consistent with the identification of this object being the 2.77-microgram plutonium oxide sample described by Glenn Seaborg and his collaborators as the first sample of Pu-239 that was large enough to be weighed.

  17. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  18. Plutonium-239

    This sheet belongs to a collection which relates to the use of radionuclides essentially in unsealed sources. Its goal is to gather on a single document the most relevant information as well as the best prevention practices to be implemented. These sheets are made for the persons in charge of radiation protection: users, radioprotection-skill persons, labor physicians. Each sheet treats of: 1 - the radio-physical and biological properties; 2 - the main uses; 3 - the dosimetric parameters; 4 - the measurement; 5 - the protection means; 6 - the areas delimitation and monitoring; 7 - the personnel classification, training and monitoring; 8 - the effluents and wastes; 9 - the authorization and declaration administrative procedures; 10 - the transport; and 11 - the right conduct to adopt in case of incident or accident. This sheet deals specifically with Plutonium-239

  19. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. Volume 2 contains the appendices to the report and describe the following: Federal Register notices; contractor nondisclosure statement; adjunct melter

  20. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for BNCT

    Nigg, D.W.; Mitchell, H.E.; Harker, Y.D.; Yoon, W.Y. [and others

    1995-11-01

    Therapeutically-useful epithermal-neutron beams for BNCT are currently generated by nuclear reactors. Various accelerator-based neutron sources for BNCT have been proposed and some low intensity prototypes of such sources, generally featuring the use of proton beams and beryllium or lithium targets have been constructed. This paper describes an alternate approach to the realization of a clinically useful accelerator-based source of epithermal neutrons for BNCT that reconciles the often conflicting objectives of target cooling, neutron beam intensity, and neutron beam spectral purity via a two stage photoneutron production process.

  1. Plutonium economy

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.)

  2. Extraction of plutonium from lean residues by room-temperature fluoride volatility

    The use of dioxygen difluoride and krypton difluoride for the recovery of plutonium from lean residues by conversion to gaseous plutonium hexa-fluoride is being investigated. The synthesis of dioxygen difluoride in practical quantity has been demonstrated. Fluorination of plutonium compounds under ideal conditions supports the contention that a viable process can be developed. Application of the method to lean plutonium residues is in the early stage of development

  3. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Summary

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  5. Plutonium in plants

    A bibliography on plutonium in plants is presented. It covers the subjects occurrence of plutonium in plants; soil-plant relationships; root uptake; distribution and translocation; foliar deposition and loss. Compiled data are presented on: recorded and calculated concentration factors of plutonium as well as those for uranium; concentration ratios for several crop types; proportion of plutonium removed from soil by plants; concentration ratios according to plant parts of cereal and vegetable crops. (G.J.P.)

  6. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  7. Western Option - Disarmament of Russian Weapon Plutonium

    The Western Option concept describes an approach to the conversion of weapon-grade plutonium from Russian nuclear warheads under the special aspects of meeting the criteria of irreversible utilization. Putting this concept of plutonium conversion into non-weapon-grade material into effect would make a major contribution to improving security worldwide. This study is based on an agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concluded in September 2000. It provides for the conversion of 34 t of weapon-grade plutonium in each of the two states. This goal is also supported by other G8 countries. While the United States performs its part of the agreement under its sole national responsibility, the Russian program needs financial support by Western states. Expert groups have pointed out several options as a so-called basic scenario. The funds of approx. US Dollar 2 billion required to put them into effect have not so far been raised. The Western Option approach described in this contribution combines results of the basic scenario with other existing experience and with technical solutions available for plutonium conversion. One of the attractions of the Western Option lies in its financial advantages, which are estimated to amount to approx. US Dollar 1 billion. (orig.)

  8. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  9. Accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    Full text: The Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Novosibirsk) and the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (Obninsk) have proposed an accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture and fast neutron therapy for hospital. Innovative approach is based upon vacuum insulation tandem accelerator (VITA) and near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron generation. Pilot accelerator based neutron source for neutron capture therapy is under construction now at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia. In the present report, the pilot facility design is presented and discussed. Design features of facility components are discussed. Results of experiments and simulations are presented. Complete experimental tests are planned by the end of the year 2005

  10. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    Sharma S; Kumar Sudhir; Dagaonkar S; Bisht Geetika; Dayanand S; Devi Reena; Deshpande S; Chaudhary S; Bhatt B; Kannan S

    2007-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife). Output factor (St), tissue maximum ratio (TMR) and off axis ratio (OAR) of these three SRS systems were measured...

  11. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on accelerator-based transmutation

    The meeting was organised under the auspices of OECD Nuclear Agency's International Information Exchange Programme on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation. In the original announcement for the meeting the following sessions were proposed: 1) Concepts of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 2) Nuclear design problems of accelerator-based transmutation systems with emphasis on target facilities and their interfaces with accelerators, 3) Data and methods for nuclear design of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 4) Related cross-section measurements and integral experiments, 5) Identification of discrepancies and gaps and discussion of desirable R+D and benchmark activities. Due to the large number of papers submitted it was necessary to split session 2 into two parts and to reassign some papers in order to balance the sessions more evenly. No papers were submitted for session 5 and this was replaced by a summary and general discussion session. These proceedings contain all 30 papers in the order they were presented at the meeting. They are copies of the duplication-ready versions given to us during or shortly after the meeting. In the Table of Contents, the papers are listed together with the name of the presenter. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Properties of plutonium

    Ahn, Jin Su; Yoon, Hwan Ki; Min, Kyung Sik; Kim, Hyun Tae; Ahn, Jong Sung; Kwag, Eon Ho; Ryu, Keon Joong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    Plutonium has unique chemical and physical properties. Its uniqueness in use has led to rare publications, in Korea. This report covers physical aspects of phase change of metal plutonium, mechanical properties, thermal conductivity, etc, chemical aspects of corrosion, oxidation, how to produce plutonium from spent fuels by describing various chemical treatment methods, which are currently used and were used in the past. It also contains characteristics of the purex reprocessing process which is the most widely used nowadays. And show processes to purify and metalize from recovered plutonium solution. Detection and analysis methods are introduced with key pints for handling, critical safety, toxicity, and effects on peoples. This report gives not only a general idea on what plutonium is, rather than deep technical description, but also basic knowledge on plutonium production and safeguards diversion from the view point of nonproliferation. 18 refs. (Author) .new.

  13. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  14. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  15. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  16. Perspective on plutonium

    This paper is intended as a brief overview on the element plutonium. Plutonium is the first primarily man-made element to play a significant role not only in technological development, but also in the economic growth of many countries. The importance of plutonium centers around its enormous energy making it ideal for wide-scale use in reactors, while the nuclear industry continues to work toward improving safety and efficiency of plutonium as a reactor fuel politicians and the public still debate over the safety and benefits of nuclear power. (30 refs.)

  17. Electrodeposition of Plutonium

    Equipment for electrolytic deposition of plutonium from molten salt solutions was designed and built and was tested with cerium as a stand-in for plutonium. The electrolysis cell is a graphite crucible that serves as the anode; the cathode is a molybdenum rod. This paper discusses results of that test

  18. Plutonium storage criteria

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  19. Remote material handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project. Revision 1

    With the downsizing of the US and Russian nuclear stockpiles, large quantities of weapons-usable plutonium in the US are being declared excess and will be disposed of by the Department of Energy Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To implement this program, DOE has selected the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the construction and operation of three new facilities: pit disassembly and conversion; mixed oxide fuel fabrication; and plutonium immobilization. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize a portion of the excess plutonium in a hybrid ceramic and glass form containing high level waste for eventual disposal in a geologic repository. The PIP is divided into three distinct operating areas: Plutonium Conversion, First Stage Immobilization, and Second Stage Immobilization. Processing technology for the PIP is being developed jointly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Westinghouse Savannah River Company. This paper will discuss development of the automated unpacking and sorting operations in the conversion area, and the automated puck and tray handling operations in the first stage immobilization area. Due to the high radiation levels and toxicity of the materials to be disposed of, the PIP will utilize automated equipment in a contained (glovebox) facility. Most operations involving plutonium-bearing materials will be performed remotely, separating personnel from the radiation source. Source term materials will be removed from the operations during maintenance. Maintenance will then be performed hands on within the containment using glove ports

  20. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  1. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    Frank, Michael I.

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  2. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    Hurt, D. [Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  3. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2003-04-11

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  4. Accelerator Based Neutron Beams for Neutron Capture Therapy

    The DOE-funded accelerator BNCT program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has resulted in the only operating accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam facility capable of generating significant dose rates in the world. With five separate beamlines and two different epithermal neutron beam assemblies installed, we are currently capable of treating patients with rheumatoid arthritis in less than 15 minutes (knee joints) or 4 minutes (finger joints) or irradiating patients with shallow brain tumors to a healthy tissue dose of 12.6 Gy in 3.6 hours. The accelerator, designed by Newton scientific Incorporated, is located in dedicated laboratory space that MIT renovated specifically for this project. The Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications consists of an accelerator room, a control room, a shielded radiation vault, and additional laboratory space nearby. In addition to the design, construction and characterization of the tandem electrostatic accelerator, this program also resulted in other significant accomplishments. Assemblies for generating epithermal neutron beams were designed, constructed and experimentally evaluated using mixed-field dosimetry techniques. Strategies for target construction and target cooling were implemented and tested. We demonstrated that the method of submerged jet impingement using water as the coolant is capable of handling power densities of up to 6 x 10(sup 7) W/m(sup 2) with heat transfer coefficients of 10(sup 6)W/m(sup 2)-K. Experiments with the liquid metal gallium demonstrated its superiority compared with water with little effect on the neutronic properties of the epithermal beam. Monoenergetic proton beams generated using the accelerator were used to evaluate proton RBE as a function of LET and demonstrated a maximum RBE at approximately 30-40 keV/um, a finding consistent with results published by other researchers. We also developed an experimental approach to biological intercomparison of epithermal beams and

  5. Plutonium spectrophotometric analysis

    Plutonium ions in solution have absorption spectra so different that it is possible to use them for analytical purposes. Detailed studies have been performed in nitric solutions. Some very convenient methods for the determination of plutonium and its oxidation states, especially the ratios Pu(III):Pu(IV) and Pu(IV):Pu(VI) in a mixture of both, have been developed. These methods are described in this paper, including: a) Absorption spectra for plutonium (III), (IV), (VI) and mixtures. b) Relative extinction coefficients for the above mentioned species. c) Dependences of the relative extinction coefficients on the nitric acid concentration and the plutonium VI deviation from the Beer-Lambert law. The developed methods are simple and rapid and then, suitable in process control. Accuracy is improved when relative absorbance measurements are performed or controlled the variables which have effect on the spectra and extinction coefficients. (Author)

  6. Learning more about plutonium

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  7. The plutonium economy

    The dangers of producing and storing more plutonium as a result of introducing fast breeder reactors into the nuclear programme are explored, including the risks of terrorism and how to decrease them. (U.K.)

  8. French plutonium management program

    The French plutonium management program is summarized in this paper. The program considers nuclear generation as a major component of national electric power supply and includes the reprocessing of the spent fuel. (author)

  9. Plutonium in coniferous forests

    Our aim was to study the uptake of plutonium by trees, undervegetation and some wild foods. The ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soil samples was determined for comparisons of the fallout origin. In twelve years the Chernobyl derived plutonium has not reached the mineral soil. This refers to a very slow downward migration in podsolic soil. The study confirmed also the low Pu uptake by vegetation and an insignificant contribution to human doses through wild foods. (au)

  10. Linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    To assess the safety and availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for metastatic brain tumors, we reviewed 54 consecutive cases with a total of 118 brain metastases treated with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation (STI). Nineteen patients with a total of 27 brain tumors that were larger than 3 cm or close to critical normal tissues were treated with SRT. The marginal dose of SRT was 15-21 Gy (median 21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 3 days. The median marginal dose of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was 20 Gy. Effective rates of imaging studies were 72.7% and 94.4%, and those of clinical symptoms were 46.7% and 55.6% for SRT and SRS, respectively. One-year and two-year survival rates of SRT were 40.9% and 17.6%, respectively, and the median follow-up period was 6.4 months. The one-year survival rate of SRS was 32.7%, with a median follow-up of 4.6 months. Fourteen cases (7 cases each) had recurrent tumors at STI sites. Early complications were observed in one case of SRT and 8 cases of SRS, and late complications occurred in 3 cases of SRS. There were no significant differences among effective rates, survival rates, median follow-up times, recurrence rates, and complications between SRT and SRS. We concluded that SRT is a safe, effective therapy for large or eloquent area metastases. (author)

  11. Linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation for metastatic brain tumors

    Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    2003-05-01

    To assess the safety and availability of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for metastatic brain tumors, we reviewed 54 consecutive cases with a total of 118 brain metastases treated with linear-accelerator-based stereotactic irradiation (STI). Nineteen patients with a total of 27 brain tumors that were larger than 3 cm or close to critical normal tissues were treated with SRT. The marginal dose of SRT was 15-21 Gy (median 21 Gy) in 3 fractions for 3 days. The median marginal dose of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) was 20 Gy. Effective rates of imaging studies were 72.7% and 94.4%, and those of clinical symptoms were 46.7% and 55.6% for SRT and SRS, respectively. One-year and two-year survival rates of SRT were 40.9% and 17.6%, respectively, and the median follow-up period was 6.4 months. The one-year survival rate of SRS was 32.7%, with a median follow-up of 4.6 months. Fourteen cases (7 cases each) had recurrent tumors at STI sites. Early complications were observed in one case of SRT and 8 cases of SRS, and late complications occurred in 3 cases of SRS. There were no significant differences among effective rates, survival rates, median follow-up times, recurrence rates, and complications between SRT and SRS. We concluded that SRT is a safe, effective therapy for large or eloquent area metastases. (author)

  12. A Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole for accelerator-based BNCT

    A project to develop a Tandem-electrostatic-quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded Tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction slightly beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT

  13. Tandem-ESQ for accelerator-based BNCT

    A project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) is described. A folded tandem, with 1.25 MV terminal voltage, combined with an ElectroStatic Quadrupole (ESQ) chain is being proposed. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.5 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction beyond its resonance at 2.25 MeV. This machine is conceptually shown to be capable of accelerating a 30 mA proton beam to 2.5 MeV. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams, based on the '7Li(p,n)7Be reaction, to perform BNCT treatment for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. This electrostatic machine is the technologically simplest and cheapest solution for optimized AB-BNCT. (author)

  14. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part A

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume includes background information; purpose of and need for the proposed action; alternatives for disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium; and

  15. Plutonium in Baltic sediments

    Marine sediments accumulate the bulk of plutonium produced by nuclear tests. The nuclear power industry will form an additional source of plutonium, and it is important to determine the present background levels of plutonium in sediments and to compare the accumulation rate in the Baltic with that in other areas of the world. Plutonium was determined on four sediment cores collected from the Baltic Sea in 1974 and 1975. Two of the samples were from oxygenated coastal sediment with benthic life and two cores were collected from deep basins in the Baltic at depths of 183 m and 164 m where the bottoms were anoxic, with no benthic life, and where the rate of sedimentation is rather high. Data are presented on the Pu-239,240 content of the sediment cores as is pCi/kg dry wt in the different core sections. The highest plutonium concentrations were found near the surface, at depths of 0 to 8 cm. In all cores the plutonium concentration decreases sharply at a depth of about 6 to 8 cm

  16. AES and XPS study of plutonium oxidation

    The initial oxidation of plutonium metal at 270C has been studied using AES and XPS. Initially a clean plutonium surface was prepared by Ar+ bombardment and 5000C-Ar+ bombardment heat cycles. Changes occurring in the plutonium Auger electron spectra in the energy range of 40 to 120 eV and the 4f/sub 5/2/, 4f/sub 7/2/ (core levels), and 5f, 7s (valence band) XPS peaks were monitored during oxygen exposure (10 to 1.8 x 108 L). Examination of the 4f/sub 7/2/ level revealed two oxidation states which are attributed to a suboxide and PuO2. The 4f/sub 7/2/ binding energies for the two oxidation states and plutonium metal are 426.1, 424.4, and 422.2 eV, respectively. By taking the Auger ratio [0(511 eV)/Pu(317 eV)], it was observed that oxidation proceeded by two steps. In the first step there was a rapid increase of oxygen with the formation of the suboxide. In the second stage, the 0(511 eV)/Pu(317 eV) ratio was constant with conversion of the suboxide to PuO2

  17. General consideration of effective plutonium utilization in future LWRs

    In this study, the potential of mixed oxide fueled light water reactors (MOX-LWRs), especially focusing on the high conversion type LWRs (HC-LWRs) such as FLWR are evaluated in terms of both economic aspect and effective use of plutonium. For economics consideration, relative economics positions of MOX-LWRs are clarified comparing the cost of electricity for uranium fueled LWRs (U-LWRs), MOX-LWRs and fast breeder reactors (FBRs) assuming future natural uranium price raise and variation of parameters such as construction cost and capacity factor. Also the economic superiority of MOX utilization against the uranium use is mentioned from the view point of plutonium credit concerning to the front-end fuel cycle cost. In terms of effective use of plutonium, comparative evaluations on plutonium mass balance in the cases of HC-LWR and high moderation type LWRs (HM-LWRs) taking into account plutonium quality (ratio of fissile to total plutonium) constraint in multiple recycling are performed as representative MOX utilization cases. Through this evaluation, the advantageous features of plutonium multiple recycling by HC-LWR are clarified. From all these results, merits of the introduction of HC-LWRs are discussed. (author)

  18. Study of plutonium recycling physics in light water reactors

    A stock of plutonium from the reprocessing of thermal neutron reactor fuel is likely to appear in the next few years. The use of this plutonium as fuel replacing 235U in thermal reactors is probably more interesting than simple stock-piling storage: immobilization of a capital which moreover would deteriorate by radioactive decay of isotope 241 also fissile and present to an appreciable extend in plutonium from reprocessing (half-life 15 years); recycling, on the other hand, will supply energy without complete degradation of the stock for fast neutron reactor loads, the burned matter having been partially renewed by conversion; furthermore the use of plutonium will meet the needs created by a temporary pressure on the naturel and/or enriched uranium market. For these two reasons the recycling of plutonium in thermal neutron reactors is being considered seriously today. The present work is confined to neutronic aspects and centres mainly on pressurized water-moderated reactors, the most highly developed at present in France. Four aspects of the problem are examined: 1. the physics of a plutonium-recycling reactor special features of neutronic phenomena with respect to the 'conventional' scheme of the 235U burning reactor; 2. calculation of a plutonium-recycling reactor: adaptation of standard methods; 3. qualification of these calculations from the viewpoint of both data and inevitable approximations; 4. the fuel cycle and particularly the equivalence of fissile matters

  19. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors

  20. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  1. Subpanel on accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments

    Neutrinos are among nature's fundamental constituents, and they are also the ones about which we know least. Their role in the universe is widespread, ranging from the radioactive decay of a single atom to the explosions of supernovae and the formation of ordinary matter. Neutrinos might exhibit a striking property that has not yet been observed. Like the back-and-forth swing of a pendulum, neutrinos can oscillate to-and-from among their three types (or flavors) if nature provides certain conditions. These conditions include neutrinos having mass and a property called open-quotes mixing.close quotes The phenomenon is referred to as neutrino oscillations. The questions of the origin of neutrino mass and mixing among the neutrino flavors are unsolved problems for which the Standard Model of particle physics holds few clues. It is likely that the next critical step in answering these questions will result from the experimental observation of neutrino oscillations. The High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) Subpanel on Accelerator-Based Neutrino Oscillation Experiments was charged to review the status and discovery potential of ongoing and proposed accelerator experiments on neutrino oscillations, to evaluate the opportunities for the U.S. in this area of physics, and to recommend a cost-effective plan for pursuing this physics, as appropriate. The complete charge is provided in Appendix A. The Subpanel studied these issues over several months and reviewed all the relevant and available information on the subject. In particular, the Subpanel reviewed the two proposed neutrino oscillation programs at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The conclusions of this review are enumerated in detail in Chapter 7 of this report. The recommendations given in Chapter 7 are also reproduced in this summary

  2. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    Sharma S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC, are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife. Output factor (St, tissue maximum ratio (TMR and off axis ratio (OAR of these three SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/ Welhofer and Pinpoint (PTW cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well.

  3. Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/Welhofer) and Pinpoint (PTW) cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well. (author)

  4. Beryllium Target for Accelerator - Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    This work is part of a project for developing Accelerator Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB- BNCT) for which the generation of neutrons through nuclear reactions like 9Be(d,n) is necessary. In this paper first results of the design and development of such neutron production targets are presented. For this purpose, the neutron production target has to be able to withstand the mechanical and thermal stresses produced by intense beams of deuterons (of 1.4 MeV with a total current of about 30mA). In particular, the target should be able to dissipate an energy density of up to 1 kW/cm2 and preserve its physical and mechanical properties for a sufficient length of time under irradiation conditions and hydrogen damage. The target is proposed to consist of a thin Be deposit (neutron producing material) on a thin W or Mo layer to stop the beam and a Cu backing to help carry away the heat load. To achieve the adhesion of the Be films on W, Mo and Cu substrates, a powder blasting technique was applied with quartz and alumina microspheres. On the other hand, Ag deposits were made on some of the substrates previously blasted to favor the chemical affinity between Beryllium and the substrate thus improving adhesion. Be deposits were characterized by means of different techniques including Electron Microscopy (Sem) and Xr Diffraction. Roughness and thickness measurements were also made. To satisfy the power dissipation requirements for the neutron production target, a microchannel system model is proposed. The simulation based on this model permits to determine the geometric parameters of the prototype complying with the requirements of a microchannel system. Results were compared with those in several publications and discrepancies lower than 10% were found in all cases. A prototype for model validation is designed here for which simulations of fluid and structural mechanics were carried out and discussed

  5. Plutonium-236 traces determination in plutonium-238 by α spectrometry

    Two methods are described in this report for the determination of plutonium-236 traces in plutonium-238 by a spectrometry using semi-conductor detectors. The first method involves a direct comparison of the areas under the peaks of the α spectra of plutonium-236 and plutonium-238. The electrolytic preparation of the sources is carried out after preliminary purification of the plutonium. The second method makes it possible to determine the 236Pu/238Pu ratio by comparing the areas of the α peaks of uranium-232 and uranium-234, which are the decay products of the two plutonium isotopes respectively. The uranium in the source, also deposited by electrolysis, is separated from a 1 mg amount of plutonium either by a T.L.A. extraction, or by the use of ion-exchange resins. The report ends with a discussion of the results obtained with plutonium of two different origins. (authors)

  6. Plutonium - radiological protection

    For the protection of persons exposed to plutonium isotopes and higher actinides there are five important requirements. First it is essential to evaluate all the appropriate data and develop basic dose standards for control of exposure of body organs, particularly bone, liver and lung; these must be comparable to standards for exposure to external gamma and X-radiation. Secondly, from these basic standards, values for maximum permissible concentrations in air and permissible annual intakes must be derived using metabolic models for plutonium in humans. As part of the biological monitoring of workers it is necessary to make assessments of the amount of plutonium in the body either by measurement of the excretion rate of plutonium in the urine or by external counting of gamma or X-radiations over the chest or contaminated wound site. For the treatment of cases of high over-exposure therapeutic techniques should be available for accelerating the excretion or removal of the radioactivity from the body. Finally, plans must be made to cover the possibility of a large release of plutonium into the environment and these should include acceptable values for ground contamination levels. (auth)

  7. Surplus plutonium disposition draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1, Part B

    On May 22, 1997, DOE published a Notice of Intent (NOI) in the Federal Register (62 Federal Register 28009) announcing its decision to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) that would tier from the analysis and decisions reached in connection with the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic EIS (Storage and Disposition PEIS). DOE's disposition strategy allows for both the immobilization of surplus plutonium and its use as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of the immobilized plutonium and MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a geologic repository. The Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement analyzes alternatives that would use the immobilization approach (for some of the surplus plutonium) and the MOX fuel approach (for some of the surplus plutonium); alternatives that would immobilize all of the surplus plutonium; and the No Action Alternative. The alternatives include three disposition facilities that would be designed so that they could collectively accomplish disposition of up to 50 metric tons (55 tons) of surplus plutonium over their operating lives: (1) the pit disassembly and conversion facility would disassemble pits (a weapons component) and convert the recovered plutonium, as well as plutonium metal from other sources, into plutonium dioxide suitable for disposition; (2) the immobilization facility would include a collocated capability for converting nonpit plutonium materials into plutonium dioxide suitable for immobilization and would be located at either Hanford or SRS. DOE has identified SRS as the preferred site for an immobilization facility; (3) the MOX fuel fabrication facility would fabricate plutonium dioxide into MOX fuel. This volume has chapters on environmental consequences; environmental regulations, permits, and consultations; a glossary; list of preparers; distribution list

  8. Plutonium disproportionation: the ambiguity phenomenon.

    Silver, G L

    2003-05-01

    Plutonium oxidation-state studies may yield ambiguous results if the parameters are not carefully chosen. The effect can be related to environmental plutonium as illustrated by an example. PMID:12735968

  9. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  10. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans

  11. Towards a Plutonium Market

    Taking as their starting point the various power reactor construction programmes, the authors estimate in the first part of the paper the production of plutonium in the non-socialist world for the period up to 1980. They also estimate the plutonium requirements of the various fast reactor programmes. For the period up to 1970-71, it is found that United States requirements will be satisfied only by drawing on the United States Atomic Energy Commission's stocks and through the exchange agreement with the United Kingdom. For the rest of the world, resources and requirements will be more or less in equilibrium. From 1971 onwards production will greatly exceed the requirements of fast reactors, which will still only be at the prototype stage. If it is assumed that the large-scale construction of fast reactors will not begin until ten years later, the only outlet for plutonium, for which there will no longer be a guarantee of repurchase by the USAEC in the case of enriched uranium reactors, will consist of recycling in thermal reactors. Storage with a view to re-use in breeders at a more remote and indeterminate date would impose an intolerable financial burden on power reactor operators. The question thus arises whether a collapse in the price of plutonium will occur after 1970. In the second part of the paper the authors attempt to predict the course of such a price collapse, followed by a rise as breeders enter service on a commercial basis. They discuss the effects that the absence of plutonium stocks and die competition of recycling in thermal reactors might have on the commercial introduction of breeders. Finally, an attempt is made to determine by what mechanisms a harmonious market for plutonium could be assured during the next fifteen years. (author)

  12. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  13. Plutonium microstructures. Part 1

    This report is the first of three parts in which Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory metallographers exhibit a consolidated set of illustrations of inclusions that are seen in plutonium metal as a consequence of inherent and tramp impurities, alloy additions, and thermal or mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of nonmetallic and intermetallic inclusions characteristic of major impurity elements as an aid to identifying unknowns. It also describes historical aspects of the increased purity of laboratory plutonium samples, and it gives the composition of the etchant solutions and describes the etching procedure used in the preparation of each illustrated sample. 25 figures

  14. Plutonium and transplutonian biology

    The present state of knowledge in the field of plutonium and transplutonian biology is reviewed. The physico-chemical properties of these substances, the conditions in which they can contaminate human beings, their behaviour on mammals, their toxic effects and the correlative contamination treatment technique are analyzed successively. Plutonium and transplutonians, although relatively toxic, have as yet never caused severe injuries to humans. They cannot be transmitted to man through alimentary chains and constitute a hazard only for those who handle them. In this last case, the existing protection techniques offer such a high degree of efficiency that virtually all risk of contamination is eliminated

  15. Plutonium in the Great Lakes

    Since 1971 plutonium concentrations have been measured annually in Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario and at less frequent intervals in the other Great Lakes. The concentrations of plutonium in the water column have decreased only slightly during the 7 y of measurement. The residence times for plutonium in the lakes have been estimated by simple time-concentration models. The apparent sinking rates for plutonium have been found to be essentially constant in all the Great Lakes, which suggest that the basic processes that control the concentrations of dissolved plutonium are similar despite considerable differences in chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of the lakes. Analyses of plutonium in water, suspended solids, material from sediment traps, and sediment cores show that considerable resuspension of previously sedimented material into the hypolimnion occurs throughout a major part of the year. A mechanism is proposed to account for the seasonal cycling of plutonium in the epilimnion of Lake Michigan

  16. International plutonium policy

    As any other fissile material, the plutonium raises several utilization problems, particularly as far as diversion by sub-national groups or proliferation are concerned. The purpose of this paper is to show that these problems can be given reasonable solutions avoiding over penalties on energy production

  17. Plutonium safety training course

    This course seeks to achieve two objectives: to provide initial safety training for people just beginning work with plutonium, and to serve as a review and reference source for those already engaged in such work. Numerous references have been included to provide information sources for those wishing to pursue certain topics more fully. The first part of the course content deals with the general safety approach used in dealing with hazardous materials. Following is a discussion of the four properties of plutonium that lead to potential hazards: radioactivity, toxicity, nuclear properties, and spontaneous ignition. Next, the various hazards arising from these properties are treated. The relative hazards of both internal and external radiation sources are discussed, as well as the specific hazards when plutonium is the source. Similarly, the general hazards involved in a criticality, fire, or explosion are treated. Comments are made concerning the specific hazards when plutonium is involved. A brief summary comparison between the hazards of the transplutonium nuclides relative to 239Pu follows. The final portion deals with control procedures with respect to contamination, internal and external exposure, nuclear safety, and fire protection. The philosophy and approach to emergency planning are also discussed

  18. Plutonium Disposition by Immobilization

    The ultimate goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Immobilization Project is to develop, construct, and operate facilities that will immobilize between 17 to 50 tonnes (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons-usable plutonium materials in waste forms that meet the ''spent fuel'' standard and are acceptable for disposal in a geologic repository. Using the ceramic can-in-canister technology selected for immobilization, surplus plutonium materials will be chemically combined into ceramic forms which will be encapsulated within large canisters of high level waste (HLW) glass. Deployment of the immobilization capability should occur by 2008 and be completed within 10 years. In support of this goal, the DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) is conducting development and testing (D and T) activities at four DOE laboratories under the technical leadership of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Savannah River Site has been selected as the site for the planned Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). The D and T effort, now in its third year, will establish the technical bases for the design, construction, and operation of the U. S. capability to immobilize surplus plutonium in a suitable and cost-effective manner. Based on the D and T effort and on the development of a conceptual design of the PIP, automation is expected to play a key role in the design and operation of the Immobilization Plant. Automation and remote handling are needed to achieve required dose reduction and to enhance operational efficiency

  19. Plutonium: An introduction

    This report is a summary of the history and properties of plutonium. It presents information on the atoms, comparing chemical and nuclear properties. It looks at the history of the atom, including its discovery and production methods. It summarizes the metallurgy and chemistry of the element. It also describes means of detecting and measuring the presence and quantity of the element

  20. Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report

    Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO2 batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds

  1. Use of plutonium for power production

    The panel reviewed available information on various aspects of plutonium utilization, such as physics of plutonium, technology of plutonium fuels in thermal and fast reactors, behaviour of plutonium fuel under reactor irradiation, technological and economic aspects of plutonium fuel cycle. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant. Interim plutonium stabilization engineering study

    Sevigny, G.J.; Gallucci, R.H.; Garrett, S.M.K.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Goheen, R.S.; Molton, P.M.; Templeton, K.J.; Villegas, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Nass, R. [Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report provides the results of an engineering study that evaluated the available technologies for stabilizing the plutonium stored at the Plutonium Finishing Plant located at the hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Further processing of the plutonium may be required to prepare the plutonium for interim (<50 years) storage. Specifically this document provides the current plutonium inventory and characterization, the initial screening process, and the process descriptions and flowsheets of the technologies that passed the initial screening. The conclusions and recommendations also are provided. The information contained in this report will be used to assist in the preparation of the environmental impact statement and to help decision makers determine which is the preferred technology to process the plutonium for interim storage.

  4. International plutonium policy

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  5. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  6. Oxidation of plutonium dioxide.

    Korzhavyi, Pavel A; Vitos, Levente; Andersson, David A; Johansson, Börje

    2004-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the actinide elements form the scientific basis for rational handling of nuclear materials. In recent experiments, most unexpectedly, plutonium dioxide has been found to react with water to form higher oxides up to PuO(2.27), whereas PuO(2) had always been thought to be the highest stable oxide of plutonium. We perform a theoretical analysis of this complicated situation on the basis of total energies calculated within density functional theory combined with well-established thermodynamic data. The reactions of PuO(2) with either O(2) or H(2)O to form PuO(2+delta) are calculated to be endothermic: that is, in order to occur they require a supply of energy. However, our calculations show that PuO(2+delta) can be formed, as an intermediate product, by reactions with the products of radiolysis of water, such as H(2)O(2). PMID:15034561

  7. Plutonium fuel program

    The project is concerned with developing an advanced method to produce nuclear reactor fuels. Since 1968 EIR has worked successfully on the production of uranium-plutonium mixed carbide using wet gelation chemistry. An important part of the development is irradiating the fuel in materials test reactors and evaluating its performance. During 1979 the programme continued with principal activities of fuel fabrication development, preparation for irradiation testing, performance evaluation, and modelling and plant engineering. (Auth.)

  8. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  9. A mechanism for plutonium pyrophoricity

    Two-stage mechanism of plutonium pyrophoricity, based on metal warm-up under impact of heat released by Pu2O3 layer oxidation, preliminarily formed as a result of dioxide layer reduction on plutonium surface, is proposed. It is shown that the above mechanism satisfactorily explains the available experimental data, including effect of various factors on ignition temperature of metallic plutonium. 48 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.)

  11. Remote handling in the Plutonium Immobilization Project: Puck handling

    Since the break up of the Soviet Union at the end of the Cold War, the US and Russia have been negotiating ways to reduce their nuclear stockpiles. Economics is one of the reasons behind this, but another important reason is safeguarding these materials from unstable organizations and countries. With the downsizing of the nuclear stockpiles, large quantities of plutonium are being declared excess and must be safely disposed of. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been selected as the site where the immobilization facility will be located. Conceptual design and process development commenced in 1998. SRS will immobilize excess plutonium in a ceramic waste form and encapsulate it in vitrified high level waste in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. These canisters will then be interred in the national repository at Yucca Mountain, New Mexico. The facility is divided into three distinct operating areas: Plutonium Conversion, First Stage Immobilization, and Second Stage Immobilization. This paper will discuss the first two operations

  12. Proliferation aspects of plutonium recycling

    Plutonium recycling offers benefits in an energy perspective of sustainable development, and, moreover it contributes to non-proliferation. Prior to recycling, reactor-grade plutonium from light-water reactors does not lend itself easily to the assembly of explosive nuclear devices; thereafter, practically not at all. Control systems for material security and non-proliferation should identify and adopt several categories of plutonium covering various isotopic mixtures associated with different fuel types, in order to better reflect the risks and to better focus their controls. The author proposes the adoption of three categories of plutonium. (author)

  13. F. Biological hazards of plutonium

    Plutonium is an unavoidable result of present nuclear power programmes. Its predominant isotopes are extremely long-lived and very toxic if absorbed in the body. In view of the increasing potential for plutonium and man to come into contact, the consequences of any plutonium release into the environment should be scientifically examined. This report is an attempt to place in one document a fully referenced account of the on-going work in many areas. There are three sections. Part 1 deals with the amounts of plutonium available in the fuel cycle, its properties and the probability of routine or accidental release. Part 2 examines the ways in which plutonium can reach man, in particular through food chains or inhalation. Part 3 details the biological effects of plutonium once it is absorbed into the body, assesses the amounts likely to be harmful and discusses the adequacy of present standards for plutonium burdens. There are two appendices. The likely differences between Pu-239, the most studied isotope, and other plutonium isotopes or transuranic nuclides are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a fuller account of the ways in which the fate of ingested or inhaled plutonium have been determined

  14. Composite Fuels in Inert Matrix for a Plutonium Multirecycling Strategy in PWRs

    Problems arising from the accumulation of plutonium stock, whether from civil origin or resulting from arms reform, are beginning to be well defined, and a major international effort has been undertaken. Obviously, elements of solutions to problems linked to multirecycling and plutonium in-reactor optimization may be found in the short and medium runs by taking into account the capacities of composite fuels in an inert matrix in the fields of neutronics and material sciences. A composite fuel without uranium in an inert matrix increases the consumption of plutonium, as the conversion source (238U) is eliminated at design. The presented plutonium multirecycling scenario shows that balancing the incoming-outgoing plutonium fluxes for the French pool is possible, and if approximately a third of the pool uses this type of fuel, fluxes may very rapidly be balanced

  15. METHOD FOR OBTAINING PLUTONIUM METAL AND ALLOYS OF PLUTONIUM FROM PLUTONIUM TRICHLORIDE

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Maraman, W.J.

    1962-11-13

    A process is given for both reducing plutonium trichloride to plutonium metal using cerium as the reductant and simultaneously alloying such plutonium metal with an excess of cerium or cerium and cobalt sufficient to yield the desired nuclear reactor fuel composition. The process is conducted at a temperature from about 550 to 775 deg C, at atmospheric pressure, without the use of booster reactants, and a substantial decontamination is effected in the product alloy of any rare earths which may be associated with the source of the plutonium. (AEC)

  16. Nuclear fuel conversion and fabrication chemistry

    Following irradiation and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, two operations are performed to prepare the fuel for subsequent reuse as fuel: fuel conversion, and fuel fabrication. These operations complete the classical nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel conversion involves generating a solid form suitable for fabrication into nuclear fuel. For plutonium based fuels, either a pure PuO2 material or a mixed PuO2-UO2 fuel material is generated. Several methods are available for preparation of the pure PuO2 including: oxalate or peroxide precipitation; or direct denitration. Once the pure PuO2 is formed, it is fabricated into fuel by mechanically blending it with ceramic grade UO2. The UO2 can be prepared by several methods which include direct denitration. ADU precipitation, AUC precipitation, and peroxide precipitation. Alternatively, UO2-PuO2 can be generated directly using coprecipitation, direct co-denitration, or gel sphere processes. In coprecipitation, uranium and plutonium are either precipitated as ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide or as a mixture of ammonium uranyl-plutonyl carbonate, filtered and dried. In direct thermal denitration, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrates are heated causing concentration and, subsequently, direct denitration. In gel sphere conversion, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrate containing additives are formed into spherical droplets, gelled, washed and dried. Refabrication of these UO3-PuO2 starting materials is accomplished by calcination-reduction to UO2-PuO2 followed by pellet fabrication. (orig.)

  17. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  18. EIS Data Call Report: Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans

  19. Application of Prompt Gamma-Ray Analysis to Identify Electrorefining Salt-Bearing Plutonium Oxide at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis is being implemented at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to screen impure plutonium oxide inventory items, received in the mid-1980s from the Rocky Flats Plant, for the presence of sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts from the electrorefining process. A large fraction of these items are suspected to contain electrorefining salts. Because the salts evaporate at the=950C stabilization temperature mandated for long-term storage under the U.S. Department of Energy plutonium oxide stabilization and storage criteria to plug and corrode process equipment, items found to have these salts qualify for thermal stabilization at 750C. The prompt gamma ray energies characteristic of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and other low atomic weight elements arise from the interaction the light elements with alpha radiation from plutonium and americium radioactive decay. High-resolution gamma ray spectrometers designed to detect energies up to ∼4.5 MeV are used to gather the high-energy prompt gamma spectra.Observation of the presence of the high-energy gamma peaks representing the natural chlorine-35, sodium-23, and potassium-39 isotopes and the sodium-to-chlorine peak area ratios in the range for plutonium oxide materials known to contain the electrorefining salts give the evidence needed to identify plutonium oxide materials at the PFP that qualify for the lower-temperature processing. Conversely, the absence of these telltale signals in the prompt gamma analysis provides evidence that the materials do not contain the electrorefining salts. Furthermore, based on calibrations using known assayed items, semiquantitative measurement of the quantity of chlorine present in materials containing electrorefining salt also can be performed by using the count rates observed for the chlorine peak, the plutonium quantity present in the measured item, and the plutonium- and chlorine-specific response of the gamma detection system. The origin and characteristics

  20. Technical report for generic site add-on facility for plutonium polishing

    The purpose of this report is to provide environmental data and reference process information associated with incorporating plutonium polishing steps (dissolution, impurity removal, and conversion to oxide powder) into the genetic-site Mixed-Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MOXFF). The incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will enable the removal of undesirable impurities, such as gallium and americium, known to be associated with the plutonium. Moreover, unanticipated impurities can be removed, including those that may be contained in (1) poorly characterized feed materials, (2) corrosion products added from processing equipment, and (3) miscellaneous materials contained in scrap recycle streams. These impurities will be removed to the extent necessary to meet plutonium product purity specifications for MOX fuels. Incorporation of the plutonium polishing steps will mean that the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will need to produce a plutonium product that can be dissolved at the MOXFF in nitric acid at a suitable rate (sufficient to meet overall production requirements) with the minimal usage of hydrofluoric acid, and its complexing agent, aluminum nitrate. This function will require that if the PDCF product is plutonium oxide powder, that powder must be produced, stored, and shipped without exceeding a temperature of 600 C

  1. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    1994-06-01

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ``Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs.

  2. Study of plutonium disposition using existing GE advanced Boiling Water Reactors

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the US to dispose of 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in a safe and proliferation resistant manner. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing permanent conversion and long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study ''Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium identified Light Water Reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a US disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a typical 1155 MWe GE Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. A companion study of the Advanced BWR has recently been submitted. The MOX core design work that was conducted for the ABWR enabled GE to apply comparable fuel design concepts and consequently achieve full MOX core loading which optimize plutonium throughput for existing BWRs

  3. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  4. Plutonium managing - slogan or reality?

    Principles of accumulation, processing and management of plutonium are considered in ecological aspect and from the viewpoint of international control of fissionable material propagation. It is shown that the hazard of plutonium handling is not unusual as compared to the risk of handling other harmful substances both in nature and in technical sphere

  5. The economics of plutonium recycle

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  6. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques. Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  7. Plutonium Round Robin Test

    Full text: The goal of nuclear forensics is to develop a preferred approach to illicit trafficking investigations. This approach must be widely understood and acceptable as credible. The principle objectives of the Round Robin Test are to prioritize the forensic techniques and methods, evaluate attribution capabilities, and examine the utility of database. The Plutonium Round Robin has made a tremendous contribution to fulfilling these goals through a collaborative learning experience that resulted from the outstanding efforts of the six participating international laboratories. A prioritize list of techniques and methods has been developed based on this exercise. Future work will focus on a Highly Enriched Round Robin and extent to which the techniques and methods can be generalized. The Plutonium Round Robin demonstrated a rather high level of capability to determine the important characteristics of the materials and processes using analytical methods. When this capability to was combined with the appropriate knowledge and database, it resulted in a demonstrated capability to attribute the source of the materials to a specific nuclear fuel, reactor, and reprocessing facility. A number of shortfalls were also identified in our current capabilities. These included alternative dating techniques, Light Water Reactor discrimination techniques, and the lack of a comprehensive network of data/knowledge bases. The result of the Round Robin will be used to develop guidelines or a 'recommended protocol' to be made available to the interested authorities and countries to use in real cases. The poster will present a summary of the results of the Plutonium Round Robin and describe the plans the subsequent Highly Enriched Uranium Round Robin Test. (author)

  8. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    An accurate volume measurement system for a large amount of plutonium nitrate solution stored in a reprocessing or a conversion plant has been developed at the Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC) Tokai Works. A pair of differential digital quartz pressure transducers is utilized in the volume measurement system. To obtain high accuracy, it is important that the non-linearity of the transducer is minimized within the measurement range, the zero point is stabilized, and the damping property of the pneumatic line is designed to minimize pressure oscillation. The accuracy of the pressure measurement can always be within 2Pa with re-calibration once a year. In the PCDF, the overall uncertainty of the volume measurement has been evaluated to be within 0.2 %. This system has been successfully applied to the Japanese government's and IAEA's routine inspection since 1984. (author)

  10. Plutonium vulnerability issues at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford, Washington, site began operating in the 1950s to produce plutonium metal and oxide for national defense purposes. Due to the production requirements and methods utilized to meet national needs and the abrupt shutdown of the plant in the late 1980s, the plant was left in a condition that poses a risk of radiation exposure to plant workers, of accidental radioactive material release to the environment, and of radiation exposure to the public. This report describes the stabilization of plutonium materials

  11. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Recovery of plutonium by pyroredox processing

    Using pyrochemical oxidation and reduction, we have developed a process to recover the plutonium in impure scrap with less than 95% plutonium. This plutonium metal was further purified by pyrochemical electrorefining. During development of the procedures, depleted electrorefining anodes were processed, and over 80% of the plutonium was recovered as high-purity metal in one electrorefining cycle. Over 40 kg of plutonium has been recovered from 55 kg of impure anodes with our procedures. 6 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  14. Plutonium again (smuggling and movements)

    A link is discounted between nuclear proliferation and the recently discovered smuggled plutonium from the former Soviet Union at Munich airport and other places in Germany. It is argued that governments wishing to obtain nuclear materials to develop a weapons programme would not arrange to have it smuggled in a suitcase. Instead, it is speculated that a link exists between the plutonium smuggling incidents and the desire to promote the production of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. Such incidents, by further raising public anxiety, may be intended to turn public opinion in favour of MOX fuel production as a sensible way of getting rid of surplus plutonium. (UK)

  15. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized δ-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol−1.

  16. Plutonium oxidation states in seawater

    Studies of the oxidation-state distribution of plutonium in the ocean illustrate the need to characterize seawater by means of the pH, the EH, and quantitative complexation parameters. The parameters are combined in an easy-to-use equation that determines the fractions of the four oxidation states. Similar analyses have been applied to plutonium in other solutions, and the same methods can be applied to seawater. An appendix shows how to estimate and interpret the alpha coefficient for tetravalent plutonium using published information for tetravalent thorium

  17. Learning more about plutonium; En savoir plus sur le plutonium

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This digest brochure explains what plutonium is, where it comes from, how it is used, its recycling into Mox fuel, its half life, historical discovery, its presence in the environment, toxicity and radioactivity. (J.S.)

  18. Uranium plutonium oxide fuels

    Uranium plutonium oxide is the principal fuel material for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR's) throughout the world. Development of this material has been a reasonably straightforward evolution from the UO2 used routinely in the light water reactor (LWR's); but, because of the lower neutron capture cross sections and much lower coolant pressures in the sodium cooled LMFBR's, the fuel is operated to much higher discharge exposures than that of a LWR. A typical LMFBR fuel assembly is shown. Depending on the required power output and the configuration of the reactor, some 70 to 400 such fuel assemblies are clustered to form the core. There is a wide variation in cross section and length of the assemblies where the increasing size reflects a chronological increase in plant size and power output as well as considerations of decreasing the net fuel cycle cost. Design and performance characteristics are described

  19. Plutonium's human guinea pigs

    In 1993, the inquiry of an American journalist, Eileen Welson, has revealed to the general public that in the 1940s and 1950s people were used as human samples to study the effects of radiation, without their knowledge. The shock, occurred in American opinion has led to the creation of an inquiry commission, which keeps revealing new documents. The latter shows the existence of so many hundreds of experiments of this type carried out in a spirit too close to that of the Nazi physicians. Injections of plutonium sub 2 sub 3 sub 8 and sub 2 sub 3 sub 9 or enriched uranium, exposition to radioactive clouds, massive irradiation by x-rays,... etc. those practice have persisted till the 1970s. (author). 22 refs., 10 figs

  20. Research of accelerator-based neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Background: 7Li (p, n) reaction of high neutron yield and low threshold energy has become one of the most important neutron generating reactions for Accelerator-based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). Purpose Focuses on neutron yield and spectrum characteristics of this kind of neutron generating reaction which serves as an accelerator-based neutron source and moderates the high energy neutron beams to meet BNCT requirements. Methods: The yield and energy spectrum of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are researched using the Monte Carlo code-MCNPX2.5.0. And the energy and angular distribution of differential neutron yield by 2.5-MeV incident proton are also given in this part. In the following part, the character of epithermal neutron beam generated by 2.5-MeV incident protons is moderated by a new-designed moderator. Results: Energy spectra of neutrons generated by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction with incident proton energy from 1.9 MeV to 3.0 MeV are got through the simulation and calculation. The best moderator thickness is got through comparison. Conclusions: Neutron beam produced by accelerator-based 7Li(p, n) reaction, with the bombarding beam of 10 mA and the energy of 2.5 MeV, can meet the requirement of BNCT well after being moderated. (authors)

  1. Protection programs of the plutonium project

    In an invited paper delivered at the 25th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society, random comments reflecting the health physics pattern-setting for good protection in the early years of the Plutonium Project at Chicago, Oak Ridge and Hanford are presented. Some details are given on the development of personnel dosimetry measurements and of the instrument for measuring ambient radiation and radioactive contamination. A brief account is also given of the conversion of these health physics patterns to approved recommendations of the NCRP and others starting in 1946. In the last two decades it has been deduced that the relevant biological effects at low radiation dose are late cancers and genetic effects. (U.K.)

  2. IODATE METHOD FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    Stoughton, R.W.; Duffield, R.B.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for removing radioactive fission products from aqueous solutions containing such fission products together with plutonium. This is accomplished by incorporating into such solutions a metal iodate precipitate to remove fission products which form insoluble iodates. Suitable metal iodates are those of thorium and cerium. The plutonium must be in the hexavalent state and the pH of the solution must be manintained at less than 2.

  3. Plutonium contamination in italian population

    The literature data concerning the biological and the chemical physical characteristics of plutonium are summarized in the first part of the paper. The experimental results of the plutonium concentration in complete diets, single food items and some human autopsy tissues, regarding the Italian situation, are then presented and discussed. Our experimental data are in good agreement with similar data reported in several studies carried out in some countries of the north emisphere

  4. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  5. Crystalline matrices for the immobilization of plutonium and actinides

    Anderson, E.B.; Burakov, E.E.; Galkin, Ya.B.; Starchenko, V.A.; Vasiliev, V.G. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The management of weapon plutonium, disengaged as a result of conversion, is considered together with the problem of the actinide fraction of long-lived high level radioactive wastes. It is proposed to use polymineral ceramics based on crystalline host-phases: zircon ZrSiO{sub 4} and zirconium dioxide ZrO{sub 2}, for various variants of the management of plutonium and actinides (including the purposes of long-term safe storage or final disposal from the human activity sphere). It is shown that plutonium and actinides are able to form with these phases on ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} was done on laboratory level by the hot pressing method, using the plasmochemical calcination technology. To incorporate simulators of plutonium into the structure of ZrSiO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 2} in the course of synthesis, an original method developed by the authors as a result of studying the high-uranium zircon (Zr,U) SiO{sub 4} form Chernobyl {open_quotes}lavas{close_quotes} was used.

  6. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium

  7. Demonstration experiment of 3 BN-600 MOX vibropac FAs irradiation for the excess weapons plutonium disposal

    The paper presents results of a demonstration experiment on conversion of 50 kg of weapon-grade plutonium in the form of metal ingots into granulated MOX-fuel to be used for manufacturing fuel pins and 3 fuel assemblies (FAs) for the fast power-generating reactor BN-600, irradiation parameters of these FAs and the data from post-irradiation examinations. It can be concluded from the PIE results that the 3FAs were successfully irradiated in BN-600 without any fuel pin failures. Therefore, disposition of weapon - grade plutonium with a weight of about 20kg was successfully done. This represents the first disposition of Russian surplus weapon - grade plutonium as an international cooperation (this experiment was performed in collaboration between RIAR and JNC). The possibility of using MOX vipac fuel as a method for weapon plutonium disposition is clearly shown. (author)

  8. Erosional losses of fallout plutonium

    Plutonium from fallout after atmospheric explosion of nuclear weapons in the 1950's and 1960s is being redistributed over the landscape by soil erosion and carried on sediment by streams to oceans. Erosion rates computed with the Universal Soil Loss Equation for more than 200,000 sample points on nonfederal land across the US were used to estimate plutonium removal rates by soil erosion. On the average, only about 4% of the eroded sediment reaches the outlet of a major river. The remaining sediment is deposited en route, and because deposition is a selective process, the sediment is enriched in fine particles having the highest concentration of plutonium because of the element's strong association with clay and silt-sized sediment. Estimated enrichment ratios, sediment delivery ratios, and erosion rates were used to estimate annual delivery of fallout plutonium. These estimates ranged from 0.002% of the initial fallout plutonium inventory for the Savannah River basin to 0.01% for the Columbia River basin, to 0.02% for the Hudson and Rio Grande River basins, to 0.08% for the Mississippi River basin. If the deposition of plutonium had been uniformly 1 mCi/km2, the estimated plutonium activity on suspended sediment would range from about 7 fCi/g of sediment of the Savannah River basin, to 9 fCi/g for the Mississippi River basin, to 12 fCi/g for the Hudson River basin, to 14 fCi/g for the Columbia and Rio Grande River basins. 45 references, 2 figures, 17 tables

  9. Requirements for an evaluated nuclear data file for accelerator-based transmutation

    The importance of intermediate-energy nuclear data files as part of a global calculation scheme for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste systems (for instance with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor) is discussed. A proposal for three intermediate-energy data libraries for incident neutrons and protons is presented: - a data library from 0 to about 100 MeV (first priority), - a reference data library from 20 to 1500 MeV, - an activation/transmutation library from 0 to about 100 MeV. Furthermore, the proposed ENDF-6 structure of each library is given. The data needs for accelerator-based transmutation are translated in terms of the aforementioned intermediate-energy data libraries. This could be a starting point for an ''International Evaluated Nuclear Data File for Transmutation''. This library could also be of interest for other applications in science and technology. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations concerning future evaluation work are given. (orig.)

  10. Beam shaping assembly optimization for 7Li(p,n)7Be accelerator based BNCT

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30 mA at about 2.5 MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors. - Highlights: • A Beam Shaping Assembly for accelerator based BNCT has been designed. • A conical port for easy patient positioning and the cooling system are included. • Several configurations can deliver tumor doses greater than 55 RBEGy. • Good tumor doses can be obtained in less than 60 min of irradiation time

  11. Mixed oxide conversion facility alternative conceptual designs

    Allied-General Nuclear Services recently performed studies to evaluate alternative proliferation-resistant flowsheets of the uranium-based LWR fuel cycle. The alternatives evaluated consist of coprocessing schemes with either a gamma or a heat spike added. A literature search and evaluation were performed to select a process technology for mixed oxide coconversion. The COPRECAL process was chosen as the most suitable conversion process technology. Three alternative mixed oxide conversion facility design concepts were prepared based on the COPRECAL technology. These alternative concepts are compared to a pure plutonium conversion facility. Facility designs, relative proliferation resistance, and cost estimates are discussed

  12. Plutonium focus area

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this new approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to the creation of specific Focus Areas. These organizations were designed to focus the scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on the major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The Focus Area approach provides the framework for intersite cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major Focus Areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50, now called the Office of Science and Technology), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (EM-66) followed the structure already in place in EM-50 and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). The following information outlines the scope and mission of the EM, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  13. Plutonium monitor: data processing

    The principle of the real time determination of air voluminal activity from the measurement of the activity of the filter. The ''Pu'' measurement processing has to comple the Pu/natural radioactivity discrimination that the sampler cannot do alone. The basic process of the measurement processing is described. For the operation checkout and the examination of performance of the processing, and for the technical success of a measurement-processing system, it is possible to use a real-time simulation of the different sensors; in the case of ''Pu'' processing, a mockup of the sampler has been prefered; it gives the elementary countings due to the natural radioactivity for the two ''Pu'' and ''RaA'' windows; it has been associated to a simulator giving the pulses corresponding in the ''Pu'' window to only ''Pu'', according the chosen profile. The main results obtained after several hundreds simulations are given; eight diagrams, quite representative, are presented. To concludes the performence of the BFSA monitor, for plutonium aerosol monitoring, in which the TMAPU2 measurement processing system and a performant detection head are associated, are reviewed

  14. Spallation target design and integration into an accelerator-based transmutation system

    Spallation target design and system integration is critical for the success of accelerator-based transmutation systems. Issues which must be considered in the design of spallation targets are identified, and representative parametric studies on the system integration of a sample target are given. The results illustrate the importance of a systems-driven target design approach due to the large effects that the target design can have on both the economics and physics performance of the system

  15. Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery in 140 brain metastases from malignant melanoma

    Hauswald, Henrik; Stenke, Alina; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2015-01-01

    Background: To retrospectively access outcome and prognostic parameters of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery in brain metastases from malignant melanoma. Methods: Between 1990 and 2011 140 brain metastases in 84 patients with malignant melanoma (median age 56 years) were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery. At initial stereotactic radiosurgery 48 % of patients showed extracerebral control. The median count of brain metastases in a single patient was 1, the median diamete...

  16. Image-guided linear accelerator-based spinal radiosurgery for hemangioblastoma

    Selch, Michael T.; Tenn, Steve; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Lee, Steve P; Gorgulho, Alessandra; De Salles, Antonio A. F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively review the efficacy and safety of image-guided linear accelerator-based radiosurgery for spinal hemangioblastomas. Methods: Between August 2004 and September 2010, nine patients with 20 hemangioblastomas underwent spinal radiosurgery. Five patients had von Hipple–Lindau disease. Four patients had multiple tumors. Ten tumors were located in the thoracic spine, eight in the cervical spine, and two in the lumbar spine. Tumor volume varied from 0.08 to 14.4 cc (median ...

  17. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    Calcagnile L.; Quarta G

    2012-01-01

    Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD), University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try) radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis). An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be ...

  18. Report of the consultant's meeting on applications of accelerator based analysis

    At the present meeting, applications of accelerator based analytical methods, often referred as ion beam analysis (IBA) methods, to the following areas have been discussed: materials (including thin films), Earth sciences (including environmental studies), biology and medicine, art and archaeology (cultural heritage), and other applications (including forensic applications). This report gives brief overview of IBA applications in these areas, with short background about accelerators needed and corresponding analytical techniques

  19. Ensemble Manifold Rank Preserving for Acceleration-Based Human Activity Recognition.

    Tao, Dapeng; Jin, Lianwen; Yuan, Yuan; Xue, Yang

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of mobile devices and pervasive computing technologies, acceleration-based human activity recognition, a difficult yet essential problem in mobile apps, has received intensive attention recently. Different acceleration signals for representing different activities or even a same activity have different attributes, which causes troubles in normalizing the signals. We thus cannot directly compare these signals with each other, because they are embedded in a nonmetric space. Therefore, we present a nonmetric scheme that retains discriminative and robust frequency domain information by developing a novel ensemble manifold rank preserving (EMRP) algorithm. EMRP simultaneously considers three aspects: 1) it encodes the local geometry using the ranking order information of intraclass samples distributed on local patches; 2) it keeps the discriminative information by maximizing the margin between samples of different classes; and 3) it finds the optimal linear combination of the alignment matrices to approximate the intrinsic manifold lied in the data. Experiments are conducted on the South China University of Technology naturalistic 3-D acceleration-based activity dataset and the naturalistic mobile-devices based human activity dataset to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the new nonmetric scheme for acceleration-based human activity recognition. PMID:25265635

  20. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared

  1. Pit disassembly and conversion demonstration environmental assessment and research and development activities

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    A significant portion of the surplus plutonium is in the form of pits, a nuclear weapons component. Pits are composed of plutonium which is sealed in a metallic shell. These pits would need to be safely disassembled and permanently converted to an unclassified form that would be suitable for long-term disposition and international inspection. To determine the feasibility of an integrated pit disassembly and conversion system, a Pit Disassembly and Conversion Demonstration is proposed to take place at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This demonstration would be done in existing buildings and facilities, and would involve the disassembly of up to 250 pits and conversion of the recovered plutonium to plutonium metal ingots and plutonium dioxide. This demonstration also includes the conversion of up to 80 kilograms of clean plutonium metal to plutonium dioxide because, as part of the disposition process, some surplus plutonium metal may be converted to plutonium dioxide in the same facility as the surplus pits. The equipment to be used for the proposed demonstration addressed in this EA would use some parts of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) capability, other existing equipment/capacities, plus new equipment that was developed at other sites. In addition, small-scale R and D activities are currently underway as part of the overall surplus plutonium disposition program. These R and D activities are related to pit disassembly and conversion, MOX fuel fabrication, and immobilization (in glass and ceramic forms). They are described in Section 7.0. On May 16, 1997, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) notified potentially affected states and tribes that this EA would be prepared in accordance with NEPA. This EA has been prepared to provide sufficient information for DOE to determine whether a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is warranted or whether an EIS must be prepared.

  2. Report by a special panel of the American Nuclear Society: Protection and management of plutonium

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) established an independent and prestigious panel several months ago to take the matter up where the US National Academy of Science (NAS) left off. The challenge was to look at the broader issue of what to do with civil plutonium, as well as excess weapons material. In terms of approach, the report focused on several short- and long-term issues. The short-term focus was on the disposition of excess weapons plutonium, while the longer-range issue concerned the disposition of the plutonium being produced in the civil nuclear fuel cycle. For the short term, the ANS panel strongly endorsed the concept that all plutonium scheduled for release from the US and Russian weapons stocks should be converted to a form that is intensively radioactive in order to protect the plutonium from theft of seizure (the spent fuel standard). However, since the conversion will at best take several years to complete, the panel has concluded that immediate emphasis should be placed on the assurance that all unconverted materials are protected as securely as when they were part of the active weapon stockpiles. More importantly, the panel also recommended prompt implementation of the so-called reactor option for disposing of surplus US and Russian weapons plutonium. The longer-term issues covered by the panel were those posed by the growing stocks of both separated plutonium and spent fuel generated in the world's civil nuclear power programs. These issues included what fuel cycle policies should be prudently pursued in light of proliferation risks and likely future energy needs, what steps should be taken in regard to the increase in the demand for nuclear power in the future, and how civil plutonium in its various forms should be protected and managed to minimize proliferation. Overall, the panel concluded that plutonium is an energy resource that should be used and not a waste material to be disposed of

  3. Migration of plutonium in soils

    The goal of their work was to assess the migration features of plutonium in various types of soils and to compile a tentative long-term forecasting of the plutonium travel from the point of its entry. For this purpose, experimentally obtained vertical profiles of the plutonium distribution in the soils of the USSR and several countries of the Northern hemisphere were analyzed for various times Δt, i.e., times which had passed between t0 of the beginning of migration and the data t of sampling. In research on the migration of global plutonium, years 1954, when the observation of the environmental contamination by this element was initiated, and 1963, which is characterized by the maximum of the plutonium arrival from the atmosphere through radioactive fallout, were taken as t0. The latter year was used in calculations for forecasting the 137Cs migration in soils. For the local technogenic contamination of soils, the time of the 137Cs arrival in the environment was taken as t0

  4. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    Jouan, A. [Centre d`Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  5. Plutonium in depleted uranium penetrators

    Depleted Uranium (DU) penetrators used in the recent Balkan conflicts have been found to be contaminated with trace amounts of transuranic materials such as plutonium. This contamination is usually a consequence of DU fabrication being carried out in facilities also using uranium recycled from spent military and civilian nuclear reactor fuel. Specific activities of 239+240 Plutonium generally in the range 1 to 12 Bq/kg have been found to be present in DU penetrators recovered from the attack sites of the 1999 NATO bombardment of Kosovo. A DU penetrator recovered from a May 1999 attack site at Bratoselce in southern Serbia and analysed by University College Dublin was found to contain 43.7 +/- 1.9 Bq/kg of 239+240 Plutonium. This analysis is described. An account is also given of the general population radiation dose implications arising from both the DU itself and from the presence of plutonium in the penetrators. According to current dosimetric models, in all scenarios considered likely ,the dose from the plutonium is estimated to be much smaller than that due to the uranium isotopes present in the penetrators. (author)

  6. A World made of Plutonium?

    This lecture by Engelbert Broda was written for the 26th Pugwash Conference in Mühlhausen, Germany, 26 – 31 August 1976: Public doubts about nuclear energy are generally directed at the problems of routine emissions of radionuclides, of catastrophic accidents, and of terminal waste disposal. Curiously, the most important problem is not being given sufficient attention: The use of plutonium from civilian reactors fpr weapons production. According to current ideas about a nuclear future, 5000 tons (order of magnitude) of plutonium are to be made annually by year 2000, and about 10 000 tons will all the time be in circulation (transport, reprocessing, reproduction of fuel elements, etc.). It is a misconception that plutonium from power reactors is unsuitable as a nuclear explosive. 5000 tons are enough for several hundred thousand (!) of bombs, Nagasaki type. By the year 2000 maybe 40 – 50 countries will have home-made plutonium. Plutonium production and proliferation are the most serious problems in a nuclear world. (author)

  7. Fuel cycles using adulterated plutonium

    Brooksbank, R. E.; Bigelow, J. E.; Campbell, D. O.; Kitts, F. G.; Lindauer, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Adjustments in the U-Pu fuel cycle necessitated by decisions made to improve the nonproliferation objectives of the US are examined. The uranium-based fuel cycle, using bred plutonium to provide the fissile enrichment, is the fuel system with the highest degree of commercial development at the present time. However, because purified plutonium can be used in weapons, this fuel cycle is potentially vulnerable to diversion of that plutonium. It does appear that there are technologically sound ways in which the plutonium might be adulterated by admixture with /sup 238/U and/or radioisotopes, and maintained in that state throughout the fuel cycle, so that the likelihood of a successful diversion is small. Adulteration of the plutonium in this manner would have relatively little effect on the operations of existing or planned reactors. Studies now in progress should show within a year or two whether the less expensive coprocessing scheme would provide adequate protection (coupled perhaps with elaborate conventional safeguards procedures) or if the more expensive spiked fuel cycle is needed as in the proposed civex pocess. If the latter is the case, it will be further necessary to determine the optimum spiking level, which could vary as much as a factor of a billion. A very basic question hangs on these determinations: What is to be the nature of the recycle fuel fabrication facilities. If the hot, fully remote fuel fabrication is required, then a great deal of further development work will be required to make the full cycle fully commercial.

  8. Double shell tanks plutonium inventory assessment

    This report provides an evaluation that establishes plutonium inventory estimates for all DSTs based on known tank history information, the DST plutonium inventory tracking system, tank characterization measurements, tank transfer records, and estimated average concentration values for the various types of waste. These estimates use data through December 31, 1994, and give plutonium estimates as of January 1, 1995. The plutonium inventory values for the DSTs are given in Section 31. The plutonium inventory estimate is 224 kg for the DSTs and 854 kg for the SSTs for a total of 1078 kg. This value compares favorably with the total plutonium inventory value of 981 kg obtained from the total plutonium production minus plutonium recovery analysis estimates

  9. Development of Remote Plutonium Valence State Analyzer

    2008-01-01

    <正>In the Purex process of spent fuel reprocessing, the separation of uranium and plutonium depends on the capability extracting state plutonium ions with various valence by TBP. The separate degree of

  10. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  11. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    Navratil, J. D.; Baldwin, C. E.

    1977-04-27

    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products.

  12. Organometallic complex chemistry of plutonium and selected lanthanides

    This study deals with the metallo-organic chemistry of plutonium and also with that of some lanthanides. For plutonium, the conversion of Cs2PuCl6 with four equivalents KCp is investigated. In the series Sm, Gd, Dy and Er, compounds of the type Cp2LnX and the base adducts with acetonitrile are analysed. The ligand X passes the series Cl, N3, NCS and NCO. Both, the thermal and the vibrational spectroscopic behaviour is investigated. In addition, the effect of a changed ligand sphere on the optical spectrum is discussed. The adduct-free compounds are described by a ternary reaction not yet known from literature. For the first time, force constant calculations are carried out on metallo-organic compounds of lanthanides. With the exception of Cp2LnCl compounds, all compouds are presented for the first time in the framework of this study. (orig.)

  13. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  14. Rugged miniaturized mass sensors for use in plutonium conversion processes

    Ionization is produced either through Plasma Desorption, in the case of a solid, using fission fragments from a Cf-252 source; or in the case of a gas, via an electron avalanche from the impact on a microsphere detector of α particles from a radioactive source. The gaseous compound analysis yielded multiple peaks on parent ion and molecular fragments. In the solid compound analysis, the results indicated that solid-state mass spectrometry will provide important information about the degradation of materials by measured changes in molecular weight

  15. Plutonium removal from nitric acid waste streams

    Separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purifications operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1.4 (50-100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO (tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer

  16. Ecological relationships of plutonium in Southwest ecosystems

    A comprehensive summary of results was prepared on plutonium distribution and transport in Los Alamos and Trinity Site study areas. Despite differences in ecosystems and plutonium source, there are several similarities in plutonium distribution between Los Alamos and Trinity Site study areas. The soils/sediment component contains virtually all the plutonium inventory, with vegetation and rodents containing less than 0.1% of the total in all cases

  17. Technological alternatives for plutonium storage

    This paper discusses the problems of large long term storage since stores at fabrication plants may depend on the form of plutonium ultimately chosen for transport. The paper's conclusion includes: MOX can be regarded as more proliferation resistant than PUO2 but no experience of long term storage is available, therefore further R and D is required; co-location of the store with reprocessing plants (and fuel fabrication plant) would appear to have advantages in non-proliferation, safeguards implementation, environmental protection and economic aspects; there are strong non-proliferation and security arguments for not moving plutonium away from the site where it was separated until there is an identifiable and scheduled end use. The design of the store, the form in which plutonium should be stored, particularly as MOX, and the costs and further R and D required are considered. The possible location of stores is also discussed and institutional questions briefly considered

  18. Plutonium and U-233 mines

    A comparison is made among second generation reactor systems fuelled primarily with fissile plutonium and/or U-233 in uranium or thorium. This material is obtained from irradiated fuel from first generation CANDU reactors fuelled by natural or enriched uranium and thorium. Except for plutonium-thorium reactors, second generation reactors demand similar amounts of reprocessing throughput, but the most efficient plutonium burning systems require a large prior allocation of uranium. Second generation reactors fuelled by U-233 make more efficient use of resources and lead to more flexible fuelling strategies, but require development of first generation once-through thorium cycles and early demonstration of the commercial viability of thorium fuel reprocessing. No early implementation of reprocessing technology is required for these cycles

  19. Shielding calculational system for plutonium

    A computer calculational system has been developed and assembled specifically for calculating dose rates in AEC plutonium fabrication facilities. The system consists of two computer codes and all nuclear data necessary for calculation of neutron and gamma dose rates from plutonium. The codes include the multigroup version of the Battelle Monte Carlo code for solution of general neutron and gamma shielding problems and the PUSHLD code for solution of shielding problems where low energy gamma and x-rays are important. The nuclear data consists of built in neutron and gamma yields and spectra for various plutonium compounds, an automatic calculation of age effects and all cross-sections commonly used. Experimental correlations have been performed to verify portions of the calculational system. (23 tables, 7 figs, 16 refs) (U.S.)

  20. Plutonium behavior in the soil/water environment. Part I. Sorption of plutonium by soils

    The sorption behavior of plutonium was investigated using equilibrium sorption and column elution techniques. Plutonium nitrate solutions were used as the source of plutonium. Equilibrium sorption was measured for 13 soils at plutonium concentration levels of 10-6, 10-7, and 10-8 molar. Three characteristics of plutonium sorption were apparent from the sorption data. First, the initial concentration of plutonium has an effect, in some cases, on the amount of plutonium sorbed, although on the basis of the percent of plutonium sorbed, this effect is small. Second, the rate of plutonium sorption is rapid. Third, plutonium sorption is quite high. Sixty-two percent of the time the equilibrium sorption of plutonium is 99% or higher; 87% of the time it is 96% or higher. Only 5% of the time is the equilibrium sorption less than 90% and in no case is it less than 87%. Three soils were used to investigate the column elution behavior of plutonium. In two of these there were prompt pulses of plutonium through the column in the initial 20 ml effluent fractions. Subsequent elution fractions contained continually decreasing amounts of plutonium. In the third soil, there was no pulse of plutonium throughout the entire elution. Instead, the plutonium concentration in the effluent fractions varied randomly throughout the entire elution. In none of the soils was more than 2% of the added plutonium eluted from the column. Statistically significant relationships were found between plutonium sorption and cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay, and sand contents of the soils. Although this would tend to indicate that a conventional ion exchange process is responsible for the sorption of plutonium, the total data and knowledge about the chemistry of plutonium would indicate that there are other variables and cause/effect relationships that have not been identified

  1. Analysis of plutonium dioxide by coulometry

    Conditions for dissolution of plutonium dioxide have been determined. To transfer plutonium dioxides quantitatively in solution it should be heated with an HCl + HI mixture and boiled down three times in nitric acid. The disolution was monitored by potential scanning coulometry. The plutonium quantity was determined on a PKU-2 coulometric unit. Metrological parameters of the method have been evaluated

  2. Plutonium in Southern Hemisphere ocean Waters

    Hirose, K.; Aoyama, M.; Gastaud, J.;

    2013-01-01

    Plutonium in seawater collected by the BEAGLE2003 cruise was determined using ICP- SF-MS and alpha spectrometry after Fe co-precipitation and radiochemical purification. Levels and distributions of dissolved plutonium activity concentrations in Southern Hemisphere ocean waters are summarized here...... of the dominant factors controlling plutonium distributions in the Southern Hemisphere oceans is biogeochemical processes including particle scavenging....

  3. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  4. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  5. Plutonium microdistribution in human bone

    The amount and location of plutonium in bone from three humans injected during the mid-1940's has been studied by autoradiography and alpha particle spectrometry. Concentrations are similar on endosteal surfaces, Haversian canal surfaces and periosteal surfaces of long bone midshafts 17 months after injection. Endosteal surface concentrations are higher in the axial skeleton than in the appendicular skeleton 15 and 17 months post injection. For dosimetric purposes, volume deposits may be considered to be infinitely thick whereas surface deposits may be considered to have zero thickness. Secondary surface deposits are dosimetrically important, even when the plutonium is almost completely deposited in bone volume

  6. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  7. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material

  8. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas

  9. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  10. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    Calcagnile L.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD, University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis. An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be a powerful tool for monitoring the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources and for the assessment of the biogenic content in SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel burned in WTE (Waste to Energy plants.

  11. Studies of industrial emissions by accelerator-based techniques: A review of applications at CEDAD

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Different research activities are in progress at the Centre for Dating and Diagnostics (CEDAD), University of Salento, in the field of environmental monitoring by exploiting the potentialities given by the different experimental beam lines implemented on the 3 MV Tande-tron accelerator and dedicated to AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrome-try) radiocarbon dating and IB A (Ion Beam Analysis). An overview of these activities is presented by showing how accelerator-based analytical techniques can be a powerful tool for monitoring the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources and for the assessment of the biogenic content in SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) burned in WTE (Waste to Energy) plants.

  12. Development of a Tandem-Electrostatic-Quadrupole facility for Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    We describe the present status of an ongoing project to develop a Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator facility for Accelerator-Based (AB)-BNCT. The project final goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. The machine currently being constructed is a folded TESQ with a high-voltage terminal at 0.6 MV. We report here on the progress achieved in a number of different areas.

  13. On plutonium, journalism and ethics

    This editorial comments on the furore resulting from three lay articles published by E. Welsome in the Albuquerque Tribune for 15 November 1993, concerning the injection of plutonium into humans in the 1940s, and discusses the ethics of administration of radioactive materials with and without informed consent. (Author)

  14. Spectrographic analysis of plutonium (1960)

    Various possibilities for the spectrographic determination of impurities in plutonium are considered. The application of the 'copper spark' method, of sparking on graphite and of fractional distillation in the arc are described and discussed in some detail (apparatus, accessories, results obtained). (author)

  15. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  16. The first weighing of plutonium

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  17. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800 degree C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800 degrees C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density

  18. Neutron spectra in thorium and depleted uranium-plutonium-loaded light water reactors

    The technical feasibility of using plutonium mixed with natural uranium in one-third of the cores of light water reactors (LWRs) has been sufficiently demonstrated. A number of reactors in Europe are currently operated with one-third mixed-oxide cores. If the option of burning excess plutonium in conventional LWR reactors in this country is selected, it has been estimated that the long-term disposition of the excess plutonium would take many decades. This time can be significantly reduced if the plutonium is burned in a fast breeder reactor. However, in the present economic and political climate, such an approach is difficult to implement. On the other hand, if the neutron spectrum in an LWR core is hardened, the well-developed and well-understood LWR can accomplish the goal of effectively burning excess plutonium to convert to proliferation-resistive fuel such as 233U. The authors present some fundamental characteristics of thorium and depleted uranium-plutonium-fueled LWRs. High fuel burnup levels can be achieved by tightening the lattice of an LWR loaded with thorium and depleted uranium and plutonium (nitride or oxide) and increasing the plutonium content. The neutron spectrum in such a reactor is very hard and tends to approach that of a Na-cooled fast reactor. Instead of Zircaloy, stainless steel can be used as fuel cladding and structural material since it has a low fast neutron capture cross section. Supercritical steam, generated at high pressures, can be used as coolant. If the cladding and structural materials used in this reactor can withstand corrosion in water under high-irradiation conditions, high conversion ratios of thermal heat to electricity will be possible

  19. Elemental analysis of concrete samples using an accelerator-based PGNAA setup

    Naqvi, A. A.; Nagadi, M. M.; Baghabra Al-Amoudi, Omar S.

    2004-09-01

    Elemental analysis of concrete samples was carried out using an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The gamma rays were produced via the capture of thermal neutron in the concrete sample. The prompt gamma ray yield was measured for 12 cm long concrete samples as a function of sample radius over a range of 6-11.5 cm radii. The optimum yield of the prompt gamma rays from the concrete sample was measured from a sample with 11.5 cm radius. The gamma ray yield was also calculated for 12 cm long concrete samples with 6-11.5 cm radius using Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with the calculated yield of the prompt gamma rays from the samples. Result of this study has shown the useful application of an accelerator-based PGNAA setup in elemental analysis of concrete sample. The facility can be further used to determine the chloride and sulfate concentrations in concrete samples for corrosion studies of reinforcement steel in concrete structures.

  20. Elemental analysis of concrete samples using an accelerator-based PGNAA setup

    Elemental analysis of concrete samples was carried out using an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The gamma rays were produced via the capture of thermal neutron in the concrete sample. The prompt gamma ray yield was measured for 12 cm long concrete samples as a function of sample radius over a range of 6-11.5 cm radii. The optimum yield of the prompt gamma rays from the concrete sample was measured from a sample with 11.5 cm radius. The gamma ray yield was also calculated for 12 cm long concrete samples with 6-11.5 cm radius using Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental results were in excellent agreement with the calculated yield of the prompt gamma rays from the samples. Result of this study has shown the useful application of an accelerator-based PGNAA setup in elemental analysis of concrete sample. The facility can be further used to determine the chloride and sulfate concentrations in concrete samples for corrosion studies of reinforcement steel in concrete structures

  1. Pedestrian movement analysis in transfer station corridor: Velocity-based and acceleration-based

    Ji, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Jian; Hu, Yongkai; Ran, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pedestrians are classified into aggressive and conservative ones by their temper. Aggressive pedestrians' walking through crowd in transfer station corridor is analyzed. Treating pedestrians as particles, this paper uses the modified social force model (MSFM) as the building block, where forces involve self-driving force, repulsive force and friction force. The proposed model in this paper is a discrete model combining the MSFM and cellular automata (CA) model, where the updating rules of the CA are redefined with MSFM. Due to the continuity of values generated by the MSFM, we use the fuzzy logic to discretize the continuous values into cells pedestrians can move in one step. With the observation that stimulus around pedestrians influences their acceleration directly, an acceleration-based movement model is presented, compared to the generally reviewed velocity-based movement model. In the acceleration-based model, a discretized version of kinematic equation is presented based on the acceleration discretized with fuzzy logic. In real life, some pedestrians would rather keep their desired speed and this is also mimicked in this paper, which is called inertia. Compared to the simple triangular membership function, a trapezoidal membership function and a piecewise linear membership function are used to capture pedestrians' inertia. With the trapezoidal and the piecewise linear membership function, many overlapping scenarios should be carefully handled and Dubois and Prade's four-index method is used to completely describe the relative relationship of fuzzy quantities. Finally, a simulation is constructed to demonstrate the effect of our model.

  2. Some aspects of a technology of processing weapons grade plutonium to nuclear fuel

    The concept by Russia to use fissile weapons-grade materials, which are being recovered from nuclear pits in the process of disarmament, is based on an assessment of weapons-grade plutonium as an important energy source intended for use in nuclear power plants. However, in the path of involving plutonium excessive from the purposes of national safety into industrial power engineering there are a lot of problems, from which effectiveness and terms of its disposition are being dependent upon. Those problems have political, economical, financial and environmental character. This report outlines several technology problems of processing weapons-grade metallic plutonium into MOX-fuel for reactors based on thermal and fast neutrons, in particular, the issue of conversion of the metal into dioxide from the viewpoint of fabrication of pelletized MOX-fuel. The processing of metallic weapons-grade plutonium into nuclear fuel is a rather complicated and multi-stage process, every stage of which is its own production. Some of the stages are absent in production of MOX-fuel, for instance the stage of the conversion, i.e. transferring of metallic plutonium into dioxide of the ceramic quality. At this stage of plutonium utilization some tasks must be resolved as follows: I. As a result of the conversion, a material purified from ballast and radiogenic admixtures has to be obtained. This one will be applied to fabricate pelletized MOX-fuel going from morphological, physico-mechanical and technological properties. II. It is well known that metallic gallium, which is used as an alloying addition in weapons-grade plutonium, actively reacts with multiple metals. Therefore, an important issue is to study the effect of gallium on the technology of MOX-fuel production, quality of the pellets, as well as the interaction of gallium oxide with zirconium and steel shells of fuel elements depending upon the content of gallium in the fuel. The rate of the interaction of gallium oxide

  3. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Lumetta, Gregg J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meier, David E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Amanda J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Delegard, Calvin H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Orton, Robert D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  4. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  5. Uranium conversion

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF6 and UF4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  6. Bibliography on plutonium and its compounds; Bibliographie sur le plutonium et ses composes

    Dirian, J.; Choquet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Collection of bibliographical references on plutonium and its principal compounds from 1942 to end of 1957. (author) [French] Compilation de references bibliographiques sur le plutonium et ses principaux composes de 1942 a fin 1957. (auteur)

  7. Plutonium Immobilization Project Baseline Formulation

    Ebbinghaus, B.

    1999-02-01

    A key milestone for the Immobilization Project (AOP Milestone 3.2a) in Fiscal Year 1998 (FY98) is the definition of the baseline composition or formulation for the plutonium ceramic form. The baseline formulation for the plutonium ceramic product must be finalized before the repository- and plant-related process specifications can be determined. The baseline formulation that is currently specified is given in Table 1.1. In addition to the baseline formulation specification, this report provides specifications for two alternative formulations, related compositional specifications (e.g., precursor compositions and mixing recipes), and other preliminary form and process specifications that are linked to the baseline formulation. The preliminary specifications, when finalized, are not expected to vary tremendously from the preliminary values given.

  8. Plutonium chemistry of the ocean

    Plutonium is a man-made element whose behavior in the marine environment is inadequately known at present. It has been studied intensively in connection with production of weapons and power sources and has been characterized as an extremely toxic substance. Nevertheless, only a few dozen measurements have been made of concentrations in seawater and in the associated organisms and sediments. The first of these were as recent as 1964. There are reasons to believe its chemical behavior in the ocean is different from what has been observed on land, and that it will be difficult to predict how plutonium will distribute itself in the ocean. The consequences of increased environmental concentrations of Pu are discussed

  9. The first milligrams of plutonium

    A historical review of the development of the very first quantities of plutonium produced during World War II in the United States and in Canada, as remembered by the French nuclear chemist, Mr Goldschmidt, who participated to the various programs which were involved in the development of the atomic bomb, and to the first steps of the French atomic program after the war. Mr Goldschmidt worked especially on organic solvent extraction, with the selection, in 1945, of non volatile tri glycol dichloride, and the development of the Chalk River plant. In 1949, at the Bouchet plant, his team has isolated the first milligrams of French plutonium from uranium oxide; and in 1952, the PUREX process was developed

  10. Chemistry and metallurgy of plutonium

    Plutonium is a strategic element with unique chemistry and metallurgy. It has five valence states with close redox potentials and many of them coexist in solutions. It is a hard Lewis acid and forms strong complexes with hard Lewis bases. Its redox and complexing characteristics are useful in its separation and analytical chemistry. Plutonium metal has several allotropic forms even though its melting point is only 639.5℃. It is a metal with very high density and one of the few metals which shrinks on heating. It holds promise of abundant nuclear energy, but also has potential for being diverted towards nuclear explosive devices. This paper is a brief compilation from available literature. (author)

  11. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  12. Micrometallurgy of plutonium and uranium

    The article prepared but not published in 1958 as the report on the 2. Geneva conference on peaceful use of atomic energy is presented. The article contains data on preparation pioneered in the USSR trace mounts of metal plutonium and uranium and is great scientific and historical interest. Procedures on the preparation of metal halide salts, investigations on the development of protective chambers, equipment for the preparation of salts, equipment for the reduction, refractory ceramics as well as investigation into the operating regime, feature required for the purity of metal are performed. The developed strategy for the preparation of trace amounts of uranium and plutonium salts and procedure for their reduction by alkaline earth metal vapors provide a useful preparation of other metal trace amounts

  13. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    Pillay, K.K.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

    1997-10-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come.

  14. Chemical quality control of plutonium fuels: potassium plutonium sulphate as a reference material

    Potassium plutonium sulphate, K4Pu(SO4)4 prepared in our division has been proposed as a reference material for plutonium. The suitability of the material as a reference standard in the quality assurance of plutonium fuels has been demonstrated by its regular use in our laboratory over the past six months. Results of the analysis of the standard by potentiometric and biamperometric methods were in close agreement with the theoretical plutonium content. (author)

  15. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    Caviness, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mann, Paul T [NNSA/ALBUQUERQUE; Yoshimura, Richard H [SNL

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  16. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, δ-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal

  17. Plutonium in a grassland ecosystem

    A study was made of plutonium contamination of grassland at the Rocky Flats plant northwest of Denver, Colorado. Of interest were: the definition of major plutonium-containing ecosystem compartments; the relative amounts in those compartments; how those values related to studies done in other geographical areas; whether or not the predominant isotopes, 238Pu and 239Pu, behaved differently; and what mechanisms might have allowed for the observed patterns of contamination. Samples of soil, litter, vegetation, arthropods, and small mammals were collected for Pu analysis and mass determination from each of two macroplots. Small aliquots (5 g or less) were analyzed by a rapid liquid scintillation technique and by alpha spectrometry. Of the compartments sampled, greater than 99 percent of the total plutonium was contained in the soil and the concentrations were significantly inversely correlated with distance from the contamination source, depth of the sample, and particle size of the sieved soil samples. The soil data suggested that the distribution of contamination largely resulted from physical transport processes

  18. The Vapour Pressure of Plutonium

    The vapour pressure of liquid plutonium has been determined over the temperature range 1100 to 1800°K by the Knudsen effusion method. The least-squares equation which fits the data is log10p(atm) = -17 420/T(°K) + 4.913. The standard deviation corresponds to about ±10% in the pressures calculated from this equation. The heat of vaporization computed from the temperature dependence of the experimental data is ΔH0298 = 82.3 kcal/g-at. The heat computed by combining independent entropy and heat capacity data with the present measurements is ΔH0298 = 82.1 kcal/g-at. Effects of oxygen upon the volatility of liquid plutonium were sought by comparing the vapour pressures observed with the liquid in contact with tantalum, tantalum carbide, magnesia, and plutonium sesquioxide. No differences were found. In addition, the vapour pressure was measured with different degrees of vacuum in the system. No effect was found here either, except that in very poor vacuums a surface film of oxide apparently formed and reduced the volatility by about a factor of 2. (author)

  19. Use of plutonium in pebble bed HTGRs

    This paper provides a summary of the current status of world-wide inventories of weapon-grade plutonium and plutonium from reprocessing of power reactor fuel. It addresses the use of pebble bed HTGRs for consumption of the plutonium in terms of the fuel cycle options. The requirements and neutronics aspects, and results from parameter studies conducted using pebble bed reactor types, are discussed, along with proliferation and waste disposal aspects. (author)

  20. Aqueous chemistry of neptunium and plutonium

    A brief historical survey of studies on the chemistry of neptunium and plutonium in the USSR is given. In this paper topics discussed are reduction-oxidation reactions of these elements, compositions of the species formed, their behavior in extraction, and sorption processes. Special attention is paid to accurate and sensitive determination methods (including coulometry, luminescence, and radiometry) for microgram amounts of neptunium and nanogram amounts of plutonium in complex solutions. Methods of detecting plutonium is natural objects are also described

  1. Migration of Chernobyl plutonium in soils

    Various geochemically linked landscapes were studied for the distribution of Chernobyl plutonium in soils. Significant behaviour of the Chernobyl plutonium may be observed only in case of its fall out with finely dispersed fuel. Within the areas polluted with the volatile ejection products, the plutonium migration forecast may be based on previous estimations obtained for the forest and forest-steppe zones. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO2-ZrO2-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO2) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er2O3) or europium oxide (Eu2O3) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl4-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams

  3. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  4. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples

  5. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Naqvi, A. A.; Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F. Z.; Gondal, M. A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Isab, A. A.; Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53-3.68, 4.51, 5.27-5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  6. BINP pilot accelerator-based neutron source for neutron capture therapy

    Neutron source based on accelerator has been proposed for neutron capture therapy at hospital. Innovative approach is based upon tandem accelerator with vacuum insulation and near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron generation. Pilot innovative accelerator based neutron source is under going to start operating now at BINP, Novosibirsk. Negative ion source with Penning geometry of electrodes has been manufactured and dc H- ion beam has been obtained. Study of beam transport was carried out using prototype of tandem accelerator. Tandem accelerator and ion optical channels have been manufactured and assembled. Neutron producing target has been manufactured, thermal regimes of target were studied, and lithium evaporation on target substrate was realized. In the report, the pilot facility design is given and design features of facility components are discussed. Current status of project realization, results of experiments and simulations are presented. (author)

  7. About the scheme of the infrared FEL system for the accelerator based on HF wells

    Kabanov, V.S.; Dzergach, A.I. [Moscow Radiotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Accelerators, based on localization of plasmoids in the HF wells (RF traps) of the axially-symmetric electromagnetic field E {sub omn} in an oversized (m,n>>1) resonant system, can give accelerating gradients {approximately}100 kV/{lambda}, e.g. 10 GV/m if {lambda}=10 {mu}m. One of possible variants of HF feeding for these accelerators is based on using the powerful infrared FEL System with 2 frequencies. The corresponding FEL`s may be similar to the Los Alamos compact Advanced FEL ({lambda}{sub 1,2}{approximately}10 pm, e-beam energy {approximately}15 MeV, e-beam current {approximately}100 A). Their power is defined mainly by the HF losses in the resonant system of the supposed accelerator.

  8. Characterisation of an accelerator-based neutron source for BNCT versus beam energy

    Agosteo, S; D'Errico, F; Nath, R; Tinti, R

    2002-01-01

    Neutron capture in sup 1 sup 0 B produces energetic alpha particles that have a high linear energy transfer in tissue. This results in higher cell killing and a higher relative biological effectiveness compared to photons. Using suitably designed boron compounds which preferentially localize in cancerous cells instead of healthy tissues, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has the potential of providing a higher tumor cure rate within minimal toxicity to normal tissues. This clinical approach requires a thermal neutron source, generally a nuclear reactor, with a fluence rate sufficient to deliver tumorcidal doses within a reasonable treatment time (minutes). Thermal neutrons do not penetrate deeply in tissue, therefore BNCT is limited to lesions which are either superficial or otherwise accessible. In this work, we investigate the feasibility of an accelerator-based thermal neutron source for the BNCT of skin melanomas. The source was designed via MCNP Monte Carlo simulations of the thermalization of a fast ...

  9. Plutonium use in foreign countries (02)

    European countries and Japan had been implementing the strategy of spent fuel reprocessing in order to use nuclear material to the maximum. Plutonium recovered from reprocessing, however, must be recycle on light water reactors (LWRs) because of considerable delay of fast reactor development. In Europe, much of experience of plutonium recycling have been accumulated until now. Thus, the status of plutonium recycling up to the end of 2002 in France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland and other countries were studied based on the following scope. (1) Basic policy and present status of plutonium recycling in primary countries of France, Germany, The U.K., Belgium, Switzerland, and Sweden which recently appears the move of recycling a part of plutonium. Backend policy and the status of spent fuel management were studied, then integrated analysis and evaluation of the position of plutonium recycling in backend and the status of plutonium recycling development were performed. (2) Plan and experience of Mixed Oside (MOX) fuel fabrication and reprocessing of spent fuels. The data and information on plan and experience of MOX fuel fabrication and reprocessing in foreign countries were collected. (3) Plutonium inventories. The data and information on plutonium inventories of foreign countries were collected. (author)

  10. NON-AQUEOUS DISSOLUTION OF MASSIVE PLUTONIUM

    Reavis, J.G.; Leary, J.A.; Walsh, K.A.

    1959-05-12

    A method is presented for obtaining non-aqueous solutions or plutonium from massive forms of the metal. In the present invention massive plutonium is added to a salt melt consisting of 10 to 40 weight per cent of sodium chloride and the balance zinc chloride. The plutonium reacts at about 800 deg C with the zinc chloride to form a salt bath of plutonium trichloride, sodium chloride, and metallic zinc. The zinc is separated from the salt melt by forcing the molten mixture through a Pyrex filter.

  11. Plutonium generated by commercial reactors presents danger

    This article summarizes a 1995 keynote address by Dr. Paul Cunningham, Program Director for Nuclear Materials at Los Alamos National Laboratory which highlights the growing plutonium problem. Plutonium production for weapons use has ceased in the US and the former Soviet Union, but the production in commercial reactors, where it is considered a waste product, continues. The amount of plutonium already existing in spent reactor fuel is 5 times as large as the amount both countries have for their weapons. One solution is to use plutonium to generate power

  12. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM WITH FERROUS IONS

    Dreher, J.L.; Koshland, D.E.; Thompson, S.G.; Willard, J.E.

    1959-10-01

    A process is presented for separating hexavalent plutonium from fission product values. To a nitric acid solution containing the values, ferrous ions are added and the solution is heated and held at elevated temperature to convert the plutonium to the tetravalent state via the trivalent state and the plutonium is then selectively precipitated on a BiPO/sub 4/ or LaF/sub 3/ carrier. The tetravalent plutonium formed is optionally complexed with fluoride, oxalate, or phosphate anion prior to carrier precipitation.

  13. Work and disproportionation for aqueous plutonium.

    Silver, G L

    2003-10-01

    The relation of two plutonium work integrals has recently been illustrated. One of the integrals applies to the work of disproportionation of tetravalent plutonium in 1 M acid and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper generalizes the disproportionation work integral so that it can be applied to tetravalent plutonium at any acid concentration. An equation is provided that can be used to verify work estimations obtained by integration. It applies to oxidation and disproportionation processes and it is easy to use. PMID:14522227

  14. Reactions of oxidation of plutonium metal

    The investigation into preparation of the powdery plutonium oxides under the reaction of metal plutonium with moist (5 % H2O) air and moist (5 % H2O) argon was carried out. The kinetic dependences in the 250 - 400 Deg C range are demonstrated. The vicissitude of the oxidation is shown, the activation energy is calculated for every stage. The mechanism of the metal plutonium oxidation is proposed. The obtained plutonium oxides were shown to have a high reaction ability at 300 - 400 Deg C in the moist air and moist argon media, and to be feasible for the further chemical treatment - dissolving in nitric acid, fluorination and chlorination

  15. Cadarache - 20 years of plutonium fuels

    The qualitative and quantitative evolution of plutonium used is reviewed; more particularly, the isotopic composition of plutonium handled at the plutonium fuel fabrication plant of Cadarache has been considerably changing during these 20 last years. The evolution of fast neutron reactor fuel assemblies explains why the fabrication unit has to. The installations have been modified, as also the fuel assembly fabrication process. Changes can be classified in 3 categories: the transformations related to mass evolution, those related more particularly to the plutonium isotopic composition, finally those related to the waste treatment process. These transformations concerned workshops, apparatus and equipments, the reinforcement of protections, criticality accident prevention, and safeguards

  16. The plutonium cycle under high surveillance

    The plutonium is a source of strong public anxiety because of the risk of uncontrolled nuclear weapons proliferation. Several countries have decided to adopt a politics of transparency by drawing up the inventory of plutonium stocks. Most of the plutonium available comes from the operation of nuclear power plants and from the dismantlement of US and Soviet nuclear weapons. A part of plutonium reserves can be burn in fast breeder reactors while the rest can be recycled to produce the Mox (mixed oxides) fuel made of 5 to 7 % of plutonium and 93 to 95 % of uranium 238. The Mox fuel is presently tested in 20 European reactor from which seven are French. The use of Mox requires some modifications of the reactor conception such as the addition of supplementary control rods. The expectations from now to the year 2000 are to use Mox in 28 French reactors, which represents half of the EdF (Electricite de France) units. The paper describes the Melox facility sited in Marcoule (Gard, France) and devoted to the fabrication of Mox fuel from uranium and plutonium oxides. The paper also focusses on the safety and security aspects of plutonium transportation and storage. In a second part, the plutonium isotopes properties are briefly described together with the possible use of plutonium for the fabrication of radiological weapons in the case of nuclear materials diversion. (J.S.). 1 fig., 5 photos

  17. Study of plutonium disposition using the GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR)

    NONE

    1994-04-30

    The end of the cold war and the resulting dismantlement of nuclear weapons has resulted in the need for the U.S. to disposition 50 to 100 metric tons of excess of plutonium in parallel with a similar program in Russia. A number of studies, including the recently released National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study, have recommended conversion of plutonium into spent nuclear fuel with its high radiation barrier as the best means of providing long-term diversion resistance to this material. The NAS study {open_quotes}Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium{close_quotes} identified light water reactor spent fuel as the most readily achievable and proven form for the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. The study also stressed the need for a U.S. disposition program which would enhance the prospects for a timely reciprocal program agreement with Russia. This summary provides the key findings of a GE study where plutonium is converted into Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel and a 1350 MWe GE Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) is utilized to convert the plutonium to spent fuel. The ABWR represents the integration of over 30 years of experience gained worldwide in the design, construction and operation of BWRs. It incorporates advanced features to enhance reliability and safety, minimize waste and reduce worker exposure. For example, the core is never uncovered nor is any operator action required for 72 hours after any design basis accident. Phase 1 of this study was documented in a GE report dated May 13, 1993. DOE`s Phase 1 evaluations cited the ABWR as a proven technical approach for the disposition of plutonium. This Phase 2 study addresses specific areas which the DOE authorized as appropriate for more in-depth evaluations. A separate report addresses the findings relative to the use of existing BWRs to achieve the same goal.

  18. Decontaminaion of metals containing plutonium and americium

    Melt-slagging (melt-refining) techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7 x 106 were measured with boro-silicate slag and of 3 x 106 with calcium, magnesium silicate slag. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 ppM plutonium appears to be as efficient as for metals with plutonium levels of 400 ppM. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. The second extraction is effective with either resistance-furnace melting or electric-arc melting. Slag adhering to the metal ingots and in defects within the ingots is in the important contributors to plutonium retained in processed metals. If these sources of plutonium are controlled, the melt-refining process can be used on a large scale to convert highly contaminated metals to homogeneous and compact forms with very low concentrations of plutonium and americium. A conceptual design of a melt-refining process to decontaminate plutonium- and americium-contaminated metals is described. The process includes single-stage refining of contaminated metals to produce a metal product which would have less than 10 nCi/g of TRU-element contamination. Two plant sizes were considered. The smaller conceptual plant processes 77 kg of metal per 8-h period and may be portable.The larger one processes 140 kg of metal per 8-h period, is stationary, and may be near te maximum size that is practical for a metal decontamination process

  19. A review of plutonium oxalate decomposition reactions and effects of decomposition temperature on the surface area of the plutonium dioxide product

    Orr, R. M.; Sims, H. E.; Taylor, R. J.

    2015-10-01

    Plutonium (IV) and (III) ions in nitric acid solution readily form insoluble precipitates with oxalic acid. The plutonium oxalates are then easily thermally decomposed to form plutonium dioxide powder. This simple process forms the basis of current industrial conversion or 'finishing' processes that are used in commercial scale reprocessing plants. It is also widely used in analytical or laboratory scale operations and for waste residues treatment. However, the mechanisms of the thermal decompositions in both air and inert atmospheres have been the subject of various studies over several decades. The nature of intermediate phases is of fundamental interest whilst understanding the evolution of gases at different temperatures is relevant to process control. The thermal decomposition is also used to control a number of powder properties of the PuO2 product that are important to either long term storage or mixed oxide fuel manufacturing. These properties are the surface area, residual carbon impurities and adsorbed volatile species whereas the morphology and particle size distribution are functions of the precipitation process. Available data and experience regarding the thermal and radiation-induced decompositions of plutonium oxalate to oxide are reviewed. The mechanisms of the thermal decompositions are considered with a particular focus on the likely redox chemistry involved. Also, whilst it is well known that the surface area is dependent on calcination temperature, there is a wide variation in the published data and so new correlations have been derived. Better understanding of plutonium (III) and (IV) oxalate decompositions will assist the development of more proliferation resistant actinide co-conversion processes that are needed for advanced reprocessing in future closed nuclear fuel cycles.

  20. Development and active demonstration of acid digestion of burnable plutonium bearing solid wastes

    The investigations were focused on the active demonstration of the process in a technical scale plant by treatment of 790 kg of waste which contained about 7 kg of plutonium. Complete oxidation of the waste material is achieved within 15 min in sulfuric acid (kept under oxidizing condition by nitric acid) at 250 deg C. At 250 deg C with permanent stirring a rate of plutonium oxide to plutonium sulfate conversion of up to 99.9% is obtained within 8 hours. The waste oxidation product, besides offgas, is a residue of 320 g per kg waste digested. Precipitation of plutonium is achieved with an efficiency of 88% using cetylpyridinium nitrate. Active process demonstration was performed in a plant of 10 kg capacity per daily run from March 1983 until June 1985. The average waste throughput achieved was 4.1 kg waste per run (maximum 10.4 kg). The plutonium decontamination factors were 1010 for the cleaned offgas and 106 for the liquid secondary waste. Tantalum as a potential construction material for the digester does not exhibit specific corrosion; its surface corrosion is 0.1 mm per annum at the maximum

  1. Comparison of radiotoxicity of uranium, plutonium, and thorium spent nuclear fuel at long-term storage

    Time dependence of radio-toxicity of actinides from spent uranium, MOX-plutonium, and thorium fuel calculated for storage during 1000 years is discussed in the paper. Calculations are based on the nuclear fuel of the VVER-1000 type reactor. Recommendations for uranium and plutonium spent fuel could be done to perform chemical separation of plutonium, americium, curium before long-term controllable storage. Americium should be separated after 50-70 years of storage for sufficient conversion of Pu-241 in Am-241. Cm-244 decays almost completely after 100 years. Extracted americium (possibly, with long-lived curium isotopes) should be directed to transmutation and plutonium should be reused. The separation of actinides is also effective to reduce decay heat power. In thorium spent fuel, the overwhelming share of radio-toxicity is determined by U-232. It is obvious that the repeated use of thorium fuel will be accompanied by accumulation of radio-toxicity. For a one-fold use of thorium fuel with deep U-233 burnup, it is necessary to perform additional deep burn-out (transmutation) of uranium fraction containing both U-233 and U-232. The further reduction of radio-toxicity by several orders can be obtained by extraction and transmutation of plutonium fraction (Pu-238). The transmutation of Th-228 - daughter nuclide of U-232 - is not necessary because Th-228 decays practically completely in 10 years together with its short-lived daughter nuclides

  2. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  3. Plutonium concentrations in forest fire smoke plumes

    Air filter samples from four forest logging slash burns were analyzed for plutonium. Although airborne concentrations were low, one fire definitely released fallout plutonium since the measured concentration in the smoke was one order of magnitude greater than ambient background measured upwind the same day

  4. The occurrence of plutonium in nature

    Levine, Charles A.; Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1950-11-29

    Plutonium has been chemically separated from seven different ores and the ratios of plutonium to uranium determined. This ratio was found to be fairly constant in pitchblende and monazite ores, in which the uranium content varied from 50% t o 0.24%, and substantially less in carnotite and fergusonite.

  5. Plutonium Immobilization Project -- Robotic canister loading

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-04-28

    The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a joint venture between the Savannah River Site, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. When operational in 2008, the PIP will fulfill the nation's nonproliferation commitment by placing surplus weapons-grade plutonium in a permanently stable ceramic form.

  6. Risk of plutonium: Estimate and control

    The risk of plutonium for man is compared with radiation risks due to other fission products as well as natural radiation sources. Furthermore, the principles of controlling the risks of plutonium by a system of radiation protection standards and corresponding technical and medical measures are described. The report is based to a great extent on publications prepared by international scientific commissions. (orig.)

  7. Problems relevant to plutonium utilization in Russia

    The paper presents the concept of the nuclear fuel cycle in Russia. The specific features and programme of civil and weapon's grade plutonium utilization are discussed. It is emphasized that plutonium is a valuable nuclear fuel the use of which is economically beneficial. It is also emphasized that the international conference GLOBAL-95 held in Versailles is important and urgent. (author)

  8. Plutonium disproportionation: the relation of work integrals.

    Silver, G L

    2003-04-01

    Two plutonium work integrals have been demonstrated in recent years. One of them applies to the work of disproportionation and the other to the work of oxidation of plutonium from the trivalent to a higher oxidation state. This paper illustrates the connection of the integrals by an example and a diagram. PMID:12672623

  9. Determination of plutonium in nitric acid solutions using energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence with a low power X-ray generator

    This work presents the development of an in-line energy dispersive L X-ray fluorescence spectrometer set-up, with a low power X-ray generator and a secondary target, for the determination of plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions. The intensity of the L X-rays from the internal conversion and gamma rays emitted by the daughter nuclei from plutonium is minimized and corrected, in order to eliminate the interferences with the L X-ray fluorescence spectrum. The matrix effects are then corrected by the Compton peak method. A calibration plot for plutonium solutions within the range 0.1–20 g L−1 is given

  10. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  11. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  12. Waste forms for plutonium disposition

    The field of plutonium disposition is varied and of much importance, since the Department of Energy has decided on the hybrid option for disposing of the weapons materials. This consists of either placing the Pu into mixed oxide fuel for reactors or placing the material into a stable waste form such as glass. The waste form used for Pu disposition should exhibit certain qualities: (1) provide for a suitable deterrent to guard against proliferation; (2) be of minimal volume, i.e., maximize the loading; and (3) be reasonably durable under repository-like conditions. This paper will discuss several Pu waste forms that display promising characteristics

  13. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations

  14. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Staples, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations.

  15. Japan's civil use of foreign military plutonium

    This paper is intended to propose one of the MOX options of international cooperation for safer and more secured management of excess military plutonium. The proposal was made with special reference to the Japanese public's view. Owing to the domestic plutonium shortage anticipated soon after the 200 in Japan, some specific reactors will be available to get rid of foreign excess weapon plutonium. According to the Japan AEC's new long-term programme, the shortage will be approximately 0.5 tonne of plutonium per annum, which is a sort of the least amount that Japan can buy from a certain external source. With international requests for a more positive Japanese contribution, however, the amount of Japanese purchase would be increased. It follows from the preliminary estimate shown in this paper that roughly 2 tonnes of plutonium can be burned annually in the reactors without any major modifications concerning safe reactor operation. (author)

  16. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended

  17. Remediation of plutonium-contaminated soils

    Amos, S.; Coudace, I.; Voss, J

    2005-07-15

    The effectiveness of paramagnetic separation to remove plutonium from soils from the Aldermaston (UK) site has been investigated and reported to the commissioners of the project, AWE plc, and also subsequently at the WM'05 Conference (Tucson, AZ). The results showed that plutonium can be effectively concentrated in soils using magnetic separation and size fractionation. The work also investigated other methods to enhance the separation process. These approaches were: the use of sodium hexametaphosphate (ca. 1% by weight soil) to disperse the clay minerals; roasting to remove organic matter and to oxidise any organically-compIexed plutonium; ultrasonic vibration to break physical bonds between any plutonium oxide and soil particles; leaching of the <75mm fractions with selected reagents to extract plutonium. As a result of this work, engineering concepts are being developed which will enable more than 95% of some of the AWE contaminated soils to be rated for free release. (author)

  18. Nuclear legacy. Democracy in a plutonium economy

    There have already been a few hundred known incidents of nuclear smuggling, mostly of small quantities not close to weapons grade material - but one gram of plutonium is more than sufficient to cause significant harm and to pose a substantial threat. The potential for further thefts is growing as the world produces ever more quantities of plutonium, not only from the dismantling of nuclear weapons but also from the separation out of plutonium from spent uranium nuclear reactor fuel elements. Trying to prevent the theft of gram quantities of plutonium would require levels of protection and surveillance unacceptably high in a democratic society. It is unlikely, therefore, that democracy could survive in a plutonium economy

  19. Robot vision system for remote plutonium disposition

    Tons of weapons-usable plutonium has been declared surplus to the national security needs of the United States. The Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) is a US Department of Energy sponsored program to place excess plutonium in a stable form and make it unattractive for reuse. A vision system was developed as part of PIP robotic and remote systems development. This vision system provides visual feedback to a can-loading robot that places plutonium/ceramic pucks in stainless steel cans. Inexpensive grayscale CCD cameras were used in conjunction with an off-the-shelf video capture card and computer to build an effective two-camera vision system. Testing demonstrates the viability of this technology for use in the Plutonium Immobilization Project facility, which is scheduled to begin operations in 2008

  20. REMOVAL OF LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS FROM SWEDEN

    Dunn, Kerry A. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, J. Steve [Savannah River National Laboratory; Chandler, Greg T. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Iyer, Natraj C. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of; Koenig, Rich E.; Leduc, D. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Hackney, B. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Leduc, Dan R. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI) recently removed legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in collaboration with AB SVAFO, Sweden. This paper details the activities undertaken through the U.S. receiving site (Savannah River Site (SRS)) to support the characterization, stabilization, packaging and removal of legacy plutonium materials from Sweden in 2012. This effort was undertaken as part of GTRI’s Gap Materials Program and culminated with the successful removal of plutonium from Sweden as announced at the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The removal and shipment of plutonium materials to the United States was the first of its kind under NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative. The Environmental Assessment for the U.S. receipt of gap plutonium material was approved in May 2010. Since then, the multi-year process yielded many first time accomplishments associated with plutonium packaging and transport activities including the application of the of DOE-STD-3013 stabilization requirements to treat plutonium materials outside the U.S., the development of an acceptance criteria for receipt of plutonium from a foreign country, the development and application of a versatile process flow sheet for the packaging of legacy plutonium materials, the identification of a plutonium container configuration, the first international certificate validation of the 9975 shipping package and the first intercontinental shipment using the 9975 shipping package. This paper will detail the technical considerations in developing the packaging process flow sheet, defining the key elements of the flow sheet and its implementation, determining the criteria used in the selection of the transport package, developing the technical basis for the package certificate amendment and the reviews with multiple licensing authorities and most importantly integrating the technical activities with the Swedish partners.

  1. Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based nuclear waste transmutation schemes

    An overview of the most significant studies in the last 35 years of partitioning and transmutation of commercial light water reactor spent fuel is given. Recent Accelerator-based Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems are compared with liquid-fuel thermal reactor systems that accomplish the same objectives. If no long-lived fission products (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) are to be burned, under ideal circumstances the neutron balance in an ATW systems becomes identical to that for a thermal reactor system. However, such a reactor would need extraordinarily rapid removal of internally-generated fission products to remain critical at equilibrium without enriched feed. The accelerator beam thus has two main purposes (1) the burning of long-lived fission products that could not be burned in a comparable reactor's margin (2) a relaxing of on-line chemical processing requirements without which a reactor-based system cannot maintain criticality. Fast systems would require a parallel, thermal ATW system for long-lived fission product transmutation. The actinide-burning part of a thermal ATW system is compared with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) using the well-known Pigford-Choi model. It is shown that the ATW produces superior inventory reduction factors for any near-term time scale. (author)

  2. Comparison between CARIBIC aerosol samples analysed by accelerator-based methods and optical particle counter measurements

    B. G. Martinsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparison of results from two kinds of aerosol systems in the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container passenger aircraft based observatory, operating during intercontinental flights at 9–12 km altitude, is presented. Aerosol from the lowermost stratosphere (LMS, the extra-tropical upper troposphere (UT and the tropical mid troposphere (MT were investigated. Aerosol particle volume concentration measured with an optical particle counter (OPC is compared with analytical results of the sum of masses of all major and several minor constituents from aerosol samples collected with an impactor. Analyses were undertaken with accelerator-based methods particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE and particle elastic scattering analysis (PESA. Data from 48 flights during one year are used, leading to a total of 106 individual comparisons. The ratios of the particle volume from the OPC and the total mass from the analyses were in 84% within a relatively narrow interval. Data points outside this interval are connected with inlet-related effects in clouds, large variability in aerosol composition, particle size distribution effects and some cases of non-ideal sampling. Overall, the comparison of these two CARIBIC measurements based on vastly different methods show good agreement, implying that the chemical and size information can be combined in studies of the MT/UT/LMS aerosol.

  3. Design study of double-layer beam trajectory accelerator based on the Rhodotron structure

    Jabbari, Iraj; Poursaleh, Ali Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the conceptual design of a new structure of industrial electron accelerator based on the Rhodotron accelerator is presented and its properties are compared with those of Rhodotron-TT200 accelerator. The main goal of this study was to reduce the power of RF system of accelerator at the same output electron beam energy. The main difference between the new accelerator structure with the Rhodotron accelerator is the length of the coaxial cavity that is equal to the wavelength at the resonant frequency. Also two sets of bending magnets were used around the acceleration cavity in two layers. In the new structure, the beam crosses several times in the coaxial cavity by the bending magnets around the cavity at the first layer and then is transferred to the second layer using the central bending magnet. The acceleration process in the second layer is similar to the first layer. Hence, the energy of the electron beam will be doubled. The electrical power consumption of the RF system and magnet system were calculated and simulated for the new accelerator structure and TT200. Comparing the calculated and simulated results of the TT200 with those of experimental results revealed good agreement. The results showed that the overall electrical power consumption of the new accelerator structure was less than that of the TT200 at the same energy and power of the electron beam. As such, the electrical efficiency of the new structure was improved.

  4. An optimized neutron-beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT

    Different materials and proton beam energies have been studied in order to search for an optimized neutron production target and beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. The solution proposed in this work consists of successive stacks of Al, polytetrafluoroethylene, commercially known as Teflon[reg ], and LiF as moderator and neutron absorber, and Pb as reflector. This assembly is easy to build and its cost is relatively low. An exhaustive Monte Carlo simulation study has been performed evaluating the doses delivered to a Snyder model head phantom by a neutron production Li-metal target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction for proton bombarding energies of 1.92, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. Three moderator thicknesses have been studied and the figures of merit show the advantage of irradiating with near-resonance-energy protons (2.3 MeV) because of the relatively high neutron yield at this energy, which at the same time keeps the fast neutron healthy tissue dose limited and leads to the lowest treatment times. A moderator of 34 cm length has shown the best performance among the studied cases

  5. Physical properties of a linear accelerator-based stereotactic installed at national cancer institute

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first dedicated Siemens PRIMUS M6/6ST linear accelerator-based Stereotactic installed in National Cancer Institute for stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT). The data were obtained during the installation, acceptance test procedure, and commissioning of the unit. The Primus M6/6ST has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Siemens. The dosimetric data were taken using pin point ion chamber. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be < 0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of < or = 1.0 mm. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within +/- 0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The basic dosimetry parameters such as tissue maximum ratio (TMR), off-axis ratio (OAR) and cone factor needed for patient treatment were evaluated. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed

  6. Development of an accelerator-based BNCT facility at the Berkeley Lab

    An accelerator-based BNCT facility is under construction at the Berkeley Lab. An electrostatic-quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator is under development for the production of neutrons via the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction at proton energies between 2.3 and 2.5 MeV. A novel type of power supply, an air-core coupled transformer power supply, is being built for the acceleration of beam currents exceeding 50 mA. A metallic lithium target has been developed for handling such high beam currents. Moderator, reflector and neutron beam delimiter have extensively been modeled and designs have been identified which produce epithermal neutron spectra sharply peaked between 10 and 20 keV. These. neutron beams are predicted to deliver significantly higher doses to deep seated brain tumors, up to 50% more near the midline of the brain than is possible with currently available reactor beams. The accelerator neutron source will be suitable for future installation at hospitals

  7. Study of medical RI production with accelerator-based neutron sources

    The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been widely adopted for nuclear medicine imaging to make diagnoses of body functions, identification of site of cancers, and so on. Now, almost all of medical radio isotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or charged particle accelerators. We propose a new route to produce the medical radio isotopes with accelerator-based neutron sources. In this paper, as an example, we introduce the proposed production method of 99Mo, which is the mother nuclide of 99mTc for SPECT. We determined the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction cross section to 1,415±82mb and it was consistent with the value (1,398mb) obtained from JENDL-4.0. Therefore, it indicates yields of produced RIs can be predicted with nuclear data based simulations. The simulation also can be used to design irradiation condition. In this paper some results of the simulations are also shown. (author)

  8. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 107 neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF3 composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies

  9. Accelerator-Based Biological Irradiation Facility Simulating Neutron Exposure from an Improvised Nuclear Device.

    Xu, Yanping; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Turner, Helen C; Marino, Stephen A; Geard, Charles R; Brenner, David J; Garty, Guy

    2015-10-01

    We describe here an accelerator-based neutron irradiation facility, intended to expose blood or small animals to neutron fields mimicking those from an improvised nuclear device at relevant distances from the epicenter. Neutrons are generated by a mixed proton/deuteron beam on a thick beryllium target, generating a broad spectrum of neutron energies that match those estimated for the Hiroshima bomb at 1.5 km from ground zero. This spectrum, dominated by neutron energies between 0.2 and 9 MeV, is significantly different from the standard reactor fission spectrum, as the initial bomb spectrum changes when the neutrons are transported through air. The neutron and gamma dose rates were measured using a custom tissue-equivalent gas ionization chamber and a compensated Geiger-Mueller dosimeter, respectively. Neutron spectra were evaluated by unfolding measurements using a proton-recoil proportional counter and a liquid scintillator detector. As an illustration of the potential use of this facility we present micronucleus yields in single divided, cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral lymphocytes up to 1.5 Gy demonstrating 3- to 5-fold enhancement over equivalent X-ray doses. This facility is currently in routine use, irradiating both mice and human blood samples for evaluation of neutron-specific biodosimetry assays. Future studies will focus on dose reconstruction in realistic mixed neutron/photon fields. PMID:26414507

  10. Activities on the physics of accelerator-based systems at CEA

    Nowadays, the interest for accelerator-based systems (ABS) in France is strongly related to the studies on long-lived radioactive waste management. Investigations aim to indicate whether ABS can play a role beside critical reactors in the process proposed to reduce the long term radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes. ABS is not envisaged to replace reactors for energy production even if the energy production is a mean to reduce the transmutation cost. Several French organisms (CEA, EDF, CNRS) are interested by ABS studies. Activities are shared out amongst different laboratories and involve international cooperation. The program aims at evaluating ABS performances for the report on waste management foreseen in 2006 and not at developing a project. This ABS evaluation concerns the following items: potential of radiotoxicity reduction, safety, economy, feasibility which must be compared with those of critical reactors. To achieve this end, activities at CEA are in progress on: - code development and validation, - nuclear data evaluation, -theoretical investigations on ABS characteristics, - study of existing projects. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  11. Development of an accelerator based BNCT facility. Following the Ibaraki BNCT project development process

    An accelerator-based BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) facility is being constructed at the Ibaraki Neutron Medical Research Center. It consists of a proton linac (8 MeV energy and 10 mA average current), a beryllium target, and a moderator system to provide an epi-thermal neutron flux for patient treatment. The technology choices for this present system were driven by the need to site the facility in a hospital and where low residual activity is essential. The maximum neutron energy produced from an 8 MeV-proton is 6 MeV, which is below the threshold energy of the main nuclear reactions which produce radioactive products. The down side of this technology choice is that it produces a high density heat load on the target so that cooling and hydrogen blistering amelioration prevent sever challenges requiring successful R and D progress. The latest design of the target and moderator system shows that a flux of 2.5x109 epi-thermal neutrons/cm2/sec can be obtained. This is two times higher than the flux from the existing nuclear reactor based BNCT facility at JAEA (JRR-4). (author)

  12. Accelerator-based neutron tomography cooperating with X-ray radiography

    Neutron resonance absorption spectroscopy (N-RAS) using a pulsed neutron source can be applied to time-of-flight (TOF) radiography, and the obtained parameters from the peak shape analysis can be reconstructed as the tomograms of nuclide distributions using computed tomography (CT). The problem is that the available spatial resolution is not sufficient for radiography imaging. In this study, we combined neutron and X-ray radiographies to improve the quantitative reconstruction of the neutron tomogram. The accelerator-based neutron source emits X-rays (or gamma-rays) at the same time the neutron pulse is emitted. We utilized the X-ray beam from the neutron source to obtain X-ray radiogram on the same beam line with neutron radiography and then reconstructed the neutron tomogram quantitatively with the help of a detailed sample internal structure obtained from the X-ray radiogram. We calculated the nuclide number density distribution tomogram using a statistical reconstruction procedure, which was easy to include in the structure model during the reconstruction. The obtained result of nuclide number density distribution showed good coincidence with the original object number density.

  13. An accelerator-based epithermal photoneutron source for boron neutron capture therapy

    Mitchell, H.E.

    1996-04-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy is an experimental binary cancer radiotherapy modality in which a boronated pharmaceutical that preferentially accumulates in malignant tissue is first administered, followed by exposing the tissue in the treatment volume to a thermal neutron field. Current usable beams are reactor-based but a viable alternative is the production of an epithermal neutron beam from an accelerator. Current literature cites various proposed accelerator-based designs, most of which are based on proton beams with beryllium or lithium targets. This dissertation examines the efficacy of a novel approach to BNCT treatments that incorporates an electron linear accelerator in the production of a photoneutron source. This source may help to resolve some of the present concerns associated with accelerator sources, including that of target cooling. The photoneutron production process is discussed as a possible alternate source of neutrons for eventual BNCT treatments for cancer. A conceptual design to produce epithermal photoneutrons by high photons (due to bremsstrahlung) impinging on deuterium targets is presented along with computational and experimental neutron production data. A clinically acceptable filtered epithermal neutron flux on the order of 10{sup 7} neutrons per second per milliampere of electron current is shown to be obtainable. Additionally, the neutron beam is modified and characterized for BNCT applications by employing two unique moderating materials (an Al/AlF{sub 3} composite and a stacked Al/Teflon design) at various incident electron energies.

  14. Doppler Broadening Analysis of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma-induced pair-production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples (∼4-40 g/cm2, or ∼0.5-5 cm in steel). These techniques are called 'Accelerator-based Gamma-induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy'(AG-PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear accelerator (LINAC) was employed to produce photon beams by stopping 15 MeV electrons in a 1 mm thick tungsten converter. The accelerator is capable of operating with 30-60 ns pulse width, up to 200 mA peak current at 1 kHz repetition rate. The highly collimated bremsstrahlung beam impinged upon our steel tensile specimens, after traveling through a 1.2 m thick concrete wall. Annihilation radiation was detected by a well-shielded and collimated high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Conventional Doppler broadening spectrometry (DBS) was performed to determine S, W and T parameters for our samples.

  15. Plutonium focus area. Technology summary

    The Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) in October 1995. The PFA open-quotes...provides for peer and technical reviews of research and development in plutonium stabilization activities...close quotes In addition, the PFA identifies and develops relevant research and technology. The purpose of this document is to focus attention on the requirements used to develop research and technology for stabilization, storage, and preparation for disposition of nuclear materials. The PFA Technology Summary presents the approach the PFA uses to identify, recommend, and review research. It lists research requirements, research being conducted, and gaps where research is needed. It also summarizes research performed by the PFA in the traditional research summary format. This document encourages researchers and commercial enterprises to do business with PFA by submitting research proposals or open-quotes white papers.close quotes In addition, it suggests ways to increase the likelihood that PFA will recommend proposed research to the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG) of DOE

  16. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  17. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    Rask, W.C. [Dept. of Energy, Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, A.G. [Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  18. Cancer hazard from inhaled plutonium

    The best estimate of the lung cancer potential in humans for inhaled insoluble compounds of plutonium (such as PuO2 particles) has been grossly underestimated by such authoritative bodies as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the British Medical Research Council. Calculations are presented of lung cancer induction by 239Pu as insoluble particles and for deposited reactor-grade Pu. The reason for the gross underestimate of the carcinogenic effects of Pu by ICRP or the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) is their use of a totally unrealistic idealized model for the clearance of deposited Pu from the lungs and bronchi plus their non-recognition of the bronchi as the true site for most human lung cancers. The erroneous model used by such organizations also fails totally to take into account the effect of cigarette-smoking upon the physiological function of human lungs. Plutonium nuclides, such as 239Pu, or other alpha particle-emitting nuclides, in an insoluble form represent an inhalation cancer hazard in a class some 100,000 times more potent than the potent chemical carcinogens, weight for weight. The already-existing lung cancer data for beagle dogs inhaling insoluble PuO2 particles is clearly in order of magnitude agreement with calculations for humans

  19. Plutonium use - Present status and prospects

    The use of plutonium in thermal and fast reactors is a demonstrated, if not proven, technology. Moreover, plutonium is being produced in increasing quantities. Evaluation of this production on a world scale shows that it would be theoretically possible to construct numerous breeders and thus to make the best use of plutonium, while considerably reducing uranium consumption. This source of plutonium is nevertheless dependent on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel. Long delays in installing and adequate world reprocessing capacity are weakening the prospects for introducing breeders. Furthermore, the critical situation regarding reprocessing may delay the development of complementary reprocessing methods for fuels with a high plutonium content and high burnup. The recycling of plutonium is now a well-known technique and any objections to it hardly bear analysis. Utilization of plutonium offers an appreciable saving in terms of uranium and separative work units; and it can also be shown that immediate reprocessing of the recycling fuel is not essential for the economics of the concept. Temporary storage of recycled fuel is a particularly safe form of concentrating plutonium, namely in irradiated plutonium-bearing fuel assemblies. Finally, recycling offers such flexibility that it represents no obstacle to fuel management at power plants with light-water reactors. These strategic considerations imply that the technology of using plutonium for fabricating thermal or fast reactor fuels is both technically reliable and economically viable. The methods used in industrial facilities are fully reassuring in this respect. Although various unsolved problems exist, none seems likely to impede current developments, while the industrial experience gained has enabled the economics and reliability of the methods to be improved appreciably. Apart from the techno-economic aspects, the plutonium industry must face extremely important problems in connection with the safety of personnel

  20. Current status of the plutonium hot particle problem

    Information now available on the question of lung irradiation from particulate plutonium is reviewed. Careful consideration of the available data shows that particulate plutonium is not more hazardous than the same amount of plutonium distributed uniformly. The data also suggest that the potential hazard from plutonium increases as the dispersion throughout the lung becomes more uniform

  1. Pyrochemical technology of plutonium and americium preparation and purification

    Pyrochemical tecnology of metallic plutonium and americium preparation and purification is considered. Investigations into plutonium dioxide reduction up to metal; plutonium electrolytic refining in molten salts; plutonium extraction from the molten salts and preparation of americium dioxide and metallic americium from its tetrafluoride are described

  2. La conversion

    Béatrice Bakhouche; Billier, Jean-Cassien; Cuvillier, Elian

    2009-01-01

    Le numéro 6 des Cahiers ouvre le champ d’étude sur la conversion, thème que le CIER a décidé de parcourir pendant deux ans. Fidèle à sa tradition d’interdisciplinarité, ce numéro expose des points de vue philosophique, théologique et littéraire. En guise de présentation introductive, le philosophe Jean-Cassien Billier offre un large panorama des différents domaines concernés par le phénomène de conversion, au premier rang desquels se situe le point de vue politique. Suivent deux réflexions su...

  3. Fabrication of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium metals for fuel research

    The techniques for the fabrication of actinide metals; neptunium, americium and curium called as minor actinides, and plutonium, are surveied in a viewpoint of the preparation of starting materials for fuel property measurements. In this report, the processes of the conversion to metals, purification et al. are reviewed. The concept related to the apparatus design is also proposed and the considerable subjects are discussed. (author)

  4. Quantum conversion

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic momentum transferred transfered to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ($\\hbar k$) does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the transformation, including units, of the classical fields to wave-function equivalent fields.

  5. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  6. Plutonium speciation affected by environmental bacteria

    Plutonium has no known biological utility, yet it has the potential to interact with bacterial cellular and extracellular structures that contain metal-binding groups, to interfere with the uptake and utilization of essential elements, and to alter cell metabolism. These interactions can transform plutonium from its most common forms, solid, mineral-adsorbed, or colloidal Pu(IV), to a variety of biogeochemical species that have much different physico-chemical properties. Organic acids that are extruded products of cell metabolism can solubilize plutonium and then enhance its environmental mobility, or in some cases facilitate plutonium transfer into cells. Phosphate- and carboxylate-rich polymers associated with cell walls can bind plutonium to form mobile biocolloids or Pu-laden biofilm/mineral solids. Bacterial membranes, proteins or redox agents can produce strongly reducing electrochemical zones and generate molecular Pu(III/IV) species or oxide particles. Alternatively, they can oxidize plutonium to form soluble Pu(V) or Pu(VI) complexes. This paper reviews research on plutonium-bacteria interactions and closely related studies on the biotransformation of uranium and other metals. (orig.)

  7. Preparation of hexavalent plutonium and its determination in the presence of tetravalent plutonium

    In order to study the eventual reduction of plutonium from the VI-valent state to the IV-valent state, in sulphuric medium, under the influence of its own α radiation or of the γ-rays from a cobalt-60 source, we have developed a method for preparing pure hexavalent plutonium and two methods for determining solutions containing tetravalent and hexavalent plutonium simultaneously. Hexavalent plutonium was prepared by anodic oxidation at a platinum electrode. Study of the oxidation yield as a function of various factors has made it possible to define experimental conditions giving complete oxidation. For concentrations in total plutonium greater than 1.5 x 10-3 M, determination of the two valencies IV and VI was carried out by spectrophotometry at two wavelengths. For lower concentrations, the determination was done by counting, after separation of the tetravalent plutonium in the form of fluoride in the presence of a carrier. (author)

  8. Assesment of Plutonium 238 and Plutonium 239+240 in soils of different agricultural regions of Guatemala

    In this report an assesment and measurement of PLUTONIUM 238, PLUTONIUM 239, and PLUTONIUM 240 are made. Samples of cultivated soils in 15 provinces of Guatemala were taken. To separate plutonium isotopes a radiochemical method was made using extraction, precipitation and ionic interchange. By electrodeposition the plutonium was measured using an alpha spectroscopy by PIPS method. The radioactivity ranges from 2.84 mBq/Kg to 36.38 mBq/Kg for plutonium 238, and 8.46 mBq/Kg to 26.61 mBq/Kg for plutonium 239+240

  9. Glovebox line for plutonium fuel analysis

    The design is described of a line for the analysis of plutonium and mixed (U, Pu) fuels. The design meets the requirement that the line should allow a continuous analysis of plutonium nuclear fuels using chemical methods oriented to oxidation-reduction titration techniques. This determined the nature of operations which should take place on the line. The specifications are given of the individual details as are parameters affecting the correct line operation in the analysis of plutonium fuels. (author) 7 figs., 2 refs

  10. HENC performance evaluation and plutonium calibration

    The authors have designed a high-efficiency neutron counter (HENC) to increase the plutonium content in 200-L waste drums. The counter uses totals neutron counting, coincidence counting, and multiplicity counting to determine the plutonium mass. The HENC was developed as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between the Department of Energy and Canberra Industries. This report presents the results of the detector modifications, the performance tests, the add-a-source calibration, and the plutonium calibration at Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-35) in 1996

  11. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-04-15

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R&D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R&D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the excellent

  12. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  13. Comparison of materials accounting in conversion and coconversion processes

    Materials accounting systems performances are compared for plutonium nitrate-to-oxide conversion [Oxalate (III)] and uranium-plutonium coconversion (Coprecal and modified Coprecal). These processes have the same design basis plutonium throughput and achieve this throughput in parallel operating lines. However, the process line configurations differ. In comparing the materials loss detection sensitivities for the three processes, we find better materials loss detection sensitivity for the Oxalate (III) process than for either of the two Coprecal processes, better single-balance detection sensitivity for the original Coprecal than for the modified Coprecal, and better long-term detection sensitivity (> 1d) for the modified Coprecal than for the original Coprecal. Sensivity differences result from differences in in-process inventories, feeding arrangements, and scrap generation

  14. Double contingency controls in the pit disassembly and conversion facility

    A Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF) will be built and operated at DOE'S Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The facility will process over three metric tons of plutonium per year. There will be a significant amount of special nuclear material (SNM) moving through the various processing modules in the facility, and this will obviously require well-designed engineering controls to prevent criticality accidents. The PDCF control system will interlock glovebox entry doors closed if the correct amount of SNM has not been removed from the exit enclosure. These same engineering controls will also be used to verify that only plutonium goes to plutonium processing gloveboxes, enriched uranium goes to enriched uranium processing, and that neither goes into non-SNM processing gloveboxes.

  15. Strengthening the inherent safety and security of radioactive sources: Accelerator based options

    First and foremost, radioactive sources are both useful and cost effective. If a technology can't be utilized in an effective manner, it won't be useful, no matter how clever and elegant it is. Secondly, there are safety and proliferation concerns that must be addressed. Accidents, contamination, dirty bombs, etc., all represent real concerns. A single incident can impact the cost of all uses. These issues and regulations devised to reduce these risks are driving up the costs and lowering efficiency. An alternative would be the accelerator based option, which is nothing new, it has been around for decades. Using accelerator technologies to produce radiation will address the issues I raise by limiting the production of radiation to only those times when a switch has been flipped. Producing radiation that way has one main advantage over the use of radioactive sources. When the switch is off, there is no radiation. Making instruments that are doubly fail-safe is straightforward. Issues associated with radiation safety during transport and storage disappear. There are also minimal issues of disposal and tracking of materials. There is very little potential for diverting a transportable radiography machine or portable neutron generator for nefarious uses. There is a need to carefully monitor the balance between the increasing number of radioactive sources in use, increasing concern for their location and condition, and the cost of employing radiation generators. In many cases there will be a natural progression away from using sources towards the use of radiation generators. Another key factor that would influence this balance is if an accident and or misuse of radioactive sources were to occur. The costs of dealing with sources would rapidly escalate, and would likely tip the balance sooner

  16. Laser-plasma accelerators-based high energy radiation femtochemistry and spatio-temporal radiation biomedicine

    Gauduel, Y. A.; Lundh, O.; Martin, M. T.; Malka, V.

    2012-06-01

    The innovating advent of powerful TW laser sources (~1019 W cm-z) and laser-plasma interactions providing ultra-short relativistic particle beams (electron, proton) in the MeV domain open exciting opportunities for the simultaneous development of high energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) and ultrafast radiation biomedicine. Femtolysis experiments (Femtosecond radiolysis) of aqueous targets performed with relativistic electron bunches of 2.5-15 MeV give new insights on transient physicochemical events that take place in the prethermal regime of confined ionization tracks. Femtolysis studies emphasize the pre-eminence of ultra-fast quantum effects in the temporal range 10-14 - 10-11 s. The most promising advances of HERF concern the quantification of ultrafast sub-nanometric biomolecular damages (bond weakening and bond breaking) in the radial direction of a relativistic particle beam. Combining ultra-short relativistic particle beams and near-infrared spectroscopic configurations, laser-plasma accelerators based high energy radiation femtochemistry foreshadows the development of real-time radiation chemistry in the prethermal regime of nascent ionisation clusters. These physico-chemical advances would be very useful for future developments in biochemically relevant environments (DNA, proteins) and in more complex biological systems such as living cells. The first investigation of single and multiple irradiation shots performed at high energy level (90 MeV) and very high dose rate, typically 1013 Gy s-1, demonstrates that measurable assessments of immediate and reversible DNA damage can be explored at single cell level. Ultrafast in vivo irradiations would permit the development of bio-nanodosimetry on the time scale of molecular motions, i.e. angstrom or sub-angstrom displacements and open new perspectives in the emerging domain of ultrafast radiation biomedicine such as pulsed radiotherapy.

  17. High neutronic efficiency, low current targets for accelerator-based BNCT applications

    The neutronic efficiency of target/filters for accelerator-based BNCT applications is measured by the proton current required to achieve a desirable neutron current at the treatment port (109 n/cm2/s). In this paper the authors describe two possible targeyt/filter concepts wihch minimize the required current. Both concepts are based on the Li-7 (p,n)Be-7 reaction. Targets that operate near the threshold energy generate neutrons that are close tothe desired energy for BNCT treatment. Thus, the filter can be extremely thin (∼ 5 cm iron). However, this approach has an extremely low neutron yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-6)), thus requiring a high proton current. The proposed solutino is to design a target consisting of multiple extremely thin targets (proton energy loss per target ∼ 10 keV), and re-accelerate the protons between each target. Targets operating at ihgher proton energies (∼ 2.5 MeV) have a much higher yield (n/p ∼ 1.0(-4)). However, at these energies the maximum neutron energy is approximately 800 keV, and thus a neutron filter is required to degrade the average neutron energy to the range of interest for BNCT (10--20 keV). A neutron filter consisting of fluorine compounds and iron has been investigated for this case. Typically a proton current of approximately 5 mA is required to generate the desired neutron current at the treatment port. The efficiency of these filter designs can be further increased by incorporating neutron reflectors that are co-axial with the neutron source. These reflectors are made of materials which have high scattering cross sections in the range 0.1--1.0 MeV

  18. Treatment of Uranium and Plutonium solutions generated in Atalante by R and D activities

    Lagrave, H.; Beretti, C.; Bros, P. [CEA Rhone Valley Research Center, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The Atalante complex operated by the 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' (Cea) consolidates research programs on actinide chemistry, processing for recycling spent fuel, and fabrication of actinide targets for innovative concepts in future nuclear systems. In order to produce mixed oxide powder containing uranium, plutonium and minor actinides and to deal with increasing flows in the facility, a new shielded line will be built and is expected to be operational by 2012. Its main functions will be to receive, concentrate and store solutions, purify them, ensure co-conversion of actinides and conversion of excess uranium. (authors)

  19. Upgrading a 1944 plutonium-extraction plant to a modern decontamination facility

    The Hanford Site, located in south-central Washington State, is currently undergoing extensive modifications as its mission changes from defense material production to one of waste management and environmental restoration. Starting in World War II, Hanford's mission for over four decades was the production of plutonium for defense needs. With the removal of such defense requirements over the last several years, the Hanford Site has refocused its efforts on the issues of cleanup and safety. The T Plant Complex is the first of the existing facilities to begin conversion from the old mission to the new. This conversion process and associated problems are described

  20. A plutonium safety training program

    A multimedia training program to prepare personnel at Argonne National Laboratory's Idaho Site (ANL-W) to work with plutonium-bearing fuels has been developed. The objective has been to produce a self-taught course for persons of varied backgrounds. The primary instruction tool is a videotape assisted by a short text and a workbook for each of three topics. Successful completion of this program is mandatory for all employees assigned to the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF). Another tape and text are used to orient personnel who enter HFEF on an occasional basis. Annual requalification is required, and test scores are maintained to provide an auditable record for the Department of Energy. Both the basic properties of Pu and specific features of HFEF are covered in the program. (Author)

  1. Catalyzed electrolytic plutonium oxide dissolution

    Catalyzed electrolytic plutonium oxide dissolution (CEPOD) was first demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in early 1974 in work funded by the Exxon Corporation. The work, aimed at dissolution of Pu-containing residues remaining after the dissolution of spent mixed-oxide reactor fuels, was first publicly disclosed in 1981. The process dissolves PuO2 in an anolyte containing small (catalytic) amounts of elements that form kinetically fast, strongly oxidizing ions. These are continuously regenerated at the anode. Catalysts used, in their oxidized form, include Ag2+, Ce4+, Co3+, and AmO22+. This paper reviews the chemistry involved in CEPOD and the results of its application to the dissolution of the Pu content of a variety of PuO2-containing materials such as off-standard oxide, fuels dissolution residues, incinerator ash, contaminated soils, and other scraps or wastes. Results are presented for both laboratory-scale and plant-scale dissolves

  2. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  3. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  4. Plutonium focus area: Technology summary

    To ensure research and development programs focus on the most pressing environmental restoration and waste management problems at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Environmental Management (EM) established a working group in August 1993 to implement a new approach to research and technology development. As part of this approach, EM developed a management structure and principles that led to creation of specific focus areas. These organizations were designed to focus scientific and technical talent throughout DOE and the national scientific community on major environmental restoration and waste management problems facing DOE. The focus area approach provides the framework for inter-site cooperation and leveraging of resources on common problems. After the original establishment of five major focus areas within the Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Nuclear Materials Stabilization Task Group (NMSTG, EM-66) followed EM-50's structure and chartered the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA). NMSTG's charter to the PFA, described in detail later in this book, plays a major role in meeting the EM-66 commitments to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB). The PFA is a new program for FY96 and as such, the primary focus of revision 0 of this Technology Summary is an introduction to the Focus Area; its history, development, and management structure, including summaries of selected technologies being developed. Revision 1 to the Plutonium Focus Area Technology Summary is slated to include details on all technologies being developed, and is currently planned for release in August 1996. The following report outlines the scope and mission of the Office of Environmental Management, EM-60, and EM-66 organizations as related to the PFA organizational structure

  5. Speciation and Bioavailability Measurements of Environmental Plutonium Using Diffusion in Thin Films.

    Cusnir, Ruslan; Steinmann, Philipp; Christl, Marcus; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    The biological uptake of plutonium (Pu) in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern since it is an alpha-particle emitter with long half-life which can potentially contribute to the exposure of biota and humans. The diffusive gradients in thin films technique is introduced here for in-situ measurements of Pu bioavailability and speciation. A diffusion cell constructed for laboratory experiments with Pu and the newly developed protocol make it possible to simulate the environmental behavior of Pu in model solutions of various chemical compositions. Adjustment of the oxidation states to Pu(IV) and Pu(V) described in this protocol is essential in order to investigate the complex redox chemistry of plutonium in the environment. The calibration of this technique and the results obtained in the laboratory experiments enable to develop a specific DGT device for in-situ Pu measurements in freshwaters. Accelerator-based mass-spectrometry measurements of Pu accumulated by DGTs in a karst spring allowed determining the bioavailability of Pu in a mineral freshwater environment. Application of this protocol for Pu measurements using DGT devices has a large potential to improve our understanding of the speciation and the biological transfer of Pu in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26574673

  6. Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide

    Different size cuts of 238PuO2 particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-μm pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 μm was 3 ng/m2/s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-μm filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Plutonium fallout observed in Tsukuba, Japan

    Plutonium in monthly deposition samples collected in Tsukuba (the Meteorological Research Institute), Japan from 1990 to end of 2001 is reported. The annual deposition of 239,240Pu during the period from 1990 to 2001 shows no systematic inter-annual variation. However, monthly 239,240Pu depositions show a typical seasonal variation with a maximum in spring season (March to April), which corresponds to seasonal cycle of soil dusts originating from the East Asian arid area. Plutonium isotopic ratios in the deposition samples suggest that significant amounts of the recent 239,240Pu deposition observed in Japan are attributed to the resuspension of plutonium-bearing surface soil particles; resuspended plutonium originates from the East Asian arid areas. Recent increase tendency of 239,240Pu contents in residue in deposition samples may reflect desertification in the East Asian continent. (author)

  8. Waste minimization at a plutonium processing facility

    As part of Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) mission to reduce the nuclear danger throughout the world, the plutonium processing facility at LANL maintains expertise and skills in nuclear weapons technologies as well as leadership in all peaceful applications of plutonium technologies, including fuel fabrication for terrestrial and space reactors and heat sources and thermoelectric generators for space missions. Another near-term challenge resulted from two safety assessments performed by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board and the U.S. Department of Energy during the past two years. These assessments have necessitated the processing and stabilization of plutonium contained in tons of residues so that they can be stored safely for an indefinite period. This report describes waste streams and approaches to waste reduction of plutonium management

  9. Plutonium finishing plant dangerous waste training plan

    This training plan describes general requirements, worker categories, and provides course descriptions for operation of the Plutonium Finish Plant (PFP) waste generation facilities, permitted treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) units, and the 90-Day Accumulation Areas

  10. Laboratory Building for Accurate Determination of Plutonium

    2008-01-01

    <正>The accurate determination of plutonium is one of the most important assay techniques of nuclear fuel, also the key of the chemical measurement transfer and the base of the nuclear material balance. An

  11. Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Heaton, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    Different size cuts of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-..mu..m pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 ..mu..m was 3 ng/m/sup 2//s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-..mu..m filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX Separation Processes

    The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  13. Interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal

    Dunwoody, John T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freibert, Franz J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Willson, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veirs, Douglas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Archuleta, Alonso [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conger, Donald J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Long-term storage of excess plutonium is of great concern in the U.S. as well as abroad. The current accepted configuration involves intimate contact between the stored material and an iron-bearing container such as stainless steel. While many safety scenario studies have been conducted and used in the acceptance of stainless steel containers, little information is available on the physical interaction at elevated temperatures between certain forms of stored material and the container itself. The bulk of the safety studies has focused on the ability of a package to keep the primary stainless steel containment below the plutonium-iron eutectic temperature of approximately 410 C. However, the interactions of plutonium metal with stainless steel have been of continuing interest. This paper reports on a scoping study investigating the interaction between stainless steel and plutonium metal in a pseudo diffusion couple at temperatures above the eutectic melt-point.

  14. Storage of weapons-grade plutonium

    With the end of the cold war, the United States has started to reduce its nuclear weapons stockpiles and will place special nuclear material (plutonium and uranium) into storage. The existing plutonium storage facilities are designed for short-term storage or to support operation of adjacent processing facilities. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to construct and operate a new plutonium storage facility as part of the reconfigured weapons complex, called Complex-21, to provide safe and secure long-term storage of plutonium materials. This facility will be required to meet new, more stringent requirements such as potential third-party inspection, enhanced safeguard and security requirements, and reduced personnel radiation exposure limits

  15. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  16. Plutonium gastrointestinal absorption by adults baboons

    Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium was investigated in baboons after ingestion of plutonium solution (oxidation states III; IV; V; VI), and plutonium incorporated in soya bean and winkles. We studied the effects of oxidation state and ingested mass for masses ranging from 0.35 μg to 51.6 x 10+3 μg (4 x 10-2 to 7776 μg of plutonium per kg of body weight). No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown for concentrations of plutonium smaller than 1 μg/kg. From 1 μg/kg to 1 mg/kg no effects of mass or oxidation state was observed and the mean fractional retention value was 10-4. For ingested masses higher than 1 mg/kg the fractional retention values respectively increased for Pu(V) and Pu(III) to (0.9 + 0.2) x 10-2 and (7.4+ 4.1) x 10-4 of the ingested mass. This increase might be due to the weak hydrolysis of these oxidation states which would increase gastrointestinal absorption by decrease of hydroxide formation. The fraction of plutonium retained after ingestion of soya bean was (3.0 + 0.5) x 10-4 about 3 fold higher than the value for 238 Pu nitrate solution. No clear increase in plutonium retention was shown after ingestion of winkles containing 238 Pu. In conclusion, except for high masses of ingested Pu, the retention of which could reach 1% of the ingested dose, our results show that the gastrointestinal transfer factor of 10-4 proposed by ICRP for gastrointestinal absorption of soluble form of Pu is acceptable, but 10-3 would provide better safety margin

  17. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    This patent describes a process for dissolving plutonium metal, the process. It comprises: heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate and potassium fluoride; and immersing the plutonium in the mixture; the nitric acid having a concentration of not more than 2M, the hydroxylammonium nitrate having a concentration of between approximately 0.33 M and 1 M, and the potassium fluoride having a concentration between approximately 0.05 M approximately 0.1 M

  18. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the dog

    The gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium in the beagle has been determined to be 0.066 +- 0.014% of the amount administered. This result is quite comparable with the results reported for the dog by other workers, and a factor of 3 smaller than that observed by us for mice. On the average, the retained plutonium was found to be almost equally divided between the liver and the skeleton

  19. United Kingdom experience in plutonium transportation

    Plutonium has already been transported within the UK over a period of 20 years and to destinations overseas since the early 60's. Experience is recounted with regard to the forms of plutonium transported, regulations, insurance, container design, mode of transport, volume of traffic, physical protection, safety analysis and costs. It is concluded that this traffic could be expanded in the future without danger to the community or the environment

  20. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  1. Applications of plutonium dioxide oxydising dissolution process

    Laboratory investigations having demonstrated the outstanding effectiveness of Ag2+ ions for the dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitric medium, two applications of this method were developed at the CEA: dissolution of off-standard PuO2, recovery of the plutonium contained in ashes produced by incineration of solid wastes. With respect to PuO2 dissolution, the parametric investigation of the electrogeneration of Ag (II) and of its reaction with PuO2, led to the development of a process and of the equipment required for its implementation. The prototype facility used to dissolve in 4 hours 1 kg of plutonium, in oxide form, was built and tested in the laboratory. This equipment was used to dissolve 30 kg of plutonium oxide in batches of about 700 grams. An in-line spectrophotometric method was developed for process control. The application of this process to the recovery of plutonium from incineration ash is currently being developed. Tested on the scale of about 1 kg of ash, the process helps to recover the plutonium with yields higher than 98 %

  2. Pulmonary carcinogenesis from plutonium-containing particles

    Induction of lung tumors by various types of radiation is of paramount concern to the nuclear industry. The data presented were obtained by exposing the pulmonary system of Syrian hamsters to particles of zirconium oxide containing various amounts of either plutonium-238 or -239 as the alpha radiation source. These particles were injected intravenously and lodged permanently in the capillary bed of the lung. When less than 20% of the lung tissue was irradiated, simulating the ''hot particle'' mode, tumors were not evident with lung burdens up to 500 nCi plutonium. More diffuse irradiation significantly increased the tumor incidence, with lung burdens of 50 to 150 nCi. When plutonium-laden microspheres were administered intratracheally, tumor production was considerably increased and the addition of 3 mg of iron oxide intratracheally further increased the incidence. Using the zirconium oxide matrix for the carrier of plutonium in aerosol particles produced tumor incidences of up to 50% in Syrian hamsters exposed by inhalation. Initial pulmonary (alveolar) burdens reached 100 nCi of plutonium. Similar inhalation studies using plutonium dioxide alone (no matrix) failed to produce any increase in lung tumorigenesis. The results are discussed in terms of possible mechanisms necessary for lung carcinogenesis. (H.K.)

  3. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  4. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.; Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today`s laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  5. On complexe oxalates of plutonium(3)

    Plutonium compounds of general composition MPu(C2O4)2xnH2O, where M=Li, Na, NH4, K, Cs and n=0.5-3.5, have been separated from solutions of alkali metal and ammonium oxalates and identified using the methods of X-ray diffraction and chemical analyses. The behaviour of plutonium (3) differs from that of americium (3) in solutions of lithium- and sodium oxalates, but the difference decreases with the increase in the monovalent cation radius, so that in the cesium oxalate solution plutonium (3) behaves in the same manner as americium (3). The reaction of the compounds NH4Pu(C2O4)2xH2O and CsPu(C2O4)2x0.5H2O to heating is studied. Ammonium salt of plutonium oxalate begins to rapidly decompose at 250 deg C. At approximately 350 deg C the formation of PuO2 completes. Rapid decomposition of cesium salt of plutonium oxalate is observed above 300 deg C. The study of the IR spectra of double plutonium (3) with ammonium-or-cesium oxalates permitted to draw certain conclusions on the nature of chemical bonds in the compounds

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE's independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91

  7. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today's laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  8. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactive contaminated gas, liquid, and solid streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that is not only in full compliance with today's laws,but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. The theme of this paper is that recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to our children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. This paper will describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within five years at a facility such as the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short time scale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs

  9. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel Assemblies

    D. L. Chichester; J. W. Sterbentz

    2012-07-01

    Neutron resonance transmission analysis (NRTA) is an active-interrogation nondestructive assay (NDA) technique capable of assaying spent nuclear fuel to determine plutonium content. Prior experimental work has definitively shown the technique capable of assaying plutonium isotope composition in spent-fuel pins to a precision of approximately 3%, with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. As a Grand Challenge to investigate NDA options for assaying spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) in the commercial fuel cycle, Idaho National Laboratory has explored the feasibility of using NRTA to assay plutonium in a whole SFA. The goal is to achieve a Pu assay precision of 1%. The NRTA technique uses low-energy neutrons from 0.1-40 eV, at the bottom end of the actinide-resonance range, in a time-of-flight arrangement. Isotopic composition is determined by relating absorption of the incident neutrons to the macroscopic cross-section of the actinides of interest in the material, and then using this information to determine the areal density of the isotopes in the SFA. The neutrons used for NRTA are produced using a pulsed, accelerator-based neutron source. Distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239,240,241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Based on extensive modeling of the problem using Monte Carlo-based simulation codes, our preliminary results suggest that by rotating an SFA to acquire four symmetric views, sufficient neutron transmission can be achieved to assay a SFA. In this approach multiple scan information for the same pins may also be unfolded to potentially allow the determination of plutonium for sub-regions of the assembly. For a 17 ? 17 pressurized water reactor SFA, a simplistic preliminary

  10. On isocentre adjustment and quality control in linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers

    Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Luyken, K.; Gierich, A.; Kocher, M.; Müller, R.-P.; Sturm, V.

    2000-08-01

    We have developed a densitometric method for measuring the isocentric accuracy and the accuracy of marking the isocentre position for linear accelerator based radiosurgery with circular collimators and room lasers. Isocentric shots are used to determine the accuracy of marking the isocentre position with room lasers and star shots are used to determine the wobble of the gantry and table rotation movement, the effect of gantry sag, the stereotactic collimator alignment, and the minimal distance between gantry and table rotation axes. Since the method is based on densitometric measurements, beam spot stability is implicitly tested. The method developed is also suitable for quality assurance and has proved to be useful in optimizing isocentric accuracy. The method is simple to perform and only requires a film box and film scanner for instrumentation. Thus, the method has the potential to become widely available and may therefore be useful in standardizing the description of linear accelerator based radiosurgical systems.

  11. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  12. Investigation of aluminised steel as a barrier to tritium using accelerator-based and hydrogen permeation techniques

    Aluminised steel has been proposed as a barrier to tritium permeation in fusion reactors. The properties of these materials as tritium barriers have been studied using accelerator-based techniques and hydrogen permeation methods. The aluminide layers has been characterised by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) techniques using the 3 MV Dynamitron accelerator based at the School of Physics and Space Research Radiation Centre. The effectiveness of the aluminide layer as a tritium barrier has been measured directly by a conventional permeation apparatus over a range of temperatures. The effect of high temperatures on the structure of the aluminide layer has been examined. Any correlation between the composition of the layer and its effectiveness as a tritium barrier is also discussed. (orig.)

  13. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments

  14. A review of research programs related to the behavior of plutonium in the environment

    Bartram, Bart W.; Wilkinson, Martha J.

    1983-06-15

    Plutonium-fueled radioisotopic heat sources find application in a spectrum of space, terrestrial, and underseas applications to generate electrical power by thermoelectric or dynamic-cycle conversion. Such systems under postulated accident conditions could release radioactivity into the environment resulting in risks to the general population. The released radioactivity could be dispersed into various environmental media, such as air, soil, and water and interact with people through various exposure pathways leading to inhalation, ingestion, and external radiological doses and associated health effects. The authors developed short-term exposure (RISK II) and long-term exposure (RISK III) models for use in safety risk assessments of space missions utilizing plutonium-fueled electric power systems. To effectively use these models in risk assessments, representative input values must be selected for a spectrum of environmental transfer parameters that characterize the behavior of plutonium in the environment. The selection of appropriate transfer parameters to be used in a given analysis will depend on the accident scenarios to be modeled and the terrestrial and aquatic environments to be encountered. The authors reviewed the availability of plutonium in the environment. This report summarizes the research programs presently being conducted at six Department of Energy Laboratories and makes recommendations on areas where further research is needed to fill gaps in the data necessary for risk assessments

  15. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale

  16. Handling and Measurement of Plutonium Shipments

    The major forms in which power reactor plutonium can be shipped are metal, nitrate solution, and oxide. In this paper, recent studies on the measurement problems associated with handling and shipping plutonium are summarized. Factors affecting the stability of plutonium in these forms have been identified and current procedures evaluated. Gas evolution, hydrogen ion consumption, and precipitation may occur in plutonium nitrate solutions. Conditions which lead to these effects have been defined. With proper control of these effects, nitrate shipments can be made with average shipper-receiver differences under 0.2%. The standard deviation of the difference can be kept under + 0.3%. Compositions in the range of 50-250 g Pu/litre, 2-10 N nitric acid, and up to 5000 ppm metallic impurities have been tested. Procedures for bulk measurements (both weight and volume), complete transfer, sampling, and analysis of plutonium nitrate in batches up to 10 litres are available. The major contributor to shipper-receiver differences in shipments studied was the analytical determination of plutonium in solution. Many methods have been reported. However, interplant comparisons have shown biases between widely used methods. Smallest differences are observed when the same analytical method is used for both shipper and receiver measurements. Plutonium oxide cans may pressurize during shipment if the oxide is low-fired, causing loss of material when the can is opened. However, properly prepared oxide can be shipped in batches of 2-12 kg with a measured loss of less than 0.2%. Procedures for blending, sampling and transferring have been tested. Thermal and radiation effects have been measured. Moisture adsorption and desorption on oxide must be controlled if shipper-receiver differences are to be minimized. Calorimetric assay of the plutonium can eliminate sampling errors and reduce analytical cost. Accuracy and precision of calorimetric and ''wet'' methods are comparable. Metal shipments

  17. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the light-water reactor fuel cycle: effluent discharges during normal operation

    The radiological impact of a light-water reactor fuel cycle utilizing enriched uranium fuel may be altered by the recycle of plutonium. Differences in impact may arise during various operations in the fuel cycle: those which arise from effluents discharged during normal operation of the various installations comprising the fuel cycle are evaluated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Communities (EC) of effluents discharged during the recycling of 10 tonnes of fissile plutonium metal is evaluated. The contributions from each stage of the fuel cycle, i.e. fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and conversion, are identified. Separate consideration is given to airborne and liquid effluents and account is taken of a wide range of environmental conditions, representative of the EC, in estimating the radiological impact. The recycle of plutonium is estimated to result in a reduction in the radiological impact from effluents of about 30% of that when using enriched uranium fuel

  18. Gamma ray NDA assay system for total plutonium and isotopics in plutonium product solutions

    A LASL-designed gamma-ray NDA instrument for assay of total plutonium and isotopics of product solutions at Tokai-Mura is currently installed and operating. The instrument is, optimally, a densitometer that uses radioisotopic sources for total plutonium measurements at the K absorption edge. The measured transmissions of additional gamma-ray lines from the same radioisotopic sources are used to correct for self-attenuation of passive gamma rays from plutonium. The corrected passive data give the plutonium isotopic content of freshly separated to moderately aged solutions. This off-line instrument is fully automated under computer control, with the exception of sample positioning, and operates routinely in a mode designed for measurement control. A one-half percent precision in total plutonium concentration is achieved with a 15-minute measurement

  19. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question; Aval du cycle la question du plutonium

    Zask, G. [Electricite de France, EDF/DAC, 75 - Paris (France); Rome, M. [Electricite de France, EDF, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 92 - Courbevoie (France); Delpech, M. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs/SPRC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)] [and others

    1998-06-29

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  20. On-line monitoring of plutonium in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions

    The measurement of the total and isotopic plutonium concentrations in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions blended with highly radioactive fission product nuclides and other radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137 and Co-60) has been investigated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). An on-line total and isotopic plutonium monitoring system is being tested for its ability to assay the plutonium abundances in solutions as might be found in the process streams of a light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel processing plant. The monitoring system is fully automated and designed to be maintained remotely. It is capable of near real-time inventory of plutonium in process streams and provides the basis for on-line computerized accounting of special nuclear materials

  1. Plutonium-237: an important research tool for studies of environmental plutonium kinetics

    The production and use of the photon-emitting isotope plutonium-237 in investigations of the uptake, retention, and distribution of monomeric plutonium (IV) both in an aquatic vertebrate, the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and in a littoral aquatic micro-ecosystem, are presented. The rationale for use of plutonium-237 in environmental studies is discussed. Chelation can either enhance or reduce the uptake of ingested plutonium relative to plutonium hydroxide (monomer) in channel catfish. The highest observed retention (whole body) at 63 days was 3.8% of ingested dose for plutonium-237 citrate, while retention of the fulvate was 0.6%. Reduced uptake of the fulvate complex is due either to its high molecular weight (>10,000) or to its stability in metabolic systems. Increased uptake of plutonium-237 citrate is attributable to instability of the complex in metabolic systems. Tissue distribution studies revealed that relatively little (less than or equal to 10%) of intracardially injected plutonium citrate was excreted. Blood clearance rates were similar to those found in small mammals, with the plutonium being primarily associated with the plasma protein transferrin. The fractional body burdens in bone, liver, and kidney 17 days after injection were 31%, 24%, and 9% of the injection dose, respectively. High kidney burdens relativity to mammals are expected, since the kidney functions as the major site of homopoiesis in teleosts. Absence of significant excretion indicates that a short half-life component of elimination following gut clearance in gavage studies is due to plutonium labeling of the gut

  2. Plutonium titration by controlled potential coulometry

    The LAMMAN (Nuclear Materials Metrology Laboratory) is the support laboratory of the CETAMA (Analytical Method Committee), whose two main activities are developing analytic methods, and making and characterizing reference materials. The LAMMAN chose to develop the controlled potential coulometry because it is a very accurate analytical technique which allows the connection between the quantity of element electrolysed to the quantity of electricity measured thanks to the Faraday's law: it does not require the use of a chemical standard. This method was first used for the plutonium titration and was developed in the Materials Analysis and Metrology Laboratory (LAMM), for upgrading its performances and developing it to the titration of other actinides. The equipment and the material used were developed to allow the work in confined atmosphere (in a glove box), with all the restrictions involved. Plutonium standard solutions are used to qualify the method, and in particular to do titrations with an uncertainty better than 0.1 %. The present study allowed making a bibliographic research about controlled potential coulometry applied to the actinides (plutonium, uranium, neptunium, americium and curium). A full procedure was written to set all the steps of plutonium titration, from the preparation of samples to equipments storage. A method validation was done to check the full procedure, and the experimental conditions: working range, uncertainty, performance... Coulometric titration of the plutonium from pure solution (without interfering elements) was developed to the coulometric titration of the plutonium in presence of uranium, which allows to do accurate analyses for the analyses of some parts of the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of developing this method to other actinides than plutonium was highlighted thanks to voltammetric studies, like the coulometric titration of uranium with a working carbon electrode in sulphuric medium. (author)

  3. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 15-year postexposure period. During the 12 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of ≥ 80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. 4 figures, 7 tables

  4. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for life span dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pneumonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 16-year post exposure period. During the 13 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of ≥ 80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton

  5. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols to obtain graded levels of initial lung burdens (ILB) are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. Mortality due to radiation pnuemonitis and lung tumor increased in the four highest dose-level groups exposed to 239PuO2 during the 14-year postexposure period. During the 11 1/2 years after exposure to 238PuO2, mortality due to lung and/or bone tumors increased in the three highest dose-level groups. Chronic lymphopenia, occurring 0.5 to 2 years after exposure, was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of either 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 in the four highest dose-level groups that had ILB of greater than or equal to80 nCi. Other plutonium-exposure-related effects include sclerosis of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, focal radiation pneumonitis, adenomatous hyperplasia of the liver, and dystrophic osteolytic lesions in the skeleton. 5 figures, 7 tables

  6. PREFACE: 6th Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS11)

    Lupi, Stefano; Perucchi, Andrea

    2012-05-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to a subset of papers related to the work presented at the 6th edition of the international Workshop on Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy with Accelerator-Based Sources (WIRMS), held in Trieste, Italy, September 4-8 2011. Previous editions of the conference were held in Porquerolles (France), Lake Tahoe (USA), Rathen (Germany), Awaji (Japan), and Banff (Canada). This edition was organized and chaired by Stefano Lupi (Roma La Sapienza) and co-chaired by Andrea Perucchi (Elettra), with the support of the Italian Synchrotron Light Laboratory ELETTRA, which was honored to host the WIRMS workshop in its tenth anniversary. The 6th WIRMS edition addressed several different topics, ranging from biochemistry to strongly correlated materials, from geology to conservation science, and from forensics to the study of cometary dusts. Representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities. This edition was attended by 88 participants, including representatives from the infrared scientific programs at synchrotron light sources and free-electron-laser facilities, who enjoyed the stimulating scientific presentations, several detailed discussions, and the beautiful weather and scenery of the Trieste gulf. Participants came from 16 different nations and four continents, including many young scientists, six of which were supported by the organizers. There were 45 scientific talks divided in 11 sessions: Facilities, Microspectroscopy (I, II, III), Time-Resolved Spectroscopies, Extreme Conditions, Condensed Matter, Near-Field, Imaging, THz Techniques and High-Resolution Spectroscopy. 37 posters were also presented at two very lively evening poster sessions. We would like to use the opportunity of writing this preface to thank all the participants of the workshop for the very high level of their scientific contribution and for the very friendly atmosphere

  7. The differential radiological impact of plutonium recycle in the fuel cycle of LWR type reactors: accidental conditions

    The radiological impact of the fuel cycle of LWR type reactors using enriched uranium may be changed by plutonium recycle. The differences, which result from accidents which may occur in the different stages of the fuel cycle, are estimated in this study. The differential radiological impact on the population of the European Community is estimated for the recycle of 10t of plutonium metal, taking into consideration some characteristic accidents of each stage of the fuel cycle: fuel fabrication, reactor operation, fuel reprocessing and conversion, and, transport between the different units of the fuel cycle. Each unit is supposed built on an European ''average'' site (mean distributions of the populations and of the agricultural productions, reference meteorological situations). The recycle of plutonium in the fuel cycle involves a few per cent decrease of the radiological impact of the accident choosed for the nuclear power plants. The accidents of transport of plutonium, of new fuels and of plutonium wastes, as also thoses choosed for the fuel fabrication plant involve an increase of the impact for these types of transport and this plant. Finally, the differential radiological impact of the fuel reprocessing plant is positive but low

  8. The U.S.-Russian joint studies on using power reactors to disposition surplus weapons plutonium as spent fuel

    In 1996, the US and the Russian Federation completed an initial joint study of the candidate options for the disposition of surplus weapons plutonium in both countries. The options included long term storage, immobilization of the plutonium in glass or ceramic for geologic disposal, and the conversion of weapons plutonium to spent fuel in power reactors. For the latter option, the US is only considering the use of existing light water reactors (LWRs) with no new reactor construction for plutonium disposition, or the use of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) heavy water reactors. While Russia advocates building new reactors, the cost is high, and the continuing joint study of the Russian options is considering only the use of existing VVER-1000 LWRs in Russia and possibly Ukraine, the existing BN-60O fast neutron reactor at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant in Russia, or the use of the Canadian CANDU reactors. Six of the seven existing VVER-1000 reactors in Russia and the eleven VVER-1000 reactors in Ukraine are all of recent vintage and can be converted to use partial MOX cores. These existing VVER-1000 reactors are capable of converting almost 300 kg of surplus weapons plutonium to spent fuel each year with minimum nuclear power plant modifications. Higher core loads may be achievable in future years

  9. Computerized plutonium laboratory-stack monitoring system

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has recently designed and constructed a Plutonium Research and Development Facility to meet design criteria imposed by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration. A primary objective of the design criteria is to assure environmental protection and to reliably monitor plutonium effluent via the ventilation exhaust systems. A state-of-the-art facility exhaust air monitoring system is described which establishes near ideal conditions for evaluating plutonium activity in the stack effluent. Total and static pressure sensing manifolds are incorporated to measure average velocity and integrated total discharge air volume. These data are logged at a computer which receives instrument data through a multiplex scanning system. A multipoint isokinetic sampling assembly with associated instrumentation is described. Continuous air monitors have been designed to sample from the isokinetic sampling assembly and transmit both instantaneous and integrated stack effluent concentration data to the computer and various cathode ray tube displays. The continuous air monitors also serve as room air monitors in the plutonium facility with the primary objective of timely evacuation of personnel if an above tolerance airborne plutonium concentration is detected. Several continuous air monitors are incorporated in the ventilation system to assist in identification of release problem areas

  10. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  11. A new chemical assay standard for plutonium

    This paper reports on a study of the structural and thermal aspects of alkali metal double sulfates of plutonium has led to a new chemical assay standard for plutonium, K4Pu(SO4)4. The compound is obtained by dehydration of the dihydrate, K4Pu(SO4)4 · 2H2O. Anhydrous K4Pu(SO4)4 was evaluated for its purity, solubility, stoichiometry, and stability for a 2-year period. Chemical analyses for plutonium and sulfate and emission spectrographic and mass spectrometric analyses for impurity elements showed that the compound is stoichiometric, with a total impurity content of less than 250 ppm. Analysis for plutonium in store samples confirmed that the product is stable to α-radiolytic and atmospheric conditions and that it decomposes only above 700 degrees C. The evaluations done on preparations of up to 100 g per batch favor its selection as a better chemical assay standard for plutonium than Pu(SO4)2·4H2O

  12. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  13. Guidelines for the responsible management of plutonium

    Since 1994 an informal group of representatives of States party to the NPT has been trying to develop agreed international guidelines for the responsible management of non-military plutonium. This paper gives a brief description of the outcome. Since the results are still subject to decision by Governments, the description must be in general terms only. The paper describes the background to, and genesis of, the discussions and the general approach taken, which was based on commitment to the NPT, national responsibility for the management of nuclear materials and the fuel cycle, upholding of the IAEA's safeguards system, and a focus on civil material. An indication is given of the development of the Group's thinking, especially the decisions that any guidelines must be capable of accommodating surplus military plutonium, as well as civil, and that the main focus should be on measures to increase transparency. The resulting guidelines are described. Their main features are a re-statement of commitments and standards for the management of non-military plutonium with regard to non-proliferation, safety, and other fields, a commitment to the management of such plutonium according to a consistent national strategy, and a commitment to the publication of information on that strategy, and of annual statistics for holdings of plutonium in a consistent format. Other aspects of the guidelines are also explained. Finally, an attempt is made to assess the possible practical effects of the guidelines if adopted by governments. (author)

  14. The Optimum Plutonium Fuel Form in Light Water Reactors

    Tulenko, James S.; Savela, Michael; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui

    2003-07-01

    The University of Florida has underway a research program to validate the benefits of developing a Pu/ZrH/U matrix fuel for the irradiation of the U.S. weapons plutonium and European reprocessed plutonium from an economic, operational, and performance basis. Thermal reactors using plutonium as a fuel are inherently undermoderated because of the large absorption cross sections of plutonium and the presence of large absorption resonances for plutonium in the thermal and near-thermal energy ranges. The use of the proven TRIGA ZrHx-based fuel with plutonium has shown an extremely large (>20%) increase in reactivity over the conventional UO2/PuO2 fuel form currently being considered, with an additional major increase in the destruction of plutonium, rendering it an extremely attractive fuel form for plutonium disposition.

  15. Absorption of plutonium in the iron-deficient rat

    Iron deficiency did not enhance absorption of plutonium following intragastric gavage of rats. Absorption of plutonium citrate in both control and iron-deficient rats was about 0.03% of the administered dose

  16. The optimum plutonium fuel form in light water reactors

    The University of Florida has underway a research program to validate the benefits of developing a Pu/ZrH/U matrix fuel for the irradiation of the U.S. weapons plutonium and European reprocessed plutonium from an economic, operational, and performance basis. Thermal reactors using plutonium as a fuel are inherently undermoderated because of the large absorption cross sections of plutonium and the presence of large absorption resonances for plutonium in the thermal and near-thermal energy ranges. The use of the proven TRIGA ZrHx-based fuel with plutonium has shown an extremely large (>20%) increase in reactivity over the conventional UO2/PuO2 fuel form currently being considered, with an additional major increase in the destruction of plutonium, rendering it an extremely attractive fuel form for plutonium disposition

  17. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    Wike, L.D.

    2000-08-17

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site.

  18. Site Selection for Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities at the Savannah River Site

    A site selection study was conducted to evaluate locations for the proposed Surplus Plutonium Disposition Facilities. Facilities to be located include the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, the Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility (PDCF), and the Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) facility. Objectives of the study include: (1) Confirm that the Department of Energy (DOE) selected locations for the MOX and PDCF were suitable based on selected siting criteria, (2) Recommend a site in the vicinity of F Area that is suitable for the PIP, and (3) Identify alternative suitable sites for one or more of these facilities in the event that further geotechnical characterization or other considerations result in disqualification of a currently proposed site

  19. Heating efficiency of microwave heating direct denitration of a mixture of uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate

    A mixture of plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate is co-converted to MOX powder by the microwave heating method developed by JAEA. The heating efficiency is very important for improving the energy-saving performance in this conversion process. In this study, the heating efficiency was measured using both experimental and engineering-scale microwave ovens in water, nitric acid and a mixture of plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate as a function of distance between the specimen and the base of the oven. In addition, the distribution of electromagnetic field strength and its absorption concentration in the solution were numerically evaluated by an electromagnetic field analysis code, MWS 2009. The experimental results could almost be explained by the numerical analysis results. When the distance of the specimen and the base of the oven was beyond 1/4 wavelength, the efficiency became constant because the influence disappeared. (author)

  20. Fused salt processing of impure plutonium dioxide to high-purity plutonium metal

    A process for converting impure plutonium dioxide (approx. 96% pure) to high-purity plutonium metal (>99.9%) was developed. The process consists of reducing the oxide to an impure plutonium metal intermediate with calcium metal in molten calcium chloride. The impure intermediate metal is cast into an anode and electrorefined to produce high-purity plutonium metal. The oxide reduction step is being done now on a 0.6-kg scale with the resulting yield being >99.5%. The electrorefining is being done on a 4.0-kg scale with the resulting yield being 80 to 85%. The purity of the product, which averages 99.98%, is essentially insensitive to the purity of the feed metal. The yield, however, is directly dependent on the chemical composition of the feed. To date, approximately 250 kg of impure oxide has been converted to pure metal by this processing sequence. The availability of impure plutonium dioxide, together with the need for pure plutonium metal, makes this sequence a valuable plutonium processing tool

  1. Standard test method for plutonium assay by plutonium (III) diode array spectrophotometry

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the determination of total plutonium as plutonium(III) in nitrate and chloride solutions. The technique is applicable to solutions of plutonium dioxide powders and pellets (Test Methods C 697), nuclear grade mixed oxides (Test Methods C 698), plutonium metal (Test Methods C 758), and plutonium nitrate solutions (Test Methods C 759). Solid samples are dissolved using the appropriate dissolution techniques described in Practice C 1168. The use of this technique for other plutonium-bearing materials has been reported (1-5), but final determination of applicability must be made by the user. The applicable concentration range for plutonium sample solutions is 10–200 g Pu/L. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropria...

  2. A theoretical study of plutonium diketone complexes for solvent extraction

    Gagliardi, Laura; Handy, Nicholas C.; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Willetts, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We present a relativistic density functional study on some plutonium compounds with thenoyltrifluoroacetone and similar ligands which can be used in the extraction of plutonium. The method of effective core potentials is used on plutonium. The binding energies of the complexes of plutonium in the formal oxidation states II, IV and VI have been determined and the geometries of some of the complexes have been fully optimized. The stability of the compounds in the different oxidation states and ...

  3. Where to dispose Plutonium? Options and decision criteria

    The main topics of this information report on Plutonium are: base information on Plutonium like production, detection, toxicity, possibilities for weapon production, inventory and quantity; utilization in reactors; concepts on removal of Plutonium e.g. vitrification, underground explosions and shooting in space; evaluation of different options: environmental and safety risks, proliferation resistance; safeguards and verification; international laws: agreements and regulation demand on the removal of Plutonium. (GL)

  4. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4. The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Plutonium incorporation through ingestion by young animals

    Studies to determine whether animals nursed by dams with a 239Pu burden would themselves acquire plutonium showed that rats incorporated about 0.019 percent of the amount injected into the dam, mice incorporated about 0.11 percent, and cats about 0.28 percent. Plutonium obtained in this fashion was avidly retained by bone and resulted in the appearance of two osteogenic sarcomas in a seven and one-half-year-old cat with an estimated terminal body burden of 0.23 to 0.27 μCi. In comparing the incorporation of ingested Pu-milk and Pu-citrate by rats of different ages, it was found that nurslings incorporated more than weanlings and weanlings more than adults. Also, 1.6 to 3 times as much plutonium was incorporated from ingested Pu-milk as from ingested Pu-citrate

  6. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  7. Seasonal cycling of plutonium in Lake Michigan

    During the summer of 1973 the concentration of fallout 239240Pu in the surface water of Lake Michigan became markedly depleted, coincident with the formation of a stable thermocline. Seasonal cycling of Pu was followed from 1973 through 1976 and showed significant inputs of new fallout plutonium occurred during 1974 and 1975. Although the new inputs of fallout plutonium are almost negligible compared to the total already in the system, this is not true for the water column which at present contains only 3% of the integrated deposition on the lake. The epilimnion is especially sensitive to new atmospheric deposition because it is physically isolated from dilution with the much larger hypolimnetic volume for a period of several months. The data for total (dissolved and suspended) plutonium concentrations in Lake Michigan surface water are presented

  8. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified

  9. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  10. Excess plutonium disposition using ALWR technology

    The Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy chartered the Plutonium Disposition Task Force in August 1992. The Task Force was created to assess the range of practicable means of disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Within the Task Force, working groups were formed to consider: (1) storage, (2) disposal,and(3) fission options for this disposition,and a separate group to evaluate nonproliferation concerns of each of the alternatives. As a member of the Fission Working Group, the Savannah River Technology Center acted as a sponsor for light water reactor (LWR) technology. The information contained in this report details the submittal that was made to the Fission Working Group of the technical assessment of LWR technology for plutonium disposition. The following aspects were considered: (1) proliferation issues, (2) technical feasibility, (3) technical availability, (4) economics, (5) regulatory issues, and (6) political acceptance

  11. Uptake of plutonium by immobilized bacteria

    The use of plastic-immobilized bacteria as a system for the concentration of plutonium from aqueous media is investigated. Previous research is reviewed quantifying free cell bacterial concentration of plutonium from solution or suspension. Our research indicates that the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be induced to attach firmly to a polymer substrate, while retaining its ability to concentrate plutonium. Melt-blown, filamentous polypropylene is shown to foster cell embedment and uptake capabilities surpassing various other substrates. Oxygen plasma treatment, used to enhance polypropylene wettability, is found to increase the rate of cell embedment significantly. Both embedment and uptake phenomena are found to be dependent upon cell viability. Potential applications for the cell/polymer system are discussed

  12. The future of plutonium - an overview

    Plutonium is the underpinning of the nuclear industry. Without it it is estimated that the fuel will run out not long after the turn of the century. With plutonium in fast breeders nuclear reactors can be operated for tens of thousands of years and the depleted uranium now available can be utilized The fuel cycle contemplated is similar to that of the light water reactor with some important differences at least partially related to the greater radioactivity of the resulting mixture of plutonium isotopes. The regulatory program does recognize the problems, including those of toxicity, safeguards and transportation. The concept of an integrated fuel cycle facility at a single location must be seriously considered. (author)

  13. The United States Plutonium Balance, 1944 - 2009

    None

    2012-06-01

    This report updates the report -Plutonium: The first 50 years- which was released by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE) in 1996. The topic of both reports is plutonium, sometimes referred to as Pu-239, which is capable of sustaining a nuclear chain reaction and is used in nuclear weapons and for nuclear power production. This report updates 1994 data through 2009. The four most significant changes since 1994 include: (a) the completion of cleanup activities at the Rocky Flats Plant in 2005; (b) material consolidation and disposition activities, especially shipments from Hanford to the Savannah River Site; (c) the 2007 declaration of an additional 9.0 MT of weapons grade plutonium to be surplus to defense needs in the coming decades; and (d) the opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in 1999.

  14. In-line monitor of plutonium holdup in glovebox filters

    An in-line filter holdup monitoring system has been designed and installed in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Plutonium Processing Facility to detect plutonium buildup in a glovebox exhaust filter. The filter is located on top of a glovebox in which plutonium and uranium oxide and carbon are blended, milled, and prepared for making advanced fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel

  15. Distribution coefficient of plutonium between sediment and seawater

    Using plutonium 237 as a tracer, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient of plutonium onto sediments both under oxic and anoxic conditions, where the plutonium was added to seawater in three different valence states: III, IV and VI

  16. Predicted erosion and sediment delivery of fallout plutonium

    Erosion estimates calculated with the Universal Soil Loss Equation as a part of USDA's 1977 National Resources Inventory were used to estimate delivery of fallout plutonium in several major river basins. Erosion will slowly remove the plutonium, but deposition will leave about 90 percent of the plutonium on the landscape for very long times

  17. Alternative methods for proportional equations in plutonium chemistry

    Silver, G.L.

    1978-11-15

    Two alternative optimization algorithms suitable for solving plutonium equilibrium problems by the method of proportional equations are proposed. An argument is deduced suggesting that a preselected, arbitrary potential need not correspond to the true end point potential in the coulometric titration of plutonium. The possibility of an invariable path in plutonium disproportionation reactions is suggested.

  18. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  19. Precipitation of plutonium from acidic solutions using magnesium oxide

    Magnesium oxide will be used as a neutralizing agent for acidic plutonium-containing solutions. It is expected that as the magnesium oxide dissolves, the pH of the solution will rise, and plutonium will precipitate. The resulting solid will be tested for suitability to storage. The liquid is expected to contain plutonium levels that meet disposal limit requirements

  20. Washing processes for plutonium recovery from solid wastes

    The recovery of plutonium from primary wastes by means of washing processes has been investigated and demonstrated on a laboratory scale. For both ecological as well as economic reasons it is reasonable to recover plutonium from these wastes. It can be concluded that with the correct coordination of washing procedures with waste composition, the bulk of plutonium can be recovered with very little expenditure

  1. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963)

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors)

  2. Study of the formation, prevention, and recovery of plutonium from plutonium esters in the Purex process

    The Savannah River Plant uses the basic Purex process to separate 239Pu from 238U and fission products. Dark-brown, dense solids containing up to 30% Pu have previously occurred in rotameters in the plutonium finishing operations. The kinetics of formation of this mixture of DBP- and MBP-Pu esters suggest two methods to prevent the formation of the solids. A selective dissolution method using NaOH metathesis has been developed to separate the phosphate ester from the plutonium before dissolution of the residual plutonium hydroxide in a HNO3-HF medium

  3. A vision for environmentally conscious plutonium processing

    Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Christensen, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Miller, W.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Regardless of individual technical and political opinions about the uses of plutonium, it is virtually certain that plutonium processing will continue on a significant global scale for many decades for the purposes of national defense, nuclear power, and remediation. An unavoidable aspect of plutonium processing is that radioactively contaminated gas, liquid, and solid waste streams are generated. These streams need to be handled in a manner that not only is in full compliance with today`s laws but also will be considered environmentally and economically responsible now and in the future. In this regard, it is indeed ironic that the multibillion dollar and multidecade radioactive cleanup mortgage that the US Department of Energy (and its Russian counterpart) now owns resulted from waste management practices that were at the time in full legal compliance. It is now abundantly evident that in the long run, these practices have proven to be neither environmentally nor economically sound. Recent dramatic advances in actinide science and technology now make it possible to drastically minimize or even eliminate the problematic waste streams of traditional plutonium processing operations. Advanced technology thereby provides the means to avoid passing on to children and grandchildren significant environmental and economic legacies that traditional processing inevitably produces. The authors describe such a vision for plutonium processing that could be implemented fully within 5 yr at a facility such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA55). As a significant bonus, even on this short timescale, the initial technology investment is handsomely returned in avoided waste management costs.

  4. Accelerator-based single-shot ultrafast transmission electron microscope with picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. We anticipate that u-TEMs with a product of temporal and spatial resolution beyond 10−19 ms will open up new opportunities in probing matter at ultrafast temporal and ultrasmall spatial scales

  5. Application of an ultraminiature thermal neutron monitor for irradiation field study of accelerator-based neutron capture therapy

    Phantom experiments to evaluate thermal neutron flux distribution were performed using the Scintillator with Optical Fiber (SOF) detector, which was developed as a thermal neutron monitor during boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) irradiation. Compared with the gold wire activation method and Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) calculations, it was confirmed that the SOF detector is capable of measuring thermal neutron flux as low as 105 n/cm2/s with sufficient accuracy. The SOF detector will be useful for phantom experiments with BNCT neutron fields from low-current accelerator-based neutron sources. (author)

  6. The continuous chlorination of plutonium dioxide

    Rasmussen, M.J.

    1959-08-14

    Previous reports on the chlorination of plutonium dioxide describe numerous small-scale experiments and a few fair-sized batch preparations. The chemistry of chlorination by numerous reagents is covered, but no process had received sufficient study for large-scale preparation of anhydrous plutonium trichloride. The literature search revealed no extensive studies on chlorination rates, exhaust gas filtering, atmospheric requirements, reactor materials, etc. A program was undertaken to select a chlorination process, to develop the necessary information for defining operating conditions and equipment specifications, and then to demonstrate the operation of the process.

  7. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  8. Measurement of Plutonium Isotopic Composition - MGA

    Vo, Duc Ta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-21

    In this module, we will use the Canberra InSpector-2000 Multichannel Analyzer with a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) and the MGA isotopic anlysis software to assay a variety of plutonium samples. The module provides an understanding of the MGA method, its attributes and limitations. You will assess the system performance by measuring a range of materials similar to those you may assay in your work. During the final verification exercise, the results from MGA will be combined with the 240Pueff results from neutron coincidence or multiplicity counters so that measurements of the plutonium mass can be compared with the operator-declared (certified) values.

  9. Ultratrace potassium determination in plutonium oxide

    A new method improving the detection limit for potassium in plutonium oxide samples in a high acid matrix was developed. Ultratrace detection limits (sub parts per million) for potassium in plutonium oxide digestate were achieved by optimizing several instrument parameters. Using the Horiba Jobin-Yvon Ultima 2 ICP-AES spectrometer different settings and conditions were examined to improve the detection limit for potassium. The optimized parameters of 0.875 L min-1 sheath gas flow, 20/80 µm entrance/exit slit, 8 s MAX mode signal integration, and blank subtraction were able to lower the potassium reporting limit to 10 ng mL-1. (author)

  10. Diffusion in the uranium - plutonium system and self-diffusion of plutonium in epsilon phase

    A survey of uranium-plutonium phase diagram leads to confirm anglo-saxon results about the plutonium solubility in α uranium (15 per cent at 565 C) and the uranium one in ζ phase (74 per cent at 565 C). Interdiffusion coefficients, for concentration lower than 15 per cent had been determined in a temperature range from 410 C to 640 C. They vary between 0.2 and 6 1012 cm2 s-1, and the activation energy between 13 and 20 kcal/mole. Grain boundary, diffusion of plutonium in a uranium had been pointed out by micrography, X-ray microanalysis and α autoradiography. Self-diffusion of plutonium in ε phase (bcc) obeys Arrhenius law: D = 2. 10-2 exp -(18500)/RT. But this activation energy does not follow empirical laws generally accepted for other metals. It has analogies with 'anomalous' bcc metals (βZr, βTi, βHf, Uγ). (author)

  11. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    Kim, Jae Wook [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mielke, Charles H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baiardo, Joseph P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mun, Eun D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  12. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  13. Civil plutonium and military plutonium: to bring a bad quarrel to an end

    This paper analyzes in a critical form the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation with the use of plutonium from civil nuclear reactors. A first part is devoted to theory and practices and describes the plutonium quality required for the manufacturing of a nuclear weapon and the feasibility and difficulties of such a process (isotope composition, critical mass, irradiation, heat loss, neutrons emission). A second part deals with the low interest and the major problems that would be encountered when using reactor-quality plutonium in the manufacturing of a nuclear weapon (diversion of plutonium from civil reactors, IAEA and national controls). A third part analyses the misunderstanding and confusions which exist in the debate about proliferation (partial public information, secrecy, confusion). (J.S.)

  14. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM BY CHELATION-EXTRACTION

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium can be separated from a mixture of plutonlum and lanthanum in which the lanthanum to plutonium molal ratio ls at least five by adding the ammonium salt of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine to an aqueous solution having a pH between about 3 and 0.2 and containing the plutonium in a valence state of at least +3, to form a plutonium chelate compound of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine. The plutonium chelate compound may be recovered from the solution by extracting with an immiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  15. Plutonium potentiometric analysis after reduction by copper (I)

    Plutonium determination in solutions containing fission products and an important amount of uranium (ratio U/Pu = 7), suitable for a mass of plutonium between 5 to 30 mg, by reduction of plutonium to the valency state III with an excess of copper (I) in hydrochloric acid saturated with aluminium chloride and sulfamic acid; molybdemum (VI) and uranium (VI) are not reduced. Copper (I) in excess is titrated potentiometrically with potassium dichromate. Addition of sulfuric-phosphoric acid and oxidation of plutonium to the valency state IV by potassium dichromate by potentiometry. The mass of plutonium is obtained from the volume of dichromate used

  16. Qualitative chemical analysis of plutonium by Alpha spectroscopy

    In this work the separation and purification of plutonium from irradiated uranium was done. The plutonium, produced by the irradiation of uranium in a nuclear reactor and the β decay of 239 Np, was stabilized to Pu +4 with sodium nitrite. Plutonium was separated from the fission products and uranium by ion exchange using the resin Ag 1 X 8. It was electrodeposited on stainless steel discs and the alpha radioactivity of plutonium was measured in a surface barrier detector. The results showed that plutonium was separated with a radiochemical purity higher than 99 %. (Author)

  17. John Adams Lecture | Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics: Past, Present and Future by Kenneth Long | 8 December

    2014-01-01

    John Adams Lecture: Accelerator-Based Neutrino Physics: Past, Present and Future by Dr. Kenneth Long (Imperial College London & STFC).   Monday, 8 December 2014 from 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. at CERN ( 503-1-001 - Council Chamber ) Abstract: The study of the neutrino is the study of physics beyond the Standard Model. We now know that the neutrinos have mass and that neutrino mixing occurs causing neutrino flavour to oscillate as neutrinos propagate through space and time. Further, some measurements can be interpreted as hints for new particles known as sterile neutrinos. The measured values of the mixing parameters make it possible that the matter-antimatter (CP) symmetry may be violated through the mixing process. The consequences of observing CP-invariance violation in neutrinos would be profound. To discover CP-invariance violation will require measurements of exquisite precision. Accelerator-based neutrino sources are central to the future programme and advances in technique are required ...

  18. Disproportionation of plutonium IV in concentrated solutions of plutonium in perchloric acid

    This work was carried out to study the dependence of the PuIV disproportionation reaction in perchloric acid solution on the plutonium concentration up to 20 g/l. Solutions of such high plutonium concentration have not previously been studied. It was found that the bimolecular rate constant and the equilibrium constant of the disproportionation reaction were not appreciably different from their values at lower concentrations. (author)

  19. Estimation of the Body Content Following Inhalation of Insoluble Plutonium

    The problem of estimating the body content of plutonium following the inhalation of plutonium oxide is of considerable practical importance and, on the grounds of the known insolubility of plutonium oxide, measurements of plutonium in urine might be considered valueless. This paper reviews the relevant published biological data from beagle dog experiments and also reviews data from two human cases. From this review it is concluded that there is evidence for believing that the body content, following an accidental inhalation, can be estimated from the measurements of plutonium excreted in urine at times greater than about 300 d after the intake. Some possible excretion methods are discussed. Finally, there is a comment on the radiological protection aspects of insoluble plutonium in the lungs and bronchial lymph nodes and it is stressed that the particular nature of the plutonium must be taken into consideration. (author)

  20. Proliferation resistance of plutonium based on decay heat

    Proliferation resistance of plutonium can be enhanced by increasing the decay heat of plutonium. For example, it can be enhanced by increasing the isotopic fraction of 238Pu, which has the largest decay heat among plutonium isotopes, produced by transmutation of Minor Actinides (Protected Plutonium Production: P3). In the present paper, proliferation resistance of plutonium was evaluated based on decay heat with physical assessment model. As a summary of the evaluation, new criteria to evaluate proliferation resistance of plutonium based on its isotopic composition from the view point of decay heat were suggested. The present methodology and the criteria were applied to evaluate the impact of P3 by the transmutation of Minor Actinides in fast breeder reactor blanket on proliferation resistance of plutonium. (author)

  1. Plutonium detection in casks of compactable solid waste

    This report describes a method for determining plutonium in casks of compactable solid waste; it can be applied to amounts of plutonium varying from 2 to 200 grams. The principle of the method is the counting of the 380 keV γ photons from the plutonium 239; a correction is required if both zirconium 95 and niobium 95 are present in the cask. The maximum amount of zirconium 95 + niobium 95 which can be tolerated is 5 microcuries per gram of plutonium, and 300 microcuries per cask. Under the best conditions the accuracy of the measurement appears to be of the order of ±30 per cent, but experience has shown that the method is very useful as a guide to the recovery of the plutonium in the waste. In effect, for a batch of fifty measurements, the difference between the plutonium measured by this method and the plutonium recovered from the waste was equal to 10 per cent. (authors)

  2. Chemical behavior of plutonium in LWR fuel reprocessing solutions

    These studies were conducted to provide fundamental information that will be required for the satisfactory treatment of the actinide elements in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Three problem areas are described that could result in plutonium losses prior to or during Purex processing. They involve (1) decreasing plutonium distribution coefficients with successive extraction stages even in pure HNO3 solution; (2) Pu(IV) interaction with the ruthenium component of the feed solution; and (3) plutonium losses associated with precipitates of zirconia, zirconium molybdate, and plutonium molybdate. The results indicate that although small extraction losses do occur and significant plutonium losses can result from feed solution instabilities, it should be possible to avoid process conditions which promote this behavior; therefore, from the viewpoint of plutonium chemical behavior, very high plutonium recoveries (>99.9% should be possible

  3. Salvage of plutonium-and americium-contaminated metals

    Melt-slagging techniques were evaluated as a decontamination and consolidation step for metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium. Experiments were performed in which mild steel, stainless steel, and nickel metals contaminated with oxides of plutonium and americium were melted in the presence of silicate slags of various compositions. The metal products were low in contamination, with the plutonium and americium strongly fractionated to the slags. Partition coefficients (plutonium in slag/plutonium in steel) of 7*10/sup 6/ with borosilicate slag and 3*10/sup 6/ for calcium, magnesium silicate slag were measured. Decontamination of metals containing as much as 14,000 p.p.m. plutonium appears to be as efficient as that of metals with plutonium levels of 400 p.p.m. Staged extraction, that is, a remelting of processed metal with clean slag, results in further decontamination of the metal. 10 refs

  4. Degradation of tributylphosphate in plutonium nitrate solution

    Degradation of tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) dissolved in aqueous nitrate systems containing Pu was investigated under various conditions. The difference of degradation rates of TBP observed in reprocessed Pu streams and in nitric acid is discussed. The followings were elucidated : (1) The degradation of TBP in plutonium nitrate solutions depends upon the Pu concentration although it indicates first-order kinetics. (2) The half life of TBP increases linearly with HNO3 concentration in plutonium nitrate solutions. The retardation by undissociated HNO3 is almost independent of Pu concentration. (3) No significant effect of HNO2, generated by radiolysis, on the TBP degradation rate was observed. (4) The retardation of the degradation of TBP can be described only with the concentrations of Pu and HNO3. (5) The G-values of TBP in plutonium nitrate solutions extremely decrease with increasing the concentrations of HNO3 and Pu. (6) Plutonium other than undissociated HNO3 would be involved in the retardation due to OH radical scavenging because Pu(III) and Pu(IV) give different degradation rates of TBP. (author)

  5. Development of the plutonium oxide vitrification system

    Repository disposal of plutonium in a suitable, immobilized form is being considered as one option for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium. Accelerated development efforts were completed in 1997 on two potential immobilization forms to facilitate downselection to one form for continued development. The two forms studied were a crystalline ceramic based on Synroc technology and a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. As part of the glass development program, melter design activities and component testing were completed to demonstrate the feasibility of using glass as an immobilization medium. A prototypical melter was designed and built in 1997. The melter vessel and drain tube were constructed of a Pt/Rh alloy. Separate induction systems were used to heat the vessel and drain tube. A Pt/Rh stirrer was incorporated into the design to facilitate homogenization of the melt. Integrated powder feeding and off-gas systems completed the overall design. Concurrent with the design efforts, testing was conducted using a plutonium surrogate LaBS composition in an existing (near-scale) melter to demonstrate the feasibility of processing the LaBS glass on a production scale. Additionally, the drain tube configuration was successfully tested using a plutonium surrogate LaBS glass

  6. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  7. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission

  8. NNSS Soils Monitoring: Plutonium Valley (CAU 366)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 366, Area 11 Plutonium Valley Dispersion Sites Contamination Area (CA) during precipitation runoff events.

  9. 233-S plutonium concentration facility hazards assessment

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  10. Plutonium Management in the Medium Term

    For many years various countries with access to commercial reprocessing services have been routinely recycling plutonium as UO2/PuO2 mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors (LWRs). This LWR MOX recycle strategy is still widely regarded as an interim step leading to the eventual establishment of sustainable fast reactor fuel cycles. The OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) has recently completed a review of the technical options for plutonium management in what it refers to as the 'medium term'. For the purpose of the review, the WPPR considers the medium term to cover the period from now up to the point at which fast reactor fuel cycles are established on a commercial scale. The review identified a number of different designs of innovative plutonium fuel assemblies intended to be used in current LWR cores, in LWRs with significantly different moderation properties, as well as in high-temperature gas reactors. The full review report describes these various options and highlights their respective advantages and disadvantages. This paper briefly summarizes the main findings of the review

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Equipment Review

    This report lists the operations required to complete the Can Loading steps on the Pu Immobilization Plant Flow Sheets and evaluates the equipment options to complete each operation. This report recommends the most appropriate equipment to support Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading operations

  12. Overview of surplus weapons plutonium disposition

    Rudy, G.

    1996-05-01

    The safe disposition of surplus weapons useable plutonium is a very important and urgent task. While the functions of long term storage and disposition directly relate to the Department`s weapons program and the environmental management program, the focus of this effort is particularly national security and nonproliferation.

  13. Quantitative analysis of carbon in plutonium

    The aim of this study is to develop a method for the determination of carbon traces (20 to 400 ppm) in plutonium. The development of a carbon in plutonium standard is described, then the content of this substance is determined and its validity as a standard shown by analysis in two different ways. In the first method used, reaction of the metal with sulphur and determination of carbon as carbon sulphide, the following parameters were studied: influence of excess reagent, surface growth of samples in contact with sulphur, temperature and reaction time. The results obtained are in agreement with those obtained by the conventional method of carbon determination, combustion in oxygen and measurement of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Owing to the presence of this standard we were then able to study the different parameters involved in plutonium combustion so that the reaction can be made complete: temperature reached during combustion, role of flux, metal surface in contact with oxygen and finally method of cleaning plutonium samples

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) hazards assessment

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for the PFP. DOE Orders require an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification

  15. NAS outlines best options for plutonium disposal

    The best options for disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium are fabrication into mixed-oxide fuel for use in existing reactors or vitrification with high-level radioactive waste, a National Academy of Sciences panel has concluded. The academy's Committee on International Security and Arms Control said a third option was burial in deep boreholes, although it said more research was needed to determine whether that solution would be open-quotes comparably attractiveclose quotes to use of MOx fuel or vitrification. The panel said those three options represented the most feasible and cost-effective methods for the US and Russian governments to address security and proliferation concerns raised by their growing stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium. It also urged the two governments to take immediate steps to pursue those options, saying indefinite storage of plutonium in weapons-usable form was clearly undesirable, especially in light of continuing instability in the former Soviet Union. More broadly, the panel called for bilateral US-Russian action to halt production of fissile materials, assure safe storage and devise international verification procedures to prevent resumption of weapons production and theft or diversion of nuclear bomb materials. Much of the panel's report was devoted to a detailed evaluation of the technical, political and economic advantages and disadvantages of various plutonium disposition methods, including such exotic schemes as dilution in the ocean, destruction through underground explosions and launches into space

  16. Placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides

    The report is based on an extensive literature search. All data available from studies on placental transfer of plutonium and other actinides in man and animals have been collected and analysed, and the report presents the significant results as well as unresolved questions and knowledge gaps which may serve as a waypost to future research work. (orig./MG)

  17. Plutonium as a Reactor Fuel. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Plutonium as a Reactor Fuel

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held at Brussels, 13-17 March 1967. Over 300 specialists from 25 countries and three international organizations attended the meeting. Contents: Physics of plutonium-fuelled systems (7 papers); Fabrication of plutonium fuels and fuel elements (18 papers); Irradiation behaviour of plutonium fuels (8 papers); Reprocessing of irradiated plutonium fuels (5 papers); Prospects and economics of plutonium-fuelled systems (18 papers). Each paper is in its original language (38 English. 13 French and 5 Russian) and is preceded by an abstract in English and one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  18. Crystalline plutonium hosts derived from high-level waste formulations

    The Department of Energy has selected immobilization for disposal in a repository as one approach for disposing of excess plutonium (1). Materials for immobilizing weapons-grade plutonium for repository disposal must meet the ''spent fuel standard'' by providing a radiation field similar to spent fuel (2). Such a radiation field can be provided by incorporating fission products from high-level waste into the waste form. Experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating high-level waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) into plutonium dispositioning materials to meet the spent fuel standard. A variety of materials and preparation techniques were evaluated based on prior experience developing waste forms for immobilizing HLW. These included crystalline ceramic compositions prepared by conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and glass formulations prepared by conventional melting. Because plutonium solubility in silicate melts is limited, glass formulations were intentionally devitrified to partition plutonium into crystalline host phases, thereby allowing increased overall plutonium loading. Samarium, added as a representative rare earth neutron absorber, also tended to partition into the plutonium host phases. Because the crystalline plutonium host phases are chemically more inert, the plutonium is more effectively isolated from the environment, and its attractiveness for proliferation is reduced. In the initial phase of evaluating each material and preparation method, cerium was used as a surrogate for plutonium. For promising materials, additional preparation experiments were performed using plutonium to verify the behavior of cerium as a surrogate. These experiments demonstrated that cerium performed well as a surrogate for plutonium. For the most part, cerium and plutonium partitioned onto the same crystalline phases, and no anomalous changes in oxidation state were observed. The only observed

  19. Feasibility of Colliding-beam fast-fission reactor via 238U80++238 U80+ --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV beam with suppressed plutonium and direct conversion of fission fragment (FF) energy into electricity and/or Rocket propellant with high specific impulse

    Maglich, Bogdan; Hester, Tim; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Uranium-uranium colliding beam experiment1, used fully ionized 238U92+ at energy 100GeV --> 4 FF + 5n + 430 MeV. Using a simple model1 fission σf ~ 100 b. Suppression of Pu by a factor of 106 will be achieved because NO thermal neutron fission can take place; only fast, 1-3 MeV, where σabs is negligible. Direct conversion of 95% of 430 MeV produced is carried by electrically charged FFs which are magnetically funneled for direct conversion of energy of FFs via electrostatic decelerators4,11. 90% of 930 MeV is electrically recoverable. Depending on the assumptions, we project electric _ power density production of 20 to 200 MWe m-3, equivalent to Thermal 1.3 - 13 GWthm-3. If one-half of unburned U is used for propulsion while rest powers system, heavy FF ion mass provides specific impulse Isp = 106 sec., 103 times higher than current rocket engines.

  20. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    Bourges, G. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France)], E-mail: gilles.bourges@cea.fr; Lambertin, D.; Rochefort, S. [CEA-Centre d' etudes de Valduc, 21 120 Is sur Tille (France); Delpech, S.; Picard, G. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Chimie Analytique (UMR7575, CNRS), ENSCP, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris (France)

    2007-10-11

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2}, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl{sub 2} - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl{sub 2} at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl{sub 2}, 1 atm/Cl{sup -} reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl{sub 2} the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl{sub 2} and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log {gamma} = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements.

  1. Electrochemical studies on plutonium in molten salts

    Electrochemical studies on plutonium have been supporting the development of pyrochemical processes involving plutonium at CEA. The electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten salts - ternary eutectic mixture NaCl-KCl-BaCl2, equimolar mixture NaCl-KCl and pure CaCl2 - and in liquid gallium at 1073 K. The formal, or apparent, standard potential of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple in eutectic mixture of NaCl-KCl-BaCl2 at 1073 K determined by potentiometry is equal to -2.56 V (versus Cl2, 1 atm/Cl- reference electrode). In NaCl-KCl eutectic mixture and in pure CaCl2 the formal standard potentials deduced from cyclic voltammetry are respectively -2.54 V and -2.51 V. These potentials led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III) in the molten salts. Chronoamperometry on plutonium in liquid gallium using molten chlorides - CaCl2 and equimolar NaCl/KCl - led to the determination of the activity coefficient of Pu in liquid Ga, log γ = -7.3. This new data is a key parameter to assess the thermodynamic feasibility of a process using gallium as solvent metal. By comparing gallium with other solvent metals - cadmium, bismuth, aluminum - gallium appears to be, with aluminum, more favorable for the selectivity of the separation at 1073 K of plutonium from cerium. In fact, compared with a solid tungsten electrode, none of these solvent liquid metals is a real asset for the selectivity of the separation. The role of a solvent liquid metal is mainly to trap the elements

  2. Simulation of plutonium ingestion by grazing cattle

    A simple model of plutonium ingestion by cattle grazing a uniformly contaminated pasture is I/sub Pu/ = I/sub v/C/sub v/ + I/sub s/C/sub s/ where I/sub Pu/ is the plutonium ingestion rate (pCi/day), I/sub v/ and I/sub s/ are vegetation and soil ingestion rates (g/day), C/sub v/ and C/sub s/ are plutonium concentrations (pCi/g) in vegetation and soil. In a ground zero area such as the inner compound of Area 13 (NTS), where the spatial distribution of plutonium is nonuniform and highly variable, the simple ingestion model seems to require a stochastic interpretation. This paper provides evidence for assuming that the five factors of the ingestion model are lognormally distributed. Estimates of the geometric means and standard deviations of the four factors on the right side of the model equation were used to generate synthetic random samples of I/sub v/, I/sub s/, C/sub v/, and C/sub s/. The means of these synthetic samples were then used to obtain iterative solutions of the model equation in which the factors on the right were varied randomly and independently within the limits specified by the synthetic geometric means and standard deviation. The resulting synthetic composite random sample of I/sub Pu/ (n = 500 days) indicated an average plutonium ingestion rate, for a hypothetical 410-kg cow grazing the inner compound of Area 13, of 557 +- 526 nCi/day. Subsamples (n = 100 days) ranged from 486 +- 330 to 629 +- 526 nCi/day. This result compares favorably with previous estimates: 565 nCi/day based on fistulated steer rumen contents (Smith et al., 1976), 620 nCi/g based on an assumed diet of winterfat and shadscale (Gilbert et al., 1977), and 585 nCi/day based on general theoretical considerations

  3. Advanced concept of reduced-moderation water reactor (RMWR) for plutonium multiple recycling

    An advanced water-cooled reactor concept named the Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) has been proposed to attain a high conversion ratio more than 1.0 and to achieve the negative void reactivity coefficient. At present, several types of design concepts satisfying both the design targets have been proposed based on the evaluation for the fuel without fission products and minor actinides. In this paper, the feasibility of the RMWR core is investigated for the plutonium multiple recycling under advanced reprocessing schemes with low decontamination factors as proposed for the FBR fuel cycle. (author)

  4. Advanced LWR concept with hard neutron spectrum (FLWR) for realizing flexible plutonium management

    An advanced LWR concept with hard neutron spectrum (FLWR) has been proposed in order to ensure sustainable energy supply in the future based on the well-experienced LWR technologies. The FLWR is essentially a BWR-type reactor, in which the moderation of neutron in the core is reduced by use of the hexagonal-shaped fuel assemblies with the triangular-tight-lattice fuel rod configuration. The core design concept of FLWR is to realize effective and flexible utilization of uranium and plutonium resources by two stages, corresponding to the advancement of the fuel cycle technologies and related infrastructures. The core in the first stage of FLWR aims at intensive utilization and preservation of plutonium based on the experiences of the current LWR and MOX utilization, and the one in the second stage realizes sustainable multiple plutonium recycling with a high conversion ratio over 1.0. The key point is that the first stage core can proceed to the second stage in the same reactor system during the reactor operation period. The present paper summarizes the recent core design studies of FLWR. (author)

  5. Managing plutonium in Britain. Current options

    This is the report of a two day meeting to discuss issues arising from the reprocessing of plutonium and production of mixed oxide nuclear fuels in Britain. It was held at Charney Manor, near Oxford, on June 25 and 26, 1998, and was attended by 35 participants, including government officials, scientists, policy analysts, representatives of interested NGO's, journalists, a Member of Parliament, and visiting representatives from the US and Irish governments. The topic of managing plutonium has been a consistent thread within ORG's work, and was the subject of one of our previous reports, CDR 12. This particular seminar arose out of discussions earlier in the year between Dr. Frank Barnaby and the Rt. Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister for the Environment. With important decisions about the management of plutonium in Britain pending, ORG undertook to hold a seminar at which all aspects of the subject could be aired. A number of on-going events formed the background to this initiative. The first was British Nuclear Fuels' [BNFL] application to the Environment Agency to commission a mixed oxide fuel [MOX] plant at Sellafield. The second was BNFL's application to vary radioactive discharge limits at Sellafield. Thirdly, a House of Lords Select Committee was in process of taking evidence, on the disposal of radioactive waste. Fourthly, the Royal Society, in a recent report entitled Management of Separated Plutonium, recommended that 'the Government should commission a comprehensive review... of the options for the management of plutonium'. Four formal presentations were made to the meeting, on the subjects of Britain's plutonium policy, commercial prospects for plutonium use, problems of plutonium accountancy, and the danger of nuclear terrorism, by experts from outside the nuclear industry. It was hoped that the industry's viewpoint would also be heard, and BNFL were invited to present a paper, but declined on the grounds that they were 'currently involved in a formal

  6. PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATION VALENCE STATE DETERMINATION USING X-RAY ABSORPTION FINE STRUCTURE PERMITS CONCRETE RECYCLE

    This paper describes the determination of the speciation of plutonium contamination present on concrete surfaces at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). At RFETS, the plutonium processing facilities have been contaminated during multiple events over their 50 year operating history. Contamination has resulted from plutonium fire smoke, plutonium fire fighting water, milling and lathe operation aerosols, furnace operations vapors and plutonium ''dust'' diffusion

  7. Design and techniques for fusion blanket neutronics experiments using an accelerator-based deuterium-tritium neutron source

    The experiments performed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute/U.S. Department of Energy collaborative program on fusion blanket neutronics are designed with consideration of geometrical and material configurations. The general guide that is used to design the engineering-oriented neutronics experiment, which uses an accelerator-based 14-MeV neutron source, is discussed and compared with neutronics characteristics of the reactor models. Preparation of the experimental assembly, blanket materials, and the neutron source is described. A variety of techniques for measuring the nuclear parameters such as the tritium production rate are developed or introduced through the collaboration as a basis of the neutronics experiments. The features of these techniques are discussed with the experimental error and compared with each other. 25 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Advances in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at kyoto university - From reactor-based BNCT to accelerator-based BNCT

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Takata, Takushi; Fujimoto, Nozomi; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Kinashi, Yuko; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Ono, Koji; Maruhashi, Akira

    2015-07-01

    At the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a neutron irradiation facility installed at the research nuclear reactor has been regularly performed since February 1990. As of November 2014, 510 clinical irradiations were carried out using the reactor-based system. The world's first accelerator-based neutron irradiation system for BNCT clinical irradiation was completed at this institute in early 2009, and the clinical trial using this system was started in 2012. A shift of BCNT from special particle therapy to a general one is now in progress. To promote and support this shift, improvements to the irradiation system, as well as its preparation, and improvements in the physical engineering and the medical physics processes, such as dosimetry systems and quality assurance programs, must be considered. The recent advances in BNCT at KURRI are reported here with a focus on physical engineering and medical physics topics.

  9. Accelerator-based Single-shot Ultrafast Transmission Electron Microscope with Picosecond Temporal Resolution and Nanometer Spatial Resolution

    Xiang, D; Zhang, J; Huang, X; Wang, L; Wang, X; Wan, W

    2014-01-01

    We present feasibility study of an accelerator-based ultrafast transmission electron microscope (u-TEM) capable of producing a full field image in a single-shot with simultaneous picosecond temporal resolution and nanometer spatial resolution. We study key physics related to performance of u-TEMs, and discuss major challenges as well as possible solutions for practical realization of u-TEMs. The feasibility of u-TEMs is confirmed through simulations using realistic electron beam parameters. We anticipate that u-TEMs with a product of temporal and spatial resolution beyond $10^{-19}~$m*s will open up new opportunities in probing matter at ultrafast temporal and ultrasmall spatial scales.

  10. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria’s natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Olabanji, S. O.; Ige, O. A.; Mazzoli, C.; Ceccato, D.; Akintunde, J. A.; De Poli, M.; Moschini, G.

    2005-10-01

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  11. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the evaluation of some Nigeria's natural minerals: Fluorite, tourmaline and topaz

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Ige, O.A. [Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Mazzoli, C. [Dipartimento di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universita di Padova, 35100 Padova (Italy); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy); Akintunde, J.A. [CERD, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35100 Padova (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    For the first time, the complementary accelerator-based analytical technique of PIXE and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) were employed for the characterization of some Nigeria's natural minerals namely fluorite, tourmaline and topaz. These minerals occur in different areas in Nigeria. The minerals are mainly used as gemstones and for other scientific and technological applications and therefore are very important. There is need to characterize them to know the quality of these gemstones and update the geochemical data on them geared towards useful applications. PIXE analysis was carried out using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro, Padova, Italy. The novel results which show many elements at different concentrations in these minerals are presented and discussed.

  12. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  13. Spectroscopic Speciation of Plutonium Reduced by Electrolysis

    The oxidation state of plutonium should be carefully controlled to understand the chemical behaviors of plutonium. Pu(III) is not stable in aqueous solutions and easily oxidized in the atmosphere. In deep geological environments excluded oxygen, reducing condition is expected and will lead to rather stable Pu(III), which is very soluble compared to Pu(IV). Pu(III) ions are expected to form hydrolysis complexes in neutral and basic solutions similar to Am(III), Cm(III) and Eu(III). The reported formation constants of Pu(OH)n3-n (n=1-4) had been critically discussed, and only the first hydrolysis constant (log*β011 = -6.9 ± 0.3) was selected in a review. The main reason for the large discrepancy of the formation constants for Pu(OH)n3-n (n=2-4) is the high tendency of oxidation of Pu(III). In the present study, the reduction condition of Pu(III) was controlled by electrolysis. The electrolysis reactor was specially designed to investigate hydrolysis, colloid formation, and solubility of Pu(III) at different pHs. Pu(III) was reduced from higher oxidation states at acidic conditions, and the H+ ion concentration in solutions was simultaneously decreased without the addition of alkaline solution by electrolysis. The soluble species was investigated using spectrophotometry adopting a capillary cell (LWCC, Liquid Waveguide Capillary Cell, WPI) and the formation of plutonium colloid and solubility was determined using LIBD (Laser Induced Breakdown Detection). In this study, an electrolysis system for the reduction of plutonium and H+ ions in a solution with small volume (> 2 mL) was installed in a glove box to investigate the hydrolysis, colloid formation and solubility of Pu(III) under a reducing condition. Pu(III) was reduced from the mixed plutonium oxidation states without the generation of Pu(IV) colloidal particles or precipitates under weak acidic conditions. A coulometric titration method was applied to adjust the pH without the addition of NaOH. The change of

  14. A study of in-line plutonium isotopic analysis for gaseous plutonium hexafluoride

    In-line plutonium isotopic analysis of gaseous plutonium hexafluoride (PuF6) is very important for process control and special nuclear material accountability in any plutonium-isotope-separation process that requires a gaseous phase. Although much effort had been devoted to analyze arbitrary plutonium samples, no isotopic analysis had been done on gaseous PuF6 samples. We have initiated a study on the use of a high-resolution, gamma-ray spectroscopy technique to analyze gaseous plutonium hexafluoride. For the first time, PuF6 gas samples with pressures varying from 0.15 to 31 torr, which were directly fed into a gas cell from a process flow loop, were measured. The isotopic results of these measurements agree very well with those of mass spectrometry measurements of solid PuF4. The precision of a 10-min measurement of a 10-torr reactor-grade PuF6 is 1.5% for 238Pu, 0.22% for 239Pu, 0.87% for 240Pu, and 17.5% for 241Pu

  15. Hydride-catalyzed corrosion of plutonium by air: Initiation by plutonium monoxide monohydride

    Chemistry and kinetics of air reactions with plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and with mixtures of the oxide hydride and plutonium metal are defined by results of pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements. Test with specimens prepared by total and partial corrosion of plutonium in 0.05 M sodium chloride solution show that reaction of residual water continues to generate H2 after liquid water is removed by evacuation. Rapid exposure of PuOH to air at room temperature does not produce a detectable reaction, but similar exposure of a partially corroded metal sample containing Pu and PuOH results in hydride (PuHx)-catalyzed corrosion of the residual Pu. Kinetics of he first-order reaction resulting in formation of the PuHx catalyst and of the indiscriminate reaction of N2 and O2 with plutonium metal are defined. The rate of the catalyzed Pu+air reaction is independent of temperature (Ea = 0), varies as the square of air pressure, and equals 0.78 ± 0.03 g Pu/cm2 min in air at one atmosphere. The absence of pyrophoric behavior for PuOH and differences in the reactivities of PuOH and PuOH + Pu mixtures are attributed to kinetic control by gaseous reaction products. Thermodynamic properties of the oxide hydride are estimated, particle size distributions of corrosion products are presented, and potential hazards associated with products formed by aqueous corrosion of plutonium are discussed

  16. Experimental studies on plutonium kinetics in marine biota

    Laboratory experiments were undertaken to measure plutonium flux through marine organisms and to clarify the pathways by which this important element is cycled in the marine environment. The use of a specially prepared isotope, plutonium-237, allowed measurements to be made with standard NaI(Tl) scintillation techniques. Mussels, shrimp and worms were allowed to accumulate plutonium-237 from seawater for up to 25 days. Accumulation by shrimp was relatively slow and the degree of uptake was strongly influenced by moulting. Cast moults contained large fractions of the shrimps' plutonium content, indicating the high affinity of plutonium for surface areas. Only small amounts of the isotope in the moult are lost to water; hence, moulting is considered to be an important biological parameter in the biogeochemical cycling of plutonium. Mussels attained higher concentration factors than shrimp with most of the accumulated isotope (>80%) located in the shell. Byssus threads often contained large fractions of the mussels' plutonium-237 content and reached concentration factors as high as 4100. Worms readily accumulated plutonium-237 in either the +4 or +6 state, reaching concentration factors of approximately 200. Retention studies indicated a relatively slow loss of plutonium-237 from all animals studied. In the case of mussels, a computed half-time for a large fraction of the animals' plutonium content was of the order of 2 years. The more rapid loss from shrimp (Tbsub(1/2)=1.5 months) was due principally to the large fraction of plutonium lost at moult. Food chain studies with shrimp indicated that tissue build-up via plutonium ingestion would be a slow process. Total excretion was not entirely a result of passing contaminated food through the gut; approximately 15% of the ingested plutonium was removed from the contaminated food and subsequently excreted by processes other than defaecation of labelled food. Ratios of four different plutonium isotopes used in the

  17. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    Smith, Paul H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Narlesky, Joshua E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Worl, Laura A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gillispie, Obie W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  18. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    Narlesky, Joshua E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroud, Mary Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wayne, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Richard E. [MET-1: ACTINIDE PROCESSING SUPPORT; Worl, Laura A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  19. Recovery of plutonium from carbonate wash solutions

    A novel method has been developed for recovery of plutonium and uranium from carbonate wash solutions generated during solvent wash process involved in the reprocessing of high burn up FBTR fuel. The proposed method involves a selective coprecipitation of Pu and U by adding ammonium hydroxide to the pre acidified carbonate wash solution. Substantial removal of DBP by successive steps of coprecipitation, completely eliminates the possibility of undesired solid formation which is mainly due to the presence of high content of DBP. By adopting this method, an excellent decontamination factor for DBP has been achieved without any crud/solid formation. Phosphate content in the final oxide product meets the product specifications. Flowsheet condition necessary for the recovery process for plutonium from the aqueous carbonate solution is formulated and adopted in the CORAL facility. (author)

  20. Plutonium stabilization and handling (PuSH)

    Weiss, E.V.

    1997-01-23

    This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) addresses construction of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM for up to fifty years. The major sections of the project are: site preparation; SPS Procurement, Installation, and Testing; storage vault modification; and characterization equipment additions. The SPS will be procured as part of a Department of Energy nationwide common procurement. Specific design crit1460eria for the SPS have been extracted from that contract and are contained in an appendix to this document.

  1. PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2)

    The PAT-2 (Plutonium Air Transportable Model 2) package is designed for the safe transport of plutonium and/or uranium in small quantities, especially as used in international safeguards activities, and especially as transported by air. The PAT-2 package is resistant to severe accidents, including that of a high-speed jet aircraft crash, and is designed to withstand such environments as extreme impact, crushing, puncturing and slashing loads, severe hydrocarbon-fueled fires, and deep underwater immersion, with no escape of contents. The accident environments may be imposed upon the package singly or seqentially. The package meets the requirements of 10 CFR 71 for Fissile Class I packages with a cargo of 15 grams of Pu-239, or other isotopic forms described herein, not to exceed 2 watts of thermal activity. Packaging, operational features, and contents of package, are discussed

  2. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  3. Development of plutonium: Fast Neutrons Reactors option

    Phenix reactor is shortly described with combustible assembly with some operational data. 'CAPRA'(Plutonium Enhance Consumption in Fast Reactors) is an R and D program for the development of an optimized combustible for fast reactors for burning more plutonium. Three ways are tested: a 45% Pu concentration in an oxide fuel keeping actual fabrication and reprocessing options giving a 80 kg/TWh Pu consumption, a fuel without U238 but with a W or a Mo matrix with problems of reprocessing and core reactivity giving a 110 kg/TWh Pu consumption, and a nitride fuel with an up to 65% Pu concentration giving a 90 to 100 kg/TWh Pu consumption. (A.B.)

  4. Peaceful uses of nuclear weapon plutonium

    In 1993, the U.S.A. and the CIS signed Start 2 (the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) in which they committed themselves the reduce their nuclear weapon arsenals to a fraction of that of 1991. For forty-five years the antagonism between the superpowers had been a dominating factor in world history, determining large areas of social life. When Start 2 will have been completed in 2003, some 200 t of weapon grade plutonium and some 2000 t of highly enriched uranium (Heu) will arise from dismantling nuclear weapons. In the absence of the ideological ballast of the debate about Communism versus Capitalism of the past few decades there is a chance of the grave worldwide problem of safe disposal and utilization of this former nuclear weapon material being solved. Under the heading of 'swords turned into plowshares', plutonium and uranium could be used for peaceful electricity generation. (orig.)

  5. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  6. Policing plutonium: the civil liberties fallout

    The most significant social cost of plutonium may be the legal problem of adjusting public safety with individual civil liberties. Safeguards to keep plutonium from criminals and terrorists will require a sacrifice of personal liberties and basic changes in the legal framework. Individuals will be denied many of the rights of privacy, expression, and association they have taken for granted. There will be a division between people associated with the nuclear industry and those outside it. Protective measures could result in a general feeling of suspicion, persecution, and distrust. If an incident should occur, the public would be caught between the perpetrators and the government, with search and seizure conditions similar to a civil war. Significant reduction of energy consumption should be imposed and all other sources of energy fully exploited or proven unworkable before undertaking a program with such consequences

  7. a Plutonium Ceramic Target for Masha

    Wilk, P. A.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Moody, K. J.; Kenneally, J. M.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Patin, J. B.; Lougheed, R. W.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Landingham, R. L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Yeremin, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2005-09-01

    We are currently developing a plutonium ceramic target for the MASHA mass separator. The MASHA separator will use a thick plutonium ceramic target capable of tolerating temperatures up to 2000 °C. Promising candidates for the target include oxides and carbides, although more research into their thermodynamic properties will be required. Reaction products will diffuse out of the target into an ion source, where they will then be transported through the separator to a position-sensitive focal-plane detector array. Experiments on MASHA will allow us to make measurements that will cement our identification of element 114 and provide for future experiments where the chemical properties of the heaviest elements are studied.

  8. Development of packaging for plutonium oxide powder

    The packaging has been developed as a packaging for plutonium oxide to be recovered from light water reactor spent fuel and is designed for easy handling within a facility. As deformation and shock absorption data for balsa wood, the data obtained from various experiments carried out when developing the packaging were used. With this packaging, it is possible to transport almost all kinds of raw powder materials required to produce fuel as stated under Section 2 not only in the country but also from abroad. The packaging is expected to be frequently used in transporting plutonium oxide powder from England and/or France which are commissioned by domestic power companies to reprocess spent fuel and also in transporting highly enriched uranium oxide which is required at FBR experimental reactors. 14 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  9. Studies and manufacture of plutonium fuel

    The studies carried out at the C.E.A. on the properties of fast neutron reactor fuels, the manufacture of fuel elements and their behaviour under irradiation are broadly outlined. The metal fuels studied are the ternary alloys U Pu Mo, U Pu Nb, U Pa Ti, U Pa Zr, the ceramic fuels being mixed uranium and plutonium oxides, carbides and nitrides obtained by sintering. Results are given on the manufacture of uranium fuel elements containing a small proportion of plutonium, used in a critical experiment, and on the first experiments in the manufacture of fuel elements for the reactor Rapsodie. Finally the results of irradiation tests carried out on the prototype fuel pins for Rapsodie are described. (authors)

  10. Disturbance of deposition and removal of plutonium

    The chelation therapy using DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and a new drug, CBMIDA [catechol 3, 6-bis (methyleiminodiacetic acid)] showing more effectiveness on removal of plutonium and lower toxicity than DTPA, is available for occupational exposure but is difficult for public exposure, because there are many reluctant problems on their toxicities, administration routes and times, physical conditions of victims etc. We demonstrated that active amino acid calcium (AAACa), a natural product which mixed oyster shell electrolysate and amino acids of seaweeds, could remove plutonium from bone and liver in rats. The removing methods of radionuclides using the bioavailability of AAACa will be utilized for public exposures and resolve the reluctant problems accompanied with a chelation therapy for occupational exposure. (author)

  11. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    The purpose and problems of the research - creation of a safe and reliable ADS for processing of about 25 tons of weapons plutonium in 30 years on the basis of a proton-accelerator with energies 0.8-1.2 GeV and a current of 10-30 mA; liquid Pb/Bi eutectic targets; one-directionally coupled fast/thermal blanket with plutonium fuel. The approach to weapons-Pu utilization is based on the understanding of the unconditional priority of safety features of ADS over economic considerations and, accordingly, on the priority of subcritical systems over critical. The description of a variant of ADS from the point of view of possibilities of its realization in an acceptable period of time on the base of approbated technologies is presented here. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Mastery of the plutonium in high temperature reactor

    Damian, F.; Raepsaet, X. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation des Systemes et Structures, DM2S, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lecomte, M. [FRAMATOME, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France)

    2001-07-01

    Whatever the future of the civil nuclear programme in France may be, the plutonium reprocessing and recycling option has been chosen 14 years ago and the control of the plutonium inventory appears today as a major R and D issue. Many studies in progress at Cea attempt to improve plutonium recycling in PWR by increasing the amount of plutonium fed in the core, using inert matrix, new design. Moreover, in spite of their good performances and safe behaviour, innovative reactor concepts considered at the present time must also demonstrate their capacity to use at best the plutonium matter that represents at the same time a great energetic potential and strong radio-toxic source in spent fuel. In this context and with regard to the renewed interest in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) concept, the problem of the mastery of the plutonium stock with the help of the HTGR has been undertaken at Cea in collaboration with Framatome. (author)

  13. Mastery of the plutonium in high temperature reactor

    Whatever the future of the civil nuclear programme in France may be, the plutonium reprocessing and recycling option has been chosen 14 years ago and the control of the plutonium inventory appears today as a major R and D issue. Many studies in progress at Cea attempt to improve plutonium recycling in PWR by increasing the amount of plutonium fed in the core, using inert matrix, new design. Moreover, in spite of their good performances and safe behaviour, innovative reactor concepts considered at the present time must also demonstrate their capacity to use at best the plutonium matter that represents at the same time a great energetic potential and strong radio-toxic source in spent fuel. In this context and with regard to the renewed interest in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) concept, the problem of the mastery of the plutonium stock with the help of the HTGR has been undertaken at Cea in collaboration with Framatome. (author)

  14. A Versatile two-step process for immobilizing excess plutonium

    As a consequence of weapon stockpile reduction and the associated shutdown of weapons production facilities, approximately 50 metric tons of plutonium (both weapons-grade and non-weapons-grade) has been declared excess by the US. Recent experiments demonstrated the feasibility of using high-level waste stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to immobilize plutonium. The most effective plutonium host phase identified in these experiments was a plutonium zirconate solid solution. Results of recent experiments are reported that show the feasibility of using the highly durable plutonium zirconate host phase as a feed material for high and low temperature encapsulation processes, thereby increasing the potential applications of this material for plutonium dispositioning

  15. Assessing the plutonium worth in light water reactors

    Discussions about plutonium recycling again and again reveal the difficulty involved in correctly assessing the worth of plutonium in a specific type of reactor. This is due to the uncertain future development of the input parameters needed to determine fuel cycle costs. Above all, this refers to the prices of uranium and plutonium, of separative work, fabrication (of uranium and uranium/plutonium fuel elements), reprocessing and storage. If the development of these parameters as a function of time were known with sufficient accuracy, it would be possible by simple cost calculations to generate information about the most economical re-use of plutonium in a specific case. However, sometimes also the lack of definition of certain terms gives rise to erroneous conclusions which might otherwise have been avoided. In order to clarify the situation, it has been attempted in this contribution to present a comprehensive summary of the possibilities of assessing the plutonium worth and discuss the problems involved. (orig.)

  16. Concentration of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated area

    The investigation of plutonium in desert plants from contaminated sites contributes to the evaluation of its pollution situation and to the survey of plutonium hyper accumulator. The concentration of 239Pu in desert plants collected from a contaminated site was determined, and the influence factors were studied. The concentration of 239Pu in plants was (1.8±4.9) Bq/kg in dry weight, and it means that the plants were contaminated, moreover, the resuspension results in dramatic plutonium pollution of plant surface. The concentration of plutonium in plants depends on species, live stages and the content of plutonium in the rhizosphere soil. The concentration of plutonium in herbage is higher than that in woody plant, and for the seven species of desert plants investigated, it decreases in the order of Hexinia polydichotoma, Phragmites australis, Halostashys caspica, Halogeton arachnoideus, Lycium ruthenicum, Tamarix hispida and Calligonum aphyllum. (authors)

  17. Verification station for Sandia/Rockwell Plutonium Protection system

    A verification station has been designed to confirm the presence of plutonium within a container module. These container modules [about 13 cm (5 in.) in diameter and 23 cm (9 in.) high] hold sealed food-pack cans containing either plutonium oxide or metal and were designed by Sandia Laboratories to provide security and continuous surveillance and safety. After the plutonium is placed in the container module, it is closed with a solder seal. The verification station discussed here is used to confirm the presence of plutonium in the container module before it is placed in a carousel-type storage array inside the plutonium storage vault. This measurement represents the only technique that uses nuclear detectors in the plutonium protection system

  18. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  19. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  20. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  1. Sorption of plutonium on anodized aluminum

    Adsorption of plutonium on anodic alumina films was investigated. The results obtained suggest that equilibrium in the aqueous solution-solid surface system is achieved after 3 hours. In case of aqueous solutions maximum sorption was observed at pH 3.5. The adsorption isotherms for both aqueous and ethanolic solutions are presented. Up to 15 μg of Pu can be adsorbed by 1 cm2 of anodic alumina surface. (author)

  2. Study of plutonium-addition systems

    Steady state phase diagrams and calculated values of concentrations on the solid and liquid curves, the steady state distribution coefficient and thermodynamic control are presented for temperatures ranging from the eutectic reaction temperatures to the Pu melting point temperature for binary systems plutonium-addition (Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Zr, Ru, Os, Th, U, Np). (J.P.)

  3. Experience of plutonium recycle in Italy

    This paper describes the experimental work undertaken in Italy on the irradiation of plutonium bearing fuel in thermal reactors. 16 MOX fuel assemblies were initially loaded into the Garigliano BWR and a further 46, a full reload, were loaded in 1975. Eight assemblies were loaded into the PWR at Trino Vercellese in 1976. Details of the fuel rod composition, burn up and post-irradiation examination results are given, together with a safety analysis

  4. TRACKING SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FROM WEAPONS TO DISPOSITION

    Allender, J.; Beams, J.; Sanders, K.; Myers, L.

    2013-07-16

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this "excess" and "surplus" plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  5. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-02-07

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  6. Guide to good practices at plutonium facilities

    This manual establishes guidelines and principles for use in setting up a sound radiation protection program for work with plutonium. The guidance presented is based on the experiences of Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) contractors and those portions of private industry concerned with the operation of plutonium facilities, specifically with the fabrication of mixed oxide reactor fuel. The manual is directed primarily to those facilities which have as their sole purpose the handling of large quantities of plutonium for military or industrial uses. It is not intended for use by facilities engaged in reactor or chemical separation operations nor for partial or occasional use by analytical laboratories; while these facilities would find the manual beneficial, it would be incomplete for their needs. The manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff and designers, since the benefits of a good radiation protection program are the result of their joint efforts. Methods for the diagnostic evaluation of internally deposited Pu are included

  7. Hematologic effects of inhaled plutonium in beagles

    Beagle dogs were exposed, by inhalation, 5 to 11 years ago, to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4, at six dose levels resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Translocation of the plutonium to extrapulmonary sites was related to the physical-chemical characteristics of the plutonium compound. The highly insoluble 239PuO2 was retained primarily in the lung and associated lymph nodes, whereas 239Pu(NO3)4 was much more soluble and translocated relatively rapidly to the skeleton and other extrapulmonary tissues. The 238PuO2 was intermediate in solubility and translocation characteristics. The hematologic effects of plutonium inhalation were most pronounced on lymphocyte populations. Evidence suggests that these effects result from irradiation of lymphocytes via the pulmonary lymph nodes with insoluble 239PuO2, and via these same lymph nodes, extrapulmonary lymph nodes, and bone marrow lymphocytes with the more soluble forms, i.e., 238PuO2 and 239Pu(NO3)4. There is no evidence suggesting that these exposures increase the risk of developing myeloid or lymphoid neoplasia. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Guide to good practices at plutonium facilities

    Faust, L.G.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Carter, L.A.; Endres, G.W.R.; Glenn, R.D.; Jech, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Smith, R.C.; Waite, D.A.; Walsh, W.P.

    1977-09-01

    This manual establishes guidelines and principles for use in setting up a sound radiation protection program for work with plutonium. The guidance presented is based on the experiences of Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) contractors and those portions of private industry concerned with the operation of plutonium facilities, specifically with the fabrication of mixed oxide reactor fuel. The manual is directed primarily to those facilities which have as their sole purpose the handling of large quantities of plutonium for military or industrial uses. It is not intended for use by facilities engaged in reactor or chemical separation operations nor for partial or occasional use by analytical laboratories; while these facilities would find the manual beneficial, it would be incomplete for their needs. The manual addresses good practices that should be observed by management, staff and designers, since the benefits of a good radiation protection program are the result of their joint efforts. Methods for the diagnostic evaluation of internally deposited Pu are included.

  9. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    Allender, Jeffrey S.; Moore, Edwin N.

    2013-02-26

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems.

  10. The dangers of the plutonium economy

    The fast breeder is a critical point in the energy discussion which is even more controversial than other points before: Will modern industrial society submit to the constraints of a plutonium economy or will it have the power and the courage required for the alternative of a more human technology. The fast breeder can produce tons and tons of plutonium, a new energy source; this is an argument frequently presented in view of the limited uranium reserves. At the same time, plutonium is one of the most dangerous poisons, and its radiation endangers lives even at amounts as small as one-millionth of one gramme. This means that technical and political safeguards must be intensified, which in turn will result in just the 'nuclear dictatorship' which is beginning to show up at the horizon already today. In this book, committed journalists and scientists present their arguments to show that the price to be paid for this kind of progress would be two high. (orig./HP)

  11. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of plutonium

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for plutonium isotopes in materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are calculated using assumptions concerning the habits and location of the critical group of exposed individuals in the population. They are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for plutonium radionuclides in air, water, soil, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for plutonium radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  12. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls (United States); Murphy, W.M. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  13. A Plutonium-Contaminated Wound, 1985, USA

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Eugene H. Carbaugh, CHP, Staff Scientist, Internal Dosimetry Manager, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington

    2012-02-02

    A hand injury occurred at a U.S. facility in 1985 involving a pointed shaft (similar to a meat thermometer) that a worker was using to remove scrap solid plutonium from a plastic bottle. The worker punctured his right index finger on the palm side at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint. The wound was not through-and- through, although it was deep. The puncture wound resulted in deposition of ~48 kBq of alpha activity from the weapons-grade plutonium mixture with a nominal 12 to 1 Pu-alpha to {sup 241}Am-alpha ratio. This case clearly showed that DTPA was very effective for decorporation of plutonium and americium. The case is a model for management of wounds contaminated with transuranics: (1) a team approach for dealing with all of the issues surrounding the incident, including the psychological, (2) early surgical intervention for foreign-body removal, (3) wound irrigation with DTPA solution, and (4) early and prolonged DTPA administration based upon bioassay and in vivo dosimetry.

  14. Association of plutonium with soil organic matter

    A significant association of environmental plutonium with the organic components of U.K. soils has recently been demonstrated by sequential leaching experiments on samples influenced by discharges from both the Dounreay and Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. This relationship has been further studied by alkali extraction, fractional precipitation, and dialysis to isolate both the humic and fulvic acid fractions of a Cumbrian soil. The /sup 239,240/Pu activities of these extracts were 31 and 7.7 Bq g-1, respectively, greater than the activity of the bulk soil (5.9 Bq g-1). Gel filtration on Sephadex gels G-50 and G-150 further showed that the humic acid extract is composed of relatively large molecules, with approximately 65% of the plutonium in the largest of these; fulvic acid is of lower molecular weight, and its plutonium content is distributed more evenly throughout the molecular weight spectrum. In both humic and fulvic acids, iron is concentrated in the largest molecular weight (>150,000) fractions

  15. Characterizing surplus US plutonium for disposition

    The United States (US) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM). SRNL manages a broad program of item tracking through process history, laboratory analysis, and non-destructive assay. A combination of analytical techniques allows SRNL to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that qualify materials for disposition through the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). The research also defines properties that are important for other disposition paths, including disposal to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as transuranic waste (TRUW) or to high-level waste (HLW) systems

  16. High temperature vapor pressure of pure plutonium

    High temperature vapor pressure measurements have been made on pure plutonium metal by the Knudsen effusion technique. The reported experimental results extend into the transition region between molecular and viscous or hydrodynamic flow. Under the conditions used, linearity was observed up to temperatures in excess of 2200 K where pressures approaching 100 Pa were measured. The results over the temperature range 1724--2219 K yield log10P/sub Pu/(Pa) = (9.735 +- 0.105) -17066 +- 208/T and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization and the standard deviations therein are ΔH0/sub v/(Pu,1975 K) =326.78 +- 3.97 kJ mol-1, ΔS0/sub v/(Pu,1975 K) =90.54 +- 2.01 J K-1 mol-1. Based on the most recently available free energy functions for plutonium liquid and gas, the values of the standard enthalpy of vaporization calculated via second- and third-law methods are ΔH0/sub v/(II, Pu,298 K) =344.14 +- 3.97 kJ mol-1, ΔH0/sub v/(III, Pu,298 K) =341.67 +- 1.26 kJ mol-1. Single crystal tungsten containers were used to hold the charge of plutonium and proved to be very satisfactory in alleviating problems of liquid metal creep and liquid/cell interactions normally encountered with actinides held at high temperatures for long periods

  17. Tracking surplus plutonium from weapons to disposition

    Supporting nuclear nonproliferation and global security principles, beginning in 1994 the United States has withdrawn more than 50 metric tons (MT) of government-controlled plutonium from potential use in nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, established protocols for the tracking of this ''excess'' and ''surplus'' plutonium, and for reconciling the current storage and utilization of the plutonium to show that its management is consistent with the withdrawal policies. Programs are underway to ensure the safe and secure disposition of the materials that formed a major part of the weapons stockpile during the Cold War, and growing quantities have been disposed as waste, after which they are not included in traditional nuclear material control and accountability (NMC and A) data systems. A combination of resources is used to perform the reconciliations that form the basis for annual reporting to DOE, to U.S. Department of State, and to international partners including the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  18. PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS

    Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

  19. Quantitative aspects of plutonium field studies

    The purpose of this project is to provide quantitative and statistical support and methodology for the design and analysis of plutonium and other transuranic ecosystem and field studies. Emphasis is on developing methods for sampling and statistical analyses to identify and deal with the extremely high variability in plutonium and other transuranic concentrations in environmental samples and to effectively communicate this information to scientists engaged in Pu field studies. The design problem is being considered in terms of the rather different objectives that may be considered in planning field studies, such as the movement and dynamics of plutonium within and between ecosystem components, estimation of amounts and concentrations in these components, and more generally, sampling to assess the need for clean-up or to evaluate hazards. Specific activities are: the publication of a statistics newsletter (TRAN-STAT); research into appropriate statistical methods for the analysis of ratio data and for effectively summarizing and reporting transuranic field data; preparation of a manuscript giving sources of information on sampling and statistical methods; research in evaluating appropriateness of Kriging techniques for estimating spatial pattern and inventories; identification of sampling designs and analyses appropriate for cleanup situations; and maintaining contact with other statisticians and scientists engaged in transuranic field studies

  20. Formation of plutonium phosphates in chloride melts

    Burnaeva, A.A.; Kryukova, A.I.; Kazanstev, G' N.; Skiba, O.V.; Korshunov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction of sodium- and potassium phosphates Na/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ and K/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the PuCl/sub 3/-NaCl, PuCl/sub 3/-KCl melts results in reduction of plutonium amount in the liquid phase. Low-soluble plutonium (3) phosphates, of assumed Na/sub 3/Pu/sub 2/ composition (PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ are transported into the solid phase. Using the methods of radiographical and radiometric analyses the phases of plutonium phosphates separated by precipitation from chloride melt and also prepared from PuO/sub 2/ and NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ at 1200 deg C are investigated. Their solubility in the NaCl-KCl melt and stability to these melts during a long-term contact, and also under the effect of CCl/sub 4/ are evaluated. The data are compared with similar data for thorium-, uranium-, americium-, curium-, zirconium-, rare earth phosphates.