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Sample records for accelerator radioisotope production

  1. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  2. Radioisotopes for All - Low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production

    Full text of publication follows. Since the development of the tracer principle by George de Hevesy in 1913, radioisotopes have become an integral part of medical practice and research. The imaging modalities Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) have significantly enhanced our understanding of human biology and the development and progression of disease. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the cancer killing of radiation therapy with the targeting precision of immunotherapy to provide personalised cancer treatment. The technetium-99m crisis in 2008 highlighted the fragility of the current radioisotope supply network. Despite the significant impact of the shortages, only a handful of potential solutions have begun to be explored and developed. The supply of Tc-99m is again in doubt, with the shutdown of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten looming in 2014. Low-energy accelerators have the potential to greatly increase the availability of radioisotopes by providing a small, lower-cost production solution. Implementing these as a system of localised production centres that supply a small area would greatly reduce the impact of a facility shutdown and eliminate the risk of world-wide shortages. An accelerator system that is not tailored to the production of a single isotope will allow researchers to explore new options for SPECT, PET and RIT and improve access to radioisotopes for medical testing. The potential of low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production will be explored. Several case studies of production will be presented using both well-established and new isotopes to the fields of nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. These will include zirconium-89, iodine-123 and titanium-45. Calculated yields will be compared to predicted nuclear medicine requirements. Expected radionuclidic impurities will also be quantified with a discussion of suitable, simple radiochemical separation systems. The DC electrostatic

  3. Radioisotope production with electron accelerators

    The production of radio isotopes with electron accelerators proceeds mainly by secondary photons (bremsstrahlung), produced in an interaction between the electrons and the Coulomb field of the nuclei of a converter. The production yields depend on: the initial electron energy, the Z and thickness of the bremsstrahlung-converter, the Z, A and the thickness of the target, the geometric set up and the cross section for a particular reaction. In this article the production is only considered for thin bremsstrahlung converters in combination with an electron 'sweep' magnet. Simple formulae are given for the calculations of production yields under standard conditions with only sigmasub(q) (the cross section per equivalent quantum) and f (the fraction of the photons that hit the target) as variables and for the calculations of the dose rate at the production point. The units in which the yields are expressed in the literature (units of sigmasub(q) dose, electron beam intensity, monitor response) are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. The production of cyclotron radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the national accelerator centre in South Africa

    Accelerator radioisotopes have been manufactured in South Africa since 1965 with the 30 MeV cyclotron at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria. After its closure in 1988, the radioisotope production programme was continued at the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) with the 200 MeV separated sector cyclotron (SCC) utilizing the 66 MeV proton beam, which is shared with the neutron therapy programme during part of the week. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-FDG, 67Ga-citrate, a 67Ga-labelled resin. 111In-chloride, 111In-oxine and 111In-labelled resin. 123I-sodium iodide and 123I-labelled compounds, 201Tl-chloride, as well as the 81Rb/81mKr gas generator, are prepared for use in the nuclear medicine departments of 12 State hospitals and about 28 private nuclear medicine clinics in South Africa. A few longer-lived radioisotopes, such as 22Na, 55Fe and 139Ce, are also produced for research or industrial use. A research and development programme is running to develop new production procedures to produce radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, or to improve existing production procedures. As part of a programme to utilize the beam time optimally, the production of some other radioisotopes is investigated. (author)

  5. Nuclear Data for Medical Radioisotope Production by Means of Accelerator Neutrons

    On the basis of the features outlined, JAEA staff will produce the medical radioisotopes of 99Mo, 90Y, 64Cu, and 67Cu from a neutron beam generated by the natC(d,n) reaction. One of the unique features of the proposal is the capability to produce all of the above-mentioned medical radioisotopes by means of accelerator neutrons. Thus, the natC(d,n) reaction produces fast neutrons possessing an energy spectrum up to 40 MeV with a most probable energy of 14 MeV that can be used to measure the production yields of 99Mo, 90Y,

  6. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  7. Manual of radioisotope production

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  8. Production of 17F, 15O and other radioisotopes for PET using a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator

    Target systems for the production of positron emitting radioisotopes used for medical research with positron emission tomography (PET) are under development for a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator (NEC 9SDH-2). This machine is intended primarily for the continuous production of short lived tracers labeled with 15O (t1/2=122 s) or 17F (t1/2=65 s) for determining regional cerebral blood flow in humans. Simple gas, liquid, and solid target systems are presented for the production of [15O]H2O (yield at saturation 13 mCi/μA), [17F]F2 (22 mCi/μA), [17F] fluoride (aq.) (12 mCi/μA), [18F]fluoride (aq.) (21 mCi/μA), [13N] in graphite (25 mCi/μA), and [11C]CO2 (2.3 mCi/μA). Current limitations on single window targets for each production are discussed

  9. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  10. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  11. Investigation of direct production of 62CU radioisotope at low energy multiparticle accelerator for PET studies

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for 59Co(α,n)62Cu and 59Cu(α,2n)61Cu nuclear reactions up to 45 MeV. The excitation functions were compared with published data. The optimum energy range for the production of radio copper contamination free 62Cu is 15→6 MeV. The calculated thick target saturation yield of 62Cu in this energy interval was 9.34 mCi/μA at EOB (supposing three half-life [0.487 min] activation time). If 61Cu is acceptable at the time of administration, the practical 62Cu yield can be increased using higher bombarding energy. According to our calculations the optimum energy range for the production of 62Cu was found to be 18.5→6 MeV. The calculated yield of 62Cu in this energy window was 1.9 mCi/μA (16.2 mCi/μA at EOB) supposing 0.487 h irradiation and 0.5 h cooling times. (author)

  12. Advances in Radioisotope Handling Facilities and Automation of Radioisotope Production

    Founded in 1959, the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences began to produce radioactive isotopes in 1964. Since then, it has become a major Hungarian centre of research, development and production relating to the application of radioisotopes. Since 1993 a part of the former Institute has been operating as the Institute of Isotopes Co., Ltd. The main advances in radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production are presented here. (author)

  13. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  14. Production and Development of Radioisotopes in HANARO

    The goal of this paper is to review the current activities at HANARO for the radioisotope production and related research activities in Korea, Also, the future directions in radioisotope production and its applications are described. (author)

  15. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  16. Alternate methods for the production of radioisotopes

    The use of radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications has increased in the past decade. The growth has been in two areas: the use of 99mTc for gamma-ray imaging and the use of 18F in positron emission tomography (PET). The 99mTc (6.01 h) is a daughter of the longer-lived precursor 99Mo (65.9 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors. Conversely, the isotopes for PET have been produced using cyclotrons at centralized hospital complexes. The economic potential of the radioisotope market has been demonstrated by the major producers of 99Mo this past year when they announced their plans to purchase two MAPLE reactors for the dedicated production of 99Mo. This market potential, coupled with the efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy to encourage the private, commercial production of radioisotopes that the government currently supplies, has provided motivation to investigate innovative technologies to produce both 99Mo and PET isotopes. Incentives for looking at alternate production methods include life-cycle cost and source portability for short-lived radioisotopes. This paper presents alternative production methods that could provide unique advantages for the production of 99Mo and tremendously higher availability of PET isotopes. We have examined the use of an existing high-current, linear accelerator for the production of 99Mo from the fission of depleted uranium and the production of short-lived isotopes used in PET using a portable source of low-energy antiprotons

  17. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131I (solution and capsule), 131I-MIBG, 131I-Hippuran, 153Sm-EDTMP, 153Sm-HA, and 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  18. Particle-beam accelerators for radiotherapy and radioisotopes

    The philosophy used in developing the new PIGMI technology was that the parameters chosen for physics research machines are not necessarily the right ones for a dedicated therapy or radioisotope machine. In particular, the beam current and energy can be optimized, and the design should emphasize minimum size, simplicity and reliability of operation, and economy in capital and operating costs. A major part of achieving these goals lay in raising the operating frequency and voltage gradient of the accelerator, which shrinks the diameter and length of the components. Several other technical innovations resulted in major system improvements. One of these is a radically new type of accelerator structure named the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. This allowed us to eliminate the large, complicated ion source used in previous ion accelerators, and to achieve a very high quality accelerated beam. Also, by using advanced permanent magnet materials to make the focusing elements, the system becomes much simpler. Other improvements have been made in all of the accelerator components and in the methods for operating them. These will be described, and design and costing information examples given for several possible therapy and radioisotope production machines

  19. Construction Status of the Beamline for Radio-Isotope Production in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex

    Chung, B. H.; Yoon, S. P.; Seol, K. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The 100-MeV beamline consist of 5 target room, a TR 103 as one of these is operating beamline, and a TR 101 as the other beamline is under construction as shown in Fig. 1. The TR 101 as beamline target room will be used for the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator. The optical system of the beamline consisted of dipole and quadrupole, and it included beam position monitor (BPM) and current transformer (CT) for beam diagnostics. The beamline was inserted into the carbon block and the aluminum collimator, the end of pipe as beam window was used for the aluminum to reduce the radioactive of materials. The target transfer equipment is being installed for RI production. The RI Beamline was aligned using the laser tracker, and vacuum leak was not detected by the helium leak detector. This facility is expected to the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator.

  20. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na2, sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10-3 μCi/cm2. This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  1. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  2. Cores of production : reactors and radioisotopes in France

    Adamson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the technologies used in radioisotope production in the French Atomic Energy Commission (the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique) between 1946 and 1958. Particular attention is given to the various instruments used for the bombardment of isotopes, including accelerators and reactors, and their relationship with the CEA’s radioisotope preparation laboratories. Ultimately, the vast majority of bombardments took place in research reactors. These versatile machines, and the isot...

  3. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  4. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  5. Overview of radioisotope production and utilization

    Radioisotopes are in widespread and increasing daily use throughout the world. Applications include medical diagnosis, treatment of cancer, sterilization of medical disposables, the perservation of food, and the hygienization of waste products. The unique production capabilities of Canadian research reactors and CANDU electrical generating stations have enabled Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to make an important contribution to the growth of this industry. The paper describes the production, processing, transportation and applications of the major radioisotopes in use today. The equipment required for the efficient use of these radioisotopes is described and the potential for growth is discussed

  6. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm-2S-1) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 1013 n.cm-1S-1). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  7. Production of radioisotopes using a cyclotron

    Cyclotron produced radioisotopes are generally neutron deficient and decay by EC or β+ emission. They find major applications in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The production processes involve rather sophisticated technology and the areas needing research and development work include nuclear data, targetry, chemical processing, remote control, automation and quality control. A comparison of the various parameters relevant to the production of radioisotopes using a nuclear reactor and a cyclotron is given. The cyclotron products are more expensive than the reactor products; they are, however, far superior to the latter as far as in-vivo functional studies are concerned. (author)

  8. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  9. Production of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. G

    The radioisotope products such as P-32, I-131, Tc-99m, Cr-51 and others are being in the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for medical uses. Additionally, the development of the chromatographic gel-type Tc-99m generator, new method for I-131 production, inorganic ion exchanger is introduced. (N.H.A). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  10. Production of Radioisotopes in Pakistan Research Reactor: Past, Present and Future

    Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programs. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. The availability of short-lived radionuclides from radionuclide generators provides an inexpensive and convenient alternative to in-house radioisotope production facilities such as cyclotrons and reactors. The reactor offers large volume for irradiation, simultaneous irradiation of several samples, economy of production and possibility to produce a wide variety of radioisotopes. The accelerator-produced isotopes relatively constitute a smaller percentage of total use. (author)

  11. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  12. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk 131I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with 131I and 99mTc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new 131I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing 99Mo-99mTc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced 99Mo, research and development work on the preparation of 99mTc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  13. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carty, J. [US Department of Energy, Office of Isotope Production and Distribution, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  14. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carty, J. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Isotope Production and Distribution

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 and RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, Ti-44, Fe-52, Gd-148, and Hg-194. The authors will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes will be described.

  15. Radioisotopes development and production in Malaysia

    Development of radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and agriculture sector was began in 1982 after the commissioning the 1MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor. Production of Tc-99m using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) extraction began in 1985 with the capacity about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99. By 1994, we produced Tc-99m generator using fission Molybdenum imported from Indonesia. Early 1990's, we assemble I-131 plant from Hungary for production of I-131 using TeO2 irradiated inour reactor but the yield are low. We have imported I-131 to meet the demand about 10 Ci/month. Development of Sm-153 EDTMP was began in 1994 and the trial production began in 1998. We also established the procedure for production of industrial and agriculture radioisotopes such as P-32, Na-24 and Au-198. (author)

  16. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  17. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  18. Quality control of radioisotopic products

    Radiopharmaceutical quality control is a very comprehensive and responsible activity since it concerns products being used for the health care of patients. Quality control is practised by an analytical specialist in close cooperation with pharmacists who are responsible for routine quality assurance. There is also a good understanding with the production group to ensure high-quality products. Quality control also relies on the research and development group to investigate problems. Finally there is feedback from the user since he is also responsible for quality control in a limited way. The scope of quality control is comprehensive, e.g. physical inspection and chemical control of all inactive starting material including supervision of the various stages of production. The quality control of radioactive material includes nuclidic analysis, verification of radiochemical purity as well as regular stability checks. Biological controls comprise sterility tests both on final products and production environment; testing for toxicity, pyrogens and LD50 values. To test product efficacy it is imperative to rely on biodistribution. Rabbits are used for quality control screening in a qualitative static mode and the dissection of mice organs is carried out for time-consuming quantitative analyses. Since radiopharmaceuticals are being used in a dynamic mode by nuclear medicine, their quality control tests on animals should, for proper evaluation, be carried out by means of comparative studies with imported products and by using a high-resolution camera with computer facilities. The Group for Quality Control and Assurance is responsible for an extensive documentation system which ensures both good manufacturing practice and effective analytical tests. Through quality control the specialist is constantly striving for improvement to ensure a good product for the benefit of the patient

  19. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  20. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of 131I, 99Mo-99mTc, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 46Sc, 192Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as 131I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for 99mTc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of 131I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of 99mTc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for 99mTc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable 99mTc generator using Zr-(99Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for 99mTc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for 99Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of 99mTc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with 153Sm and 131I such as 153Sm-EDTMP, 131I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  1. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Gizem Bakır; Saltuk Buğra Selçuklu; Hüseyin Yapıcı

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS). Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, Pu)O2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium) are separately prepared as cylindrical r...

  2. Self-reliance politics in radioisotopes production

    Full text: The Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN), owned by National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is a non-profit government institution that produces on a national scale more than 18 radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. These radiopharmaceuticals are used in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 1.5 million people in Brazil. This level of production was achieved through the creation of new technologies and automation solutions, because of the difficulty and cost on importation of raw materials and labeling compounds ready for use. In Brazil, only CNEN has authorization to import, manipulate and distribute radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore, the quality of those radioisotopes must comply with international specifications and regulations. Much research and 40 years of improvements has won IPEN international approval for the radiopharmaceuticals that it produces, and quality standards and specifications are today as good as in any other developed country. IPEN has even developed a few solutions in radioisotope production for others countries, such as Cuba and soon Peru. The first step towards self-production was the acquisition of a cyclotron (Cyclone-30) and the improvement of the reactor power from 2 MW to 5 MW. Many technical visits were made to radiopharmaceutical institutions around the world with the purpose of bringing self-reliance and self-development solutions to IPEN. The international radiopharmaceutical community has always contributed to this effort, and only with their help our self-development and self-reliance could be possible. IPEN has ISO 9001-2000 certification and has made efforts to improve the installations in order to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice. Every effort we make today has the goal of making radiopharmaceuticals available for therapy at the most competitive price possible for our institution. (author)

  3. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  4. A Review of the Production of ''Special'' Radioisotopes

    Six useful characteristics of radioisotopes and advantages which may be taken of them are cited briefly, with examples. The Information Sheet announcing this Seminar listed four advantages of short-lived over long-lived isotopes. Two other reasons why owners of small research reactors should concern themselves with short half- life isotopes are economy and particular suitability for production, the latter being due to the pronounced effect of half-life on the net rate of production. Besides short half-life, type and energy of emitted radiation should be of concern to producers of isotopes. Nine advantages of a nuclear reactor over a particle accelerator for radioisotope production are outlined. Following this general orientation, a survey of unusual or less frequently used production techniques is presented. These include: (n, p) reactions and secondary reactions such as (t, n) and (t, p) induced by thermal neutrons, various techniques for obtaining useful fluxes of fast neutrons with which to effect other reactions, recoil techniques including classic Szilard-Chalmers reactions, use of charged wires to collect short-lived daughters of gaseous parents, parent-daughter milking system, parasitic irradiations, possible use of ''knocked- on'' protons or deuterons (from the moderator) as a means of effecting reactions such as (p,n), (d,n), etc. and the possible use of circulating ''loops'' in reactors with which to utilize the radiation from ultra-short-lived radioisotopes such as Ag110, In114, 116, Dy155m, etc. Although not a production technique, the possibility of using certain stable isotopes (e. g. of silver) as tracers which can be readily detected via subsequent activation is mentioned. Production figures for Brookhaven's ''special'' radioisotopes are cited to show differences in long- and short-term fluctuations among these isotopes, which are also compared as a class to those in heavier demand supplied by Oak Ridge. Present production methods of all 'special

  5. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.)

  6. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  7. Development of stable isotope separation technology for radioisotope production

    The ultimate goal of this project is to construct the domestic production system of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 used as target materials in accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes F-18 and Tl-201, respectively. In order to achieve this goal, diode laser spectroscopic analytical system was constructed and automatic measurement computer software for the direct analysis of H216O/H218O ratio were developed. Distillation process, laser process, and membrane diffusion process were analyzed for the evaluation of O-18 production. And electromagnetic process, plasma process, and laser process were analyzed for the evaluation of Tl-203 production. UV laser system, IR laser system, and detailed system Tl-203 production were designed. Finally, current and future worldwide demand/supply of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 were estimated

  8. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges

    V Shivarudrappa; K V Vimalnath

    2005-07-01

    Radionuclides have become powerful and indispensable tools in many endeavours of human activities, most importantly in medicine, industry, biology and agriculture, apart from R&D activities. Ready availability of radionuclides in suitable radiochemical form, its facile detection and elegant tracer concepts are responsible for their unprecedented use. Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of variety of diseases including cancer. Artificial transmutation of an element employing thermal neutrons in a reactor or high energy particle accelerators (cyclotrons) are the routes of radioisotope production world over. Availability of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope programme. Selection of stable nuclides in suitable chemical form as targets with desired isotopic and chemical purity are among the important considerations in radioisotope production. Mostly the oxide, carbonate or the metal itself are the preferred target forms for neutron activation in a research reactor. Chemical impurities, particularly from the elements of the same group, put a limitation on the purity of the final radioisotope product. Whereas the isotopic impurities result in the production of undesirable radionuclidic impurities, which affect their effective utilization. Isotope Group, BARC, is in the forefront of radioisotope production and supply in the country, meeting demands for gamut of radioisotope applications indigenously for over four decades now. Radioisotopes such as 131I, 99Mo, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 82Br, 203Hg, 198Au etc are produced in TBq quantities every month and supplied to several users and to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT). Such a large production programme puts a huge demand on the reliable sources of availability of high purity target materials which are at present mostly met

  9. Production of Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    A review is made of the current literature and a bibliography given. Selected references are cited and comment made on the general techniques currently employed by short-lived radioisotope producers. A distinction is drawn between the large centrally-local high flux reactors and local reactors for producing short-lived radioisotopes; the complementary role of the two is pointed out as, for example, the need for obtaining very high specific activities in special off-site reactors or the need for high-speed transfers and fast processing in local reactors. The equipment and procedures used for irradiating target materials to produce short-lived radioisotopes in the three routinely-operated ORNL reactors are described, as well as those for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) now under construction at ORNL, which will have a maximum flux of 5 x 1015 n/cm2s. The use of the HFIR will permit production of certain short-lived radioisotopes of unprecedented specific activity. Techniques that have been developed for irradiating samples in various kinds of reactors ranging from the 1012n/cm2 s air-cooled, graphite reactor to the high flux (1014 - 1016) water-cooled, enriched uranium reactors are described. The requirements for sample irradiations in the various kinds of reactors, such as material, method of sealing, handling, method of heat removal, and kinds of sample materials, are discussed. Pneumatic transfer tubes are used for irradiations where cooling requirements are not great and fast transfer is desired. Hydraulic tubes are used for irradiation of samples with greater heat generation, although the speed of transfer is not as great as with the pneumatic tubes. The advantages in using enriched target materials in certain cases are pointed out and several illustrations are given. In some cases, where die target nuclide occurs in low abundance, such as Ca46 in calcium (0.003%), great advantage can be obtained by using enriched target materials. This may be of importance

  10. Potential medical applications of the plasma focus in the radioisotope production for PET imaging

    Devices other than the accelerators are desired to be investigated for generating high energy particles to induce nuclear reaction and positron emission tomography (PET) producing radioisotopes. The experimental data of plasma focus devices (PF) are studied and the activity scaling law for External Solid Target (EST) activation is established. Based on the scaling law and the techniques to enhance the radioisotopes production, the feasibility of generating the required activity for PET imaging is studied. - Highlights: • Short lived radioisotopes for PET imaging are produced in plasma focus device. • The scaling law of the activity induced with plasma focus energy is established. • The potential medical applications of plasma focus are studied

  11. Utilization of material testing reactor for radioisotope production

    In April 2000, JAEA (former JAERI) and CTC reached an agreement that we took over the radioisotope production from JAEA. We set up our facility in the Tokai Research and Development Center Nuclear Science Research Institute and started services. In this paper, we state present status of the production of radioisotopes in Japan and development activities in the future. (author)

  12. Neutron-rich radioisotope production in Australia

    The author discusses Australia's Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) and the applications of the range of radioisotopes it will produce. The ANSTO's RRR will produce radioisotopes that have medical., industrial and environmental applications. Medicinal radioisotopes would provide the nuclear medicine physicians and oncologists with the necessary tool to non-invasively diagnose and cure diseases, ranging from cancer to infections. Industrial radioisotopes provide the industrial community with high technology tools to evaluate and assess the status of high reliability equipment with respect to safety and functionality in a non-destructive modality. The current commercial radioisotope sources include 60Co, 169Yb and 192Ir with source strengths limited by the HlFAR neutron flux and capacity. These sources are primarily used for industrial X ray moisture, level and thickness gauging. The RRR will allow expansion of the commercial source strengths and allow ANSTO to meet the growing commercial Australasian market for radioactive sources

  13. Production and application of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals - status and prospects

    Given are the main data on the use of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medical applications. Shown are the methods for their routine production including the results obtained in the Laboratory for Radioisotopes (Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences). Particular emphasis is devoted to the trends in the development of the agents suitable for specific diagnostic or therapeutic applications. (author)

  14. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  15. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  16. Alternative method for 64Cu radioisotope production

    The method for 64Cu production based on a 64Ni target using an 18 MeV proton energy beam was developed. The studies on the optimisation of targetry for the 18 MeV proton bombardments were performed in terms of the cost-effective target utilisation and purity of the 64Cu product. The thickness-specific 64Cu yield (μCi/(μAxμm)) was introduced into the optimisation calculation with respect to cost-effective target utilisation. A maximum target utilisation efficacy factor (TUE) was found for the proton energy range of 2.5-13 MeV with corresponding target thickness of 36.2 μm. With the optimised target thickness and proton energy range, the 64Ni target thickness saving of 45.6% was achieved, while the overall 64Cu yield loss is only 23.9%, compared to the use of the whole effective proton energy range of 0-18 MeV with target thickness of 66.6 μm. This optimisation has the advantage of reducing the target amount to a reasonable level, and therefore the cost of the expensive 64Ni target material. The 64Ni target electroplated on the Au-Tl multi layer coated Cu-substrate was a new and competent design for an economic production of high quality 64Cu radioisotope using an 18 MeV proton energy cyclotron or a 30 MeV cyclotron with proton beam adjustable to 18 MeV. In this design, the Au coating layer plays a role of protection of 'cold' Cu leakage from the Cu substrate and Tl serves to depress the proton beam energy (from 18 MeV to the energy optimised value 13 MeV). The ion exchange chromatographic technique with a gradient elution was applied to improve the 64Cu separation with respect to reducing the processing time and control of 64Cu product quality.

  17. Trends in indigenous radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production in Bangladesh

    The Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology started producing radioisotopes for medical use in 1987, as soon as the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor started operation. There are 17 nuclear medicine centres in Bangladesh and the RIPD partially meets domestic demand for medical radioisotopes, the balance being imported. The RIPD routinely produces 131I solution and 99mTc generator and from October 2005 it was scheduled to substitute the import of these items by indigenous production. The RIPD is planning to establish a 99mTc cold kit manufacturing facility by 2007-2008. (author)

  18. Shielding calculation of the radioisotope production channel at 'Tesla' cyclotron installation

    During construction of the 'Tesla' Accelerator Installation in the Vinca Institute, one of the important problems was shielding calculation for the Radioisotope production Channel. Calculations were made in three different methods: empirical, semiempirical and Monte Carlo method. The results have been compared and show good agreement. (author)

  19. Radiation technologies for industrial applications using accelerators of the electrons of the radioisotope products, for positrone emission tomographs and for the cancer diagnostics

    Full text: This article is dedicated to the intensificaion of the cancer diagnostic processes in positrone-emission tomograph systems using RPP manufacture with the accelerators of the electrons located in all the large oncologic institutions worldwide. Intensification is achieved with the realization of F-18 shorter life nucleus and other significant advantages unavailable for RPP manufacture using cyclotrons

  20. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  1. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  2. Development of the cyclotron radioisotope production technology

    Suh, Yong Sup; Chun, K.S.; Yang, S.D.; Lee, J.D.; Ahn, S.H.; Yun, Y.K.; Park, H.; Lee, J.S.; Chai, J.S.; Kim, U.S.; Hong, S.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Park, C.W.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. H

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute the advance of nuclear medicine and to the improvement of human health through the development of various accelerator radionuclides and mass production with automization of production. The results obtained from this study are following: 1) In order to introduce 30 MeV high current cyclotron, the specification of cyclotron has been made, the building site was selected and we drew the draw-up of cyclotron. The cyclotron installation contract was postponed until the financial resources could be secured. 2) For a development high purity 1-123 producing system, a Xe-124 target system, a temperature measurement system of the inner part of the target and a target window were fabricated. A Xe-124 gas target recovery system and a full production system of 1-123 was drew up. 3) For a development of a therapeutic nuclide At-211, a target for the production of At-211 via {sup 209}Bi(alpha, 2n) reaction was fabricated. Produced At-211 was separated by distillation method. 4) For development of beta-emitting nuclides, Ti-45, C-11, F{sub 2}-18, beam irradiation system suitable for each target were fabricated. 5) For automatic production of Ga-67, automated module and PLC program was made 6) For the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals, analytical method of thallium and copper by polarography was investigated and established.

  3. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  4. Introduction of KIRAMS activity for radioisotope production and its application

    Full text: Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) has a great potential for clinical and pre-clinical studies of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. For radioisotope production, we hold a lot of technologies to prepare the short-lived radioisotopes, such as F-18 and C- 11 for application of PET and the radiometals, such as Tl- 201, Ga-67 and In-111 for SPECT using 30MeV (IBA) and 50MeV (MC50) cyclotrons. Recently, we developed radioiodides like I-123 for SPECT and I-124 for PET to label monoclonal antibodies to target the cell surface markers of specific diseases. In order to improve PET radiotracers for the chelator-systems, we also developed the production techniques of new several radionuclides, such as Cu-64, Tc-94m and so on. Therefore, the radiopharmaceutical studies with various radioisotopes, produced by cyclotron, were used for the purpose of invivo imaging of tumor, brain, and organ functions. In case of clinical and pre-clinical applications, the quality control system of radiopharmaceuticals should have been carried at preparation with safety and stability. This is called QURI (QUality Examination for Radiopharmaceuticals Investigation) project as a Top Brand of KIRAMS, which is important to develop the radioisotope production and its application. The future work at KIRAMS will be focused on developing the molecular targets for the purpose of clinical and preclinical applications in order to overcome intractable diseases. (author)

  5. Cyclotrons in the production of radioisotopes for medicine, science and technology

    The general scientific and technical aspects and analyze the current situation of the radioisotope production technologies, especially those produced in accelerators (cyclotrons) are described. It also addresses the importance and the significance that the availability of radioisotopes - at the regional and the international level - has for the support and the development of the current and future technologies. It analyzes the different factors, affecting the availability of radioisotopes in Chile and in general in South America. It also identifies the critical factors, the impact and technical and economic feasibility for the installation and operation of a cyclotron in Chile. Finally, the benefits derived from such installation and operation of a Cyclotron Laboratory may have for the development of national resources with great potential for a projection in Latin America. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  6. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  7. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  8. Prospective production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in divisions of IPPE

    The first reason to commence the work on production of radioisotope production in IPPE, was the requirement of Russia medicine for original generators of technetium. The essential extension of their production in conditions of Moscow city has met the declaiming of the Moscow urban authorities. The important moment was that, in IPPE were objective possibilities to deployment the production of radioisotope production. Nowadays, nomenclature of the radioisotopes which have been produced in IPPE, constitutes 29 positions. The profile of production of radioisotope production was generated also. Restricted possibilities of the ray base, from one side, and the needs(requirement) of domestic medicine with other, in main have spotted this profile. The raw isotopes constitute a minority - on sales volumes ∼ 20 % (in main abroad), the defining part is constituted the form ready for the use by ∼ 80 % (in main in Russia). All 'know-how' is conditionally possible to divide into 3 categories: Base. It is technologies provided with an operating production sector, guaranteeing stable on quality production having a rather wide seller's market; Perspective. It is those technologies, in which the main stages of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT are fulfilled with positive result, but the working sites yet are not generated, and on the market are delivered only some samples of production. Are guessed RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT on perfecting the technology; Preparative. The technology, on which there are no regular orders, is not required of an individual working site. Sometimes it is rather precision operations, bound with usage of unique raw material, with a very stiff price of production. (authors)

  9. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy

  10. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  11. Production of radioisotopes within a plasma focus device

    In recent years, research conducted in the US and in Italy has demonstrated production of radioisotopes in Plasma Focus (PF) devices, and particularly, on what could be termed 'endogenous' production, to wit, production within the plasma itself, as opposed to irradiation of targets. This technique relies on the formation of localized small plasma zones characterized by very high densities and fairly high temperatures. The conditions prevailing in these zones lead to high nuclear reaction rates, as pointed out in previous work by several authors. Further investigation of the cross sections involved has proven necessary to model the phenomena involved. In this paper, the present status of research in this field is reviewed, both with regards to cross section models and to experimental production of radioisotopes. Possible outcomes and further development are discussed. (author)

  12. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  13. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  14. Overview on radioisotope production at TRIGA-SSR 14 MW

    The paper presents the technical support provided at Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti to accomplish various services concerning isotope production. Also it is presented the study to produce, in collaboration with Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN) Bucharest, I-131, Au-198, Mo-99, Ir-192 isotopes for medical uses. There is presented neutron physics computation for the TRIGA core to establish the proper experimental locations to accomplish the radioisotope production. (authors)

  15. Occupational radioprotection in the cyclotron laboratory radioisotope production at IEN

    The Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is operated mainly for radioisotope production, neutron production studies and irradiation damage analysis. The risks associated to the activities developed in these laboratories are exposition to beta, neutron and gama radiation and contamination. The radioprotection program adapted are presented briefly and the results of the air and surface contamination analysis, liquid efluents and dose equivalent of the workers in 1988 are shown. (author)

  16. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  17. A benchmark study on uncertainty of ALICE ASH 1.0, TALYS 1.0 and MCNPX 2.6 codes to estimate production yield of accelerator-based radioisotopes

    Seyed Amirhossen Feghi; Zohreh Gholamzadeh; Zahra Alipoor; Akram Zali; Mahdi Joharifard; Morteza Aref; Claudio Tenreiro

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotopes find very important applications in various sectors of economic significance and their production is an important activity of many national programmes. Some deterministic codes such as ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 are extensively used to calculate the yield of a radioisotope via numerical integral over the calculated cross-sections. MCNPX 2.6 stochastic code is more interesting among the other Monte Carlo-based computational codes for accessibility of different intranuclear cascade physical models to calculate the yield using experiment-based cross-sections. A benchmark study has been proposed to determine the codes' uncertainty in such calculations. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields by proton irradiation of silver, rubidium chloride and strontium carbonate targets are studied. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr cross-sections are calculated using ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 codes. The evaluated yields are compared with the experimental yields. The targets are modelled using MCNPX 2.6 code. The production yields are calculated using the available physical models of the code. The study shows acceptable relative discrepancies between theoretical and experimental results. Minimum relative discrepancy between experimental and theoretical yields is achievable using ISABEL intranuclear model in most of the targets simulated by MCNPX 2.6. The stochastic code utilization can be suggested for calculating 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields. It results in more valid data than TALYS 1.0 and ALICE ASH 1.0 in noticeably less average relative discrepancies.

  18. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health; Produccion de radioisotopos para aplicaciones en la salud

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators, the radio lanthanides: {sup 151}Pm, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 161}Tb, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 131}I and the {sup 32}P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the {sup 99m}Tc and the {sup 188}Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand

  20. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    Benjamin, R.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  1. Alpha-emitting radioisotopes production for radioimmunotherapy

    Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institutet of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    This review discusses the production of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in radioimmunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy labeled with alpha-particle is expected to be very useful for the treatment of monocellular cancer (e.g. leukemia) and micrometastasis at an early stage, residual tumor remained in tissues after chemotherapy and tumor resection, due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha particle. Despite of the expected effectiveness of alpha-particle in radioimmunotherapy, its clinical research has not been activated by the several reasons, shortage of a suitable a-particle development and a reliable radionuclide production and supply system, appropriate antibody and chelator development. Among them, the establishment of radionuclide development and supply system is a key factor to make an alpha-immunotherapy more popular in clinical trial. Alpha-emitter can be produced by several methods, natural radionuclides, reactor irradiation, cyclotron irradiation, generator system and elution. Due to the sharply increasing demand of {sup 213}Bi, which is a most promising radionuclide in radioimmunotherapy and now has been produced with reactor, the cyclotron production system should be developed urgently to meet the demand.

  2. Radioisotope production at 14 MW TRIGA

    Few years after reactor first start-up it was developed a program for small-scale isotope production, as a complementary activity to the main activities at TRIGA reactor i.e. fuel and material testing in loops and capsules. We aimed to obtain radioactive material for industrial and medical use, of medium and high specific activity. In this paper, one is briefly described the irradiation conditions, irradiation devices, post-irradiation handling and the steps intended for improving the quality of this activity, referring particularly to some widely used isotopes as Ir-192, I-125, and Co-60 and to some radiopharmaceuticals (Mo-99 and I-131). One concludes by suggesting some ways to improve and enlarge isotope production at TRIGA: i. to optimize the channel filling with thinner iridium disks (0.25 mm) by re-spacing them; ii. to design and operate a better charging and discharging system of the ampoules irradiated in peripheral berylium channels; iii. to start fast neutron irradiations for getting medium half life isotopes such as P-32 and S-35; iv. to allocate a new high flux irradiation channel for cobalt, without interfering with the rest of the irradiations. (authors)

  3. Operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    At the RIPF at HANARO, Radioisotopes for industrial and medical purpose are produced and research and development for various radioisotopes are carried out. Major products include Ir-192 for NDT, I-131 for treatment and diagnosis of thyroid cancer, Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator for imaging diagnosis of cancer. Production of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical is being increased every year. Due to world-wide unstableness in the supply of Mo-99, a technology to produce (n,γ)Mo-99 generator at HANARO had been developed as a short term countermeasure. It will be available by the end of 2012. As a long term countermeasure, we are trying to build a new fully dedicated isotope reactor that will produce Fission Mo-99. At present, utilization of RIPF at HANARO is being increased. However when the construction of a new dedicated isotope reactor is completed in 2016, the role of the existing facility and new facility should be established accordingly so that none of the facilities are idling. In the near future, when the prospect of a utilization plan is completed, we expect an opportunity to present the result. (author)

  4. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    radioisotopes production are much sought worldwide. There is a universal lack of these specialists. Regarding this situation, there is an urgency to collect the right conditions which allow the organization of a Master's degree in radio-pharmacy, radio-biology and radiochemistry. The projects of complementarities between Arab countries via the Arabic Agency of the Atomic Energy, the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Technical French Cooperation of the Atomic Energy Commission are useful to combine efforts for better training of the staff. (Author)

  5. Positron emission tomography: radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been operational within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre (A and RMC) in Melbourne for seven years. PET is a non-invasive imaging technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic facility consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities, radiopharmacy and a whole body PET scanner. A strong radiolabelling development program, including the production of 15O-oxygen, 15O-carbon monoxide, 15O-carbon dioxide, 15O-water, 13N-ammonia, 18F-FDG, 18F-FMISO, 11C-SCH23390 and 11C-flumazenil has been pursued to support an ambitious clinical and research program in neurology, oncology, cardiology and psychiatry. Copyright (1999) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine and the College of Biomedical Engineers

  6. Design study and heat transfer analysis of a neutron converter target for medical radioisotope production

    A worldwide challenge in the near future will be to find a way of producing radioisotopes in sufficient quantity without relying on research reactors. The motivation for this innovative work on targets lies in the accelerator-based production of radioisotopes using a neutron converter target as in the transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing concept. Thermal analysis of a multi-channel helium cooled device is performed with the computational fluid dynamics code CFX. Different boundary conditions are taken into account in the simulation process and many important parameters such as maximum allowable solid target temperature as well as uniform inlet velocity and outlet pressure changes in the channels are investigated. The results confirm that the cooling configuration works well; hence such a solid target could be operated safely and may be considered for a prototype target. (author)

  7. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  8. Automatic radioisotope production devices adapted to a medical cyclotron

    The authors describe an irradiation device set up beside a compact medical cyclotron (520.CGR-MeV cyclotron). The variable energy machine can accelerate 3-22 MeV protons, 3-13 MeV deuterons, 6-26 MeV alpha particles and 5-31 MeV helium-3 particles, the currents extracted at the maximum energies reaching 50 μA for 4He and 3He, 70 μA for protons and deuterons. The essential characteristics demanded of the apparatus in order to produce a regular and abundant supply of short-lived radioisotopes were as follows: - Flexibility of use or the possibility of fast, completely non-manual target changing. - Simplicity of operation: the target-holder components must be easily interchangeable and the transfer of radioisotopes from the irradiation point to the chemical laboratory must be rapid. - Working safety: the automatic target-holder cooling controls must be duplicated by manual controls. - Target cooling efficiency: these targets, whether gaseous, liquid or solid, must be able to support a high particle current. (Auth.)

  9. Accelerators for energy production

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  10. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981

  11. Charged particle cross-section database for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic radioisotopes and monitor reactions. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    Medical applications of nuclear radiation are of considerable interest to the IAEA. Cyclotrons and accelerators, available in recent years in an increasing number of countries, are being used for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The physical basis of this production is described through interaction of charged particles, such as protons, deuterons and alphas, with matter. These processes have to be well understood in order to produce radioisotopes in an efficient and clean manner. In addition to medical radioisotope production, reactions with low energy charged particles are of primary importance for two major applications. Techniques of ion beam analysis use many specific reactions to identify material properties, and in nuclear astrophysics there is interest in numerous reaction rates to understand nucleosynthesis in the Universe. A large number of medically oriented cyclotrons have been running in North America, western Europe and Japan for more than two decades. In recent years, 30-40 MeV cyclotrons and smaller cyclotrons (Ep < 20 MeV) have been installed in several countries. Although the production methods are well established, there are no evaluated and recommended nuclear data sets available. The need for standardization was thus imminent. This was pointed out at three IAEA meetings. Based on the recommendations made at these meetings, the IAEA decided to undertake and organize the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross-Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production. The project was initiated in 1995. It focused on radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes and on the related beam monitor reactions in order to meet current needs. It constituted the first major international effort dedicated to standardization of nuclear data for radioisotope production. It covered the following areas: Compilation of data on the most important reactions for monitoring light ion

  12. Research reactor production of radioisotopes for medical use

    More than 70% of all radioisotopes applied in medical diagnosis and research are currently produced in research reactors. Research reactors are also an important source of certain radioisotopes, such as 60Co, 90Y, 137Cs and 198Au, which are employed in teletherapy and brachytherapy. For regular medical applications, mainly 29 radionuclides produced in research reactors are used. These are now produced on an 'industrial scale' by many leading commercial manufacturers in industrialized countries as well as by national atomic energy establishments in developing countries. Five main neutron-induced reactions have been employed for the regular production of these radionuclides, namely: (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,γ) followed by decay, and (n, fission). In addition, the Szilard-Chalmers process has been used in low- and medium-flux research reactors to enrich the specific activity of a few radionuclides (mainly 51Cr) produced by the (n,γ) reaction. Extensive work done over the last three decades has resulted in the development of reliable and economic large-scale production methods for most of these radioisotopes and in the establishment of rigorous specifications and purity criteria for their manifold applications in medicine. A useful spectrum of other radionuclides with suitable half-lives and low to medium toxicity can be produced in research reactors, with the requisite purity and specific activity and at a reasonable cost, to be used as tracers. Thanks to the systematic work done in recent years by many radiopharmaceutical scientists, the radionuclides of several elements, such as arsenic, selenium, rhenium, ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tellurium, antimony, platinum, lead and the rare earth elements, which until recently were considered 'exotic' in the biomedical field, are now gaining attention. (author)

  13. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  14. Production of I-125 radioisotope in sodium iodide solution

    Application: The Radioisotope Iodine-125 has rather long half-life, and high dose range of Gamma radiation. It will be used in two cases,in our radioisotope production department: 1-To label Radioimmunoassay Kits (RIA): T3, T4 and TSH for INVITRO investigation of Thyroid glands, in our Nuclear Medical Center in IRAN. We just started to set up Hot cell facilities and in cell equipment to supply Iodine-125 for our Radioimmunoassay Group.In this section. The above Iodine-125 will be used for labelling of their Radioimmunoassay products for Thyroid functions and also for screening of newborns for Thyroid deficiency. 2-We have also just start, the make and supply particular granules of Iodine-125 by Silver coated Iodine-125 directly and also indirectly, on the Palladium, coated Silver Wire to be used in Brachytherapy applications. Production: After filling Target with 15 g of natural Xe gas by excellent technology and closed in leak-tight allowing reactor irradiation. The target is irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 3 weeks optimally at a thermal neutron flux around Φ= 1*1014 n.cm-2.s-1.After transferring irradiated target to hot cell, The aluminium capsule is opened by putting it into the punching apparatus and pushing the needle into the bottom of the aluminium capsule by turning the handle counter-clockwise. When the needle punches the aluminium. The Xe gas is released into the chimney and the I-125 radioisotope is adsorbed on the inside wall of the aluminium capsule. After this the opened aluminium capsule is pulled off from the needle by turning the handle clockwise. The opened capsule is ready to distillation. Preparation of the distillation oven and equipment: on the first occasion the oven should be heated two-times up to 550 oC for two hours each to eliminate potential contamination. After it the radioactive aluminium capsule is put into the oven and vacuum is started. This is followed by switching on the heating. The distillation is followed through 120

  15. Revisiting homogeneous suspension reactors for production of radioisotopes

    Some 50 years ago in Geneva Conferences I, II and III (1955. 1958 and 1964) on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, and also in Vienna Symposium on Reactor Experiments (1961), several papers where presented by different countries referring to advances in homogeneous suspension reactors. In particular the Dutch KEMA Suspension Test Reactor (KSTR) was developed, built and successfully operated in the sixties and seventies. It was a 1MWth reactor in which a suspension (6 microns spheres) of mixed UO2/ThO2 in light water was circulated in a closed loop through a sphere-shaped vessel. One of the basic ideas on these suspension reactors was to apply the fission recoil separation effect as a means of purification of the fuel: the non-volatile fission products can be adsorbed in dispersed active charcoal and removed from the liquid. Undoubtedly, this method can present some advantages and better yields for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes, since they have to be extracted from a liquid in which practically no uranium is present. Details are mentioned of the different aspects that have been taken into account and which ones could be added in the corresponding actualization of suspension reactors for radioisotope production. In recent years great advances have been made in nanotechnology that can be used in the tailoring of fuel particles and adsorbent media. Recently, in CNEA Buenos Aires, a new facility has been inaugurated and is being equipped and licensed for laboratory experiments and preparative synthesis of nuclear nanoparticles. RA-6 and RA-3 experimental reactors in Argentina can be used for in-pile testing. (author)

  16. Construction and assembling of a cell to produce I-131 in the radioisotopes production plant

    It has been constructed, improved and installed a cell with iron structures, Pb shielding, with an acrylic tight precinct, an air inlet and extraction system, services of water, light, active and conventional drainage, compressed air, vacuum and installation of other facilities suitable for the I-131 radioisotope production in the Radioisotopes Production Plant (PPR)

  17. A compact high-power proton linac for radioisotope production

    Conventional designs for proton linacs use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL). For higher final beam energies, a coupled cavity linac (CCL) follows the DTL. A new structure, the coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of an Alvarez DTL and the CCL. Operating in a π/2 structure mode, the CCDTL replaces the DTL and part of the CCL for particle velocities in the range 0.1 < β < 0.5. The authors present a design concept for a compact linac using only an RFQ and a CCDTL. This machine delivers a few mA of average beam current at a nominal energy of 70 MeV and is well suited for radioisotope production

  18. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  19. Cyclotron production of molecules labelled with short-lived radioisotopes β+ emitters (15O, 13N, 11C) and their clinical uses

    Clinical use of three short-lived radioisotopes: 15O, 13N and 11C is studied on two complementary aspects. A production and purification system is realized; detection instruments in medical use are studied. The production of labelled molecules with the three radiotracers 15O, 13N, 11C from the target bombardment with charged and accelerated particles was studied

  20. Production of radioisotopes by 1.5 m cyclotron and their utilization

    Radioisotopes characterized by nuclear property and uses can be produced on the accelerator, especially those playing an important role in scientific researches and biomedical uses. The status of Radioisotopes produced by 1.5 m cyclotron and their applications in our institute are summarized in this paper. The details of preparation and the results of use for radioactive sources, radiochemicals, radiopharmaceuticals of 57Co, 109Cd, 68Ge- 68Ga, and 167Tm are given respectively. (author)

  1. Economical and technical feasibility study of some radioisotopes production for medical application

    The economical and technical feasibility study of the production in reactors of some radioisotopes most used in medicine, are presented. The clinical applications of each radioisotope as well as its radioactive concentrations and specific activities are related. Irradiation procedures based in the foregoing data are given. Part of the study is dedicated to quality control. (M.A.C.)

  2. Trends in indigenous radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production in Bangladesh

    There are 17 nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in Bangladesh which are distributed all over the country. The objective of RIPD is to produce short lived radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for these NMCs. Iodine-131 generated during irradiation of natural TeO2 in the 3 MW TRIGA research reactor is separated by dry distillation method. Recently two independent dry distillation apparatus were installed in the 131I production plant for alternate use at RIPD. Since July 2003 more than 11Ci of 131I solution has been produced. At present, on average, 300mCi of 131I is produced on a weekly basis by irradiating about 38.5g of TeO2 at 2.5 MW for 15 h of interrupted irradiation. Due to the limitation in reactor operation time and target size, RIPD meets only a part of country's demand for 131I. Increase of reactor operation time and installation of more dry central thimble (DCT) in the reactor to irradiate more than one target at a time is under active consideration of the authority. Equipment for diagnostic and therapeutic 131I capsule production has recently been installed at RIPD. Test production of diagnostic 131I capsules has been done successfully. Therapeutic capsule production will be started when 131I solution with required radioactive concentration will be available. RIPD started its activity with the production of instant 99mTc by solvent extraction method by irradiating natural molybdenum (as MoO3) target in 1987. In 1988 the Division produced 99mTc-sublimation generator by irradiating titanium molybdate in the reactor. A facility for the production of chromatographic 99mTc-generator was installed at RIPD under IAEA TC Project BGD/4/014 in 1997. In this facility four 99mTc-generators per batch can be produced. So far 100 batches of 15GBq 99mTc-generators have been produced from imported fission 99Mo. Yearly production of 99mTc-generatos is shown in Fig.1. Users comment regarding the quality and performance of the locally produced 99mTc-generator are quite

  3. Characteristics of HVAC System in radioisotope production facility

    Radioisotope production facility (hereinafter called 'RIP facility'), one of the subsidiary one of the subsidiary ones in the HANARO research reactor, has been operated since 1995. They have 4 banks; bank1 consists of 4 concrete cells I-192 and Co-60 are produced, bank2 consists of 11 lead cells R and D project is conducted, bank3 consists of 6 lead cells I-131 is produced, and bank4 consists of 4 lead cells Tc-99m generator is produced. In order to prevent the gaseous radioactive material to be released to atmosphere, 3-stage charcoal adsorbent was installed at the exhaust side of the bank3. Also, prefilters and HEPA filters are mounted in all hot cell banks respectively. Charcoal cartridge and HEPA Filters are replaced every 18 month for maintenance without exception. After replacing them, we commence In-Place Leakage Test using the halide and D. O. P tester according to the ASME N510-2007. This paper describes characteristics of HVAC system in RIP facility and maintenance of their components such as AHU, HRU, blower, fan, damper as well as filters. Especially, the management of HEPA filters and charcoal adsorbents are very important for protecting environment and workers. So, I deal with the maintenance and repair of these filters and hands-on leak test result. In addition, this paper shows evaluation about radio-iodine released to atmosphere via the stack in HANARO

  4. radioisotopes production in the ETRR-2 research reactor

    the present work was carried out to study the production of a variety of reactor produced radioisotopes via neutrons interactions with specified targets in the 22 MW ETRR-2 research reactor, egypt, compared with the 2 MW IRI, netherlands, and 2 MW ETRR-1, egypt, research reactors. no carrier added radionuclides of 131 Cs (T1/2=9,69 d), 166 Ho (T1/2=26.7 h), 67 Cu(T1/2=2.5 7 d) and 47Sc(T1/2=3.34 d) were produced by thermal neutrons interactions via 130 Ba(n,γ ) 131 Ba (β decay) 131 Cs and 164Dy(2 n,γ ) 166 Dy (βdecay) 166 Ho and fast neutrons interactions via 47 Ti(n,p) 47Sc and 67Zn(n,p) 67 Cu nuclear reactions , respectively. chemical processing was conducted using the sulfate precipitation method and dowex 2 x 8 (cl-). anion exchange, Dowex AGW 50 x 8 (H+), cation exchange and dowex AGW 50 x 8 (H+) reversed phase hplc chromatographic methods for separation of 131cs, 67cu, 47sc and 166 Ho from the barium , zinc, titanium, and dysprosium targets, respectively. the percent yields of 131 Cs, 67Cu, 47Sc and 166 Ho were found to be ∼ 91,90,98 and 42.7% respectively

  5. Characteristics of HVAC System in radioisotope production facility

    Lee, Mun; Kim, Min Jin; Yoon, Byeong Joo; Youn, Dong Weon; Jung, Hoan Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotope production facility (hereinafter called 'RIP facility'), one of the subsidiary one of the subsidiary ones in the HANARO research reactor, has been operated since 1995. They have 4 banks; bank1 consists of 4 concrete cells I-192 and Co-60 are produced, bank2 consists of 11 lead cells R and D project is conducted, bank3 consists of 6 lead cells I-131 is produced, and bank4 consists of 4 lead cells Tc-99m generator is produced. In order to prevent the gaseous radioactive material to be released to atmosphere, 3-stage charcoal adsorbent was installed at the exhaust side of the bank3. Also, prefilters and HEPA filters are mounted in all hot cell banks respectively. Charcoal cartridge and HEPA Filters are replaced every 18 month for maintenance without exception. After replacing them, we commence In-Place Leakage Test using the halide and D. O. P tester according to the ASME N510-2007. This paper describes characteristics of HVAC system in RIP facility and maintenance of their components such as AHU, HRU, blower, fan, damper as well as filters. Especially, the management of HEPA filters and charcoal adsorbents are very important for protecting environment and workers. So, I deal with the maintenance and repair of these filters and hands-on leak test result. In addition, this paper shows evaluation about radio-iodine released to atmosphere via the stack in HANARO.

  6. Transmission factors for neutrons produced by radioisotopes production used in PET

    The dose transmission factor for normal concrete and the neutrons produced in the18O(p,n)18F and 13C(p,n)13N reactions are presented in this paper. These transmission factors permit to simplify the calculation of the necessary accelerator shielding to be used in the radioisotope production for positron emission tomography. The energy distributions of the neutrons resulting from the irradiation of thick targets, with 10 to 13 MeV protons, were determined using the thin target cross sections, the energy loss per path length and the energy balance of the reaction (Q-equation). The one dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and the conversion coefficients from fluence to dose, presented in the ICRP Publication 51 were employed to obtain the transmission factors. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  8. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    Park, J.H.; Han, H.S.; Park, K.B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  9. Alternative method for {sup 64}Cu radioisotope production

    Van So Le [Radiopharmaceutical Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights , P.M.B. 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: slv@ansto.gov.au; Howse, J.; Zaw, M.; Pellegrini, P.; Katsifis, A.; Greguric, I.; Weiner, R. [Radiopharmaceutical Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights , P.M.B. 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The method for {sup 64}Cu production based on a {sup 64}Ni target using an 18 MeV proton energy beam was developed. The studies on the optimisation of targetry for the 18 MeV proton bombardments were performed in terms of the cost-effective target utilisation and purity of the {sup 64}Cu product. The thickness-specific {sup 64}Cu yield ({mu}Ci/({mu}Ax{mu}m)) was introduced into the optimisation calculation with respect to cost-effective target utilisation. A maximum target utilisation efficacy factor (TUE) was found for the proton energy range of 2.5-13 MeV with corresponding target thickness of 36.2 {mu}m. With the optimised target thickness and proton energy range, the {sup 64}Ni target thickness saving of 45.6% was achieved, while the overall {sup 64}Cu yield loss is only 23.9%, compared to the use of the whole effective proton energy range of 0-18 MeV with target thickness of 66.6 {mu}m. This optimisation has the advantage of reducing the target amount to a reasonable level, and therefore the cost of the expensive {sup 64}Ni target material. The {sup 64}Ni target electroplated on the Au-Tl multi layer coated Cu-substrate was a new and competent design for an economic production of high quality {sup 64}Cu radioisotope using an 18 MeV proton energy cyclotron or a 30 MeV cyclotron with proton beam adjustable to 18 MeV. In this design, the Au coating layer plays a role of protection of 'cold' Cu leakage from the Cu substrate and Tl serves to depress the proton beam energy (from 18 MeV to the energy optimised value 13 MeV). The ion exchange chromatographic technique with a gradient elution was applied to improve the {sup 64}Cu separation with respect to reducing the processing time and control of {sup 64}Cu product quality.

  10. Estimates for production of radioisotopes of medical interest at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility

    Luo, Wen; Bobeica, Mariana; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan M.; Niculae, Dana; Balabanski, Dimiter L.

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the production of radioisotopes of medical interest through photoneutron reactions using the high-brilliance γ-beam of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The specific activity for three benchmark radioisotopes, 99Mo/99Tc, 225Ra/225Ac and 186Re, was obtained as a function of target geometry, irradiation time and γ-beam energy. Optimized conditions for the generation of these radioisotopes of medical interest with the ELI-NP γ-beams were discussed. We estimated that a saturation specific activity of the order of 1-2 mCi/g can be achieved for thin targets with about one gram of mass considering a γ-beam flux of 10^{11} photons/s. Based on these results, we suggest that the ELI-NP facility can provide a unique possibility for the production of radioisotopes in sufficient quantities for nuclear medicine research.

  11. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  12. Summary report of the consultants' meeting on nuclear data for production of therapeutic radioisotopes

    This report summarizes the presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Consultants' Meeting on Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radioisotopes. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss scientific and technical matters related to the subject and to advise the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) on the need and possible formation of a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP). Accurate and complete knowledge of nuclear data are essential for the production of radionuclides for therapy to achieve the specific activity and purity required for efficient and safe clinical application. The Consultants recommended updating and completing the data for production of radionuclides that are recognized to be important in therapy. In addition, the consultants recommend investigating other radionuclides that have a potential interest and for which there exists a medical rationale for therapeutic use. To date no serious effort has been devoted to evaluation of nuclear data for the reactor and accelerator production of therapeutic radionuclides. The IAEA is in the unique and privileged position to address this important public health related problem. Therefore, the consultants highly recommend the formation of a CRP with the title: 'Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides.' (author)

  13. The role of the chemist in the development and production of radioisotope preparations

    The Isotope Production Centre of the Atomic Energy Board manufactures and markets a large number of important radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and research fields which, previously, had to be imported. The development and production of radioisotope products require a multi-disciplinary approach in which a team effort by chemists, physicists, engineers, biologists and physicians is applied. Radioisotopes are usually used in the form of sealed radiation sources, simple inorganic compounds or radioisotope-labelled molecules. Sealed radiation sources such as cobalt-60 and iridium-192 are applied widely in the industrial field in, for example, level-high and level- density measurements, radiation sterilisation of medical equipment, and gamma radiography of structures. For industrial tracer and research purposes sodium-24, argon-41, bromine-82, iodine-131 and gold-198 are regularly used in simple chemical form. There are some thousands of radioisotope-labelled compounds of which the largest group compromises compounds of tritium, carbon-14 and sulphur-35. Because the last-mentioned isotopes have long physical half-lives and poor detectability in in vivo systems, they are used in vitro mainly in biomedical research. Radioisotopes such as iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, technetium-99m, krypton-81m and gallium-67 are in great demand for in vivo medical examinations because of their suitably short half-lives and detectability by the gamma camera. Iodine-125, a radioisotope which is usually manufactured in a nuclear reactor, plays a very important role in radioimmuoassays(RIA). The latter technique is an unusually sensitive, spesific in vitro analytical method which enables scientists to determine nanogram to picogram amounts of chemical compounds in blood. The design, development and manufacture of radioisotope preparations for a variety of uses offer an interesting challenge to the chemist now as well as in the future

  14. Current status of production and research of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Indonesia

    Soenarjo, Sunarhadijoso; Tamat, Swasono R. [Center for Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    The use of radioactive preparation in Indonesia has sharply increased during the past years, indicated by increase of the number of companies utilizing radioisotopes during 1985 to 1999. It has been clearly stressed in the BATAN's Strategic Plan for 1994-2014 that the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals is one of five main industrial fields within the platform of the Indonesian nuclear industry. Research programs supporting the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals as well as development of production technology are undertaken by the Research Center for Nuclear Techniques (RCNT) in Bandung and by the Radioisotope Production Center (RPC) in Serpong, involving cooperation with other research center within BATAN, universities and hospitals as well as overseas nuclear research institution. The presented paper describes production and research status of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Indonesia after the establishment of P.T. Batan Teknologi in 1996, a government company assigned for activities related to the commercial application of nuclear technology. The reviewed status is divided into two short periods, i.e. before and after the Chairman Decree No. 73/KA/IV/1999 declaring new BATAN organizational structure. Subsequent to the Decree, all commercial requests for radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals are fulfilled by P.T. Batan Teknologi, while demands on novel radioactive preparations or new processing technology, as well as research and development activities should be fulfilled by the Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals (CDRR) through non-commercial arrangement. The near-future strategic research programs to response to dynamic public demand are also discussed. The status of research cooperation with JAERI (Japan) is also reported. (author)

  15. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    2013-03-08

    ... Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope Germanium-68 AGENCY... commercial production and distribution of germanium-68, based upon private industry expression of interest in... to refrain from competition with private industry in the commercial production and distribution...

  16. Development of the radioisotope production facility for the KMRR -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    It's been 30 years since to start RI and labelled compound production in this country. But it is so limited to certain nuclide due to small research reactor and its RI production facilities. In order to upgrade and expand RI, it is necessary to operate high neutron flux reactor and advanced RI production facilities. KMRR, power is 30 MWth and maximum thermal neutron flux is 5 x 1014 n/cm2sec, is under construction and it will be completed on the end of this year. Building and basic facility for RI production were included in KMRR project but hot cell and its equipment were not. It is urged to complete RI production facilities to produce RI for medical and industrial use. Design of RI production facility was done with KAERI's 30 years accumulated experiences and reference of many advanced country's facilities. Most of equipments and components for RI facility were made and installed by domestic suppliers except a few special items. Some part of RI production facility will be completed before KMRR operation, this means will contribute RI demend for the country and KMRR utilization. Basic civil structure for RI production such as building, concrete hot cells, source storage pool and basic utility system is part of the KMRR project. Basic equipment and components for 4 concrete hot cells, 17 lead hot cells and its equipment, purification system for Co-60 source storage pool, ventilation system, radiation monitoring system, and fire protection system are under this project. The followings were carried out during second year of the project period. Installation on the first year's manufacturing order: (1) Install overhead crane (2 tons) at inside of concrete hot cell (2) Manipulator performance test for lead hot cell (3) Radiation shielding window performance test for lead hot cell. Place manufacturing order for developed items: (1) Select qualified vendor and fabricate for led hot cell (2) Select qualified vendor and fabricate for HTS

  17. Production of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    After reconstruction, the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) was inaugurated on March 20th, 1984 with the nominal power of 500 kW. Since then the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds for medical use was started. Up to now, DNRR is still the unique one in Vietnam. The reactor has been operated safely and effectively with the total of about 37,800 hrs (approximately 1,300 hours per year). More than 90% of its operation time and over 80% of its irradiation capacity have been exploited for research and production of radioisotopes. This paper gives an outline of the radioisotope production programme using the DNRR. The production laboratory and facilities including the nuclear reactor with its irradiation positions and characteristics, hot cells, production lines and equipment for the production of Kits for labelling with 99mTc and for quality control, as well as the production rate are mentioned. The methods used for production of 131I, 99mTc, 51Cr, 32P, etc. and the procedures for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals are described briefly. Status of utilization of domestic radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Vietnam is also reported. (author)

  18. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    To increase the production of RI and labelled compounds utilizing the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR), development of P-32 production process, devices and tools of neutron irradiation use, GMP facilities of radiopharmaceuticals, Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use for rheumatoid archritis have been carried out, respectively. To utilize NAA in analysis of environmental samples, experimental studies on air borne samples have also been carried out. An efficient P-32 production process obtaining high recovery of >98% with sufficiently high radionuclidic purity of >99% has been established through reaction 32S(n,p)32P and subsequent reduced pressure distillation purification. Various capsules, loading/unloading device for capsule/rigs, cole-welder for capsules, checking instrument for capsule sealing, working table/tools, transfer cask for the irradiated targets, etc. have been developed. To maintain cleanliness inside of hot cells, a modification has been proposed, and a two door type autoclave usable in GMP facility has been prepared. An efficient way of preparation of the Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use as well as its clinical application scheme has been developed. A suitable process of environmental sample analyses has been established by carrying out NAA of standard/reference samples as well as airborne dust samples. (Author)

  19. Production and chemical separation of 48 V radioisotope

    The positron emitter 48 V isotope (T1/2=16 d, γ-lines: 511 keV (100%), 983.5 (100%), 1312 (97.6%)) is of interest in several fields of science. This is valid for transmitting scans in the validation process of PET-camera by positron emission. It can be used as an industrial monitoring isotope by its γ-photons having high energy and intensity. Also, it is suitable for biological study since it is the only radioisotope of the biological trace element vanadium which can be a radiotracer due to its longer half-life. The 48 V was produced by nat Ti (d,xn)48 V nuclear reaction in the U-120 cyclotron with activity of 6 mCi. The energy of irradiating beam was 13 MeV, its intensity was 5 μA and the metallic Ti target dimensions were 16 x 11 x 2 mm. For target cooling, the water circulation in the back side was used. After 3 cooling days, only 48 V, and some 46 Sc (T1/2 = 84 d), produced by the side nuclear reaction 48 Ti (d,α)46 Sc were found in the target. For the preparation of 48 V source, the Ti target was dissolved in HF and sulfuric acid. The ion exchange separation was developed for both dissolving methods. The dissolution of the chemically resistant Ti target is so violent in concentrated (3.5 % m/m) HF, that it is necessary to be carried out in polyethylene tube in order to avoid the splash of the dissolved target. An anion exchange column, Dowex 1-8 (size 100-200 mesh, length 12 cm, ID 10 mm, treated 1 day earlier, prepared fresh), was used for separation in HF media. The reduced ionic form of Ti bonds to resin, therefore the dissolved target was saturated with sulfur-dioxide produced in the Kipp-equipment by the following chemical reaction: Na2SO3 + 2 HCl → 2 NaCl + H2SO3. The treated solution was diluted to a concentration of 2 mol/l of HF and the same concentration of the HF was used as an eluent for separation. Flow rate of the elution was 1 ml/min. The eluate was cooled fractionally. The fractions were measured by γ-spectrometry, which detected only 48

  20. New developments in the experimental data for charged particle production of medical radioisotopes

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to give a review of developments achieved experimentally in the field of nuclear data for medically important radioisotopes in the last three years. The availability and precision of production related nuclear data is continuously improved mainly experimentally. This review emphasizes a couple of larger fields: the Mo/Tc generator problem and the generator isotopes in general, heavy alpha-emitters and the rare-earth elements. Other results in the field of medical radioisotope production are also listed.

  1. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (API). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator

  3. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron; Blancos solidos para produccion de radioisotopos con ciclotron

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  4. Summary report of the 2. research co-ordination meeting on development of reference charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production

    The present report contains the summary of the second Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Charged-Particle Cross Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production'', held at the National Accelerator Centre at Faure, near Cape Town, South Africa, from 7 to 10 April 1997. An outline of the TECDOC, summarizing the results of the project, is presented. Details are given on recommendations for proton induced reactions, and on the work plan for the second part of the project

  5. Radioisotope production for using in nuclear medicine, in the IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil

    The importance of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine is shown. The performance of the cyclotrons model CV-28 and studies about production of 123I are evaluated. The irradiation of mercury target as well as radioelements for using in nuclear medicine are studied. (M.J.C.)

  6. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    2012-04-10

    ... published in the Federal Register for comment on October 13, 2011 (76 FR 63668). This draft ISG provides... COMMISSION Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes..., ``Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Format...

  7. 76 FR 63668 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes..., ``Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Format and... Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Standard Review Plan and Acceptance...

  8. Physical security in the decommissioning project of the Italian Radioisotopes Production Laboratories in Iraq

    Physical security at the process of the decommissioning of the Italian Radioisotopes Production Laboratories (IRPL) is an important matter and must take in account, especially in light of heightened concerns over loots and thefts activities following the events of 2003 in Iraq. The Italian Radioisotopes Production Laboratories (IRPL) was established by Italy in 1980 at Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear site of the former Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). It was designed for production of radioisotopes, sources, labeled compound, kits for medical and industrial and temporary storage, packing and shipping of the above mentioned radiation sources. The radioisotopes Laboratories was operated in 1981 and destroyed in 1991 in second Gulf war. This paper will contain the necessary activities for the physical security, organization and responsibilities in the decommissioning project of the (IRPL) which will be in three stages including the site preparation characterization, safety removing the rubble and scrap from the project site and then dismantling the remaining constructions of the (IRPL), which includes the following: Two concrete hot cells, One metallic, Four storage tanks (for liquids waste underground at level -3-855 m). (Author)

  9. Economic Feasibility Study for the Utilization of Egyptian Reactor (ETRR-2) in Radioisotope Production

    The present study was carried out to discus the economic feasibility study of local radioisotope production in Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This study was divided into three sections; the first section included the marketing study which based on the expectation of the local demand and surplus production to export from 99Mo production. The second section discussed the financial analysis and provided a model for calculating the cost per operation hour and per curie from production. The financial analysis discussed the profitable analysis and project sensitivity to change in cost and revenue. The third section discussed the effect of this project on the national return as the national income, employment, social rate of return and trade balance. This study was carried out according to the method adopted by the International Bank for Development taking into consideration the impact of applying radioisotope production technology on the society.

  10. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  11. Radioisotope production in target fragmentation with high-energy heavy ions at HIMAC

    In order to improve utilisation of the multitracer method, two aspects of the method were pursued in this study. The production of radioisotopes from target fragmentation of 197Au nuclei was performed with high-energetic heavy ions of 12C (180, 290, 400 MeV/u) and 40Ar (290, 650 MeV/u) at HIMAC facilities. The yields of products were measured by using a thick-target-thick-catcher method and off-line gamma spectrometry with Ge semiconductor detectors. Besides, a special apparatus for practice of the radioisotope production was designed in application of the tracers for separation of the products from target material with high efficiency and the target material and shape for the design was investigated in a trial examination. (author)

  12. Homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes

    Technetium-99m (99mTc), the daughter of Molybdenum-99 (99Mo), is the most commonly used medical radioisotope in the world. It accounts for over twenty-five million medical procedures each year worldwide, comprising about 80% of all radiopharmaceutical procedures. 99Mo is mostly prepared by the fission of uranium-235 targets in a nuclear reactor with a fission yield of about 6.1%. Currently over 95% of the fission product 99Mo is obtained using highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Smaller scale producers use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Small quantities of 99Mo are also produced by neutron activation through the use of the (n, γ) reaction. The concept of a compact homogeneous aqueous reactor fuelled by a uranium salt solution with off-line separation of radioisotopes of interest (99Mo, 131I) from aliquots of irradiated fuel solution has been cited in a few presentations in the series of International Conference on Isotopes (ICI) held in Vancouver (2000), Cape Town (2003) and Brussels (2005) and recently some corporate interest has also been noticeable. Calculations and some experimental research have shown that the use of aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) could be an efficient technology for fission radioisotope production, having some prospective advantages compared with traditional technology based on the use of solid uranium targets irradiated in research reactors. This review of AHR status and prospects by a team of experts engaged in the field of homogeneous reactors and radioisotope producers yields an objective evaluation of the technological challenges and other relevant implications. The meeting to develop this report facilitated the exchange of information on the 'state of the art' of the technology related to homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors, especially in connection with the production of radioisotopes. This publication presents a summary of discussions of a consultants meeting which is followed by the technical presentations

  13. A radioisotope production facility using 70-120 MeV protons

    A facility with five target stations for the production of radioisotopes is now available for use by research groups. Four production systems can accept beam intensities from 10 to 100 microamps, with the fifth being under development for proton therapy. The first target is molten LiBr, the second is molten NaI, the third system is for irradiating solid target materials, and the fourth target is molten cesium

  14. An INVAP perspective on the production of medical radioisotopes: past and present

    This presentation gives a perspective on medical radionuclide production methods from INVAP, Argentina. INVAP is a company headquartered in Argentina and is involved amongst other activities in nuclear, medical and scientific equipment. It describes INVAP's involvement in research reactor projects in a number of countries around the world. The paper describes a number of turn-key facilities for the production of radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research activities.

  15. Medical Isotope Production with a High Energy Accelerator

    'Co-production of medical radioisotopes in an accelerator facility of the APT class would provide significant benefits to mankind through improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and also reduce the potential cost through sales of medical isotopes for radio pharmaceutical preparation. A business plan has been developed by the Economic Development Partnership to evaluate the viability of a joint business venture of this type with private industry. Results of the economic analysis indicate a positive cash flow after two years of operation and an internal rate of return in excess of 40 percent. Including provision for payment of a use fee to DOE, annual profits in excess of $150 million are projected.'

  16. Nuclear reactors and production of medicinal radioisotopes : case of the CNSTN's subcritical assembly

    Nuclear reactors and cyclotrons are today the main producing facilities of artificial radioisotopes. These radionuclides are widely used, in particular, in nuclear medicine, such as in radiation therapy (utilizing the Cobalt-60 radioisotope) and medical imaging (utilizing the technetium-99 radioisotope). We propose to summarize, the basic information concerning the production of radioisotopes with research reactors, as well as information about the current project to implement a subcritical assembly-reactor in the National Centre of Nuclear Sciences and Technology (CNSTN). The CNSTN's subcritical assembly will serve as efficient tool for educating and training students and scientists. It would be then made available as a service to the community e.g. for industrial benefit and to academic organizations as an institutional benefit. The subcritical assembly is planned to be operational at the beginning of 2016 and will contribute for the initiation of the first steps (including the enacting of new legislation and the establishment of competent and independent nuclear safety regulator) needed for the development of the Tunisian nuclear power program and the related infrastructure, already considered. This project is carried out with the assistance and the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (Author)

  17. Production of medical radioisotopes in ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron

    Procedures, targets, and costs are discussed for the production of iodine-123 at the ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron. The cyclotron is a fixed frequency machine producing 22-MeV proton beams with currents of 3 mA. Flat plate targets are used in the bombardment of readily fabricated metals when highest production rates are necessary, while capsule targets are used when flat plate coatings are difficult or when high production rates are not required. Window targets with metal foils or powders, inorganic compounds, or isotopically enriched materials are also used. (PMA)

  18. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  19. Operational aspects of the radiological control in a radioisotopes plant production

    The purpose of this paper is to inform about the results obtained in the control operations carried out by the radioprotection area of the radioisotopes plant production during 1994 and then were compared with the limits established by the regulations of radiological radioprotection. In the general inter-texture of the activities that are developed in the radioisotopes plant production, the carried out controls are: area monitoring, air monitoring, personnel monitoring, monitoring in the expedition of radioactive material and monitoring and control in the evacuation of solid and liquid wastes. The result obtained in the present paper states that the doses received by the exposed occupationally staff are below the allowed limits. (author). 3 refs

  20. Modelling study on production cross sections of 111In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of 111In radioisotope via 111-114Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  1. Excitation functions and production of arsenic radioisotopes for environmental toxicology and biomedical purposes

    Basile, D.; Birattari, C.; Bonard, M.; Salomone, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)); Goetz, L.; Sabbioni, E. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1981-06-01

    Many arsenic radionuclides have come to be used as tracers in biology and in the study of environmental pollution of both water and soil. In nuclear medicine, radioactive /sup 74/As has been employed as a positron emitter for the localization of brain tumors, cerebral occlusive vascular lesions, arterious-venous malformations, etc. The aim of the work described was to study the excitation functions for the production of the arsenic radioisotopes from targets of natural germanium via nuclear reactions (p, xn).

  2. Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)

    Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K299Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using γ-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

  3. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in 86SrCl2 for production of PET radioisotope 86Y

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope 86Y by the low energy 86Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of 86Y (1.2+/−0.1 mCi (44.4+/−3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated 86SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the 86Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. - Highlights: • High energy proton accelerator was used to produce 86Y via low energy 86Sr(p,n) reaction. • Proton energy was tailored by degradation. • Radioisotopic purity of yttrium fraction is comparable to that obtained in “small” cyclotron. • Energy loss calculations were not reliable

  4. Development of the radioisotope production facility for the HANARO

    Hot cell and related facilities were developed in the RI production building of the HANARO. 1. development of concrete H/C and related components 2. development of lead H/C and related components 3. development of the hydraulic transfer system 4. development of radiation monitoring system 5. development of purification system for Co-60 storage pool 6. development of the fire fighting system for H/C 7. development of the experimental equipment. (author). 15 figs

  5. Short-Lived Radioisotope Production, Processing, Distribution and Applications in Korea

    The production, processing and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes by the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Korea are discussed. The radioisotopes concerned are Na24, Cu64, K42, Mo99, W187, colloidal Au198, Br82m and I128. The paper also deals with applications of these isotopes in various fields in Korea. The most important application is the use of Na24 for the detection of leaks in irrigation water storage containers. Since there are nearly 1500 such containers in South Korea, the detection of leaks is a nation-wide problem. Na24 is also applied to metabolic studies in hypertension and to the study of the mixing mechanism in miscible liquid-liquid phase systems. (author)

  6. Radioisotope production with CV-28 in Rio de Janeiro

    Since Brazil's nuclear program began in the seventies with the construction of Angra dos Reis Nuclear Plant, Brazilians have been excluded from participation in this technological process, primarily due to the political events of that time. This exclusivity has resulted in a major segment of the current population being unaware of the wide range of applications and benefits of nuclear technology. In the past few decades, Brazil has invested little in the development of its own nuclear technology. The progress that has been achieved is the result of the research and hard work of dedicated professionals who have struggled to bridge this technological gap since the 1970's. EEN-lnstitute of Nuclear Engineering is one of the research niches in the country that, in spite of the monopoly of knowledge, bureaucracy and insufficient resources, has been carrying out nuclear engineering projects and products. Nowadays, these are extremely useful to society in the most diverse market segments. For the past three years, IEN has invested R$ 2 million in adapting its facilities aiming at producing iodine-123 ultra-pure. In 1998 it started producing this cyclotron radiopharmaceutical in large scale, thus giving new directions to nuclear medicine in Brazil. The present policy of the IEN, regarding priorities and Institute's goals for the coming years has been defined. The Institute will concentrate its efforts on technological research, that is, identify the country's needs in nuclear engineering and providing society with methodologies, products and services that can effectively contribute to improve life quality in Brazil. The lEN's policy has been committed to quality, deadlines, costs and results as well as to research work based on the population's needs and aimed at meeting them efficiently. Several projects have been given priority, and great effort has been aimed at optimizing human and financial resources

  7. Chemical Process for Treatment of Tellurium and Chromium Liquid Waste from I-131 Radioisotope Production

    The I-131 radioisotope is used in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The I-131 radioisotope is produced by wet distillation at Bandung Nuclear Research Center and generated about 4,875 Itr of liquid waste containing 2,532.8 ppm of tellurium and 1,451.8 ppm chromium at pH 1. Considering its negative impact to the environment caused by toxic behaviour of tellurium and chromium, it is necessary to treat chemically that's liquid waste. The research of chemical treatment of tellurium and chromium liquid waste from I-131 radioisotope production has been done. The steps of process are involved of neutralisation with NaOH, coagulation-flocculation process for step I using Ca(OH)2 coagulant for precipitation of sulphate, sulphite, oxalic, chrome Cr3+, and coagulation-flocculation process for step II using BaCI2 coagulant for precipitation of chrome Cr6+ and tellurium from the supernatant of coagulation in step I. The best result of experiment was achieved at 0.0161 ppm of chromium concentration on the supernatant from coagulation-flocculation of step I using 3.5 g Ca(OH)2 for 100 ml of liquid waste, and 0.95 ppm of tellurium concentration on the final supernatant from coagulation-flocculation by of step II using 0.7 g BaCI2 for supernatant from coagulation of step I. (author)

  8. Development Of The irradiation Facility at The Batan's Cyclotron for radioisotope production of Fluor-18

    The irradiation facility for producing radioisotope of F-18 using enriched water target,H218O,has been installed at the BATAN 's Cyclotron. Radioisotope of F-18,pure positron emitter (β+=100%; t12=109.6 m,is widely used for preparing PETradiopharmaceuticals. The irradiation facility designed,fabricated and installed consists of target loading and unloading system. The target chamber and its window (thickness=100μΜ)were made of stainless steel with a volume capacity of 1.4mL for water target enriched with 18O.A vacuum window wiyh the stainless steel with a volume capacity of 1.4 mL for water the proton energy from 26.5 MeV was made of aluminum foil materials as a 'degrader' to lower experimental results using either natural pure water or enriched water (18Ο∼ 3.16% Al) targets show the performance of the target irradiation system is suitable for radioisotope production of F-18

  9. Utilization of the Dalat Research Reactor for Radioisotope Production, Neutron Activation Analysis, Research and Training

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW pool type reactor loaded with a mixed core of HEU (36% enrichment) and LEU (19.75% enrichment) fuel assemblies. The reactor is used as a neutron source for the purposes of radioisotopes production, neutron activation analysis, basic and applied research and training. The reactor is operated mainly in continuous runs of 108 hours for cycles of 3–4 weeks for the above mentioned purposes. The current status of safety, operation and utilization of the reactor is given and some aspects for improvement of commercial products and services of the DNRR are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Production and supply of 99Mo, 153Sm radioisotopes for medical applications - societal benefits

    Application of radioisotopes in medicine has led to the evolution of a new branch of medicine called 'Nuclear Medicine' wherein radioisotope products in the form radiopharmaceuticals are used for the diagnosis of diseases, their follow up, detecting recurrence and also in the treatment of certain diseases. Large scale production, processing and supply of number of radioisotopes for medical application has been a feature of our laboratory. 99Mo is an important radionuclide produced in our reactors to obtain 99mTc, the most commonly used diagnostic radionuclide in the preparation of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals through 99Mo-99mTc radionuclide generators. 99Mo for the preparation of generators based on solvent extraction technology is produced by irradiation of natural MoO3 target in Dhruva and Cirus reactors. About 1.5 TBq (∼40 Ci) of 99Mo is processed and supplied to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) every week on Saturdays to meet the requirements of nuclear medicine centres in the country. 153Sm-EDTMP is a ready-to-use radiopharmaceutical approved for the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain in patients suffering from primary lung, breast and prostate cancers. 153SmCl3, the primary radiochemical for preparation of 153Sm-radiopharmaceutical is produced by neutron activation of natural or enriched Sm2O3 target in our medium flux research reactors. 150 GBq (4Ci) 153Sm is processed and supplied every month to BRIT for radiopharmaceutical production and further supply to nuclear medicine centres. Logistics of regular production of both 99Mo and 153Sm radionuclides, their quality control and the scope for the production of these radiochemicals with high specific activity to meet the increasing demands in the years to come with concomitant health care benefits to the society at large are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Low level radioactive waste produced from the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Libya

    The Radioisotope Production Laboratory was established in 1980. The Production program depends mainly on the research reactor IRT. At the start of operation 131I, 51Cr, 35S, 24Na , 198Au and 32P were produced and supplied to the users. In the Last years some facilities had been upgraded in cooperation with IAEA such as the production of 99mTc, 131I, and 82Br. Little and low level radioactive waste are produced during these activities. These radioactive wastes which produced after the production are: Cation resin column, glass- wool, Alumina column, Membrane filter, Disposal Filter Assembly, Syringe and needle, Na299MoO4 solution after repeated extraction of 99mTc from Na299MoO4 solution for 5-7 days. TeO2 Target after distillation of 131I, laboratory glassware and vials, the aluminum containers which used for irradiation and the contaminated water used for the vacuum pump during the method of dry distillation of 131I and Animal waste, including carcasses or other biological or pathological wastes contaminated with radioisotopes. The solid waste accumulated in suitable container for storage, shipment, further treatment, or disposal. Removal of over 99% of most long and short-lived products has been achieved in this manner by using anion and cation-exchange resin. (author)

  12. Beam Diagnostics and Radioisotope Production in Low and Medium Power Plasma Focus Devices

    The report deals with activity at two distinct plasma focus facilities. The first with 7 kJ bank energy represents the traditional apparatus used for more than ten years at the University of Ferrara. The other, just constructed, reaches 150 kJ bank energy and is exclusively dedicated to the production of sizeable quantities of medical radioisotopes. In regards to the first device, the energy spectra of X rays generated by the impact of electron beams on high- and medium- Z targets following the pinch implosion of plasma focus (PF) devices are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms of X ray production following electron impact ionization. In addition, a temperature measurement of the PF inner electrode is reported and some results have been proved useful in order to optimize the device functionalities. An experimental campaign was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of short lived radioisotope (SLR) production within the pulsed discharges of a plasma focus (PF) device. This so-called ''endogenous production'' technique rests on the exploitation of nuclear reactions for the creation of SLR directly within the plasma, rather than on irradiating an external target. Following the results displayed in such campaign a second high energy PF machine was designed and its characteristics together with the first tests are presented too. (author)

  13. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.) Scientific Computational Division, 416 Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tran, Hoai Nam [Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Div. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Arbie, Bakri [PT MOTAB Technology, Kedoya Elok Plaza Blok DA 12, Jl. Panjang, Kebun Jeruk, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  14. Application of radioisotope methods of investigation and control techniques in tube production

    Various spheres of radioactive isotopes application of closed and open type in tube production are described. Due to the usage of radioactive indicator method in combination with physicochemical methods and metallography new data are obtained in the theory and practice of tube centrifugal casting, rolling and pressing. Adsorption properties of lubricants and element distribution in the joint weld region of the big diameter tubes are investigated. The application of radioactive isotopes as ionizing radiation source made it possible to develop some radioisotope methods and instruments for tube wall thickness and the wall thickness difference control. Short characteristics of such instruments are given

  15. 1919-1984 - 70 years of the Institute for Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes

    The publication issued on the occasion of the Institute's anniversary presents a brief overview of the Institute's history, a bibliography of studies in radiology published by Czech scientists up to 1939 and chapters on current activities of the Institute's departments. Described are the production of organic compounds labelled with radioisotopes, research and production of radioimmunoassay kits, the manufacture of sealed radionuclide sources, research of methods of absolute and relative precision measurement of basic dosimetric quantities, and the production of radioactivity calibration standards. The Institute organizes and evaluates the national personel dosimetry service and is responsible for research in this area including the methodology of dosemeter standardization. It also provides technical service in instrumental activation analysis, radiotracer and radiographic methods and other special activities. (M.D.). 56 figs

  16. Production of Radioisotopes and NTD-Silicon in the BR2 Reactor

    The BR2 reactor is a multipurpose 100 MWth high flux 'Materials Testing Reactor' operated by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) in which various research and commercial programmes are performed. The commercial activities such as radioisotope production and silicon doping have been actively developed since the early 1990s to generate additional revenues. Currently, they represent a significant contribution to the reactor operating costs and are carried out in accordance with a 'Quality System' that has been certified to the requirements of the ''EN ISO 9001:2000'' in December 2006. Due to its operating flexibility, its reliability and its production capacity, the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility for these commercial activities worldwide. The availability of thermal neutron fluxes up to 1015 cm-2s-1 allows the production of a wide range of radioisotopes for various applications in nuclear medicine, industry and research such as 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 75Se 186Re, 153Sm, 169Er, 90Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 79Kr, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu, 117mSn,89Sr, 169Yb, 147Nd, etc. Some irradiation devices allow the loading and unloading of irradiated targets during the operation of the reactor. Hot-cells and storage facilities are available to prepare and organize the shipment of the irradiated targets to dedicated processing facilities. In the frame of the current 99Mo/99mTc global shortage, new dedicated irradiation devices have been installed in April 2010 to increase the 99Mo production capacity by 50%. Special efforts have also been made to develop the production of therapeutic radioisotopes as 177Lu which is supplied by both direct and indirect routes. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) Silicon activities for the semiconductor industry started at SCK·CEN in 1992 with the commissioning of SIDONIE, a single channel light water device that is located in a 200 mm diameter beryllium channel within the reactor pressure vessel. Its design

  17. Radioisotope instruments

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  18. Modernization of the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of the La Reina Nuclear Center in Chile: Incorporating advanced concepts of safety and good manufacturing practices

    A radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals production laboratory was established in Chile in the 1960s for research activities. From 1967 until January 2012, it was dedicated to the manufacturing of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnosis and treatment purposes. In 2012, modernization of the facility’s design and technology began as part of the IAEA technical cooperation project, Modernizing the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of La Reina Nuclear Centre by Incorporating Advanced Concepts of Safety and Good Manufacturing Practices, (CHI4022)

  19. Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $\\gamma$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

    Habs, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground st...

  20. Proton linac for hospital-based fast neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    Recent developments in linac technology have led to the design of a hospital-based proton linac for fast neutron therapy. The 180 microamp average current allows beam to be diverted for radioisotope production during treatments while maintaining an acceptable dose rate. During dedicated operation, dose rates greater than 280 neutron rads per minute are achievable at depth, DMAX = 1.6 cm with source to axis distance, SAD = 190 cm. Maximum machine energy is 70 MeV and several intermediate energies are available for optimizing production of isotopes for Positron Emission Tomography and other medical applications. The linac can be used to produce a horizontal or a gantry can be added to the downstream end of the linac for conventional patient positioning. The 70 MeV protons can also be used for proton therapy for ocular melanomas. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. The operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    Researches and production of radio-isotopes, radio-pharmaceuticals and cold kits are carried out in the Radio-isotope Production Facility (RIPF). Four concrete hot cells in Bank-1 are to produce the Ir-192 source for NDT. Eleven lead hot cells in Bank-2 are to produce Ho-166, Cr-51, P-32/33, Tc-99m, Lu-177, Sr-90/Y-90 and W-188/Re-188 for research purpose. Six lead hot cells in Bank-3 are used for the production of I-131 for diagnosis and therapy of cancer in the hospital. A hot cell in Bank-3 is also utilized for the research of I-125 and Br-82. Four lead hot cells in Bank-4 are utilized for the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators since 2005. The major systems including the Heat and Ventilated Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and the air cleaning system such as charcoal and HEPA filter trains to filter the radioactive contaminants are in operation. So are the systems such as power supply and distribution system, UPS, fire protection system, liquid radioactive waste collection systems. Recently, the repair work and replacements of the air cleaning system are successfully finished and the replacement of the electric power supply systems is in progress because they almost reached the lifespan of the electrical components. In order to monitor the gas effluent of the building, a continuous air monitoring system is in operation to measure the concentration of I-131, noble gas and the particle at the stack of RIPF. Modification and upgrade of the main control panel and fire alarm and receiving panel are also in consideration to utilize the state-of-the-art technology so that the remote control and supervisory of RIPF would be enabled in the near future

  2. GEANT4 simulation of cyclotron radioisotope production in a solid target.

    Poignant, F; Penfold, S; Asp, J; Takhar, P; Jackson, P

    2016-05-01

    The use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is essential for diagnosing and treating cancer. The optimization of their production is a key factor in maximizing the production yield and minimizing the associated costs. An efficient approach to this problem is the use of Monte Carlo simulations prior to experimentation. By predicting isotopes yields, one can study the isotope of interest expected activity for different energy ranges. One can also study the target contamination with other radioisotopes, especially undesired radioisotopes of the wanted chemical element which are difficult to separate from the irradiated target and might result in increasing the dose when delivering the radiopharmaceutical product to the patient. The aim of this work is to build and validate a Monte Carlo simulation platform using the GEANT4 toolkit to model the solid target system of the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) GE Healthcare PETtrace cyclotron. It includes a GEANT4 Graphical User Interface (GUI) where the user can modify simulation parameters such as the energy, shape and current of the proton beam, the target geometry and material, the foil geometry and material and the time of irradiation. The paper describes the simulation and presents a comparison of simulated and experimental/theoretical yields for various nuclear reactions on an enriched nickel 64 target using the GEANT4 physics model QGSP_BIC_AllHP, a model recently developed to evaluate with high precision the interaction of protons with energies below 200MeV available in Geant4 version 10.1. The simulation yield of the (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu reaction was found to be 7.67±0.074 mCi·μA(-1) for a target energy range of 9-12MeV. Szelecsenyi et al. (1993) gives a theoretical yield of 6.71mCi·μA(-1) and an experimental yield of 6.38mCi·μA(-1). The (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu cross section obtained with the simulation was also verified against the yield predicted from the nuclear database TENDL and

  3. Supervision of I-125 Production at the Center of Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical

    The production of I-125 is one of the many research conducted at the Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical. The supervision of I-125 production ia aimed in to managing an acceptance of external radiation doses of radiation by workers who engaged in the production of I-125 as dissolution and purification process of I-125 give a certain radiation exposure to the operator. According to the work instruction for preparation of I-125. The process has to closely monitored and supervised by Radiation Protection Officer (PPR). The production process of I-125 usually involves four radiation workers and one PPR. The acceptance of external radiation doses during the production process of I-125 was recorded was the PPR by using digital pen dose and radiation exposure rate was monitored by using survey meter. The acceptance of external radiation dose found was then compare the acceptance of external radiation dose from the TLD-badge reading and also to the dose limit value established by the monitoring board (BAPETEN). The acceptance of external radiation doses in the production of single batch of I-125 was found to be below the dose limit value (NBD) defined by BAPETEN. (author)

  4. Production and radiochemical separation of 203Pb radioisotope for nuclear medicine

    Complete text of publication follows. The heavy metal pollution due to their industrial production, waste repository or accident as the cyanide spill in river Tisza in 2002, increase the scientific interest for using an ideal trace isotope for monitoring these type of events. The lead is one of the most toxic and commonly used heavy metal, its poisoning is often deadly because very difficult to recognize and identify. The neuro-scientific study of biodegradation effect of lead could be an impressive scientific field of application of 203Pb radioisotope. However the targeted radionuclide therapy especially the α-emitting radioisotope therapy is also strongly interested to find an ideal tracer for the 213Bi and 212Pb therapy. Therefore the 203Pb is a potential radioisotope for this role due to its radiation behaviour and as heavy metal element. The 203Tl(p,n) 203Pb nuclear reaction was chosen for the production. The irradiation was done at the compact cyclotron of Atomki with proton beam 14.5 MeV energy and beam current of 7 μAs. The thickness of the target material was 840 μm, the irradiation time was 3 hours and the produced activity was 40 MBq at EOB. It corresponds to 1.87 MBq/μAh physical yield of the reaction which correlating with the cross section curve. A new technique was developed for target preparation. The metal Tl was pressed into a copper backing and covered with a HAWAR foil with thickness of 11 μm. The covering foil saved the surface of the Tl from the oxidation and also transferred the dissipating heat to the cooling He gas. The back side of the target was cooled with pressured cold water. The irradiated Tl target was pressed out from the copper backing, which had only the thickness of 0.2 mm. Then the Thallium was dissolved in nitric acid. The excess acid was evaporated slowly. The nitrate form was transferred to chloride form by 8 mol/dm 3 HCl and the Thallium was kept in 3+ oxidation stage by hydrogen peroxide. The separation was carried out

  5. Estimating individual exposure to 131I for radiation workers at radioisotope production using air sampling and smartphone techniques

    Indoor individual exposure at radioisotope production depends strongly on temporal concentration variation, contacting time and working location of radiation workers. To estimate personal exposure to indoor air polluted with 131I for the workers at radioisotope production, we had employed a low cost indoor model appropriate for their specific situation. In this model, time-microenvironment occupied by the workers was recorded by a smartphone sensitive motion software. Simultaneously, on the work days, indoor air in the three iodine production rooms was sampled by a portable air sampler coupled with activated carbon cartridges impregnated by TEDA. Then the low background gamma spectrometer was used to measure activity of the cartridges and the concentration of 131I in these rooms was calculated with the temporal resolution of one hour. By combining the hourly concentration with the high temporal resolution of activity patterns, we estimated the actual exposures for the group of workers producing radioisotopes in Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for the first four months of 2015. The highest daily average exposure was 410.2 Bq/m3 while the highest average exposure of the group was 147.2 Bq/m3. It showed an useful value for minimizing risks and estimating internal doses as well. This feasibility study may be applied for assessing personal exposure at radioisotope production, but also for many other indoor environments. (author)

  6. Stabilization and shutdown of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radioisotopes Production Facility

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the production and distribution of a variety of radioisotopes for medical, scientific and industrial applications since the late 1940s. Production of these materials was concentrated in a number of facilities primarily built in the 1950s and 1960s. Due to the age and deteriorating condition of these facilities, it was determined in 1989 that it would not be cost effective to upgrade these facilities to bring them into compliance with contemporary environmental, safety and health standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) instructed ORNL to halt the production of isotopes in these facilities and maintain the facilities in safe standby condition while preparing a stabilization and shutdown plan. The goal was to place the former isotope production facilities in a radiologically and industrially safe condition to allow a 5-year deferral of the initiation of environmental restoration (ER) activities. In response to DOE's instructions, ORNL identified 17 facilities for shutdown, addressed the shutdown requirements for each facility, and prepared and implemented a three-phase, 4-year plan for shutdown of the facilities. The Isotopes Facilities Shutdown Program (IFSP) office was created to execute the stabilization and shutdown plan. The program is entering its third year in which the actual shutdown of the facilities is initiated. Accomplishments to date have included consolidation of all isotopes inventory into one facility, DOE approval of the IFSP Environmental Assessment (EA), and implementation of a detailed management plan for the shutdown of the facilities

  7. Radiochemical separation and quality assessment for the 68Zn target based 64Cu radioisotope production

    The radiochemical separation of the different radionuclides (64Cu, 67Cu, 67Ga, 66Ga, 56Ni, 57Ni, 55Co, 56Co, 57Co, 65Zn, 196Au ) induced in the Ni supported Cu substrate - 68Zn target system, which was bombarded with the 29.0 MeV proton beam, was performed by ion-exchange chromatography using successive isocratic and/or concentration gradient elution techniques. The overlapped gamma-ray spectrum analysis method was developed to assess the 67Ga and 67Cu content in the 64Cu product and even in the post-67Ga production 68Zn target solution without the support of radiochemical separation. This method was used for the assessment of 64+67Cu radioisotope separation from 67Ga , the quality control of 64Cu product and the determination of the 68Zn (p,2p)67Cu reaction yield. The improvement in the targetry and the optimization of proton beam energy for the 68Zn target based 64Cu and 67Ga production were proposed based on the stopping power and range of the incident proton and on the excitation functions, reaction yields and different radionuclides induced in the target system. (author)

  8. Accelerator Production Options for 99MO

    Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Shortages of {sup 99}Mo, the most commonly used diagnostic medical isotope, have caused great concern and have prompted numerous suggestions for alternate production methods. A wide variety of accelerator-based approaches have been suggested. In this paper we survey and compare the various accelerator-based approaches.

  9. Bombardment facilities for radioisotope production at the NAC and the production of iron-52, iron-55 and rubidium-81

    A versatile target bombardment station and several ancillary facilities for the routine production of radioisotopes with high-intensity proton beams are discussed. Local irradiation shielding was provided to protect radiation sensitive materials inside the irradiation vault against excessive radiation damage, and to reduce neutron activation of the vault and its contents. The efficacy of the local shielding of the target bombardment station was investigated by means of absorbed dose rate measurements, as well as with radiation transport calculations utilizing the discrete-ordinates method and the point kernel method. One-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculations were performed with the CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL computer code, and two-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculations with the CCC-276/DOT 3.5 code, in conjunction with the multigroup cross-section library DLC-87/HILO. Measured and calculated dose rates and dose attenuation factors are compared. The helium cooling of window foils in a double-foil beam-window cofiguration was studied by means of simulations in which electrically heated copper elements served to model the beam heating. Temperature profiles of window foils were calculated theoretically. Excitation functions and production rates for the production of 52Fe, 55Fe and 81Rb, as well as for their co-produced radionuclidic contaminants, were measured, covering the proton energy regions 0-200 MeV (for 52Fe), 0-100 MeV (for 55Fe) and 0-120 MeV (for 81Rb). Thick-target production rates were derived from the measured excitation functions, or measured directly in order to determine optimum production routes for these radioisotopes. Targetry for the production of the above-mentioned radioisotopes with high-intensity proton beams was investigated. Measured excitation functions and production rates are compared with theoretical model calculations. The computer code ALICE/85/300 was used for this purpose. The calculations were performed within the framework of the

  10. Feasibility Study on Simultaneous Multi-Radioisotope Production using Double Stacked Target in MC-50 Cyclotron

    This work was mainly focused on the feasibility of double target system for simultaneous two-radioisotope production. A simple double target was simulated for simultaneous production of 117mSn and 211At. To determine the optimum thickness of target layer, We demonstrated that the combination of double target system with a cyclotron capable of generating 47 MeV alpha particle provides simultaneous production of 117mSn and 211At. The radionuclides are often used in medicine for diagnosis, treatment and research. Alpha and beta(or electron) emitting radionuclides have become a promising method for the treatment of some tumors. 117mSn emits short-range electrons with a high linear energy transfer, and thus a high S value resulting in high quality therapeutic radiation. 211At has gained considerable interest for cancer treatment because its half-life of 7.2 hours matches better with the biological half-life of most carrier molecules. Moreover its decay scheme exhibits practically 100% yield for the emission of α-particles, with very low intensity gamma emissions

  11. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    Nickles, Robert Jerome [Univ of Wisconsin

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing

  12. Production and world-wide distribution of radioisotopes and allied products from NTP at Pelindaba, South Africa

    Nuclear Technology Products (NTP) a business division of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd. (NECSA) is today a leading supplier of a range or radioisotope and supporting products to markets throughout the world. To achieve this status in the face of large technological, logistical and business barriers to entry has required the development of integrated and effective processes from a diverse and unconsolidated range of expertise and other resources. The various facilities and competencies established at NECSA over a period of 40 years had as their objective the accomplishment of strictly non-commercial strategic imperatives. Major emphasis was placed at Pelindaba on development of the capability to beneficiate the country's resources of uranium which are extracted as a by-product of gold mining. Fuel enrichment processes (using a method unique to NECSA) and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities were developed and commissioned during the period 1975 - 1990 and substantial quantities of enriched and depleted uranium material was produced. A small amount of locally produced, highly enriched fuel has been used to power the 20 MW SARARI -1 Research Reactor at Pelindaba which has been in operation since 1965. Major political and economic changes affecting South Africa gave rise, in the late 1980s, to the necessity for a fundamental strategic reorientation of NECSA. Over a period of time the fuel enrichment and fabrication programmes were terminated and ever greater emphasis was placed on development of businesses from established, diverse facilities and competencies with the objective of promoting increased financial independence and long term viability for the organisation. It was at this time that NTP the business responsible for production and marketing of radiation-based products at NECSA, was established. The various developments which facilitated the capacity of NTP to accede to its current position as a significant and growing provider of

  13. IPENS's social role in scientific and technological development of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production - (1950 -1980)

    Some facts and figures are present in the existent interaction between the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) and the medical community. Among other characteristics, the IPEN has a permanent seat in the Biology and Nuclear Medicine Society and, the present Radiopharmacy Center, has had the continuous concern, since the Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA) creation until today (2009), to perform an excellent approach with the medical faculty. In the past, some physicians would complete their courses in Europe and in the United States of America, and there noticed the importance of radioisotopes applications in medicine, mainly, in the beginning of these activities, with the I-131. Returning to Brazil, they requested that the former IEA, today IPEN researchers used the research reactor IEA-R1, installed in Sao Paulo, at Universidade Sao Paulo (USP) campus, for radioisotopes production. Then, in the late 1959, the first production line from the I-131 took place. The IPEN starts to accomplish what was planned as one of its targets, at the act of its official creation on August 31, 1956. From 1961 on, there was a continuous flux of I-131 and other radiopharmaceuticals production. The recovery and analysis of these happenings, in the Brazilian society cultural historic context, were partially published in different previous works. Nevertheless, history is dynamic and gains new interpretations, in the present research, from the reading of novel research sources, both primary and secondary, not explores so far - reports, interviews with IPEN researchers and papers published or divulged in meetings, either scientific or bureaucratic. This research is part of project supported by the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), with the aim, among others, of contributing for the analysis of the transformations occurred in all of the IPEN research lines, plus the social role of this institution for science and technology development. The

  14. A novel approach to the production of medical radioisotopes: the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor

    Bonin, H.W., E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hilborn, J.W. [retired, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Carlin, G.E. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gagnon, R.; Busatta, P. [Royal Canadian Navy, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In 2009, the unexpected 15-month outage of the Canadian NRU nuclear reactor resulted in a sudden 30% world shortage, with higher shortages experienced in North America than in Europe. Commercial radioisotope production is from just eight nuclear reactors, most being aging systems near the end of their service life. This paper proposes a more efficient production and distribution model. Tc-99m unit doses would be distributed to regional hospitals from ten integrated 'industrial radiopharmacies', located at existing licensed nuclear reactor sites in North America. At each site, one or more 20 kW Homogeneous SLOWPOKE nuclear reactors would deliver 15 litres of irradiated aqueous uranyl sulfate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells, for extraction of Mo-99; and the low-enriched uranium would be recycled. Purified Mo-99 would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily for road delivery to all of the nuclear medicine hospitals within a 3-hour range. At the current price of $20 per unit dose, the annual gross income from 10 sites would be approximately $360 million. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor evolved from the inherently safe SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor, with a double goal: replacing the heterogeneous SLOWPOKE-2 reactors at the end-of-core life, enabling them to continue their primary missions of research and education, together with full time commercial radioisotope production. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor was modelled using both deterministic and probabilistic reactor simulation codes. The homogeneous fuel mixture is a dilute aqueous solution of low-enriched uranyl sulfate containing approximately 1 kg of U-235. The reactor is controlled by mechanical absorber rods in the beryllium reflector. Safety analysis was carried out for both normal operation and transient conditions. The most severe

  15. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 109 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 1012 of I-131. (author)

  16. Development of a cryogenic gas target system for intense radioisotope beam production at CRIB

    A cryogenic gas target system was developed for the radioisotope (RI) beam production at CNS Radio Isotope Beam separator (CRIB). Hydrogen gas was cooled to 85-90 K using liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target having a thickness of 2.3mg/cm2. An intense 7Be beam (2x108 particles per second) was successfully produced using this target. We observed a density-reduction effect at the gas target for high-current primary beams with about 7.5 W heat deposition. One main feature of the target system is forced circulation of the target gas. We have found that the circulation of the target gas at a rate of 55 standard liters per minute (slm) was effective in eliminating the density reduction. The extent to which the forced flow can prevent the density reduction had not been known well. In this work, the relation between the density reduction and the forced circulation rate was quantitatively studied

  17. The operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    Researches and production of radioisotopes, radio pharmaceuticals and cold kits are carried out in the Radio isotope Production Facility (RIPF). Four concrete hot cells in Bank-1 are to produce the Ir-192 source for NDT. Eleven lead hot cells in Bank-2 are to produce Ho-166, Cr-51, P-32/33, Tc-99m, Lu-177, Sr-90/Y-90 and W-188/Re-188 for research purpose. Six lead hot cells in Bank-3 are used for the production of I-131 for diagnosis and therapy of cancer in the hospital. A hot cell in Bank-3 is also utilized for the research of I-125 and Br-82. Four lead hot cells in Bank-4, are utilized for the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators since 2005. The major systems including the Heat and Ventilated Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and the air cleaning system such as charcoal and HEPA filter trains to filter the radioactive contaminants are in operation. So are the systems such as power supply and distribution system, UPS, fire protection system, liquid radioactive waste collection systems. Recently the repair work and replacements of the air cleaning system are successfully finished and the replacement of the electric power supply systems is in progress because they almost reached the lifespan of the electrical components. In order to monitor the gas effluent of the building, a continuous air monitoring system is in operation to measure the concentration of I-131, noble gas and the particle at the stack of RIPF. Modification and upgrade of the main control panel and fire alarm and receiving panel are also in consideration to utilize the state of the art technology so that the remote control and supervisory of RIPF would be enabled in near future

  18. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    Carneiro, J.C.G.G.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Campos, D.; Nogueira, P.R.; Damatto, S.R.; Pecequilo, B.R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m{sup 3} ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to {sup 125}I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y{sup -1} , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1} for workers. (author)

  19. Present status of research on Re-186 radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center

    Mutalib, A. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium shows a close chemical similarity to technetium and is suitable for radiotherapy because the {beta}-emitting radionuclides {sup 186}Re (t{sub 1/2} 90 h, E{sub {beta}} = 1.1 MeV, E{sub {gamma}} = 137 keV) and {sup 188}Re (t{sub 1/2} = 17 h, E{sub {beta}} = 2.1 MeV). The {gamma}-emission associated with decay of {sup 186}Re is also useful in scintigraphy. The research on {sup 186}Re radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center has been carried out since April 1997. Interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) led us to the development of labeling antibodies with rhenium isotopes. Although there are several methods for coupling radiometal to antibody, we prefer an indirect labeling method in which a bifunctional chelating agent is used for coupling of {sup 186}Re to monoclonal antibodies. In this report we outline the study on the preparation of {sup 186}Re DMSA-TFP as precursor for labeling with monoclonal antibody. (author)

  20. Cross sections for fuel depletion and radioisotope production calculations in TRIGA reactors

    For TRIGA Reactors, the fuel depletion and isotopic inventory calculations, depends on the computer code and in the cross sections of some important actinides used. Among these we have U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241. We choose ORIGEN2, a code with a good reputation in this kind of calculations, we observed the cross sections for these actinides in the libraries that we have (PWR's and BWR), the fission cross section for U-235 was about 50 barns. We used a PWR library and our results were not satisfactory, specially for standard elements. We decided to calculate cross sections more suitable for our reactor, for that purpose we simulate the standard and FLIP TRIGA cells with the transport code WIMS. We used the fuel average flux and COLAPS (a home made program), to generate suitable cross sections for ORIGEN2, by collapsing the WIMS library cross sections of these nuclides. For the radioisotope production studies using the Central Thimble, we simulate the A and B rings and used the A average flux to collapse cross sections. For these studies, the required nuclides sometimes are not present in WIMS library, for them we are planning to process the ENDF/B data, with NJOY system, and include the cross sections to WIMS library or to collapse them using the appropriate average-flux and the program COLAPS. (author)

  1. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3 ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1 , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  2. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/SP, and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in charcoal and paper filters) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum permissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1, below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  3. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  4. Preliminary definition of the design of a nuclear reactor for research and radioisotope production using natural uranium and heavy water

    A study was conducted about the evolution of the Brazilian importations of radioisotopes, from the beginning of the 70's since they have been increasingly used in the Country. In view of the limited production capacity of radioactive isotopes now existing in Brazil, a nuclear reactor type (natural uranium and heavy water) was defined, for research and production of radioisotopes, wich, besides providing, at least partially, the Brazilian needs of said isotopes, permits a large national participation in its project, construction and operating maintenance. The processes for heavy water production have been analyzed and it could be detected what is the best alternative for the production thereof, in low scale, in Brazil. The options concerning the definition of the main components of the reactor were justified and its most important features were determined, in relation to the neutronic and thermal aspects, being so defined its most significant parameters. The annual quantities were estimated, in terms of total and specific activity, for the radioisotopes that could be obtained by means of the proposed reactor, which, by now, are participating, to a large extent, in the total of Brazilian importation of radioactive isotopes. (Author)

  5. Radioisotope applications in industry

    After a short mention of the economic importance of the industrial application of radioisotopes the most necessary fundamental principles of nuclear physics are given. The nature and the laws of the radioactive decay are illustrated, the interaction of radiation with matter and the absorption laws are described and the production of radioisotopes are mentioned. Subsequent the various detectors for measuring radioactivity are described with a short reference to the problems of the electronic measuring devices. At the end the various measuring techniques and the methods of application for radioisotopes in industry are illustrated. (author)

  6. Development of indigenous technology at CNEN in the fields of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear techniques

    The main objectives of the program developed at CNEN in the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear technique are described. (E.G.)

  7. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 99Mo production by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo using accelerator neutrons

    We proposed a new route to produce a medical radioisotope 99Mo by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction using accelerator neutrons. A high-quality 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive waste can be obtained by the proposed reaction. The decay product of 99Mo, 99mTc, is separated from 99Mo by the sublimation method. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99Mo. (author)

  9. Distribution of natural radioisotopes in industrial products of titanium production technological cycle

    Distribution of source and decay product nuclides in industrial products of industrial technology is studied to evaluate the radiation factor and examine the possibility of natural uranium and possibility of natural uranium and thorium group radionuclide concentration in separate products and wastes of processes related to ilmenite reprocessing and titanium tetrafluoride production. Determination of gamma-radiating radionuclides is performed by precision gamma spectrometry method, determination of thorium and polonium-210 isotopes - by alpha-spectrometry method using isotope dilution with the participation of polonium-210 and polonium-208. It is ascertained that during ilmenite melting the source radionuclides as well as radium isotopes transfer to a slag fraction, and lead-210 and polonium-210 isotopes get to a dust fraction. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Choice of the technological procedures for the production of 123 I radioisotope for nuclear medical applications

    The technological procedures for the routine production of 123 I based on direct and indirect nuclear reactions on cyclotron are given and compared. According to the parameters of the Accelerator installation TESLA in Vinca Institute the choice of the optimal production route should be made. Four nuclear reactions were considered: direct 124 Te (p,2n) 123 I and indirect sup 12 I (p,5n) 123 Xe, 127 I (d,6n) 123 Xe and 124 Xe (p,2n) 123 Cs → 123 Xe. The optimal conditions offers the reaction on the gaseous target consisting of highly enriched 124 Xe. By using this nuclear reaction high activities of 123 I of the highest radionuclidic purity are produced. According to these characteristics it seems that this would be the method of choice for the routine production of 123 I on the cyclotron VINCY. (author)

  11. Production, Characterization, and Acceleration of Optical Microbunches

    Sears, Christopher M.S.; /Stanford U. /SLAC

    2008-06-20

    Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

  12. Spallation products in the Accelerator Production of Tritium device

    When the 1,700 MeV protons strike the materials of the Accelerator Production of Tritium target, hundreds of different kinds of isotopes (spallation products) of varying energies are produced. Because the spallation products are born with kinetic energy, they can be born in one material and be deposited in another. In this paper, the authors present their estimates of the spallation product contamination of the 3He gas and heavy-water coolant streams

  13. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  14. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  15. Thyroid Dose Estimation Using WBC and I-131 Concentration in Working Area of Radioisotope Production at Normal Operation

    Thyroid dose estimation at Radioisotope Production Centre workers using WBC and calculation based on I-131 concentration in working area has been done. The aim of this research is to get the relation between WBC result and calculation using I-131 concentration in working area. The result indicates differences in a range of 3,2% to 53,2%. These differences caused of parameters which influence the calculation are not accurate. These results also indicate that dose estimation using WBC is relatively batter and more accurate but need to have certain information about time of intake

  16. Project and implantation of automation in irradiation systems for solid, liquid and gaseous targets in cyclotrons aiming the production of radioisotopes

    Araujo, S G D

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d sup 3 He sub 4 and alpha, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 mu A; the other one, model Cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 mu A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotopes production for use in nuclear medicine, such as sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I, sup 1 sup 8 F and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatic was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increase the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PCL) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PCL was developed using S...

  17. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for April 2000 through June 2000

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-10-23

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at ORNL.

  18. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  19. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed

  20. The Production and Distribution of Short-Lived Radioisotopes in the United Kingdom

    Materials irradiated for short periods must be loaded and unloaded while the reactor is operating. Devices are described for accomplishing this with graphite-moderated (BEPO) and heavy-water moderated (DIDO) reactors. Problems of nuclear heating and reactivity changes are discussed. A review is given of the distribution of short-lived radioisotopes produced in the research reactors at Harwell. Table 3 shows the number of deliveries made during the past ten years and gives the distances over which they have been despatched. (author)

  1. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  2. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors Vol. I. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  3. Production of medical radioisotope 153Sm in the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) through theoretical calculations and practical tests

    Highlights: ► Production of 153Sm isotope by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor was studied. ► Optimal parameters for weight and irradiation time were found. ► This study led to an empirical correction factor (kf). ► Kf enhanced the production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. ► The results led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process. - Abstract: The feasibility of producing 2000–3000 mCi 153Sm by irradiation of 152Sm in 5 MW TRR was studied via TRR core simulation. In this study the cross-section of 152Sm (n,γ) 153Sm reaction from ENDF/B library was used. The effective activation cross section for production of 153Sm is obtained using the neutron spectra in different irradiation channel of the core. The activity of the simulated samples is calculated using the obtained fluxes and cross sections. Then samples were prepared and irradiated under different conditions and fluxes. The final production’s specific activity was measured by the standard dose calibrator ISOMED 1010. By comparison of the theoretical calculations and actual measurements, an empirical correction factor (Kf) was obtained, which is helpful in production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. The optimal weight of the samples and irradiation time was studied according to the flux calculations based on the location of the sample and saturated activity calculation. In order to test the proposed conditions, samples were prepared and were irradiated under the proposed conditions. According to the compared results with the initial irradiation condition, the new proposed sample which weighed 4 mg of Sm2O3 is acceptable for the labeling, therefore this study led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process

  4. Radioisotope generator

    A radioisotope generator is described in which it is possible to interupt the elution process at any desired time, i.e. before the electron flacon is full. The interuption is performed in such a way that sterile air is simultaneously admitted into the generator, into both the column and the elution flacon. (Th.P.)

  5. The IEA-R1 research reactor: 50 years of operating experience and utilization for research, teaching and radioisotopes production

    This paper describes almost 50 years of operating experience and utilization of the IEA-R1 research reactor for research, teaching and radioisotopes production. The current and future program of upgrading the reactor is also described. IEA-R1 research reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil is the largest power research reactor in Brazil, with a maximum power rating of 5 MWth. It is being used for basic and applied research in the nuclear and neutron related sciences, for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, and for providing services of neutron activation analysis, real time neutron radiography, and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. IEA-R1 is a swimming pool reactor, with light water as the coolant and moderator, and graphite and beryllium as reflectors. The reactor was commissioned on September 16, 1957 and achieved its first criticality. It is currently operating at 3.5 MWth with a 64-hour cycle per week. In the early sixties, IPEN produced 131I, 32P, 198Au, 24Na, 35S, 51Cr and labeled compounds for medical use. In the year 1980, production of 99mTc generator kits from the fission 99Mo imported from Canada was started. This production is continuously increasing, with the current rate of about 16,000 Ci of 99mTC per year. The 99mTc generator kits, with activities varying from 250 mCi to 2,000 mCi, are distributed to more than 260 hospitals and clinics in Brazil. Several radiopharmaceutical products based on 131I , 32P, 51Cr and 153Sm are also produced. During the past several years, a concerted effort has been made in order to upgrade the reactor power to 5 MWth through refurbishment and modernization programs. One of the reasons for this decision was to produce 99Mo at IPEN. The reactor cycle will be gradually increased to 120 hours per week continuous operation. It is anticipated that these programs will assure the safe and sustainable operation of the IEA-R1 reactor for

  6. The Scottish Research Reactor Centre and its Facilities for the Production and Exploitation of Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    The Scottish Research Reactor Centre is now under construction and will be completed and in operation by the summer of 1963. The reactor is 100 kW of the tank type with water cooling and water/graphite moderation using enriched U235 fuel. The experimental facilities include a large thermal column, a large shield experiment water tank and a radioisotope production facility with transfer rabbit tubes. There are effectively three through tubes in the central core; one through tube in the thermal column, several small central vertical stringers and one six-inch square vertical stringer penetrating to the centre of the core. Many horizontal stringers pass through the thermal column, the central one penetrating to within one inch of a fuel tank. The reactor facilities are supported by a wide variety of adjacent small laboratories. These include hot source handling and preparation facilities, changing rooms, electrical and mechanical workshops, darkrooms, microcurie laboratories, animal house, biological and chemical laboratories, low-background counting room, lecture theatre and a library. It is expected that the research will extend over many scientific and technological disciplines; a good proportion of the work will involve short-lived radioisotopes and typical projects are described. (author)

  7. Automated production of copper radioisotopes and preparation of high specific activity [64Cu]Cu-ATSM for PET studies

    60Cu and 64Cu are useful radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals and may be used for the preparation of promising agents for diagnosis and radiotherapy. In this study, the production and purification of 60/64Cu starting from 60/64Ni using a new automated system, namely Alceo, is described. A dynamic process for electrodeposition and dissolution of 60/64Ni/60/64Cu was developed. Preliminary production yields of 60Cu and 64Cu were 400 and 300 mCi, respectively. 64Cu was used to radiolabel the hypoxia detection tracer ATSM with a specific activity of 2.2±1.3 Ci/μmol.

  8. Optimization of physical and technical parameters relevant to the production and separation of 123 I radioisotope using low energy cyclotrons

    Radioisotopes of iodine are very frequently used in nuclear medicine. They have been used as scanning agents or for radiotherapy in liver, pancreas, kidneys and thyroid tumors. 131I (T1/2 = 8.03 d) and 125I (T1/2 59.4 d) are extensively used, the former in therapy and the latter for in-vitro testes. In recent years, 124I (T1/2 = 4.18 d) and 120I (T1/2 = 81 min) found some applications in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). 123I (T1/2 =13.2 h) is utilized in diagnostic studies using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). One of the suitable reactions for production of 123I from Te targets using low energy cyclotrons is the 123Te(p,n)123I reaction. In this work the excitation functions for production of iodine radioisotopes including 123I have been measured using natTe. The cross section values of natTe(p,x n)120g,121,123,124,125,126,128,130I reactions have been determined from their respective threshold energy up to 14.5 MeV. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used and the samples were prepared by an electrodeposition method. In order to validate the data, nuclear model calculations were performed using the code ALICE-IPPE which is based on the preequilibrium-evaporation model. All of the measured excitation curves were compared with those obtained by nuclear model calculation as well as the available data in the literature. From the experimental results the theoretical yields for all of the investigated radionuclides were calculated and plotted as a function of proton energy. The production yield and impurity levels were estimated in the recommended energy ranges. The thick target yields have been determined theoretically from the excitation function curves and measured experimentally by irradiated thick Te target and the results were compared.For production of 123I radionuclide, TeO2 target was prepared on platinum substrate for irradiation. Dry distillation method was used in the separation process. The parameters affecting of the target

  9. Analysis of metal radioisotope impurities generated in [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O during the cyclotron production of fluorine-18

    Gillies, J.M. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jgillies@picr.man.ac.uk; Najim, N. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Zweit, J. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We show the separation of metal radioistope impurities using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The methodology used is an improvement of existent protocols for separation of stable metal ions. Production of fluorine-18 using [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O-enriched water encased in a titanium target body results in the production of several metal radioisotope impurities. Optimisation of the conditions for CE separation of the metal radioisotope impurities incorporated the use of 6 mM 18-Crown-6 in combination with 12 mM glycolic acid as complexing agents within the running buffer (10 mM pyridine, pH 4.0). Using this optimised procedure, we were able to separate and detect a number of metal radioisotopes, including chromium, cobalt, manganese, vanadium and berillium, within the fM concentration range.

  10. Radioisotope method for characterization of vegetable tannins, extracted from waste of forestry production in Cuba

    Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic plants secondary metabolites, widely distributed in all parts of trees and herbs. The role of these substances in many metabolic processes is very important. Vegetable tannins have been implicated as probable antinutritional factors, decreasing the assimilation of diet protein assimilation by cattle. On the other hand, protective antioxidant and antimutagenic properties have been ascribed for these compounds. Characterization of vegetable tannins is important in order to find new sources of natural raw materials with medical and pharmaceutical applications. Protein precipitation capacity as a function of pH, competitive protein and ADN binding assays and the determination of tannins concentration are described. Radioisotope labeled protein and tannins were used in all of the determinations. (author)

  11. Radioisotope Power Sources

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  12. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    King, James F [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  13. Internal individual dose monitoring and estimation of dose equivalent from workers of the development and production of radioisotopes in CIAE

    The results of internal individual dose monitoring from workers of the development and production of radioisotopes in CIAE (1995-2000) are presented. The annual average committed effective dose is 1.8 x 10-2 - 8.0 x 10-1 mSv and the collective committed effective dose is 2.9 x 10-3 - 9.8 x 10-2 man·Sv in 1995-2000. The collective committed effective dose is 1.6 x 10-1 man·Sv and the annual average committed effective dose is 1.8 x 10-1 mSv for the 873 persons from 1995-2000

  14. Production of radioisotopes by cyclotron at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - an evaluation of the present stage of development

    Since 1974 a variable energy isochronous cyclotron (CV-28) is operating at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, with the main purpose of producing radioisotopes for medical diagnosis. To accomplish this, besides the conventional chemical laboratories and related facilities, hot chemistry laboratories with their specific equipment and remote handling devices had to be designed and constructed at this Institute, and are still being developed, due to a lack of engineering companies working in this field. Other equipment, intrinsically related to cyclotrons like high power density target holders, collimators etc. were also conceived and constructed. Among the produced raioisotopes, high purity gallium-67 and indium-111 have been periodically sent to hospitals and some efforts are still being made in order to improve and simplify the chemical processing as well as the operational procedures. Some work has also been devoted to the development and improvement of methods for the production of iodine-123, bromine-77 and thallium-201. (Author)

  15. Excitation functions of reactions of production of radioisotopes 201Tl, 201Pb, 201Bi (experimental and theoretical data)

    The results of calculations of charged particle induced reactions for the production of neutron deficient radioisotopes 201Tl, 201Pb, 201Bi and concomitant ones are discussed. The excitation functions for reactions 202Hg(p,xn), 197Au(a,xn), 203,205Tl(p,xn), 203,205Tl(d,xn), 203,205Tl(p,pxn), 204Pb(p,xn), 204Pb(p,p3n), 206Pb(p,6n), 206Pb(p,p5n), 207Pb(p,7n), 207Pb(p,p6n), 208Pb(p,xn) and 208Pb(p,p7n) are calculated on the base of statistical model in energy range up to 80 MeV. For the most reactions producing 201Tl the data on the calculated and practical yields under optimum conditions are given and the main admixture levels are pointed out. 30 refs., 9 figs

  16. Validation and upgrading of the recommended cross section data of charged particle reactions used for production of PET radioisotopes

    A validation test and upgrading of the recommended cross section database for production of PET radioisotopes in charged particle induced reactions, published by the IAEA in 2001, was performed. Experimental microscopic cross section data published earlier or measured recently and not yet included in the evaluation work of IAEA were collected and added to the primary database in order to improve the quality of the recommended data. The newly compiled experimental data supported the previous recommended data in most cases, but in a few cases this influenced the decision made earlier and resulted in new selected cross section data sets. A spline fitting method was applied to the selected data sets and updated recommended data were produced in these cases. The integral thick target yields deduced from the new recommended cross sections were critically compared with experimental yield data available in the literature

  17. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals in positron emission tomography: Radioisotope productions and radiolabelling procedures at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.G.; Cook, M. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Positron Emission Tomography

    1997-10-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that utilizes positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals to map the physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology of the human body. Positron-emitting radioisotopes produced in a medical cyclotron are incorporated into compounds that are biologically active in the body. A scanner measures radioactivity emitted from a patient`s body and provides cross-sectional images of the distribution of these radiolabelled compounds in the body. It is the purpose of this paper to review the variety of PET radiopharmaceuticals currently produced at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. Radioisotope production, radiolabelling of molecules and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed. A few examples of their clinical applications will be shown as well. During the last five years we achieved a reliable routine production of various radiopharmaceuticals labelled with the four most important positron-emitters: oxygen-15 (t,{sub 1/2}=2min), nitrogen-13 (t{sub 1/2}= 10 min), carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2}=20 min) and fluorine-18 (t{sub 1/2}= 110 min). These radiopharmaceuticals include [{sup 15}O]oxygen, [{sup 15}O]carbon monoxide, [{sup 15}O]carbon dioxide, [{sup 15}O]water, [{sup 13}N]ammonia, [{sup 11}C]flumazenil, [{sup 11}C]SCH23390, [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG). In addition, since the half life of [{sup 18}F] is almost two hours, regional distribution can be done, and the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre is currently supplying [{sup 18}F]FDG in routine to other hospitals. Future new radiopharmaceuticals development include a [{sup 18}F]thymidine analog to measure cell proliferation and a [{sup 11}C]pyrroloisoquinoline to visualize serotonergic neuron abnormalities. (authors) 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Summary report of the third research co-ordination meeting on development of reference charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production

    The report summarizes results of the final coordination meeting of the IAEA research project on ''Development of Reference Charged-Particle Cross Section Database for Medical Radioisotopes Production''. Details are given on the status of the Database and preparation of the TECDOC, two major results of the project. Actions and deadlines are specified towards finalizing these results in the near future. (author)

  20. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  1. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  2. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  3. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Market impacts of converting to low-enriched uranium targets for medical isotope production

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes. This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99Mo production on the global 99Mo/99mTc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc

  4. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  5. Radioisotope programme in Iran

    The Nuclear Research Centre of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has taken up a program for the production of short-lived radioisotopes. The initial purpose of this program was to give service to isotope users, mainly researchers, who were importing radioisotopes. With the commissioning of the reactor and installation of handling facilities at the temporary isotope laboratories at NRC the scope of the production program elaborated. Meanwhile the application of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine was actively encouraged. The production of radioisotopes in medicine is one of the prime objectives. The development of Tc-99m technology in NRC of AEOI will not only meet the demands of existing nuclear medicine centres, but also help the country to develop know-how in this important area. The output of this project will be the production and supply of Tc-99m generator, which is a primary objective with the technical assistance of IAEA. At the present moment the Tc-99m is processing using Mo-99 produced in the NRC reactor by irradiation Mo03. In view of the easier availability of fission product Mo-99 from several suppliers, now the NRC is seriously considering the preparation of Tc-99m generators using imported fission Mo-99. We are also working on the production of high specific activity Cr-51, P-32, S-33 and Au-198 colloid and some other short-lived radioisotopes in milicurie level. Iodine-131 is processed using the wet distillation method with good recovery. The iodine-131 is tested for radiochemical purity tellurium content and radionuclide purity and is found to be satisfactory. With these studies the processing and quality control of I-131 can be considered complete and batches of one curie activity can be planned. Specifications have been standardized for I-131 labelled formulations radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  6. Design and experimental activities supporting commercial U.S. electron accelerator production of Mo-99

    99mTc, the daughter isotope of 99Mo, is the most commonly used radioisotope for nuclear medicine in the United States. Under the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are partnering with North Star Medical Technologies to demonstrate the viability of large-scale 99Mo production using electron accelerators. In this process, 99Mo is produced in an enriched 100Mo target through the 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo reaction. Five experiments have been performed to date at ANL to demonstrate this process. This paper reviews the current status of these activities, specifically the design and performance of the helium gas target cooling system.

  7. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  8. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  10. The progress of radioisotope technology and application in China

    Zhang Jinrong; Luo Zhifu

    2008-01-01

    The inception of radioisotope and its application in China are introduced. The research, development, produc-tion, application progress and the future development prospect of radioisotope and its products are described.

  11. Radioisotope production using U-120 cyclotron, Central Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf (DDR)

    The method of radionuclide production at the Rossendorf U-120 cyclotron and chemical reprocessing of the products produced into radiopharmaceuticals, aimed at application in nuclear medice, are described. The radionuclides are produced by target irradiation at nuclear reactions (4He, 2n), (d, 2n), (d, n), (d, α) and others. 67Ga, 81Rb-21mKr, 211At, 111In, 123I, 18F radionuclide production are considered in detail. The Rossendorf U-120 cyclotron beam parameters are also presented

  12. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in nuclear medicine to allow physicians to explore bodily structures. The thyroid, bones, heart, liver and many other organs can be easily imaged and disorder in their functions revealed. Technetium-99, a radioisotope is a decay product of Molybdenum-99, a radionuclide with half life of sixty-six hours is discussed. It is widely used in nuclear medical procedure. In this application, the radio nuclide is chemically attached to a drug chosen for its tendency to collect in specific organ of the body and the so is then injected into the patient's body. After a short time, half life of only six hours, an image is collected with a radio sensitive detector for analysis. Technetium-99 decays by isomeric process which emits gamma rays and low energy beta particles. (author)

  13. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    Nasrabadi, M. N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir; Sepiani, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Hezarjerib Street, 81746-73441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  14. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of 64Cu and 67Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields

  15. Production of radio-isotopes 197Hg and 198Au from 198Hg

    Studies on excitation functions of neutron induced reactions are of considerable importance for testing nuclear models as well as for practical applications. Mercury can be a suitable material for spallation neutron source in an accelerator driven system (ADS) if corrosion, due to chemical wetting, gradient mass transfer, and high density heat generation are taken care of. In order to design the target system, estimation of induced activity in the target is important among other factors. In an ADS this radioactivity is induced by neutrons along with that by the primary projectile. An ADS is operated at a few GeV beam energy, but often logistic studies are carried out at much lower energies. Quantitative knowledge of the induced activity at such operating parameters is important for proper planning of the experiments. The aim of the present work is to determine the excitation functions of 198Hg (n, 2n) 197Hg and 198Hg (n, p) 198Au reactions for 1-50 MeV energy using statistical and pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction model codes. This will help us to determine the total yield and induced activities due to these radio nuclides. The computed excitation functions are compared with and the reported measured data and cross sections from ENDF database

  16. Consumer Promotions and the Acceleration of Product Purchases

    Scott A. Neslin; Caroline Henderson; John Quelch

    1985-01-01

    One potential consequence of consumer promotions is the acceleration of consumer category purchases. Purchase acceleration can assume two forms: purchasing of a larger quantity or shortening of interpurchase time. This research presents an analytical framework for measuring purchase acceleration, and applies that framework to the analysis of two product classes. The effects of coupons, manufacturer and retailer advertising, and price cuts are examined. Different market segments and loyalty gr...

  17. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  18. Successes and problems in the development of medical radioisotope production in Russia

    Zhuikov, B. L.

    2016-05-01

    There are many challenges that face radionuclide production and application for medical diagnostics and therapy in Russia. In this article, the development of novel production methods for medical radionuclides (82Sr, 82Sr/82Rb-generator, 117mSn, 225Ac, etc.) at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS is described, providing an example of how supporting basic nuclear facilities, backing fundamental research, granting scientists and medical specialists freedom in choosing a research area, and effective international collaboration involving developed countries combine to enable progress in the field.

  19. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    None listed

    2005-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  20. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  1. Dual-label radioisotope method for simultaneously measuring bacterial production and metabolism in natural waters

    Bacterial production and amino acid metabolism in aquatic systems can be estimated by simultaneous incubation of water samples with both tritiated methyl-thymidine and 14C-labeled amino acids. This dual-label method not only saves time, labor, and materials, but also allows determination of these two parameters in the same microbial subcommunity. Both organic carbon incorporation and respiration can be estimated. The method is particularly suitable for large-scale field programs and has been used successfully with eutrophic estuarine samples as well as with oligotrophic oceanic water. In the mesohaline portion of Chesapeake Bay, thymidine incorporation ranged seasonally from 2 to 635 pmol liter-1 h-1 and amino acid turnover rates ranged from 0.01 to 28.4% h-1. Comparison of thymidine incorporation with amino acid turnover measurements made at a deep, midbay station in 1985 suggested a close coupling between bacterial production and amino acid metabolism during most of the year. However, production-specific amino acid turnover rates increased dramatically in deep bay waters during the spring phytoplankton bloom, indicating transient decoupling of bacterial production from metabolism. Ecological features such as this are readily detectable with the dual-label method

  2. Frontiers in radioisotope application

    Radioisotopes and radiation are being used in numerous and diverse fields to benefit mankind. A glimpse at the recent advances in terms of usage of new radionuclides or new techniques, in some of the important areas are discussed. Use of radionuclides in medicine, industries, agriculture and water resource management are delineated. The various uses of radiation such as cancer therapy, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food products, food preservation, industrial radiography, nucleonic gauges, crop mutation to raise better quality seeds, cross-linking and curing of materials, coatings etc. and treatment of municipal waste are discussed. (author). 56 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Massive particle production from accelerated sources in high magnetic fields

    Fregolente, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Non-electromagnetic emissions from high energy particles in extreme environments has been studied in the literature by using several variations of the semi-classical formalism. The detailed mechanisms behind such emissions are of great astrophysical interest since they can alter appreciably the associated energy loss rates. Here, we review the role played by the source proper acceleration $a$ in the particle production process. The acceleration $a$ determines the typical scale characterizing the particle production and, moreover, if the massive particle production is inertially forbidden, it will be strongly suppressed for $a$ below a certain threshold. In particular, we show that, for the case of accelerated protons in typical pulsar magnetospheres, the corresponding accelerations $a$ are far below the pion production threshold.

  5. Shielding calculations by using the analytic methods : Application to the radio-isotopes production in the CENM reactor

    Full text: this work is part of developing an analytical method for solving the neutrons transport equation in improving the treatment of the anisotropy of neutron scattering through heterogeneous shielding. We also develop the tools necessary for the formation of multigroup libraries (cross section) with the best choice of the weighting function. Among the radioprotection problems of radioisotopes production experiments in the research reactor core is mainly the photons gamma generation produced by radiative capture: activation of samples and their capsules. So, in order to review the safety of operating personnel and the public is essential to quantify the neutrons flux and gamma photons produced. In this study a numerical methods is used in two different Fortran program to solve the neutron transport problem and to determine the neutron and photon flux. This program based on the Monte Carlo method: the neutron is born with a unit statistical weight, this corrected after each imposed scattering event during its whole history within the shield. The final neutron statistical weight is used in an appropriate estimator to determine the searched response. The generated gamma rays by neutron capture are calculated of different isotopes, and then the equivalent dose rate is evaluated in biological tissue for different neutron source energies. We have identified and studied the choice of the best weighting function to calculate a library of multigroup cross sections self protected by using the energy weighting function. A Fortran program is used as a mathematical tool to solve the neutron slowing down equation in infinite homogeneous medium for different dilutions. We determined the energetic flux distribution and the effective integrals. The results of both calculations are in a good agreement; the relative error is less than 0.5%.

  6. Hadronic multiparticle production in extensive air showers and accelerator experiments

    Meurer, Christine; Blümer, Johannes; Engel, Ralph; Haungs, Andreas; Roth, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Using CORSIKA for simulating extensive air showers, we study the relation between the shower characteristics and features of hadronic multiparticle production at low energies. We report about investigations of typical energies and phase space regions of secondary particles which are important for muon production in extensive air showers. Possibilities to measure relevant quantities of hadron production in existing and planned accelerator experiments are discussed.

  7. A new generator for production of short-lived Au-195m radioisotope

    A generator has been developed to produce multimillicurie amounts of 30.6 second Au-195m. Gold-195m, a daughter isotope of 41.6 hour Hg-195m, is eluted as neutral and sterile sodium thiosulphatoaurate(I) complex, and as such, is indicated for dynamic studies in cardiology. Mercury-195m is produced by irradiation of gold targets with 28 MeV protons, yielding by the (p,3n) nuclear reaction Hg-195m and Hg-195 (9.9 hours) at rates of 4.6 and 12 mCi/μAh, respectively. Mercury is separated from irradiated gold by distillation and collection in nitric acid. This solution is neutralized and loaded on a column of silica gel modified with metallic sulphide. Columns are eluted at 3-5 minute intervals with a solution containing 29.8 mg/ml sodium thiosulphate, pentahydrate and 10 mg/ml sodium nitrate. Yields of Au-195m vary between 24-45% of theory, depending on the total Hg activity and the generator production method. Gold-195m is obtained in 3-4 seconds by eluting with 2 ml under pressure. Contamination of the eluate with mercury isotopes decreases after about 20 elutions to 0.4 - 0.8 μCi Hg-195m/ mCi Au-195m

  8. The RF system for accelerator production of tritium

    A high-power proton linac (linear accelerator) is being proposed for the next generation tritium source for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The proposed proton linac requires a substantial continuous wave (CW) RF system. This paper presents an overview of accelerator-based tritium production and the details of the CW RF system design. Based on the current tritium production requirement, the proposed accelerator will require in excess of 200 MW of installed CW RF power. The availability requirements for the RF system are quite high and an efficient low-cost approach to providing redundancy will be discussed. Also presented are the baseline choices for the RF sources as well as the technology development goals and how they impact the RF system design

  9. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    King, James F [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  10. Activation products in medical linear accelerators

    Full text of publication follows: Medical linear accelerators (linacs) are today the megavoltage treatment unit of choice in many modern radiotherapy departments. As is well known, the interaction of high energy gamma photons and the accompanying neutrons from linacs operating at energies above 10 MeV will activate the accelerator itself, treatment aids, the surrounding air and the structure of the treatment room producing radioactive species. To determine the radiation burden to the staff due to induced activity, measurements were performed immediately after treatment and 48 hours later at four different brands of treatment machines under the same experimental conditions. These brands and their maximum operating photon energies are Elekta (15 MV), Siemens (15 MV), Varian (15 MV) and General Electric (18 MV). A portable high purity germanium detector system (Canberra) and a dose rate meter (Berthold) were used to collect gamma spectra and measure the induced dose rate respectively at the iso-centre. The Genie PC Spectroscopy Software Package from Canberra Industries was utilized to analyze the spectra. Radioactive species identified include 24Na, 28Al, 51Cr, 54Mn, 56Mn, 57Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 60Co, 64Cu, 65Zn, 82Br, 99Mo, 122Sb, 124Sb, 184Re, 187W, 196Au, and 203Pb and their respective apparent activity values were calculated. With the help of the gamma dose rate constant, the induced dose rates for all identified isotopes were computed. The measured dose rates ranged between 1.4 and 2.7 μSv/h 2 mins after beam-off and between 0.5 and 1.57 μSv/h 10 mins after beam-off. Forty-eight hours after beam off the dose rate ranged between 0.11 and 0.28 μSv/h. Detailed results and conclusions for radiation protection of staff and service personnel will be presented. (authors)

  11. Calculation of excitation functions of proton, alpha and deuteron induced reactions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I

    Artun, Ozan, E-mail: ozanartun@yahoo.com; Aytekin, Hüseyin, E-mail: huseyinaytekin@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    In this work, the excitation functions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I with proton, alpha, and deuteron induced reactions were calculated by two different level density models. For the nuclear model calculations, the Talys 1.6 code were used, which is the latest version of Talys code series. Calculations of excitation functions for production of the {sup 122–125}I isotopes were carried out by using the generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Fermi-gas model (FGM). The results have shown that generalized superfluid model is more successful than Fermi-gas model in explaining the experimental results.

  12. Radioisotope Power Supply Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  13. Applications of radioisotopes in industry

    In recent years, radioisotope techniques have found ever-increasing application to the investigation of industrial process plant. The chemical industry in particular was quick to appreciate this potential and in ICI the substantial scope for radioisotope applications led some 20 years ago to the establishment of a group specializing in this field. This group, Physics and Radioisotope Services has flourished and now carries out work for all parts of ICI as well as for external companies. An important factor in the growth of this organization has been the realization on the part of production management of the enormous savings which can result from the successful applications of radioisotope techniques. Measurements can, in general, be made while the plant is on-line disrupting the operating conditions and thus saving down-time. In addition, the rapidity and convenience with which the measurements can be made (utilizing as they do equipment external to the process) leads to a direct reduction in service costs. In parallel with the growth of radioisotope techniques in plant investigation, there has been a continuous development of instruments which utilize the properties of radioactive materials in process measurement and control. These so-called ''nucleonic'' instruments are now used widely throughout industry. Typically, ICI manufactures and installs over 300 such instruments every year on its own plants along-through the number of gauges installed throughout industry is much greater than this. The range of radioisotope techniques and instruments is extremely wide and this topic has itself been the subject of several symposia (1), (2), (3), (4), (5). For this reason, it is impractical to attempt a full coverage here. We have chosen rather to restrict the paper to those techniques and instruments which have been found to be used most extensively. This selection has been made by analyzing the work spectrum of Physics and Radioisotope Services which carries out in

  14. Safety test of transport packages for radioisotopes

    The Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, has tested safety of type B(M), A and L packages according to the regulations of RI transportation. The type B(M) package weighing about 1800 kg. Used for transport of 192Ir(6540 Ci) and 32P(188 Ci) from reactors to the Radioisotope Production Laboratory, consists of a cylindrical plywood receptacle, aluminum honeycomb shock absorbers, steel framework and a 150 mm wall thickness drawer type lead container. Safety tests for type B(M) included 9 m high free drops in four postures, vertical, horizontal, corner and reverse, 1 m free drops on to an iron rod with in two postures, vertical and horizontal (the latter for punch test) and thermal test. The maximum acceleration in the punch test showed 735 G and in the 9 m drop test 2590 G. For thermal test of the whole package, a large muffle furnace was used. When the temperature of furnace reached 9200C, the package was inserted into it and heated for 30 min. During the test surface temperature of the lead container rose only by 19.10C. In 12.2 m free drop of type A and L package as safety test, 5 ml vials containing simulation RI solution retained their integrity without breakage. (author)

  15. The accelerator production of tritium - An overview

    A reliable supply of tritium is necessary to maintain the U.S. nuclear defense capability. Because tritium decays to 3He at the rate of 5.5% per year, it must be continually replenished. Since the shutdown of the last production reactor in 1988, tritium requirements have been met through reuse of tritium recovered from dismantled nuclear weapons. This is insufficient for future needs, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy to bring a new tritium production capability on-line by 2007

  16. Production of neutrons in particle accelerators: a PNRI safety concern

    In the safety assessment made for the first cyclotron facility in the Philippines, that is the cyclotron in the P.E.T. (Positron Emission Tomography) center of the St. Luke's Medical Center, the concern on the production of neutrons associated with the operation of particle accelerators has been identified. This takes into consideration the principles in the operation of particle accelerators and the associated production of neutrons resulting from their operation, the hazards and risks in their operation. The Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (BHDT) of the Department of Health in the Philippines regulates and controls the presently existing six (6) linear accelerators distributed in different hospitals in the country, being classified as x-ray producing devices. From the results of this study, it is evident that the production of neutrons from the operation of accelerators, produces neutrons and that activation due to neutrons can form radioactive materials. The PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) being mandated by law to regulate and control any equipment or devices producing or utilizing radioactive materials should take the proper steps to subject all accelerator facilities and devices in the Philippines such as linear accelerators under its regulatory control in the same manner as it did with the first cyclotron in the country. (Author)

  17. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  19. Neutron activation analysis (NAA), radioisotope production via neutron activation (PNA) and fission product gas-jet (GJA)

    Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Three different non-diffractive applications of neutrons are outlined, neutron activation analysis, production of radionuclides, mostly for medical applications, and production of short-lived fission nuclides with a so-called gas-jet. It is shown that all three devices may be incorporated into one single insert at SINQ due to their different requests with respect to thermal neutron flux. Some applications of these three facilities are summarized. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  20. Power from Radioisotopes (Rev.)

    Corliss, William R; Mead, Robert L

    1971-01-01

    This booklet discusses Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), called isotope power generators, that are based on using heat from the decay of radioisotopes to produce electricity. These are the SNAP systems with odd-numbered designators. The basics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are discussed and their uses as power sources in space exploration and on earth are described. Various radioisotope heat sources are discussed and a table of RTGs built under the SNAP program listing their uses, electrical power, weight, the radioisotope used, the radioisotope's half-life, and the generator life is given.

  1. Synthesis and granulation of a titanosilicate with adsorption capacity for Cs to be used for treating de ILLW of the Ezeiza Radioisotope Production Plant

    The sitinakite structured titanosilicate is widely used for treating ILLW thanks to its capacity for adsorbing both Cs-137 and Sr-90. Its effectiveness lies in its incredibly high selectivity for such radioisotopes, which makes it useful in complex isotope solutions and even in strong acid and alkaline conditions. In Argentina, an off-the-shelve titanosilicate was used in Ezeiza's radioisotope production plant. Because of commercial restrictions, it is no longer available so an inhouse production is being developed. The aim of this project consists of the following: 1. Synthesis of titanosilicate and structural characterization 2. Adsorption kinetics of Cs+ 3. Upscale of the synthesis process 4. Assessment of the influence of synthesis temperature and time on product crystallinity 5. Measurement of adsorption capacity of commercial titanosilicates IE910, IE911 and novel RC15H 6. Separative performance column essay and breakthrough plot 7. Chemical and radiolysis resistance of the adsorbent powder binder Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in contact with the actual waste Throughout this work we have studied the optimum synthesis conditions capable of rendering a sitinakite structured titanosilicate, assessed its Cs+ adsorption kinetics, adsorption capacity, crystal phase and purity via DRX, particle size with Laser Light Scattering technique. We have also conducted column breakthrough experiments and tried the chemical and radiolysis resistance of the final product (author)

  2. Geometric Product Formula for Charged Accelerating Black Hole

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the geometric product formula i.e. area (or entropy) product formula of outer horizon (${\\cal H}^{+}$) and inner horizon (${\\cal H}^{-}$) for charged accelerating black hole. We find that mass-independent area functional relation of ${\\cal H}^{\\pm}$ for this black hole in terms of black hole charge, acceleration, cosmological constant and \\emph{cosmic string tension} respectively. We also compute the \\emph{Penrose inequality} for this black hole. Finally we compute the specific heat for this BH to determine the local thermodynamic stability of this black hole. Under certain criterion the black hole displayed second order phase transition.

  3. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69mZn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope57Co

  4. Safety of spallation sources in the accelerator production of tritium

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) project will employ a high-power proton accelerator to generate neutrons in a spallation target for the production of tritium. This paper describes major attributes of the safety of this facility. The spallation target has been designed to maximize the production of tritium, which includes minimizing the nonproductive structures and coolant in the path of the proton beam. This results in a system design that has critical performance requirements during normal operation and accident conditions. While a spallation target has no fissionable material, there is a buildup of radioactive material from neutron activation and spallation products. When the proton beam is shut down, the power falls very quickly to residual heat levels that are <1% of the full-power value

  5. First research co-ordination meeting on development of reference charged particle cross section data base for medical radioisotope production. Summary report

    The present report contains the summary of the First Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross Section Data Base for Medical Radioisotope Production'', held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 15 to 17 November 1995. The project focuses on monitor reactions and production reactions for gamma emitters and positron emitters induced with light charged particles of incident energies up to about 100 MeV. Summarized are technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme, including actions and deadlines. Attached are an information sheet on the project, the agenda and a list of participants of the meeting. Also attached is brief information on the adjacent Consultant's Meeting on ''Automated Synthesis Systems for the Cyclotron Production of 18F and 123I and their Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals''. (author)

  6. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.)

  7. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  8. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR).

  9. Economical Radioisotope Power Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power...

  10. Transport of radioisotopes

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  11. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  12. Technology benefits associated with Accelerator Production of Tritium

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of ∼5.5%/yr; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within 10 yr. Important technology benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high-power spallation targets. These technology benefits are briefly discussed here

  13. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2007 Through September 30,2008

    King, James F [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides RPS for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2008. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  14. Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009

    King, James F [ORNL

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2009. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS.

  15. The challenges of commercial isotope production on a linear accelerator

    The pulsed beam structure inherent to linear accelerators differentiates it from the characteristic cw nature of cyclotrons. This property can result in additional challenges in isotope production targetry where issues of low melting point, rapid thermal cycling, inadequate cooling designs etc. can have an effect. In contrast, the advantages of multiple simultaneous target stations at several beam energies makes this device especially attractive. It allows for the possibility of economically producing specialized research isotopes in combination with large quantities of established commercial products. The operational history of the Denton LINAC facility will be presented as it relates to those particular challenges of isotope production with a high power LINAC beam

  16. Technology benefits resulting from accelerator production of tritium

    One of the early and most dramatic uses of nuclear transformations was in development of the nuclear weapons that brought World War II to an end. Despite that difficult introduction, nuclear weapons technology has been used largely as a deterrent to war throughout the latter half of the twentieth century. The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) offers a clean, safe, and reliable means of producing the tritium (a heavy form of hydrogen) needed to maintain the nuclear deterrent. Tritium decays away naturally at a rate of about 5.5% per year; therefore, the tritium reservoirs in nuclear weapons must be periodically replenished. In recent years this has been accomplished by recycling tritium from weapons being retired from the stockpile. Although this strategy has served well since the last US tritium production reactor was shut down in 1988, a new tritium production capability will be required within ten years. Some benefits will result from direct utilization of some of the APT proton beam; others could result from advances in the technologies of particle accelerators and high power spallation targets. The APT may save thousands of lives through the production of medical isotopes, and it may contribute to solving the nation's problem in disposing of long-lived nuclear wastes. But the most significant benefit may come from advancing the technology, so that the great potential of accelerator applications can be realized during our lifetimes

  17. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear «piles», soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchas...

  19. Automation Systems for Radioisotope Laboratories

    For more than 50 years the company Hans Waelischmiller GmbH (HWM) has worked in the field of nuclear technology worldwide and designed and manufactured equipment for nuclear installations as well as complete turnkey projects. This report deals with the activity of HWM in the field of production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals as well as in the handling of radioactive materials in nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (author)

  20. Status of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen essential to the operation of all United States nuclear weapons. Because the half-life of tritium is short, 12.3 years, it must be periodically replenished. In 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a plan for a new tritium supply that examined use of existing commercial power reactors, or construction of a new accelerator-based (APT) system. In 1998, the DOE announced that commercial light-water reactors (CLWR) will be used to provide the primary tritium supply technology. To provide a backup to that approach, the DOE will continue engineering development and preliminary design of a high-power proton linear accelerator-based system to produce tritium, but will not construct the plant. Because the accelerator system represents a substantial advance in high-power accelerator and spallation technology over that currently available, the design and development information is of great value in applications that require an APT-class system such as spent reactor fuel transmutation or clean fission energy production. (author)

  1. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30P, by bombardment of 27Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  2. Formation of medical radioisotopes 111In, 117mSn, 124Sb, and 177Lu in photonuclear reactions

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes 111In, 117mSn, 124Sb, and 177Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes 112, 118Sn and Te and HfO2 of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes 111In and 117mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO2 of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of 124Sb and 177Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets

  3. Radioisotope measurement system

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author)

  4. The production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine from a compact, low-energy accelerator system

    Introduction: The field of nuclear medicine is reliant on radionuclides for medical imaging procedures and radioimmunotherapy (RIT). The recent shut-downs of key radionuclide producers have highlighted the fragility of the current radionuclide supply network, however. To ensure that nuclear medicine can continue to grow, adding new diagnostic and therapy options to healthcare, novel and reliable production methods are required. Siemens are developing a low-energy, high-current – up to 10 MeV and 1 mA respectively – accelerator. The capability of this low-cost, compact system for radionuclide production, for use in nuclear medicine procedures, has been considered. Methodology: The production of three medically important radionuclides – 89Zr, 64Cu, and 103Pd – has been considered, via the 89Y(p,n), 64Ni(p,n) and 103Rh(p,n) reactions, respectively. Theoretical cross-sections were generated using TALYS and compared to experimental data available from EXFOR. Stopping power values generated by SRIM have been used, with the TALYS-generated excitation functions, to calculate potential yields and isotopic purity in different irradiation regimes. Results: The TALYS excitation functions were found to have a good agreement with the experimental data available from the EXFOR database. It was found that both 89Zr and 64Cu could be produced with high isotopic purity (over 99%), with activity yields suitable for medical diagnostics and therapy, at a proton energy of 10 MeV. At 10 MeV, the irradiation of 103Rh produced appreciable quantities of 102Pd, reducing the isotopic purity. A reduction in beam energy to 9.5 MeV increased the radioisotopic purity to 99% with only a small reduction in activity yield. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the low-energy, compact accelerator system under development by Siemens would be capable of providing sufficient quantities of 89Zr, 64Cu, and 103Pd for use in medical diagnostics and therapy. It is suggested that the system could be

  5. Utilization of pion production accelerators in biomedical applications

    A discussion is presented of biomedical applications of pion-producing accelerators in a number of areas, but with emphasis on pion therapy for treatment of solid, non-metastasized malignancies. The problem of cancer management is described from the standpoint of the physicist, magnitude of the problem, and its social and economic impact. Barriers to successful treatment are identified, mainly with regard to radiation therapy. The properties and characteristics of π mesons, first postulated on purely theoretical grounds by H. Yukawa are described. It is shown how they can be used to treat human cancer and why they appear to have dramatic advantages over conventional forms of radiation by virtue of the fact that they permit localization of energy deposition, preferentially, in the tumor volume. The Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), and its operating characteristics, are briefly described, with emphasis on the biomedical channel. The design of a relatively inexpensive accelerator specifically for pion therapy is described as is also the status of clinical trials using the existing Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The advantages of proton over electron accelerator for the production of high quality, high intensity negative pion beams suitable for radiation therapy of malignancies is also addressed. Other current, medically related applications of LAMPF technology are also discussed

  6. Tritium implantation in the accelerator production of tritium device

    We briefly describe the methods we have developed to compute the magnitude and spatial distribution of born and implanted tritons and protons in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (AFT) device. The methods are verified against experimental measurements and then used to predict that 16% of the tritium is implanted in the walls of the APT distribution tubes. The methods are also used to estimate the spatial distribution of implanted tritium, which will be required for determining the possible diffusion of tritium out of the walls and back into the gas stream

  7. A Radioisotope Inventory Program

    The Radioisotope Inventory Program maintains an accurate and up-to-date inventory of all radioisotopes used on campus. An instruction manual provides easy to use directions for using the program. The program is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard HP-85 microcomputer and can be used on other systems. The commands allow updating and changing licensee information easily and quickly. Data Security is maintained by placing the data on a removable tape cartridge and locking the cartridge

  8. Radioisotopes in industry

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  9. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  10. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  11. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities

  12. Accelerator Production of Tritium Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Input Submittal

    Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Tritium Supply and Recycling considers several methods for the production of tritium. One of these methods is the Accelerator Production of Tritium. This report summarizes the design characteristics of APT including the accelerator, target/blanket, tritium extraction facility, and the balance of plant. Two spallation targets are considered: (1) a tungsten neutron-source target and (2) a lead neutron-source target. In the tungsten target concept, the neutrons are captured by the circulating He-3, thus producing tritium; in the lead target concept, the tritium is produced by neutron capture by Li-6 in a surrounding lithium-aluminum blanket. This report also provides information to support the PEIS including construction and operational resource needs, waste generation, and potential routine and accidental releases of radioactive material. The focus of the report is on the impacts of a facility that will produce 3/8th of the baseline goal of tritium. However, some information is provided on the impacts of APT facilities that would produce smaller quantities.

  13. Accelerator production of tritium activities at the Savannah River Site

    The Savannah River site (SRS) has been chosen as the site to host the accelerator production of tritium (APT). This facility, which will produce tritium for national defense purposes, is a natural extension of the site's original mission. All of the tritium for U.S. weapons needs has been produced at SRS in the heavy water reactors (now shut down) that operated until 1988. Much of the tritium-handling infrastructure still exists at SRS, and the tritium recycling and purification facilities are new and fully operational. This paper summarizes the reasons for the choice of the site and describes some of the early SRS efforts to learn the new technology, to weave into it a strong operations/production ethic, and to prepare the site to host the APT

  14. Radiological Hazard of Spallation Products in Accelerator-Driven System

    The central issue underlying this paper is related to elucidating the hazard of radioactive spallation products that might be an important factor affecting the design option of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). Hazard analysis based on the concept of Annual Limit on Intake identifies alpha-emitting isotopes of rare earths (REs) (dysprosium, gadolinium, and samarium) as the dominant contributors to the overall toxicity of traditional (W, Pb, Pb-Bi) targets. The matter is addressed from several points of view: code validation to simulate their yields, choice of material for the neutron producing targets, and challenging the beam type. The paper quantitatively determines the domain in which the toxicity of REs exceeds that of polonium activation products broadly discussed now in connection with advertising lead-bismuth technology for the needs of ADSs

  15. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  16. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  17. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  18. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc.

  19. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. (TFD)

  20. Accelerator

    The invention claims equipment for stabilizing the position of the front covers of the accelerator chamber in cyclic accelerators which significantly increases accelerator reliability. For stabilizing, it uses hydraulic cushions placed between the electromagnet pole pieces and the front chamber covers. The top and the bottom cushions are hydraulically connected. The cushions are disconnected and removed from the hydraulic line using valves. (J.P.)

  1. Highly Productive Application Development with ViennaCL for Accelerators

    Rupp, K.; Weinbub, J.; Rudolf, F.

    2012-12-01

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) for the acceleration of general purpose computations has become very attractive over the last years, and accelerators based on many integrated CPU cores are about to hit the market. However, there are discussions about the benefit of GPU computing when comparing the reduction of execution times with the increased development effort [1]. To counter these concerns, our open-source linear algebra library ViennaCL [2,3] uses modern programming techniques such as generic programming in order to provide a convenient access layer for accelerator and GPU computing. Other GPU-accelerated libraries are primarily tuned for performance, but less tailored to productivity and portability: MAGMA [4] provides dense linear algebra operations via a LAPACK-comparable interface, but no dedicated matrix and vector types. Cusp [5] is closest in functionality to ViennaCL for sparse matrices, but is based on CUDA and thus restricted to devices from NVIDIA. However, no convenience layer for dense linear algebra is provided with Cusp. ViennaCL is written in C++ and uses OpenCL to access the resources of accelerators, GPUs and multi-core CPUs in a unified way. On the one hand, the library provides iterative solvers from the family of Krylov methods, including various preconditioners, for the solution of linear systems typically obtained from the discretization of partial differential equations. On the other hand, dense linear algebra operations are supported, including algorithms such as QR factorization and singular value decomposition. The user application interface of ViennaCL is compatible to uBLAS [6], which is part of the peer-reviewed Boost C++ libraries [7]. This allows to port existing applications based on uBLAS with a minimum of effort to ViennaCL. Conversely, the interface compatibility allows to use the iterative solvers from ViennaCL with uBLAS types directly, thus enabling code reuse beyond CPU-GPU boundaries. Out-of-the-box support

  2. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments - NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) - are reviewed.

  3. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the ν flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted later with real measurements. In this approach differential hadron cross sections are used which, in turn, are measured in ancillary hadron production experiments. The approach is certainly model dependent because it requires an extrapolation to different incident nucleon momenta assuming xF scaling as well as extrapolation between materials having different atomic numbers. In the second approach one uses a hadron production yields off a real target exploited in the neutrino beamline. Yields of neutrino parent hadrons are parametrized at the surface of the target, thus one avoids to trace the particle interaction history inside the target. As in the case of the first approach, a dedicated ancillary experiment is mandatory. Recent results from the hadron production experiments – NA61/SHINE at CERN (measurements for T2K) and MIPP at Fermilab (measurements for NuMI) – are reviewed

  4. Applications of radioisotopes in agriculture

    India has large population which is engaged in agriculture or related activities. With many agro-climatic zones, diversity in crops and traditional largely plant food based diets, there is need to meet these and increase agricultural production in the face of increasing constraints. Radiations and radioisotopes can contribute significantly to these developments. Mutation breeding is very useful technique in Indian context. Basic technique can be applied where a radiation source or irradiation service and facility to grow few thousand plants are available. Radiation processing can save the valuable food which is subject to spoilage by microbes and insects. Value addition by export is possible by meeting the quarantine and hygienisation conditions

  5. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  6. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  7. Industry benefits from radioisotopes

    The International Atomic Energy Agency since its inception has always sought to promote the industrial use of radioisotopes. Among other ways, it has arranged scientific conferences on various aspects of the question, and has selected and published general information. Industry's attitude to any innovation, however, is the same the world over - viz. does it pay? The Agency, therefore, decided to collect information on the economic benefits derived from the use of radioisotopes in industry, described in terms of 'savings', It arranged for an international survey of these benefits, and at the same time for the collection of information on how radioisotopes are being utilized today. In April 1962 the Agency invited selected Member States to participate in the survey, and in response national governments collected detailed information from industrial organizations in their countries in the fields of prospecting, mining and manufacturing. The radioisotope techniques were grouped under the heads of radioisotope gauging, industrial radiography, ionization applications, tracing, massive irradiation and miscellaneous applications. The national reports from the participating countries recently reached the Agency, which is preparing a comprehensive report on radioisotope use and economics. In order to assess the contents of the various reports and to establish the best means of interpreting and presenting the material, the Agency convened a Study Group in Vienna from 16 to 20 March 1964. About 60 participants from Member States and international organizations discussed the reports, the latest developments in isotope utilization, and how the use of isotopes in industry could be further encouraged. The survey was prepared with care, as there have been few precedents to guide such an investigation on such a scale. Although its main purpose is to make an economic assessment, it has necessarily had to start with the consideration of techniques, and information was collected both

  8. PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS OF NEUTRONS USING PARTICLE ACCELERATORS

    David L. Chichester

    2009-11-01

    Advances in neutron science have gone hand in hand with the development and of particle accelerators from the beginning of both fields of study. Early accelerator systems were developed simply to produce neutrons, allowing scientists to study their properties and how neutrons interact in matter, but people quickly realized that more tangible uses existed too. Today the diversity of applications for industrial accelerator-based neutron sources is high and so to is the actual number of instruments in daily use is high, and they serve important roles in the fields where they're used. This chapter presents a technical introduction to the different ways particle accelerators are used to produce neutrons, an historical overview of the early development of neutron-producing particle accelerators, a description of some current industrial accelerator systems, narratives of the fields where neutron-producing particle accelerators are used today, and comments on future trends in the industrial uses of neutron producing particle accelerators.

  9. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  10. Which way radioisotopes?

    Sion, N.

    2011-03-15

    The cancellation of the MAPLES program and the impending retirement of the NRU reactor in 2016 (all utilizing Highly Enriched Uranium HEU for their targets) plus the rigours of non proliferation treaties, has created an increasingly short supply of radioisotopes. Alternate pathways must be found, even created, to maintain the supply of radioisotopes i.e. Mo-99 (decaying into Tc-99m) as well as to provide the several other types of isotopes used in nuclear medicine in order to maintain Canada's leadership in science, innovation and public health. Medical isotopes help locate cancers with precision, therapeutically treat cancers, and provide physicians the diagnostic tools to save lives. (author)

  11. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  12. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  16. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  17. Development and selection of fungal and bacterial mutants using ionizing radiation and radioisotopes for improved enzyme production (cellulase and coagulase)

    Ultraviolet and gamma radiations, chemical mutagens, and combinations of chemical and physical mutagens were used in order to obtain mutants of Bacillus mesentericus and Trichoderma viridae with a higher production of coagulase and cellulase, respectively. It was possible to isolate mutant strains, with enzyme activity increased by a factor of 2 and 3

  18. Radioisotopes in education

    The use of radioisotopes and nuclear techniques can in many cases greatly contribute to the value of teaching. With these techniques it is often possible to introduce demonstrations or experiments which explain phenomena otherwise difficult to understand. The choice of the program must be adapted to the teaching level. This requires previous training of the teachers and the provision of basic equipment. (author)

  19. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  20. Radioisotopic heat source

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 15700F to about 17200F for about one h

  1. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources; Rendimiento de un reactor quimico-nuclear con fuentes radioisotopicas gamma

    Anguis T, C

    1975-07-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  2. Accelerator and detector physics at the Bern medical cyclotron and its beam transport line

    Auger Martin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cyclotron laboratory for radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research at the Bern University Hospital (Inselspital is based on an 18-MeV proton accelerator, equipped with a specifically conceived 6-m long external beam line, ending in a separate bunker. This facility allows performing daily positron emission tomography (PET radioisotope production and research activities running in parallel. Some of the latest developments on accelerator and detector physics are reported. They encompass novel detectors for beam monitoring and studies of low current beams.

  3. Radioisotope producer reactor: technical report 1991

    This report describes activities in the year of 1991 related the Project of a New Conception for the Radioisotope Producer reactor (RPR). Results as well as proposals for future studies are presented. Chapter 1 describes investigations performed for the conception of the reactor core. Chapters 2 and 3 contain preliminary results of thermal-hydraulic calculations and accident analysis respectively. Chapter 4 describes the aspects of production of 99 Mo in the RPR, concluding the body of the paper. This initial effort will continue with the Radioisotope Producer Reactor Conceptual Project, to be carried out during the year of 92. (author)

  4. Calculation of proton-induced reactions on Tellurium isotopes below 60 MeV for medical radioisotope production

    The 123Te(p,n)123I, 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(p,2n)123I reactions, among the many reaction channels opened, are the major reactions under consideration from a diagnostic purpose because reaction residuals as the gamma emitters are used for most radiopharmaceutical applications involving radioiodine. Based on the available experimental data, the absorption cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions of the proton-induced nuclear reaction on Te isotopes below 60 NeV are calculated using the optical model code APMNK. The transmission coefficients of neutron, proton, deuteron, trition and alpha particles are calculated by CUNF code and are fed into the GNASH code. By adjusting level density parameters and the pair correction values of some reaction channels, as well as the composite nucleus state density constants of the pre-equilibrium model, the production cross sections and energy-angle correlated spectra of the secondary light particles, as well as production cross sections and energy distributions of heavy recoils and gamma rays are calculated by the statistical plus pre-equilibrium model code GNAH. The calculated results are analysed and compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR. The optimized global optical model parameters give overall agreement with the experimental data over both the entire energy range and all tellurium isotopes. (author)

  5. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:3H, 14Ca, 32P, 35S, 38Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198Au, 134Cs, 131I, 86Rb, 65Zn, 59Fe, 45Ca, 24Na, 22Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  6. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  7. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required

  8. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  9. Occupational radiation doses of workers at Pakistan research reactor-I (parr-1) and at radioisotope production plant (ripp) during 1995 to 1999

    Radiation doses of workers working at Pakistan Research Reactor -I (PARR-I) and Radioisotope Production Plant (RIPP) during the period of 1995 to 1999 have been analysed. It is observed that annual average effective dose values per worker during this period are quite low and well under the limit of 20 mSv/y averaged over a period of five consecutive years. The highest annual dose received by any worker during this period was 13.2 mSv at PARR-I and 31.4 mSv at RIPP. Both are below the maximum dose limit of 50 mSv/worker during any single year over a period of five years. The highest accumulated dose received by any worker in the reported period was 30 mSv and 56.1 mSv at PARR-I and RIPP respectively. These values are less than the limit of 100 mSv that should not be exceeded during five years. None of the workers at both places exceeded any relevant dose limit. The probability of excess cancer risk due to annual average dose values lies in the range of 15 to 151 cancers in a population of one million, which is relatively very low as compared to actual deaths per million that lie in the range of 373 to 994 in various industries. Thus, it is concluded that the PARR-I and RIPP operation is radiologically safe and the workers are well trained and aware of the radiation protection procedures. (author)

  10. Medical Isotope Production With The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Facility

    In order to meet US tritium needs to maintain the nuclear weapons deterrent, the Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing a dual track program to provide a new tritium source. A record of decision is planned for late in 1998 to select either the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) or the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) as the technology for new tritium production in the next century. To support this decision, an APT Project was undertaken to develop an accelerator design capable of producing 3 kg of tritium per year by 2007 (START I requirements). The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was selected to lead this effort with Burns and Roe Enterprises, Inc. (BREI) / General Atomics (GA) as the prime contractor for design, construction, and commissioning of the facility. If chosen in the downselect, the facility will be built at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and operated by the SRS Maintenance and Operations (M ampersand O) contractor, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), with long-term technology support from LANL. These three organizations (LANL, BREI/GA, and WSRC) are working together under the direction of the APT National Project Office which reports directly to the DOE Office of Accelerator Production which has program authority and responsibility for the APT Project

  11. Production of molecular sideband radioisotope beams at CERN-ISOLDE using a Helicon-type plasma ion source

    Kronberger, M., E-mail: matthias.kronberger@gmx.at [European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, Survontie 9, FI-40014 (Finland); Gottberg, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia CSIC, E28006 Madrid (Spain); Mendonca, T.M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); IFIMUP and IN – Institute of Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, PT-4169-007 (Portugal); Ramos, J.P. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 (Switzerland); Seiffert, C.; Suominen, P.; Stora, T. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We present a novel radioactive ion source concept for nuclear physics experiments. • Molecular sideband beams are produced by an RF discharge in a magnetized plasma. • Ionization efficiencies of 2.5% and 4% were measured for CO{sup +} and Ar, respectively. • Using a HfO{sub 2} fibre target, 17-CO{sup +} was produced for the first time at ISOLDE. • Up to 50 × gain was achieved by using a nanostructured CaO target and He as buffer gas. -- Abstract: In order to account for the increasing demand for strong molecular beams for nuclear physics experiments at ISOLDE, a new radioactive ion source concept based on an RF discharge in a magnetized plasma was developed at CERN. Experimental studies at the ISOLDE offline separator show that the optimum conditions for CO{sup +} and CO{sub 2}{sup +} ion production are given when the ion source is operated with He plasma, in line with expectations based on their electron impact ionization cross-sections. At optimum tuning, ionization efficiencies of 2.5% and 4% were measured for CO{sup +} and Ar{sup +}, respectively. The capability of the Helicon ion source prototype for ISOL operation was evaluated during two online runs at the General Purpose Separator of CERN-ISOLDE, yielding the first observation of {sup 17}CO{sup +} with a HfO{sub 2} fibre target, and a more than 50-fold enhancement of the {sup 10}CO{sup +} and {sup 11}CO{sup +} yields with a nanostructured CaO target and an upgraded ion source prototype.

  12. Radioisotopes and rice

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  13. Radio-isotope converter

    Due to the surface power density required for thermoelectric and thermionic converters, available radioactive sources are surveyed and listed. Curves of specific minimum diameter versus thermal flux density are given. 210Po and 242Cm appear to be suitable for direct thermionic when alpha emitters such as 238Pu and 244Cm are still suitable for thermoelectric conversion. This mode will also work with beta emitters 170Tm, 90Sr, 144Ce and 137Cs. Some thermoelectric radioisotope heated converters are suggested. (authors)

  14. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  15. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Developing an environmental compliance program for accelerator production of tritium

    This paper addresses the development of an environmental program for a large proposed federal project currently in the preliminary design phase, namely, the accelerator production of tritium (APT) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This project is complicated not only by its size ($3.5 to $4.5 billion) but also by its technical complexity and one-of-a-kind nature. This is further complicated by the fact that government projects are driven by budgets subject to public pressures and annual Congressional fiscal considerations, whereas private companies are driven by profits. The measure of success for a federal project such as the APT is based on level of public support, not profits. Finally, there are not too many equivalent environmental programs that could be used as models, and benchmarking is nearly impossible. Forming an environmental program during the conceptual design phase of this large federal project included the formation of a core environmental working group (EWG). The group has membership from all major project organizations with a charter formally recognized by the project director. The envelope for traditional environmental work for the APT project has been stretched to include teaming with management in the establishment of project goals and direction. The APT EWG was set up organizationally to include several subgroups or teams that do the real work of assessing, establishing the regulatory framework, and then developing a compliance program. Setting aside the organizational difficulties of selecting the right team leads and members, each team was tasked with developing a charter, plan, and schedule. Since then, each team has developed an appropriate level of supporting documentation to address its particular issues and requirements

  17. On production and acceleration of polarized heavy ions at tandem electrostatic accelerator (TEA)

    The possibilities of polarized experiments with heavy ions on TEA at terminal voltage 7.5MV are discussed. The scheme of polarized ion source (PIS) of 14N and its injection into the accelerator is described. The data energies at accelerator output and target nucleus maximum charges for nuclear reactions of above Coulomb barrier were obtained. The optics of ion movement from PIS to the target and spin dynamics calculation results of 14N ions moving in the same channel on axial and the most remote side trajectory is analyzed. The most suitable variants of transportation and acceleration of polarized heavy ions for providing the measurement optimal conditions in target were determined. 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Linear induction accelerators for fusion and neutron production

    Linear induction accelerators (LIA) with pulsed power drives can produce high energy, intense beams or electrons, protons, or heavy ions with megawatts of average power. The continuing development of highly reliable LIA components permits the use such accelerators as cost-effective beam sources to drive fusion pellets with heavy ions, to produce intense neutron fluxes using proton beams, and to generate with electrons microwave power to drive magnetic fusion reactors and high gradient, rf-linacs

  19. Robotics development for the accelerator production of tritium

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) has been proposed as the source of tritium for the United States in the next century. The APT will accelerate protons that will strike replaceable tungsten target modules. The tungsten target modules generate neutrons that interact with blanket modules and other modules where 3He gas is turned into tritium. The target and blanket modules are predicted to require replacement every one to ten years, depending on their location. The target modules may weigh as much as 85 tons (77 metric tons) each. All of the modules will be contained in a target/blanket vessel, which is in a shielded facility. The spent modules will be radioactive, so that remote replacement of the modules will be required. The modules will be 27 feet (8.23 m) high and the top of the modules, where most of the remote operations will occur, will be approximately 20 feet (6.1 m) down into the target/blanket vessel. The immense weights of the modules, the long reaches required and the requirement for completely remote operation of at least part of the operation, make this a unique and challenging task. Initially, manual fastening and unfastening of the jumper flanges on the modules as well as manual valve operation was proposed followed by remote replacement of the modules. This manual/remote operation was demonstrated with a computer-generated, dynamic, 3-D simulation. After review of the simulation, this operation was changed to be a complete remote operation. Complete remote operation brought about the concept of a remotely operated bridge crane and a remotely operated, bridge-mounted, manipulator to perform the entire replacement operation. A second simulation showed the intended operation of the remote concept and was instrumental in developing the requirements for the equipment and end effectors for this concept. The concept included development of end effectors for the following tasks: flange nut fastening and unfastening, flange lifting and latch

  20. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  1. TESLA accelerator installation: development of accelerator methods and technologies

    The TESLA Accelerator Installation is a multipurpose facility for production, acceleration and use of ions consisting of a light ion source, a heavy ion source, an isochronous cyclotron and a number of experimental channels. Its construction had begun in December 1989 and it was stopped temporarily in June 1998, after completing about three quarters of the planned jobs. The construction of the facility included the development of a number of accelerator methods and technologies. We shall present in this lecture the developed methods and technologies related to large electromagnets and systems for precise moving of their parts, systems for precise measurement of magnetic fields, radiofrequency resonators and amplifier chains, large high-vacuum chambers, cooling, control and safety systems of complex experimental set-ups, and production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  2. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  3. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  5. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Pedrosa de Lima, Joao Jose [Servico de Biofisica/Biomatematica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    1998-11-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in medicine for diagnosis, either in vivo or in vitro, for therapeutics and also for investigation purposes. Nuclear medicine (Nm) studies in vivo are used to detect minimal amounts of radiopharmaceuticals in organs (the morphology) and their course over time (the function), resulting from physico-chemical interactions of the tracers within the body, in the sequence of specific physiological processes. In vitro applications of radioisotopes have become a most important tool in biochemical analysis. Therapeutic uses of radioisotopes cover from external gamma-ray sources in teleradiotherapy to direct cell irradiation in metabolic therapy. The information, which is conveyed by NM, is essentially metabolic and differs from that supplied by the other imaging techniques, which is basically structural. This quality is important in early detection and diagnosis. Efforts have steadily been made to bring NM imaging as close as possible to an ideal medical diagnostic tool: non-invasive and allowing studies yielding functional, morphological, three-dimensional and quantitative information simultaneously. Of the two tomographic techniques available in NM, positron emission tomography (PET) is probably closer to this goal than single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). High-contrast functional images of the dynamics of labelled molecules (native or functionally similar) that are metabolized by the organs under investigation, are obtained with these techniques. Nuclear medicine has progressed as a result of advances in four strategic areas: the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the technology and reliability of detectors, the capacity for modelling the metabolic fate of the inputs in the biological systems, and finally the ability to extract and process data. (author)

  6. Radioisotope powered light sources

    Case, F. N.; Remini, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed.

  7. Radioisotope powered light sources

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed

  8. Lifetime Testing 700 MHz RF Windows for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Program

    Cummings, K.A.; Borrego, M. D.; DeBaca, J.; Harrison, J S; Rodriguez, M. B.; Roybal, D. M.; Roybal, W. T.; Ruggles, S. C.; Torrez, P. A.; White, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input-power couplers for accelerators. To understand more about the reliability of high power RF windows, lifetime testing was done on 700 MHz coaxial RF windows for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. The RF windows, made by Marconi Applied Technologies (formerly EEV), were tested at 800 kW for an extended period of time. Changes in the ref...

  9. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  10. Waste minimization in the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program

    Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. Recent years have brought pressure to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. Substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users

  11. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  12. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  14. Investigation of neutron production by pyroelectric ion acceleration

    Highly sensitive experiments for direct Dark Matter searches, for example the CRESST experiment, are calibrated using neutrons. For this purpose one usually uses radioactive isotopes or tabletop linear accelerators. Both methods are not desirable in a CRESST-like experiment, because a radioactive source could cause contamination and the high voltage power supplies necessary for small accelerators disturb the detectors and electronics because of which measuring is no longer possible. A solution would be the high voltage generation using a pyroelectric crystal such as Lithiumtantalate. In this work it has been shown, that Lithiumtantalate generates high voltages of above 120,000 volt. Using this high voltage for field enhancement on nanotips, a sufficiently high field strength can be generated to allow field and tunneling ionization of deuterium molecules near the tip. If the high voltage has the correct polarity, the ions can be accelerated towards a deuterated target, for example deuterated polyethylene (CD2). On the target D(D,n)3He fusion is expected to take place with an energy dependent probability, producing monoenergetic neutrons with a kinetic energy of 2.45 MeV. The theoretical limit for neutrons produced with 100 kV acceleration voltage is almost 200 per second, however a realistic calculation resulted in about 1-10 neutrons per second. During this work a prototype of a pyroelectric accelerator was built and characterized. It was shown that a pyroelectric high voltage could be generated reliably with high reproducibility. Tungsten nanotips and carbon nanotubes were investigated with respect to their ionization properties. An ion current up to 1.2 nA was measured on target. A neutron detector system has been set up allowing to detect extremely low neutron fluxes generated in the accelerator. The absolute detection efficiency for neutrons created by the fusion reaction is presently at 2.5%. With suitable analysis tools which were developed during this work

  15. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    Nunes, Rafael C.

    2016-04-01

    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the nonrelativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state (EoS) less than ‑ 1. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

  16. Connecting inflation with late cosmic acceleration by particle production

    Nunes, Rafael C

    2016-01-01

    A continuous process of creation of particles is investigated as a possible connection between the inflationary stage with late cosmic acceleration. In this model, the inflationary era occurs due to a continuous and fast process of creation of relativistic particles, and the recent accelerating phase is driven by the non-relativistic matter creation from the gravitational field acting on the quantum vacuum, which finally results in an effective equation of state less than $-1$. Thus, explaining recent results in favor of a phantom dynamics without the need of any modifications in the gravity theory has been proposed. Finally, we confront the model with recent observational data of type Ia Supernova, history of the Hubble parameter, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the cosmic microwave background.

  17. Hadron production measurements to constrain accelerator neutrino beams

    Korzenev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A precise prediction of expected neutrino fluxes is required for a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment. The flux is used to measure neutrino cross sections at the near detector, while at the far detector it provides an estimate of the expected signal for the study of neutrino oscillations. In the talk several approaches to constrain the neutrino flux are presented. The first is the traditional one when an interaction chain for the neutrino parent hadrons is stored to be weighted lat...

  18. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m (99mTc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 (99Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  19. Development of a auto-loading system for radioisotope liquor

    A loading system with computer distant control for radioisotope liquor is developed. It's arm to avoid close operating to the radioactive in the radioisotope liquor. Microcontroller is used as control center, step motor and peristaltic pump as manipulator in this system. The product process is performed with real-time measurement and control. The system has many function including data storage, data query, printing, operator information management, et al. (authors)

  20. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    Neilly, Brian; Allen, Sarah; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representative...

  1. The status of the tandem accelerator ANTARES

    Fallon, J.; Boldeman, J.; Cohen, D.; Tuniz, C.; Ellis, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The ANTARES facility at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories has now operated for 4 years. A research program in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, lon Beam Analysis and small scale radioisotope production has been pursued. During the same period, the accelerator has been significantly upgraded from the configuration which existed at Rutgers University, NJ, USA, before shipment to Australia in 1989. AMS measurement techniques of several long lived isotopes have been developed for environmental, industry and biomedical applications. Both the experimental program and the engineering developments are discussed further.

  2. Transmutation of fission products in reactors and accelerator-driven systems

    Energy flows and mass flows in several scenarios are considered. Economical and safety aspects of the transmutation scenarios are compared. It is difficult to find a sound motivation for the transmutation of fission products with accelerator-driven systems. If there would be any hesitation in transmuting fission products in nuclear reactors, there would be an even stronger hesitation to use accelerator-driven systems, mainly because of their lower energy efficiency and their poor cost effectiveness. The use of accelerator-driven systems could become a 'meaningful' option only if nuclear energy would be banished completely. (orig./HP)

  3. Separation of radioisotopes from fuel reprocessing waste

    The technology development of radioisotope production from fuel reprocessing high level wastes in Radioisotope Production Division is described. To develop the separation method for partitioning as the waste management and production of useful radioisotopes, the separation of 90Sr, 137Cs and rare earth elements by solvent extraction and ion-exchange has been mainly studied. Ion-exchange resin and HDEHP as the extracting agents were irradiated with a 60Co radiation source to examine their radiation resistances; Both are satisfactory in this respect. Strontium-90 and 137Cs could be separated in 99% purity from a 10l waste solution (about 2 Ci) by ion-exchange using nitric acid as the only eluant. A system of solvent extraction and ion-exchange to treat large volume of the waste was constructed in trial, and its cold test was carried out. The results were satisfactory, with a few points for further improvement. The scheme as it is can be scaled up for an experiment with about 1 KCi of the waste. (auth.)

  4. Status of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) project

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used in all United States nuclear weapons. Because the half-life of tritium is short, 12.3 years, it must be periodically replenished. To provide a new source, the United States Department of Energy is sponsoring conceptual design and engineering development and demonstration activities for a plant that will use a high-power proton linear accelerator to produce tritium. This paper presents an overview of activities planned or underway to support that work. 2 refs., 4 figs

  5. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  6. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99/sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  7. The application of spectrographic analysis to the radioisotope production control. II. Analysis of calcium-45, scandium-46, nickel-63, and copper-64 solutions

    Semi-quantitative and quantitative determinations of both the radioactive and the target element in each radioisotope are described. The copper-spark technique was used except for Cu determinations, that need silver or.graphite electro des. Inter-element effects and their compensation through the use of Bi, 6a, In, Ho, Pd, TI and Y as reference elements was examined. For the determination of Ca in Ca-45 samples, Ba, La, Li and Sr were also tested. Good results are achieved with Li for Ca, Y for Sc,Ti and Ni, and either In or Y for Cu and Zn. (Author) 7 refs

  8. The search for new radioisotopes

    Phosphorus-30 was the first artificial radioisotope, it was produced by F. and I. Joliot-Curie in 1934, since then 2460 new nuclei have been discovered. This document reviews the radioisotopes known and the methods used to separate them. The authors describe the discovery of new radioisotopes such as Nickel-78 produced in the fission of high energy uranium ions impinging on a lead target (IPN-GSI collaboration) and the discovery of Nickel-48 by a team CENBG-Ganil. All this experience is useful for the processing of nuclear wastes by using transmutation. (A.C.)

  9. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  10. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  11. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  12. Accelerated pentose utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum for accelerated production of lysine, glutamate, ornithine and putrescine

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Gopinath, Vipin; Lindner, Steffen N.; Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Because of their abundance in hemicellulosic wastes arabinose and xylose are an interesting source of carbon for biotechnological production processes. Previous studies have engineered several Corynebacterium glutamicum strains for the utilization of arabinose and xylose, however, with inefficient xylose utilization capabilities. To improve xylose utilization, different xylose isomerase genes were tested in C. glutamicum. The gene originating from Xanthomonas campestris was shown to h...

  13. Environmental implications of accelerated gasohol production: preliminary assessment

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses the environmental impacts of increasing US production of fuel ethanol by 330 million gallons per year in the 1980 to 1981 time frame in order to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States. Alternate biomass feedstocks are examined and corn is selected as the most logical feedstock, based on its availability and cost. Three corn conversion processes that could be used to attain the desired 1980 to 1981 production are identified; fermentation plants that use a feedstock of starch and wastes from an adjacent corn refining plants are found to have environmental and economic advantages. No insurmountable environmental problems can be achieved using current technology; the capital and operating costs of this control are estimated. If ethanol production is increased substantially after 1981, the environmentally acceptable use or disposal of stillage, a liquid by-product of fermentation, could become a serious problem.

  14. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  15. Accelerated pentose utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum for accelerated production of lysine, glutamate, ornithine and putrescine.

    Meiswinkel, Tobias M; Gopinath, Vipin; Lindner, Steffen N; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Wendisch, Volker F

    2013-03-01

    Because of their abundance in hemicellulosic wastes arabinose and xylose are an interesting source of carbon for biotechnological production processes. Previous studies have engineered several Corynebacterium glutamicum strains for the utilization of arabinose and xylose, however, with inefficient xylose utilization capabilities. To improve xylose utilization, different xylose isomerase genes were tested in C. glutamicum. The gene originating from Xanthomonas campestris was shown to have the highest effect, resulting in growth rates of 0.14 h(-1), followed by genes from Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis and Escherichia coli. To further increase xylose utilization different xylulokinase genes were expressed combined with X. campestris xylose isomerase gene. All combinations further increased growth rates of the recombinant strains up to 0.20 h(-1) and moreover increased biomass yields. The gene combination of X. campestris xylose isomerase and C. glutamicum xylulokinase was the fastest growing on xylose and compared with the previously described strain solely expressing E. coli xylose isomerase gene delivered a doubled growth rate. Productivity of the amino acids glutamate, lysine and ornithine, as well as the diamine putrescine was increased as well as final titres except for lysine where titres remained unchanged. Also productivity in medium containing rice straw hydrolysate as carbon source was increased. PMID:23164409

  16. Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope...

  17. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  18. Lifetime Testing 700 MHz RF Windows for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Program

    Cummings, K A; De Baca, J; Harrison, J S; Rodríguez, M B; Roybal, D M; Roybal, W T; Ruggles, S C; Torrez, P A; White, G D

    2000-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) windows are historically a point where failure occurs in input-power couplers for accelerators. To understand more about the reliability of high power RF windows, lifetime testing was done on 700 MHz coaxial RF windows for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. The RF windows, made by Marconi Applied Technologies (formerly EEV), were tested at 800 kW for an extended period of time. Changes in the reflected power, vacuum, air outlet temperature, and surface temperature were monitored over time. The results of the life testing are summarized.

  19. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  20. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre-commissioning benchmarking. Gamma

  1. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    Full text: Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre

  2. Medical application of radioisotopes

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  3. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  4. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41Ar, 79Kr or 85Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products,140La and 24Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  5. Subsystem for control of isotope production with linear electron accelerator

    Karasyov, S P; Uvarov, V L

    2001-01-01

    In this report the high-current LINAC subsystem for diagnostic and monitoring the basic technological parameters of isotope production (energy flux of Bremsstrahlung photons and absorbed doze in the target,target activity, temperature and consumption of water cooling the converter and target) is described.T he parallel printer port (LPT) of the personal computer is proposed to use as an interface with the measurement channels.

  6. Biofuels and Food Security: Implications of an Accelerated Biofuels Production

    Fischer, G; Hizsnyik, E.; Prieler, S.; Shah, M; van Velthuizen, H.T.

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels development has received increased attention in recent times as a means to mitigate climate change, alleviate global energy concerns and foster rural development. Its perceived importance in these three areas has seen biofuels feature prominently on the international agenda. Nevertheless, the rapid growth of biofuels production has raised many concerns among experts worldwide, in particular with regard to sustainability issues and the threat posed to food security. The UN Secretary G...

  7. Accelerator Production and Separations for High Specific Activity Rhenium-186

    Jurisson, Silvia S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Wilbur, D. Scott [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Tungsten and osmium targets were evaluated for the production of high specific activity rhenium-186. Rhenium-186 has potential applications in radiotherapy for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including targeting with monoclonal antibodies and peptides. Methods were evaluated using tungsten metal, tungsten dioxide, tungsten disulfide and osmium disulfide. Separation of the rhenium-186 produced and recycling of the enriched tungsten-186 and osmium-189 enriched targets were developed.

  8. Accelerator production of the positron emitter zirconium-89

    Highlights: ► We present a method for zirconium-89 production using a low-energy cyclotron. ► Excitation functions and theoretical yields of 89Zr via several reactions were calculated. ► Deposition of Y2O3 on Cu substrate was carried out via by the sedimentation method. ► Production yield of about 60.77 MBq 89Zr per μA h was experimentally obtained. - Abstract: We here presented a method for zirconium-89 production using a low-energy cyclotron. The half-life of 89Zr (T1/2 = 78.4 h) is suitable for immunoPET. 89Zr was produced via the 89Y(p, n)89Zr nuclear process at 20 μA current and 15 → 5 MeV protons beam (20 min). Yield of about 60.77 MBq 89Zr per μAh was experimentally obtained. Also, excitation functions and theoretical yields via 89Y(p, n)89Zr, 89Y(d, 2n)89Zr, natSr(α, xn)89Zr and 90Zr(n, 2n)89Zr reactions were calculated by EMPIRE (version 3.1 Rivoli), ALICE/ASH (pre-equilibrium and equilibrium) and TALYS-1.26 (direct, pre-equilibrium, and equilibrium) codes and TENDL-2010 database. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry as a bioanalytical tool for nutritional research

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1997-09-01

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is a mass spectrometric method of detecting long-lived radioisotopes without regard to their decay products or half-life. The technique is normally applied to geochronology, but recently has been developed for bioanalytical tracing. AMS detects isotope concentrations to parts per quadrillion, quantifying labeled biochemicals to attomole levels in milligram- sized samples. Its advantages over non-isotopeic and stable isotope labeling methods are reviewed and examples of analytical integrity, sensitivity, specificity, and applicability are provided.

  10. Preparation of an annual report for a consolidated radioisotope licence

    A consolidated radioisotope licence is a single license issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to an institution having many users of radioactive materials. The licence is issued when the institution has fulfilled the requirements set by the AECB and has implemented policies and procedures which will ensure the maintenance of an effective radiation safety program. The consolidated licence is retained only if the results of AECB inspections are satisfactory -- or remedial action is taken promptly -- and if the institution reports regularly about the status of its radiation safety program. One aspect of this reporting procedure is an annual report. This guide describes the information that the AECB requires in the annual report. The guide applies primarily to universities and research institutions where a wide variety of radioisotope uses take place. The guide does not affect most other institutions or facilities, either because the nature and extent of their operations with radioactive materials do not lend themselves to consolidated licensing or because they are not licensed by the Radioisotopes and Transportation Division. (For example, this guide does not apply to reactors, to accelerators, or to waste management or uranium mining or refining facilities.) The information in the annual report should be specific to the consolidated radioisotope licence. Incidents, staff exposures, and waste associated with accelerators, research reactors, and waste management facilities should be excluded from this report unless they affected activities under the consolidated licence

  11. Symposium on isotope production and applications

    This report contains the papers delivered at the symposium on isotope production and applications, held at Pelindaba, Pretoria, South Africa. The following topics were discussed: facilities for the production of radioisotopes at Pelindaba; the role of the chemist in the development and production of radioisotopic preparations; quality control of radioisotopic products; applications of radioisotopes in medicine; concepts and current status of nuclear imaging; industrial and research applications of radioisotopic tracers and radioisotopic radiation sources; radiation processing using intense radioisotopic radiation sources; a review of current and future radioisotope production activities at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research

  12. Characterization of Corrosion Products on Carbon Steel Exposed to Natural Weathering and to Accelerated Corrosion Tests

    Renato Altobelli Antunes; Rodrigo Uchida Ichikawa; Luis Gallego Martinez; Isolda Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the corrosion products formed on carbon steel plates submitted to atmospheric corrosion in urban and industrial atmospheres with those formed after accelerated corrosion tests. The corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were exposed to natural weathering in both atmospheres for nine months. The morphologies of the corrosion products were evaluated using scanning electron micr...

  13. LANL sunnyside experiment: Study of neutron production in accelerator-driven targets

    Measurements have been made of the neutron production in prototypic targets for accelerator driven systems. Studies were conducted on four target assemblies containing lead, lithium, tungsten, and a thorium-salt mixture. Integral data on total neutron production were obtained as well as more differential data on neutron leakage and neutron flux profiles in the blanket/moderator region. Data analysis on total neutron production is complete and shows excellent agreement with calculations using the LAHET/MCNP code system

  14. Reviews of accelerator science and technology

    Chou, Weiren

    2008-01-01

    Particle accelerators are a major invention of the 20th century. In the last eight decades, they have evolved enormously and have fundamentally changed the way we live, think and work. Accelerators are the most powerful microscopes for viewing the tiniest inner structure of cells, genes, molecules, atoms and their constituents such as protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and quarks. This opens up a whole new world for materials science, chemistry and molecular biology.Accelerators with megawatt beam power may ultimately solve a critical problem faced by our society, namely, the treatment of nuclear waste and the supply of an alternative type of energy. There are also tens of thousands of small accelerators all over the world. They are used every day for medical imaging, cancer therapy, radioisotope production, high-density chip-making, mass spectrometry, cargo x-ray/gamma-ray imaging, detection of explosives and illicit drugs, and weapons. This volume provides a comprehensive review of this driving and fas...

  15. Ashing vs. electric generation in accelerator driven system

    Accelerator Driven Systems have been conceived as an alternative for the processing of the radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants. These systems are formed by the coupling of a nuclear reactor - preferably a subcritical reactor - with a particle accelerator providing particles with energy in the order of the GeV. The long-lived fission products and actinides of the spent fuels are transformed by nuclear reactions in stable isotopes or in short-lived radioisotopes. The basic parameters for the electric energy production of the different systems are analysed. (author)

  16. Science opportunities at high power accelerators like APT

    This paper presents applications of high power RF proton linear accelerators to several fields. Radioisotope production is an area in which linacs have already provided new isotopes for use in medical and industrial applications. A new type of spallation neutron source, called a long-pulse spallation source (LPSS), is discussed for application to neutron scattering and to the production and use of ultra-cold neutrons (UCN). The concept of an accelerator-driven, transmutation of nuclear waste system, based on high power RF linac technology, is presented along with its impact on spent nuclear fuels

  17. New production of electric power when accelerating nuclear power phaseout

    This investigation states that it is possible to eliminate nuclear power to the beginning of the year 2000. In this case the time for planning and construction of large coal power plants with condenser turbines should be set at seven years. The production cost excluding fuel will be 0.12 to 0.19 SEK per kWh. Investment cost is estimated to 5 500 to 8 200 SEK per kW. When using wood chips the cost will be 0.30 SEK and 11 300 SEK, respectively. A large part of the increased cost will include substantial flue gas purification. The existing plant of Karlshamn should be maintained with a minimum of charges and extensions

  18. A 3He{sup +}{sup +} RFQ accelerator for the production of PET isotopes

    Pasquinelli, R.J.; E887 Collaboration

    1997-05-01

    Project status of the 3He{sup +}{sup +} 10.5 MeV RFQ Linear Accelerator for the production of PET isotopes will be presented. The accelerator design was begun in September of 1995 with a goal of completion and delivery of the accelerator to BRF in Shreveport, Louisiana by the summer of 1997. The design effort and construction is concentrated in Lab G on the Fermilab campus. Some of the high lights include a 25 mA peak current 3He` ion source, four RFQ accelerating stages that are powered by surplus Fermilab linac RF stations, a gas jet charge doubler, and a novel 540 degree bending Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT). The machine is designed to operate at 360 Hz repetition rate with a 2.5% duty cycle. The average beam current is expected to be 150-300 micro amperes electrical, 75- 150 micro amperes particle current.

  19. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  20. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas

  1. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    Jeong, Joonho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Chungyoung; Lee, Jongmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas.

  2. Radioisotope methods in environmental hydrogeology

    This book deals with the regularities of distribution of two radioisotopes, tritium and radiocarbon, in the ground water system as well as with the applications of their indicatory feature to solve problems of environmental hydrogeology. The concept and objectives of environmental hydrogeology, methodology of radioisotopic hydrosphere studies and evolution of hydrogeological processes by radioisotopic methods have been discussed. The experience gained from applying the isotope methods for environmental hydrogeology purposes in the Baltic Artesian Basin covering all the three Baltic states - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, as well as the Kaliningrad Region of Russia is generalized. This experience could be useful for specialists of other countries as well, especially those studying artesian basins of a platform type in the areas of former continental glaciers. 185 refs., 91 figs., 34 tabs

  3. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    Thisgaard, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development

  4. Accelerator based production of auger-electron-emitting isotopes for radionuclide therapy

    In this research project the focus has been on the identification and production of new, unconventional Auger-electron-emitting isotopes for targeted radionuclide therapy of cancer. Based on 1st principles dosimetry calculations on the subcellular level, the Auger-emitter 119Sb has been identified as a potent candidate for therapy. The corresponding imaging analogue 117Sb has been shown from planar scintigraphy and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to be suitable for SPECT-based dosimetry of a future Sb-labeled radiopharmaceutical. The production method of these radioisotopes has been developed using a low-energy cyclotron via the nuclear reactions 119Sn(p,n)119Sb and 117Sn(p,n)117Sb including measurements of the excitation function for the former reaction. Moreover, a new high-yield radiochemical separation method has been developed to allow the subsequent separation of the produced 119Sb from the enriched 119Sn target material with high radionuclidic- and chemical purity. A method that also allows efficient recovery of the 119Sn for recycling. To demonstrate the ability of producing therapeutic quantities of 119Sb and other radioisotopes for therapy with a low-energy cyclotron, two new 'High Power' cyclotron targets were developed in this study. The target development was primarily based on theoretical thermal modeling calculations using finite-element-analysis software. With these targets, I have shown that it will be possible to produce several tens of GBq of therapeutics isotopes (e.g. 119Sb or 64Cu) using the PETtrace cyclotron commonly found at the larger PET-centers in the hospitals. Finally, research in a new method to measure the radiotoxicity of Auger-emitters invitro using cellular microinjection has been carried out. The purpose of this method is to be able to experimentally evaluate and compare the potency of the new and unconventional Auger-emitters (e.g. 119Sb). However, due to experimental complications, the development of this

  5. Study of cerenkov radiation. Production of γ rays by electron accelerators

    This study is a critical comparison of the theories of Bremsstrahlung. Experimental results obtained by the production of γ radiation with electron accelerators are compared to the theoretical results in order to estimate the extent to which the various theories are valid. (author)

  6. Characterization of Corrosion Products on Carbon Steel Exposed to Natural Weathering and to Accelerated Corrosion Tests

    Renato Altobelli Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the corrosion products formed on carbon steel plates submitted to atmospheric corrosion in urban and industrial atmospheres with those formed after accelerated corrosion tests. The corrosion products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The specimens were exposed to natural weathering in both atmospheres for nine months. The morphologies of the corrosion products were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The main product found was lepidocrocite. Goethite and magnetite were also found on the corroded specimens but in lower concentrations. The results showed that the accelerated test based on the ASTM B117 procedure presented poor correlation with the atmospheric corrosion tests whereas an alternated fog/dry cycle combined with UV radiation exposure provided better correlation.

  7. Development of radioisotopes and radiation sources

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utilizing HANARO and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The Ir-192 NDT sources of more than 50 Ci, equivalent in activity, are now available in KAERI and covers more than 90 % of the nationwide demand. For the commercial supply of Ir-192 industrial source, we developed irradiation target for mass-production and automatic fabrication system. The developed IR-Rigs have been used in production of various radioisotope and radiation sources in IR 1, 2 and CT irradiation holes. A Loop-Batch system for the mass-production of I-125 has been developed and tested its reliability and safety.The separation of I-125 formed from irradiated xenon gas was performed by column chromatographic technique using platinum coated on copper(PCC) granules as an adsorbent. For the preparation of I-125 seed, the retention of iodine on a ceramic rod coated with silver nitrate as an iodine absorbent was studied. The production possibility of Sr-89 using 89Y(n,p) and 88Sr(n,γ) in HANARO has been estimated. A new distillation process for P-33 production has been developed and applied for production of P-32. The current status of W-188/Re-188 generator production technology were reviewed. Main interests were given to the aspects of W-188 reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. To develop the Yb-169 radiographic sources for industrial NDT application, molding machine which can apply fabrications of small pellets with various size and shapes was designed and manufactured. Automatic welding system and assembly technologies for Co-60 source fabrication were developed. The developed HDR Ir-192 source was tested for application in Microselectron [32P] γ - ATP has been developed using [32P] phosphoric acid produced by KAERI. Calibration sources for correcting of energy and detection efficiency

  8. Computation and Analysis of the Global Distribution of the Radioxenon Isotope 133Xe based on Emissions from Nuclear Power Plants and Radioisotope Production Facilities and its Relevance for the Verification of the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Kalinowski, Martin; Saey, Paul; Tuma, Matthias; Zähringer, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of radioactive noble gases, in particular xenon isotopes, is a crucial element of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The capability of the noble gas network, which is currently under construction, to detect signals from a nuclear explosion critically depends on the background created by other sources. Therefore, the global distribution of these isotopes based on emissions and transport patterns needs to be understood. A significant xenon background exists in the reactor regions of North America, Europe and Asia. An emission inventory of the four relevant xenon isotopes has recently been created, which specifies source terms for each power plant. As the major emitters of xenon isotopes worldwide, a few medical radioisotope production facilities have been recently identified, in particular the facilities in Chalk River (Canada), Fleurus (Belgium), Pelindaba (South Africa) and Petten (Netherlands). Emissions from these sites are expected to exceed those of the other sources by orders of magnitude. In this study, emphasis is put on 133Xe, which is the most prevalent xenon isotope. First, based on the emissions known, the resulting 133Xe concentration levels at all noble gas stations of the final CTBT verification network were calculated and found to be consistent with observations. Second, it turned out that emissions from the radioisotope facilities can explain a number of observed peaks, meaning that atmospheric transport modelling is an important tool for the categorization of measurements. Third, it became evident that Nuclear Power Plant emissions are more difficult to treat in the models, since their temporal variation is high and not generally reported. Fourth, there are indications that the assumed annual emissions may be underestimated by factors of two to ten, while the general emission patterns seem to be well understood. Finally, it became evident that 133Xe sources mainly influence the sensitivity of the

  9. Evaluation of a dispersion medium for the irradiation of blood products in a electron linear accelerator

    The use of bags of rice as dispersion medium in irradiation of blood products for medical use is less effective than the immersion from the point of view dosimetric water. However, given the wide range of dose values for a valid result and once subjected to quality control procedure, the method provides the necessary work for the irradiation of blood products in a linear electron accelerator. (Author)

  10. Apparatus for eluting a daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope

    Apparatus for eluting a sterile daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope including a case, a generator having a supply of the parent radioisotope therein, a primary shield enclosing the generator for shielding against radioactive emissions from the parent radioisotope, and an annular wall extending up from the bottom of the case defining a compartment for reception of the primary shield thereby to hold the latter in position within the case is described. A vertical web extends between the annular wall and an exterior wall of the case. An auxiliary shield of suitable shielding material (e.g., lead) generally of the height of the primary shield is provided, this auxiliary shield having an inner cylindric surface conforming generally to the outer surface of the annular wall and having a slot therein for receiving the web. Thus, with the auxiliary shield positioned in the case adjacent the annular wall and with the web received by the slot, the auxiliary shield is held by the web in position in the case for shielding the user from excessive radioactive emissions from the generator in the event the radioactive emissions from the generator exceed the shielding capability of the primary shield

  11. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias

  12. The use of ion exchange chromatography in the cyclotron production of the radioisotopes 85Sr, 54Mn, 57Co and 109Cd

    This dissertation shows the successful application of ion exchange chromatography to the isolation of carrier free cyclotron produced radioisotopes. A simple method is presented for the isolation of 85Sr from a 10 g rubidium chloride target. Cation exchange with AG50-X12 is used to retain 85Sr from a bombarded target dissolved in 0.1 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid. Rubidium is effectively eluted with 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid and trace impurities such as copper, iron and 65Zn are eluted with 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid/φ=0.95 acetone (where φ is the volume fraction of acetone). Strontium-85 is eluted in nearly 100% yield with 3.0 mol/dm3 nitric acid. The isolation of 54Mn, 57Co and 109Cd from a composite iron-silver target is performed with AG50-X4 cation exchange resin in a hydrochloric acid-acetone medium subsequent to the removal of silver by reduction with hydrazine hydrate. Cadmium-109 is eluted with 0.1 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid/φ=0.80 acetone and is further refined by absorption onto a AG1-X8 anion exchange column and subsequent washing with 0.25 mol/dm3 nitric acid/0.1 mol/dm3 hydrobromic acid. The elution of copper, iron, 65Zn and other impurities from the cation exhanger is performed with 0.5 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid/φ=0.83 acetone. Cobalt-57 is quantitively eluted with 0.35 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid/φ=0.90 acetone, and 54Mn, the remaining element on the column, is recovered with 3.0 mol/dm3 hydrochloric acid

  13. 99Mo Production via 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo using accelerator neutrons

    Nagai Yasuki

    2014-01-01

    A new production method of 99Mo using accelerator neutrons via the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction was proposed. Intense neutrons with a most probable energy of 14 MeV can be produced by bombarding Be or C with 40 MeV deuteron beams. Research and development works of 99Mo produced by neutrons from the 3H(d,n)4He reaction were carried out. High quality 99mTc was obtained by employing a sublimation method. Accelerator neutrons are shown to have a great potential to produce a wide variety of radioisoto...

  14. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  15. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20 - 24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  16. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  17. Water chemistry control for the target/blanket region of the accelerator production of tritium

    High-energy particle interactions in the various components of the target/blanket region of the Accelerator Production of Tritium lead to heat generation and deposition. Heavy-water and light-water systems are used to cool the target/blanket system and associated equipment. Structural materials include Inconel alloy 718, aluminum-clad lead rods, aluminum tubes containing helium-3 and tritium gas, and stainless steel components. Proper coolant chemistry is required to maximize neutron production, minimize corrosion of components, and minimize activity buildup. Corrosion-related phenomena and development of coolant and moderator corrosion control for both power and defense fission reactors has been studied extensively over the past 50 years. Less is known, however, about cooling systems for accelerators where a variety of transient chemical species and spallation products may be formed. The following provides a discussion on the issues that need to be addressed for proper water chemistry control for the APT system

  18. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  19. Accelerator driven systems for transmutation and energy production: challenges and dangers

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are an old technological idea: relativistic proton accelerators deliver their beams onto massive heavy element targets, thus producing abundant neutron fluences. Placing this target into sub-critical nuclear fission assemblies is yielding substantial fission reactions, thus additional fission energy (Rubbia called such a system ''energy amplifier''). This technology has recently attracted considerable attention due to advances in the construction of powerful accelerators. It allows the safe and cheap production of nuclear energy simultaneously with the destruction (transmutation) of long lived radioactive waste, in particular plutonium and other minor actinides (neptunium and americium). The principles and the present-state-of-the-art are described, including first experiments to transmute plutonium this way. This technology needs, however, many more years of further ''research and development'' before large scale ADS's can be constructed. It may be even necessary to investigate the question, if all basic physics phenomena of this technology are already sufficiently well understood. (orig.)

  20. Accelerated hydrolysis of substituted cellulose for potential biofuel production: kinetic study and modeling.

    Mu, Bingnan; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-11-01

    In this work, kinetics of substitution accelerated cellulose hydrolysis with multiple reaction stages was investigated to lay foundation for mechanism study and molecular design of substituting compounds. High-efficiency hydrolysis of cellulose is critical for cellulose-based bioethanol production. It is known that, substitution could substantially decrease activation energy and increase reaction rate of acidic hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose. However, reaction kinetics and mechanism of the accelerated hydrolysis were not fully revealed. In this research, it was proved that substitution therefore accelerated hydrolysis only occurred in amorphous regions of cellulose fibers, and was a process with multiple reaction stages. With molar ratio of substitution less than 1%, the overall hydrolysis rate could be increased for around 10 times. We also quantified the relationship between the hydrolysis rate of individual reaction stage and its major influences, including molar ratio of substitution, activation energy of acidic hydrolysis, pH and temperature. PMID:26253917

  1. Optimization of radiation protection in the transportation of radioisotopes

    The collective effective dose equivalent incurred by the population in Argentina as a result of the distribution of radioisotopes for medical applications is estimated. An analysis is performed on the optimization of radiation protection in the transportation of radioisotopes, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In Argentina, radiopharmaceutical products are arranged and distributed in type-A packages under the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Additionally, the national regulatory authority requires the application of the dose limitation system to all practices involving radiation exposure by man. Radioisotopes are transported in special vehicles (60%), in domestic flights (30%) and in buses (10%). The collective effective dose equivalent was estimated by taking into account the different transportation means and the storage time while radioisotopes are in transit. The differential cost-benefit analysis shows that, in order to obtain an optimized level of protection, it would be necessary to reduce the current dose rates during transportation. This is particularly worthwhile when the distribution is made through public transportation, such as commercial planes or buses. It is concluded that, for the application of the dose limitation system to the transport of radioisotopes, it would be necessary to reduce the present IAEA limits of radiation levels at a one-meter distance from the packages in about a factor of ten. 6 references, 3 tables

  2. Influence of Intuition and Capability on Accelerated Product Development in Big-Medium Scaled Food Companies in Indonesia

    Pepey Riawati Kurnia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To face the pressure of competition, more and more companies perform accelerated product development by shortening the product development time so that the product will arrive at the market at the shortest time. Food industry has also performed accelerated product development. Using evolution theory, contingency theory, market-based view, and resource-based view a research model has been built. Results of the research’s initial identification show that food industry in Indonesia is in growth level towards maturity level. Meanwhile, competition in the food industry is in moderate level towards hypercompetition level. Tactics of accelerated product development often carried out is by simplifying the product development steps to eliminating the product development steps. The innovation type used is incremental innovation since it is fast and easy. Results of the research give information that intuition and capabilities are the main motivating factors for big-medium scaled food companies in Indonesia to accelerate product development.

  3. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  4. Transportation and safety test of type BM packages for radioisotopes

    In the period of May 1977 to October 1979, the Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, made containers for transportation of radioisotopes as type BM package, which satisfied the requirements in the amended regulations for transportation of radioisotopes. Two types of packages were prepared, accomodating a drawer type container (lead shielding 15 cm thick) and a cylinder type container (lead shielding 15 or 8 cm thick) respectively; these are for transportation of 192Ir (6540 Ci) and 32P (188 Ci) as type BM package. The package accomodating a drawer type container weighs about 1800 kg. The package accomodating a cylinder type container of 15 cm and 8 cm thick lead shielding weighs 1500 kg or 840 kg respectively. The packages were subjected to series of safety tests prescribed in the regulations, both theoretically and experimentally. Results of the tests showed constructual soundness and safety of the packages. Safety of the type A package prepared is also described in the appendix. (author)

  5. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Preliminary neutronics design and analysis for accelerator driven subcritical tritium production reactor ADS-T

    In this paper, by using self-developed multi-functional 4D neutronics simulation system VisualBUS4.2 and hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL3.0, sensitivity analysis on spallation neutron energy, abundance of 6Li in tritium breeding material, structural steel, initial keff, neutron energy spectrum as well as the placement of tritium production assembly was performed for lead-alloy cooled accelerator driven subcritical nuclear waste transmutation and tritium production reactor ADS-T (ADS- Tritium). Finally, preliminary neutronics options of ADS-T were given, an attractive tritium production pathway was provided. (authors)

  7. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1977 (plus the transition quarter)

    The thirteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list gives ERDA's (now DOE) FY-1977 and transition quarter radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and United Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into four sections. Sect. I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Sect. II is an alphabetical list of isotopes that are cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into the domestic and foreign categories. Sect. III is an alphabetical list of states and countries, and is also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Sect. IV summarizes the FY-1977 radioisotope shipment activities of laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities, and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the domestic, foreign, and project (ERDA facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided

  8. Influence of Intuition and Capability on Accelerated Product Development in Big-Medium Scaled Food Companies in Indonesia

    Pepey Riawati Kurnia

    2013-01-01

    To face the pressure of competition, more and more companies perform accelerated product development by shortening the product development time so that the product will arrive at the market at the shortest time. Food industry has also performed accelerated product development. Using evolution theory, contingency theory, market-based view, and resource-based view a research model has been built. Results of the research’s initial identification show that food industry in Indonesia is in growth ...

  9. Neutron Production Using Alpha-Be Reaction on the Neutron Generator Accelerator

    In order to obtain data for development of small scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS), calculations of neutron production that use alpha-Be reaction on the acceleration energy range of 100 to 500 keV have been carried out. The result of neutron yield calculation was compared with calculation result of D-T reaction and both calculations were treated for thick target. At the energy of 100 keV; alpha-Be reaction produces neutron yield about 1/10 compared to that of D-T reaction and increases to 1/5 at energy of 500 keV. At the same acceleration voltage of 250 kV, where the alpha energy is 500 keV and deuteron energy is 250 keV; the neutron yield of alpha-Be reaction is 1/3 of that in D-T reaction. On the last mentioned condition and considering that target cost of Be is cheaper than the cost of T, neutron production on a neutron generator accelerator that uses alpha-Be reaction is a competitive method as neutron source, especially for ADS. (author)

  10. X-ray production experiments on the RACE Compact Torus Accelerator

    The Purpose of the Compact Torus Accelerator (CTA) program at LLNL is to prove the principle of a unique accelerator concept based on magnetically confined compact torus (CT) plasma rings and to study applications. Successful achievement of these goals could lead to a high power-density driver for many applications including an intense x-ray source for nuclear weapons effects simulation and an inertial fusion driver. Fusion applications and a description of the CTA concept are included in a companion paper at this conference. This paper will describe the initial experiments on soft x-ray production conducted on the plasma Ring ACcelerator Experiment (RACE) and compare the results to modeling studies. The experiments on CT stagnation and soft x-ray production were conducted with unfocused rings as a first of CT dynamics and the physics of x-ray production. The x-ray fluences observed are consistent with expectations based on calculations employing a radiation-hydrodynamics code. We conclude with a diffusion of future x-ray production studies that can be conducted on RACE and a possible multi-megajoule upgrade

  11. Detectors for medical radioisotope imaging: demands and perspectives

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotope imaging is used to obtain information on biochemical processes in living organisms, being a tool of increasing importance for medical diagnosis. The improvement and expansion of these techniques depend on the progress attained in several areas, such as radionuclide production, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation detectors and image reconstruction algorithms. This review paper will be concerned only with the detector technology.

  12. INTELLIGENT PRODUCT BASED ON MOBILE AGENT TO ACCELERATE THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Abdelhak Boulaalam; El Habib Nfaoui; Omar El Beqqali

    2013-01-01

    To improve the ever-increasing demands products that are customized, all business activities performed along the product life cycle must be coordinated and efficiently managed along the extended enterprise. For this, enterprise had wanted to retain control over the whole product lifecycle especially when the product is in use/repair/recycling (End of Life phase). Although there have been many previous research works about product lifecycle management in the Beginning of Life (BOL) and Middle ...

  13. ACHIEVING THE REQUIRED COOLANT FLOW DISTRIBUTION FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM (APT) TUNGSTEN NEUTRON SOURCE

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium neutron source consists of clad tungsten targets, which are concentric cylinders with a center rod. These targets are arranged in a matrix of tubes, producing a large number of parallel coolant paths. The coolant flow required to meet thermal-hydraulic design criteria varies with location. This paper describes the work performed to ensure an adequate coolant flow for each target for normal operation and residual heat-removal conditions

  14. Enhanced ethanol production via electrostatically accelerated fermentation of glucose using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Anup Sam Mathew; Jiapeng Wang; Jieling Luo; Siu-Tung Yau

    2015-01-01

    The global demand for ethanol as an alternative fuel continues to rise. Advancement in all aspects of ethanol production is deemed beneficial to the ethanol industry. Traditional fermentation requires 50–70 hours to produce the maximum ethanol concentration of 7–8% (v/v). Here we demonstrate an electrostatic fermentation method that is capable of accelerating the fermentation of glucose using generic Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the fermenting microorganism to produce ethanol. The method, when...

  15. Development of Facilities and Provision of Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical Process based reactor GA Siwabessy

    The application of radioisotope technology, which is dynamically developing in Indonesia, needs to be compensated by the improvement of capacity and part of the CDRR in preparation and supply of GA Siwabessy-reactor-based radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. On the other hand, the improvement of reactor-based radioisotope production capability will support and push the operational performance and function of the GA Siwabessy reactor facility. Implementation of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production capability should be successively joined with the readiness of supporting facility operational function in order to gain safety of the system, process, personnel and environment as well. The aging systems and facilities should be rejuvenated to keep maintenance their operational performance and function. By the reasons of those, some activities have been carried out covering services on operation and maintenance of supporting facilities, services on preparation of GA Siwabessy-reactor-based radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical products, and rejuvenation of chiller system that was gradually performed without disturbing the whole working function of the system. These activities are oriented into improvement of domestic radioisotope application for public welfare especially in the field of health, as well as gaining implementation of whole CDRR's programs safely and pleasantly. The outputs of the activities are merits (operational function, maintenance and repair of the systems and facilities), products (radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical preparations) and rejuvenation of facility. The results of work are quantitatively expressed in the total kinds or amounts of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical products and the total operational hours of the facilities. Qualitatively, the result of works showed the continuity of readiness of supporting facilities as well as the continuity of services on preparation and supply of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical

  16. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  17. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  18. Estimation of thermal neutron fluences in the concrete of proton accelerator facilities from 36Cl production

    Bessho, K.; Matsumura, H.; Miura, T.; Wang, Q.; Masumoto, K.; Hagura, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Seki, R.; Takahashi, T.; Sasa, K.; Sueki, K.; Matsuhiro, T.; Tosaki, Y.

    2007-06-01

    The thermal neutron fluence that poured into the shielding concrete of proton accelerator facilities was estimated from the in situ production of 36Cl. The thermal neutron fluences at concrete surfaces during 10-30 years of operation were in the range of 1012-1014 n/cm2. The maxima in thermal neutron fluences were observed at ≈5-15 cm in the depths analyzed for 36Cl/35Cl by AMS. These characteristics imply that thermalization of neutrons occurred inside the concrete. Compared to the several tens of MeV cyclotrons, secondary neutrons penetrate deeper into the concrete at the high-energy accelerators possessing acceleration energies of 400 MeV and 12 GeV. The attenuation length of neutrons reflects the energy spectra of secondary neutrons emitted by the nuclear reaction at the beam-loss points. Increasing the energy of secondary neutrons shifts the maximum in the thermal neutron fluences to deeper positions. The data obtained in this study will be useful for the radioactive waste management at accelerator facilities.

  19. Estimation of thermal neutron fluences in the concrete of proton accelerator facilities from 36Cl production

    The thermal neutron fluence that poured into the shielding concrete of proton accelerator facilities was estimated from the in situ production of 36Cl. The thermal neutron fluences at concrete surfaces during 10-30 years of operation were in the range of 1012-1014 n/cm2. The maxima in thermal neutron fluences were observed at ∼5-15 cm in the depths analyzed for 36Cl/35Cl by AMS. These characteristics imply that thermalization of neutrons occurred inside the concrete. Compared to the several tens of MeV cyclotrons, secondary neutrons penetrate deeper into the concrete at the high-energy accelerators possessing acceleration energies of 400 MeV and 12 GeV. The attenuation length of neutrons reflects the energy spectra of secondary neutrons emitted by the nuclear reaction at the beam-loss points. Increasing the energy of secondary neutrons shifts the maximum in the thermal neutron fluences to deeper positions. The data obtained in this study will be useful for the radioactive waste management at accelerator facilities

  20. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  1. Investigation of Lead Target Nuclei Used on Accelerator-Driven Systems for Tritium Production

    Tel, E.; Aydin, A.

    2012-02-01

    High-current proton accelerators are being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory and other laboratories for accelerator production of tritium, transmuting long-lived radioactive waste into shorter-lived products, converting excess plutonium, and producing energy. These technologies make use of spallation neutrons produced in ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions on high-Z targets. Through ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions, neutrons are produced and are moderated by heavy water. These moderated neutrons are subsequently captured on 3He to produce tritium via the ( n,p) reaction. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial fusion power plant. Rubbia succeeded in a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier. This plant is to be known the accelerator-driven system (ADS). The ADS can be used for production of neutrons in spallation neutron source and they can act as an intense neutron source in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, capable of incinerating nuclear waste and of producing energy. Thorium and Uranium are nuclear fuels and Lead, Bismuth, Tungsten are the target nuclei in these reactor systems. The spallation targets can be Pb, Bi, W, etc. isotopes and these target material can be liquid or solid. Naturally Lead includes the 204Pb (%1.42), 206Pb (%24.1), 207Pb (%22.1) and 208Pb (%52.3) isotopes. The design of ADS systems and also a fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems require the knowledge of a wide range of better data. In this study, by using Hartree-Fock method with an effective nucleon-nucleon Skyrme interactions rms nuclear charge radii, rms nuclear mass radii, rms nuclear proton, neutron radii and neutron skin thickness were calculated for the 204, 206, 208Pb isotopes . The calculated results have been compared with those of the compiled experimental and theoretical values of other studies.

  2. Permafrost thawing in organic Arctic soils accelerated by ground heat production

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Matthiesen, Henning; Møller, Anders Bjørn; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Decomposition of organic carbon from thawing permafrost soils and the resulting release of carbon to the atmosphere are considered to represent a potentially critical global-scale feedback on climate change. The accompanying heat production from microbial metabolism of organic material has been recognized as a potential positive-feedback mechanism that would enhance permafrost thawing and the release of carbon. This internal heat production is poorly understood, however, and the strength of this effect remains unclear. Here, we have quantified the variability of heat production in contrasting organic permafrost soils across Greenland and tested the hypothesis that these soils produce enough heat to reach a tipping point after which internal heat production can accelerate the decomposition processes. Results show that the impact of climate changes on natural organic soils can be accelerated by microbial heat production with crucial implications for the amounts of carbon being decomposed. The same is shown to be true for organic middens with the risk of losing unique evidence of early human presence in the Arctic.

  3. Study of muon-induced neutron production using accelerator muon beam at CERN

    Cosmogenic muon-induced neutrons are one of the most problematic backgrounds for various underground experiments for rare event searches. In order to accurately understand such backgrounds, experimental data with high-statistics and well-controlled systematics is essential. We performed a test experiment to measure muon-induced neutron production yield and energy spectrum using a high-energy accelerator muon beam at CERN. We successfully observed neutrons from 160 GeV/c muon interaction on lead, and measured kinetic energy distributions for various production angles. Works towards evaluation of absolute neutron production yield is underway. This work also demonstrates that the setup is feasible for a future large-scale experiment for more comprehensive study of muon-induced neutron production

  4. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability. PMID:26733889

  5. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    Benjamin L. Nelson; W. David Bence; John R. Snyder

    2007-07-01

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global ‘99 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35¢/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8¢/mCi to 15.0¢/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S.

  6. Current Outlook for 99mTc Distribution Based on Electron Accelerator Production

    In 1999 a practical example illustrating the economical and reliable production of 99mTc from an accelerator was developed. It included the realistic costs involved in establishing and operating the accelerator facility and the distribution of the 99mTc to regions in Florida. However, the technology was never commercialized. Recent political and economic developments prompted this second look at accelerator produced 99mTc. The practicality of this system in 2007 dollars was established to account for inflation and current demand. The same distribution model and production schedule from the Global 1999 study were used. Numbers were found using current rates and costs where possible and indexed estimations when necessary. Though several of the costs increased significantly and the sale price remains at approximately 35 cents/mCi, the unit cost of 99mTc throughput only increased from 12.8 cents/mCi to 15.0 cents/mCi or approximately 17.2% from 1999 to 2007 thus continuing to be economically viable. This study provides ground work for creating business development models at additional locations within the U.S

  7. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  8. INTELLIGENT PRODUCT BASED ON MOBILE AGENT TO ACCELERATE THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Abdelhak Boulaalam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the ever-increasing demands products that are customized, all business activities performed along the product life cycle must be coordinated and efficiently managed along the extended enterprise. For this, enterprise had wanted to retain control over the whole product lifecycle especially when the product is in use/repair/recycling (End of Life phase. Although there have been many previous research works about product lifecycle management in the Beginning of Life (BOL and Middle of Life (MOL phases, few addressed the End of Life (EOL phase, in particular. In this study, based on Auto-ID combined with mobile multi-agent system technologies, we will try to improve innovation: (a by minimize the lunch phase, (b and the involvement of the customer in product lifecycle (voice of customer."

  9. Safety management of a high energy accelerator used in the production of tritium

    Interest in a high energy accelerator for producing tritium raises considerations regarding facility Safety Management. Accelerator facility hazards require safety analysis to consider factors such as: safe management of a large flux of very high energy neutrons, sustained operation in a very high energy proton and neutron field, neutron irradiation of a variety of materials, and handling and processing of significant quantities of tritium. Safety considerations of support systems and potential effects of magnetic fields must also be included. Existing Safety Management techniques, safety standards, and criteria for operation of high energy accelerators provide considerable guidance. These must, however, be reviewed to determine their appropriate use for safe operation of a very large, tritium-producing accelerator. New or revised safety standards may be required to establish and maintain the safe operating-envelope. The goal will be to develop a set of tailored standards and criteria that provide a reasonable operational envelope and assure adequate public, worker, and environmental safety. The generation of an appropriate set of safety standards and criteria will include several activities. One activity will involve evaluation of proposed facility designs to determine possible hazards. Another activity will involve a detailed review of existing accelerator safety management systems. A third activity will involve the review of operating histories of existing facilities. Facilities approximating the characteristics of the anticipated tritium production facility will be considered. Following completion of these activities a proposed Safety Management System and criteria for application to these facilities will be drafted. The need for new analytical methods and for additional safety standards will be identified. The draft document will then be reviewed and revised to establish the standards and criteria within the appropriate Department of Energy framework

  10. Formation of medical radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu in photonuclear reactions

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H., E-mail: hov-gohar@ysu.am; Bakhshiyan, T. M. [Yerevan State University (Armenia); Avagyan, R. H.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Kerobyan, I. A.; Dallakyan, R. K. [A.I. Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute) (YerPhI) (Armenia)

    2015-06-15

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes {sup 112,} {sup 118}Sn and Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes {sup 111}In and {sup 117}mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of {sup 124}Sb and {sup 177}Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets.

  11. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  12. CAS Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and MedAustron jointly organised a course on Accelerators for Medical Applications in Vösendorf, Austria between 26 May and 5 June 2015. The course was held at the Eventhotel Pyramide on the outskirts of Vienna, and was attended by 76 participants from 29 countries, coming from as far away as Canada, China, Lithuania, Thailand, Ukraine and Russia.       The intensive programme comprised 37 lectures. The emphasis was on using charged particle beams for cancer therapy and the programme began by covering the way in which particles interact with biological material, how this translates into the dose needed for treatment and how this dose is best delivered. The different accelerator options for providing the particles needed were then presented in some detail. The production of radioisotopes and how these are used for diagnostics and therapy was also covered, together with a look at novel acceleration techniques that may play a role i...

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  15. The RF system for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) at Los Alamos

    To develop and demonstrate the crucial front end of the APT accelerator and some of the critical components for APT, Los Alamos is building a CW proton accelerator (LEDA) to provide 100 mA at up to 40 MeV. LEDA will be installed where the SDI-sponsored Ground Test Accelerator was located. The first accelerating structure for LEDA is a 7-MeV RFQ operating at 350 MHz, followed by several stages of a coupled-cavity Drift Tube Linac (CCDTL) operating at 700 MHz. The first stage of LEDA will go to 12 MeV. Higher energies, up to 40 MeV, come later in the program. Three 1.2-MW CW RF systems will be used to power the RFQ. This paper describes the RF systems being assembled for LEDA, including the 350 and 700-MHz klystrons, the High Voltage Power Supplies, transmitters, RF transport, window/coupler assemblies, and controls. Some of the limitations imposed by the schedule and the building itself are addressed

  16. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  17. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  18. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Medical Isotope Supply in the Future: Production Capacity and Demand. Forecast for the 99Mo/99mTc Market, 2015-2020

    This document presents a forecast of 99Mo/99mTc production capacity and demand in 2015-2020, when two major irradiators - the OSIRIS and NRU reactors in France and Canada - are expected to exit the global supply chain and new alternative technology projects may be commissioned. The forecast does not attempt to predict shortages, but identify periods when there is an increased risk of disrupted supply, to inform policy makers and other stakeholders. (authors)

  19. Production Level CFD Code Acceleration for Hybrid Many-Core Architectures

    Duffy, Austen C.; Hammond, Dana P.; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a novel graphics processing unit (GPU) distributed sharing model for hybrid many-core architectures is introduced and employed in the acceleration of a production-level computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The latest generation graphics hardware allows multiple processor cores to simultaneously share a single GPU through concurrent kernel execution. This feature has allowed the NASA FUN3D code to be accelerated in parallel with up to four processor cores sharing a single GPU. For codes to scale and fully use resources on these and the next generation machines, codes will need to employ some type of GPU sharing model, as presented in this work. Findings include the effects of GPU sharing on overall performance. A discussion of the inherent challenges that parallel unstructured CFD codes face in accelerator-based computing environments is included, with considerations for future generation architectures. This work was completed by the author in August 2010, and reflects the analysis and results of the time.

  20. Accelerator production of tritium plant design and supporting engineering development and demonstration work

    Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen with a half life of 12.3 years. Because it is essential for US thermonuclear weapons to function, tritium must be periodically replenished. Since K reactor at Savannah River Site stopped operating in 1988, tritium has been recycled from dismantled nuclear weapons. This process is possible only as long as many weapons are being retired. Maintaining the stockpile at the level called for in the present Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START-I) will require the Department of Energy to have an operational tritium production capability in the 2005--2007 time frame. To make the required amount of tritium using an accelerator based system (APT), neutrons will be produced through high energy proton reactions with tungsten and lead. Those neutrons will be moderated and captured in 3He to make tritium. The APT plant design will use a 1,700 MeV linear accelerator operated at 100 mA. In preparation for engineering design, starting in October 1997 and subsequent construction, a program of engineering development and demonstration is underway. That work includes assembly and testing of the first 20 MeV of the low energy plant linac at 100 mA, high-energy linac accelerating structure prototyping, radiofrequency power system improvements, neutronic efficiency measurements, and materials qualifications

  1. Doppler Broadening Analysis of Steel Specimens Using Accelerator Based In Situ Pair Production

    Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) techniques can be utilized as a sensitive probe of defects in materials. Studying these microscopic defects is very important for a number of industries in order to predict material failure or structural integrity. We have been developing gamma-induced pair-production techniques to produce positrons in thick samples (∼4-40 g/cm2, or ∼0.5-5 cm in steel). These techniques are called 'Accelerator-based Gamma-induced Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy'(AG-PAS). We have begun testing the capabilities of this technique for imaging of defect densities in thick structural materials. As a first step, a linear accelerator (LINAC) was employed to produce photon beams by stopping 15 MeV electrons in a 1 mm thick tungsten converter. The accelerator is capable of operating with 30-60 ns pulse width, up to 200 mA peak current at 1 kHz repetition rate. The highly collimated bremsstrahlung beam impinged upon our steel tensile specimens, after traveling through a 1.2 m thick concrete wall. Annihilation radiation was detected by a well-shielded and collimated high-purity germanium detector (HPGe). Conventional Doppler broadening spectrometry (DBS) was performed to determine S, W and T parameters for our samples.

  2. Radio-isotopic myocardial study

    The non invasive study of the myocardium with radio-isotopes is effected either with radio-elements labeling on recently infarcted myocardium, such as PYP Tc 99m, or after I.V. injection of Tl 201 extracted by normal myocardium or after I.V. injection of radio-element which study the myocardial metabolism. The fixation of PYP Tc 99m, bordering that of calcium, appears 24 hours after the onset of the myocardial infarction; then it reduces and disappears a week later; its persistency gives evidence of an evolution to ventricular anevrism. The relatively low sensitivity and specificity of this test should induce to reserve if for precise cases. 201 Tl realizes a map of the myocardial flow because this radio-isotope reflects with damping the variations of coronary flow. The scintigraphy is made either after stress test or after I.V. injection of dipyridamole, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test is better than electrocardiographic exercise stress test. The predictive value of the test for a patient highly depends of the prevalence of the coronary disease for this patient; however the results of Tl scintigraphy are far from an ideal test; quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the image compared to the analogical image seems to improve sensitivity for detection of coronary disease. After myocardial infarction, its best use is to detect a left anterior descending stenosis after posterior or inferior infarction. Among the possible radio-elements of myocardial metabolism, scintigraphy with fatty acids opens interesting prospects for the study of the myocardial clearance of the radio-isotope, that reflects the global or regional myocardial metabolism

  3. Beam line shielding calculations for an Electron Accelerator Mo-99 production facility

    Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-03

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the photon and neutron fields in and around the latest beam line design for the Mo-99 production facility. The radiation dose to the beam line components (quadrupoles, dipoles, beam stops and the linear accelerator) are calculated in the present report. The beam line design assumes placement of two cameras: infra red (IR) and optical transition radiation (OTR) for continuous monitoring of the beam spot on target during irradiation. The cameras will be placed off the beam axis offset in vertical direction. We explored typical shielding arrangements for the cameras and report the resulting neutron and photon dose fields.

  4. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee's review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues

  5. A liquid xenon radioisotope camera.

    Zaklad, H.; Derenzo, S. E.; Muller, R. A.; Smadja, G.; Smits, R. G.; Alvarez, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of gamma-ray camera is discussed that makes use of electron avalanches in liquid xenon and is currently under development. It is shown that such a radioisotope camera promises many advantages over any other existing gamma-ray cameras. Spatial resolution better than 1 mm and counting rates higher than one million C/sec are possible. An energy resolution of 11% FWHM has recently been achieved with a collimated Hg-203 source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber containing a Frisch grid.

  6. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  7. VEDs for charged particle accelerators: Indian scenario

    In the initial times after their invention, the charged particle accelerators have, primarily, been used for fundamental studies on nuclei and atoms. From the first modern accelerator, the cathode ray tube, used by J.J. Thomson for the discovery of electron, very recently the gigantic 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is operational in the search of Higg's boson and related physics issues. Particle accelerators have emerged as powerful microscopes for investigating the finest details of cells, genes, molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, muons, electrons, quarks and, possibly, still undiscovered even more fundamental constituents of the universe, such as dark matter and dark energy. Several noble prize winning discoveries have been made using accelerators. Accelerators are now being used in a wide area of industrial and medical applications. They are used for the production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, cancer therapy, food sterilization, treatment of waste water, sterilization of medical equipment, material modification, mass spectroscopy, cargo scanning, fabrication of semiconductors etc. Ongoing effort towards the development of accelerators with megawatt beam power is showing hope for a cleaner source of nuclear energy and treatment of nuclear waste. Several tens of thousands of accelerators are presently operational in the world for basic research and applications. Development of new accelerators has several times been driven by new technologies and materials and sometimes they have driven the technological developments towards cutting edge. Some examples are ultra-high vacuum in large volumes, superfluid helium in cryogenics, cryocoolers, superconducting magnets and RF cavities, high power vacuum electronic devices, global control systems, superfast computing and communication networks, giant data storage/processing systems etc. India has been pursuing a fairly robust programme of accelerator development at various institutions. It

  8. The Brazilian status on ADS R and D: Preliminary road map to a program on accelerator utilization on basic and applied nuclear physics, products and services and to drive an experimental neutron source sub critical facility

    Brazil, still a developing country, has an Industrial Nuclear Program, that although small has already achieved a good standard: two NPPs in operation, i.e., ANGRA I and II with 2 GW installed electric capacity are generating approximately 2% of the total installed electricity, a third unit under construction, a fuel cycle industry, INB, with the capability to provide fuel elements for the NPPs. The Brazilian Navy pursues a nuclear program for nuclear propulsion which includes all the front end of the fuel cycle, including the enrichment by ultracentrifuge that is being transferred also to the industrial sector (INB). Research and development is conducted by the various Research Institutes of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN): IPEN, CDTN, and IEN which have appropriate technical capability and facilities (research reactors and accelerators) to support the industrial nuclear program, provide products and services for the Brazilian society (e.g., radioisotopes), as well as to develop new technologies. It is fair to say, however, that the Brazilian research institutions do need some new challenges, mainly to motivate and to stimulate a new generation of young engineers and scientists to pursue careers in nuclear energy R and D. The Brazilian Nuclear Physics research, being pursued mainly by the Universities, has an outstanding standard. This is documented by the number of publications in international journals, scientific citations, the number and quality of scientists, and by its capability to form human resources (Ph.D. students). However, it is felt that this scientific potential, a few exceptions apart, still needs to transfer the benefits of the scientific knowledge to the Brazilian society. These boundary conditions call for a R and D program which identifies synergies, society needs, is in agreement with the international developments in science and technology, meets sustainability criteria, matches the Brazilian reality, provides an umbrella for

  9. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce 201Tl, 111In, 67Ga, 123I and 18F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of 123I and 18F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation procedures will conform to the GMP requirements for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The irradiated targets will be transported directly into the appropriate hot cell for radiochemical processing. All cells will be equipped with a target dissolution unit for etching the irradiated, electroplated film. After decontamination and sufficient cooling down, these targets will be reused several times

  10. Career opportunities in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes

    The application of radiation and radioisotopes is finally coming into its own after a long and hesitant gestation period. Overshadowed since the inception of the ''Nuclear Age'' by nuclear power generation, this area nevertheless provides real and challenging opportunities involving many different technical specialties and professional skills. Career opportunities are becoming available in those areas involving the use of radioactive isotopes in research, medicine, and industrial process control, and the employment of large radiation outputs, from either accelerator or isotopes, for industrial process applications

  11. Target/Blanket Design for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Plant

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of an assembly of tritium-producing modules supported by safety, heat removal, shielding, and retargeting systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high-energy proton beam, a tungsten/lead spallation neutron source and 3He gas as the tritium-producing feedstock. The supporting heat removal systems remove the heat deposited by the proton beam during both normal and off-normal conditions. The shielding protects workers from ionizing radiation, and the retargeting systems remove and replace components that have reached their end of life. All systems reside within the T/B building, which is located at the end of a linear accelerator. For the nominal production mode, protons are accelerated to an energy of 1030 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons are expanded to a 0.19- x 1.9-m beam spot before striking a centrally located tungsten neutron source. A surrounding lead blanket produces additional neutrons from scattered high-energy particles. A total of 27 neutrons are produced per incident proton. Tritium is produced by neutron capture in 3He gas that is contained in aluminum tubes throughout the blanket. The 3He/tritium mixture is removed on a semi-continuous basis for purification in an adjacent Tritium Separation Facility. Systems and components are designed with safety as a primary consideration to minimize risk to the workers and the public. Materials and component designs were chosen based on the experiences of operating spallation neutron sources that have been designed and built for the neutron science community. An extensive engineering development and demonstration program provides detailed information for the completion of the design

  12. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  13. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  14. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    Gavrish, Yu. N., E-mail: gavrish@luts.niiefa.spb.su [JSC Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Koloskov, S. A. [JSC Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [JSC Science and Innovation (Russian Federation); Strokach, A. P. [JSC Efremov Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  15. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes; Situacion actual y futura del empleo de radioisotopos

    Paredes G, L.C. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  16. Carrier-free production of 95Tc at an electron accelerator

    We report on the results of studies of the 95Tc isotope production conditions in a poorly investigated 96Ru(γ,N)95Tc reaction at a relatively inexpensive electron accelerator. Based on the analytical model it is demonstrated the possibility for estimating the effective and peak cross-sections and the isotope yield for a given reaction in a thick production target without preliminary determination of its excitation function. For this purpose we compared specific activities of two small samples that were activated under the same conditions using the reference reaction 68Zn(γ,p)67Cu and the one under investigation. The experiment on simultaneous photo-activation of natural zinc and ruthenium targets was performed followed by the investigation of their isotope composition. The specific activity of the radionuclide was measured and cross-sections for the 96Ru(γ,N)95g,mTc reactions were determined. The yields of desired isomers and admixtures in the natural ruthenium targets of different size were estimated. It is shown, in particular, that the operating conditions of the NSC KIPT accelerator KUT-30 can provide 95gTc yields up to 120 mCi/h.

  17. Production of clinical useful quantities of 18 F by an electrostatic tandem accelerator

    The 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator in Lund, Sweden, is routinely used for production of the short lived (half-life 110 minutes) isotope 18 F. A beam of 5.7 MeV protons irradiates an open silver-target containing 0.5 ml H218 O water, enriched to 97%. Using a beam current of 10-12 mA and an irradiation time of 60-120 minutes, the nuclear reaction 18 O(p,n)18 F gives a 18 F-yield of typically 2.7-4.5 GBq. The produced 18 F is used for synthesis of 2-18 FDG. This radio pharmaceutical (an analogue to glucose) is used in oncological positron emission tomography (PET) studies at the nearby hospital. In this report technical details of the production, as well as a short outline of the synthesis and application in oncology, are given. (authors)

  18. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  19. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  20. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the production parameters for the medically relevant radioisotopes 64Cu and 86Y

    A Sayed; A Elbinawi; M Al-Abyad; U Seddik; I I Bashter

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical study of the nuclear reaction cross-section for the production of 64Cu and 86Y was performed from the nuclear reactions 64Ni(p, n)64Cu, 64Ni(d, 2n)64Cu, 66Zn(d, )64Cu, 68Zn(p, n)64Cu, 86Sr(p, n)86gY, 87Sr(p, 2n)86gY and 88Sr(p, 3n)86gY. The calculations were performed using three codes EMPIRE, TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. The excitation function curves for the investigated reactions have been constructed from the enriched targets using 64Ni, 66Zn, 68Zn, 86Sr, 87Sr and 88Sr. The calculated excitation functions and the experimental data were compared. Mean standardized deviation, mean relative deviation and mean ratio statistical parameters were introduced to control the quality of the fitting between both the experimentally and the theoretically calculated cross-sections.

  1. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  2. Activation products in a treatment room of a 15 MV linear accelerator for medical use

    De Leon M, H. A.; Soto B, T. G.; Rivera P, E.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Apdo. Postal 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    Linacs working above 8 MV produce an undesirable neutron field mainly through ({gamma}, n) nuclear reactions. Due to room-return effect inside the vault there is a thermal neutron flux that is constant regarded the distance to the isocenter. When thermal neutrons collide with the bunker walls and the Linac head some radioisotopes are induced in the concrete, wedges and collimators due to neutron and photon activation. The aim of this work is to study the induced radioisotopes in concrete samples and a wedge, which emits gamma-ray during its decay, the presence of this protons will represent a radiological risk for the patient. Induced radioisotopes were studied with a 15 MV Linac, and a gamma-ray spectrometer with a Nal(Tl) scintillator where 846.8, 1368.6 and 1778.8 keV gamma-rays were observed, these photons are produced during the decay of {sup 54}Mn, {sup 24}Na and {sup 28}Al respectively, being in agreement with radionuclides reported in the literature. (Author)

  3. Nuclear data for production of therapeutic radionuclides. Summary report of second research coordination meeting

    A summary is given of the Second Research Coordination Meeting on Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides. The new library of evaluated cross section will cover the reactor and/or accelerator production of therapeutic radionuclides to appropriate specific activities and purity along with the relevant decay data. There are a significant number of radioisotopes in use or being proposed for therapeutic applications. As a consequence of the work undertaken during the course of this CRP, the resulting completeness and accuracy of the nuclear data for the production of these nuclides to appropriate specific activities and purity along with the re-definition of their decay data should be adequate for safe and efficient medical applications. The radioisotopes to be considered in the CRP were divided into two categories: Established Radioisotopes (therapeutic radioisotopes that have established clinical uses) and Emerging Radioisotopes (less-commonly used but potentially interesting radioisotopes for which medical applications have been demonstrated). Experimental data compilations and selection and preliminary evaluations for each of the reactions were extensively discussed during the meeting. The recommendations for both established and emerging radionuclides, and validation/testing of the cross section library are summarized. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Programme are summarized for every reaction path to be evaluated, along with actions and deadlines. Participants' contributions to the RCM are also attached. (author)

  4. Feasibility study on polonium-209 as radioisotope fuel for space nuclear power

    We have investigated the performance and the production method of alternative isotopes of 238Pu as a radioisotope fuel for use in space radioisotope power generators. Polonium-209 has the possibility to be an alternative material of 238Pu. It has enough half-time of 102 years and the specific power of 490 W/kg. From the simulation, the beam current of 14 A with 40 MeV proton energy provides 1 kg/yr of 209Po annually. (author)

  5. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    Comor, J J; Rajcevic, M; Kosutic, D; Spasic, M; Vidovic, A; Duricic, J; Nedeljkovic, N

    2002-01-01

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In, sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation ...

  6. Simulations of slow positron production using a low energy electron accelerator

    O'Rourke, B E; Kinomura, A; Kuroda, R; Minehara, E; Ohdaira, T; Oshima, N; Suzuki, R

    2011-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of slow positron production via energetic electron interaction with a solid target have been performed. The aim of the simulations was to determine the expected slow positron beam intensity from a low energy, high current electron accelerator. By simulating (a) the fast positron production from a tantalum electron-positron converter and (b) the positron depth deposition profile in a tungsten moderator, the slow positron production probability per incident electron was estimated. Normalizing the calculated result to the measured slow positron yield at the present AIST LINAC the expected slow positron yield as a function of energy was determined. For an electron beam energy of 5 MeV (10 MeV) and current 240 $\\mu$A (30 $\\mu$A) production of a slow positron beam of intensity 5 $\\times$ 10$^{6}$ s$^{-1}$ is predicted. The simulation also calculates the average energy deposited in the converter per electron, allowing an estimate of the beam heating at a given electron energy and current. For...

  7. The use of radioisotopes for the study of flotation processes

    The paper considers methods of studying flotation processes with radioisotopes and nuclear radiation. Radioisotopes can be used for studying the fixation of flotation reagents on the surface of minerals where monomolecular coverage of the surface is incomplete. Radiometric and microautoradiographic methods are used in this research. The use of collector reagents containing radioisotopes has explained why some sulphides are difficult to separate by flotation. This difficulty is related to the material composition and structure of these minerals and to the chemical bonds within their crystal lattices. The simultaneous use of radiometric and autoradiographic methods accompanied by solvent-washing of the mineral particles showed the conditions under which dixanthate and other products of the interaction of xanthates with sulphide minerals are formed. The use of radioactive kerosene, and also of kerosene in conjunction with other flotation reagents, made it possible to determine certain features of fixation on molybdenite depending on the kerosene concentration. Contrast and track microautoradiography were used to study the distribution of sulphydryl collector reagents on different particles of galenite in the flotation pulp. The combined effect of these reagents was also studied. Combinations of xanthates of various alcohols produce a more even distribution on the galenite particles, and permit a more efficient use of reagents. C14-labelled tridecylamine was used to study the interaction of a cationic collector with hlibnerite and wolframite. The investigation showed that tridecylamine, when introduced into the flotation process, is substantially absorbed by foaming products. Non-foaming products (quartz, fluorite, calcite) absorb insignificant quantities of reagent. (author)

  8. Remote-handling concept for target/blanket modules in the accelerator production of tritium

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) has been proposed as the source of tritium for the United States in the next century. The APT will accelerate protons that will strike replaceable tungsten target modules. The tungsten target modules generate neutrons that pass through blanket modules and other modules where He gas is turned into tritium. The target and blanket modules are predicted to require replacement every 1 to 10 yr, depending on their location. The target modules may weigh as much as 78.8 tonnes (85 t) each. All of the modules will be contained in a target/blanket vessel, which is in a shielded facility. The spent modules will be very radioactive so that remote replacement is required. A proposed concept is to use a remotely operated bridge crane and a remotely operated, bridge-mounted manipulator to perform the entire replacement operation. This will require removing/replacing the vessel lid, installing/removing temporary water cooling, closing/opening valves on manifolds and modules, draining of jumpers, removing/replacing jumpers, removing/replacing shielding keys, and removing/replacing the modules. This application is unique because of the size and weight of the modules, the precision required, the type of connectors required, and the complexity of the entire operation. A three-dimensional simulation of the entire module replacement operation has been developed to help understand, communicate, and refine the concepts

  9. Electron Acceleration and Ionization Production in High-Power Heating Experiments at HAARP

    Mishin, E. V.; Pedersen, T.

    2012-12-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60-80 km. Artificial ionization production is indicated by significant 427.8 nm emissions from the 1st negative band of N2+ and the appearance of transmitter-induced bottomside traces in ionosonde data during the periods of most intense optical emissions. However, the exact mechanisms producing the artificial plasmas remain to be determined. Yet the only existing theoretical models explain the development of artificial plasma as an ionizing wavefront moving downward due to ionization by electrons accelerated by HF-excited strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) generated near the plasma resonance, where the pump frequency matches the plasma frequency. However, the observations suggest also the significance of interactions with upper hybrid and electron Bernstein waves near multiples of the electron gyrofrequency. We describe recent observations and discuss suitable acceleration mechanisms.

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat.

    Holt, Monte D; Moreau, Robert A; DerMarderosian, Ara; McKeown, Nicola; Jacques, Paul F

    2012-05-16

    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semiautomated method involving accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), were applied to extract ARs within freshly ground samples. For extraction of alkylresorcinols, nonpolar solvents such as ethyl acetate have been recommended for the extraction of uncooked foods, and polar solvents such as 1-propanol:water (3:1 v/v) have been recommended for the extraction of baked foods that contain rye, wheat, or other starch-rich grains. A comparison of AR extraction methods has been investigated with the application of gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to quantify the AR content. The goal of this research was to compare the rapid accelerated solvent extraction of the alkylresorcinols (ASE-AR) method to the previous manual AR extraction methods. Results for this study as well as the investigation of the overall efficiency of ASE-AR extraction with the use of a spiking study indicated that it can be comparable to current extraction methods but with less time required. Furthermore, the extraction time for ASE (approximately 40 min) is much more convenient and less tedious and time-consuming than previously established methods, which range from 5 h for processed foods to 24 h for raw grains. PMID:22530555

  11. Study of medical RI production with accelerator-based neutron sources

    The single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) have been widely adopted for nuclear medicine imaging to make diagnoses of body functions, identification of site of cancers, and so on. Now, almost all of medical radio isotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or charged particle accelerators. We propose a new route to produce the medical radio isotopes with accelerator-based neutron sources. In this paper, as an example, we introduce the proposed production method of 99Mo, which is the mother nuclide of 99mTc for SPECT. We determined the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction cross section to 1,415±82mb and it was consistent with the value (1,398mb) obtained from JENDL-4.0. Therefore, it indicates yields of produced RIs can be predicted with nuclear data based simulations. The simulation also can be used to design irradiation condition. In this paper some results of the simulations are also shown. (author)

  12. A 50-MeV mm-wave electron linear accelerator system for production of tunable short wavelength synchrotron radiation

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Wisconsin at Madison is developing a new millimeter wavelength, 50-MeV electron linear accelerator system for production of coherent tunable wavelength synchrotron radiation. Modern micromachining techniques based on deep etch x-ray lithography, LIGA (Lithografie, Galvanoformung, Abformung), capable of producing high-aspect ratio structures are being considered for the fabrication of the accelerating components

  13. Production and isolation of homologs of flerovium and element 115 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    New procedures have been developed to isolate no-carrier-added (NCA) radionuclides of the homologs and pseudo-homologs of flerovium (Hg, Sn) and element 115 (Sb), produced by 12-15 MeV proton irradiation of foil stacks with the tandem Van-de-Graaff accelerator at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) facility. The separation of 113Sn from natIn foil was performed with anion-exchange chromatography from hydrochloric and nitric acid matrices. A cation-exchange chromatography method based on hydrochloric and mixed hydrochloric/ hydroiodic acids was used to separate 124Sb from natSn foil. A procedure using Eichrom TEVA resin was developed to separate 197Hg from Au foil. These results demonstrate the suitability of using the CAMS facility to produce NCA radioisotopes for studies of transactinide homologs. (author)

  14. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  15. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  16. Estimation of the Production of Ozone and Nitric Acid in a Proton Accelerator Facility of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    The operation of the high-energy particle accelerator leads to the production of not only radioactive gases, but also radiolytic noxious gases, such as ozone and nitrogen compounds in the air of the facility. Of the radiolytic products, ozone production is usually taken into account for the evaluation of the heath hazard in the operation of the particle accelerator facilities, owing to its high radiolytic yield and much lower maximum acceptable concentration. Nitrogen compounds do not commonly constitute a heath hazard but are of important concern because of its chemical properties of being a strong acid and a strong oxidizing agent. Among the nitrogen compounds, nitric acid is a principal radiolytic compound produced in large quantities and has a potential for the corrosion of the components in the facility. It has founded that at a high-energy proton accelerator facility, nitric acid was produced in the radiolysis of air in beam-loss region. The nitric acid was desorbed on the surface of the magnet, walls, floors and local lead shields. It also tends to be more uniform through the tunnel due to air circulation. In these backgrounds, the production of ozone and nitric acid in proton accelerator facility from Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) was estimated in this study, because very strong radiation environment leads to an abundant production of nitric acid in such a high-current proton accelerator

  17. Reliability demonstration methodology for products with Gamma Process by optimal accelerated degradation testing

    For products with high reliability and long lifetime, accelerated degradation testing (ADT) may be adopted during product development phase to verify whether its reliability satisfies the predetermined level within feasible test duration. The actual degradation from engineering is usually a strictly monotonic process, such as fatigue crack growth, wear, and erosion. However, the method for reliability demonstration by ADT with monotonic degradation process has not been investigated so far. This paper proposes a reliability demonstration methodology by ADT for this kind of product. We first apply Gamma process to describe the monotonic degradation. Next, we present a reliability demonstration method by converting the required reliability level into allowable cumulative degradation in ADT and comparing the actual accumulative degradation with the allowable level. Further, we suggest an analytical optimal ADT design method for more efficient reliability demonstration by minimizing the asymptotic variance of decision variable in reliability demonstration under the constraints of sample size, test duration, test cost, and predetermined decision risks. The method is validated and illustrated with example on reliability demonstration of alloy product, and is applied to demonstrate the wear reliability within long service duration of spherical plain bearing in the end. - Highlights: • We present a reliability demonstration method by ADT for products with monotonic degradation process, which may be applied to verify reliability with long service life for products with monotonic degradation process within feasible test duration. • We suggest an analytical optimal ADT design method for more efficient reliability demonstration, which differs from the existed optimal ADT design for more accurate reliability estimation by different objective function and different constraints. • The methods are applied to demonstrate the wear reliability within long service duration of

  18. RADIATION PROTECTION SYSTEM INSTALLATION FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM/LOW ENERGY DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR PROJECT (APT/LEDA)

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, tamper-resistant hardware. The installation was accomplished using modular components

  19. Radiation protection system installation for the accelerator production of tritium/low energy demonstration accelerator project (APT/LEDA)

    Wilmarth, J E; Tomei, T L

    2000-01-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los-Alamos Neutron- Science-Center-(LANSCE)-designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, ta...

  20. Near-threshold pion production with radioactive beams at the Rare Isotope Accelerator

    Li, B A; Zuo, W; Li, Bao-An; Yong, Gao-Chan; Zuo, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model we study near-threshold pion production in heavy-ion collisions induced by radioactive beams at the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). We revisit the question of probing the high density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ using the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio. It is found that both the total and differential $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratios remain sensitive to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ when the momentum-dependence of both the isoscalar and isovector potentials are consistently taken into account. Moreover, the multiplicity and spectrum of $\\pi^-$ mesons are found more sensitive to the $E_{sym}(\\rho)$ than those of $\\pi^+$ mesons. Finally, effects of the Coulomb potential on the pion spectra and $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio are also discussed.