WorldWideScience

Sample records for accelerator radioisotope production

  1. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  2. Radioisotopes for All - Low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production

    Full text of publication follows. Since the development of the tracer principle by George de Hevesy in 1913, radioisotopes have become an integral part of medical practice and research. The imaging modalities Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) have significantly enhanced our understanding of human biology and the development and progression of disease. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the cancer killing of radiation therapy with the targeting precision of immunotherapy to provide personalised cancer treatment. The technetium-99m crisis in 2008 highlighted the fragility of the current radioisotope supply network. Despite the significant impact of the shortages, only a handful of potential solutions have begun to be explored and developed. The supply of Tc-99m is again in doubt, with the shutdown of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten looming in 2014. Low-energy accelerators have the potential to greatly increase the availability of radioisotopes by providing a small, lower-cost production solution. Implementing these as a system of localised production centres that supply a small area would greatly reduce the impact of a facility shutdown and eliminate the risk of world-wide shortages. An accelerator system that is not tailored to the production of a single isotope will allow researchers to explore new options for SPECT, PET and RIT and improve access to radioisotopes for medical testing. The potential of low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production will be explored. Several case studies of production will be presented using both well-established and new isotopes to the fields of nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. These will include zirconium-89, iodine-123 and titanium-45. Calculated yields will be compared to predicted nuclear medicine requirements. Expected radionuclidic impurities will also be quantified with a discussion of suitable, simple radiochemical separation systems. The DC electrostatic

  3. Radioisotope production with electron accelerators

    The production of radio isotopes with electron accelerators proceeds mainly by secondary photons (bremsstrahlung), produced in an interaction between the electrons and the Coulomb field of the nuclei of a converter. The production yields depend on: the initial electron energy, the Z and thickness of the bremsstrahlung-converter, the Z, A and the thickness of the target, the geometric set up and the cross section for a particular reaction. In this article the production is only considered for thin bremsstrahlung converters in combination with an electron 'sweep' magnet. Simple formulae are given for the calculations of production yields under standard conditions with only sigmasub(q) (the cross section per equivalent quantum) and f (the fraction of the photons that hit the target) as variables and for the calculations of the dose rate at the production point. The units in which the yields are expressed in the literature (units of sigmasub(q) dose, electron beam intensity, monitor response) are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. The production of cyclotron radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the national accelerator centre in South Africa

    Accelerator radioisotopes have been manufactured in South Africa since 1965 with the 30 MeV cyclotron at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria. After its closure in 1988, the radioisotope production programme was continued at the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) with the 200 MeV separated sector cyclotron (SCC) utilizing the 66 MeV proton beam, which is shared with the neutron therapy programme during part of the week. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-FDG, 67Ga-citrate, a 67Ga-labelled resin. 111In-chloride, 111In-oxine and 111In-labelled resin. 123I-sodium iodide and 123I-labelled compounds, 201Tl-chloride, as well as the 81Rb/81mKr gas generator, are prepared for use in the nuclear medicine departments of 12 State hospitals and about 28 private nuclear medicine clinics in South Africa. A few longer-lived radioisotopes, such as 22Na, 55Fe and 139Ce, are also produced for research or industrial use. A research and development programme is running to develop new production procedures to produce radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, or to improve existing production procedures. As part of a programme to utilize the beam time optimally, the production of some other radioisotopes is investigated. (author)

  5. Nuclear Data for Medical Radioisotope Production by Means of Accelerator Neutrons

    On the basis of the features outlined, JAEA staff will produce the medical radioisotopes of 99Mo, 90Y, 64Cu, and 67Cu from a neutron beam generated by the natC(d,n) reaction. One of the unique features of the proposal is the capability to produce all of the above-mentioned medical radioisotopes by means of accelerator neutrons. Thus, the natC(d,n) reaction produces fast neutrons possessing an energy spectrum up to 40 MeV with a most probable energy of 14 MeV that can be used to measure the production yields of 99Mo, 90Y,

  6. Radioisotope Dating with Accelerators.

    Muller, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains a new method of detecting radioactive isotopes by counting their accelerated ions rather than the atoms that decay during the counting period. This method increases the sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and allows one to find the ages of much older and smaller samples. (GA)

  7. Manual of radioisotope production

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  8. Production of 17F, 15O and other radioisotopes for PET using a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator

    Target systems for the production of positron emitting radioisotopes used for medical research with positron emission tomography (PET) are under development for a 3 MV electrostatic tandem accelerator (NEC 9SDH-2). This machine is intended primarily for the continuous production of short lived tracers labeled with 15O (t1/2=122 s) or 17F (t1/2=65 s) for determining regional cerebral blood flow in humans. Simple gas, liquid, and solid target systems are presented for the production of [15O]H2O (yield at saturation 13 mCi/μA), [17F]F2 (22 mCi/μA), [17F] fluoride (aq.) (12 mCi/μA), [18F]fluoride (aq.) (21 mCi/μA), [13N] in graphite (25 mCi/μA), and [11C]CO2 (2.3 mCi/μA). Current limitations on single window targets for each production are discussed

  9. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  10. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  11. Investigation of direct production of 62CU radioisotope at low energy multiparticle accelerator for PET studies

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for 59Co(α,n)62Cu and 59Cu(α,2n)61Cu nuclear reactions up to 45 MeV. The excitation functions were compared with published data. The optimum energy range for the production of radio copper contamination free 62Cu is 15→6 MeV. The calculated thick target saturation yield of 62Cu in this energy interval was 9.34 mCi/μA at EOB (supposing three half-life [0.487 min] activation time). If 61Cu is acceptable at the time of administration, the practical 62Cu yield can be increased using higher bombarding energy. According to our calculations the optimum energy range for the production of 62Cu was found to be 18.5→6 MeV. The calculated yield of 62Cu in this energy window was 1.9 mCi/μA (16.2 mCi/μA at EOB) supposing 0.487 h irradiation and 0.5 h cooling times. (author)

  12. Advances in Radioisotope Handling Facilities and Automation of Radioisotope Production

    Founded in 1959, the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences began to produce radioactive isotopes in 1964. Since then, it has become a major Hungarian centre of research, development and production relating to the application of radioisotopes. Since 1993 a part of the former Institute has been operating as the Institute of Isotopes Co., Ltd. The main advances in radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production are presented here. (author)

  13. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  14. Production and Development of Radioisotopes in HANARO

    The goal of this paper is to review the current activities at HANARO for the radioisotope production and related research activities in Korea, Also, the future directions in radioisotope production and its applications are described. (author)

  15. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  16. Alternate methods for the production of radioisotopes

    The use of radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications has increased in the past decade. The growth has been in two areas: the use of 99mTc for gamma-ray imaging and the use of 18F in positron emission tomography (PET). The 99mTc (6.01 h) is a daughter of the longer-lived precursor 99Mo (65.9 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors. Conversely, the isotopes for PET have been produced using cyclotrons at centralized hospital complexes. The economic potential of the radioisotope market has been demonstrated by the major producers of 99Mo this past year when they announced their plans to purchase two MAPLE reactors for the dedicated production of 99Mo. This market potential, coupled with the efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy to encourage the private, commercial production of radioisotopes that the government currently supplies, has provided motivation to investigate innovative technologies to produce both 99Mo and PET isotopes. Incentives for looking at alternate production methods include life-cycle cost and source portability for short-lived radioisotopes. This paper presents alternative production methods that could provide unique advantages for the production of 99Mo and tremendously higher availability of PET isotopes. We have examined the use of an existing high-current, linear accelerator for the production of 99Mo from the fission of depleted uranium and the production of short-lived isotopes used in PET using a portable source of low-energy antiprotons

  17. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131I (solution and capsule), 131I-MIBG, 131I-Hippuran, 153Sm-EDTMP, 153Sm-HA, and 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  18. Particle-beam accelerators for radiotherapy and radioisotopes

    The philosophy used in developing the new PIGMI technology was that the parameters chosen for physics research machines are not necessarily the right ones for a dedicated therapy or radioisotope machine. In particular, the beam current and energy can be optimized, and the design should emphasize minimum size, simplicity and reliability of operation, and economy in capital and operating costs. A major part of achieving these goals lay in raising the operating frequency and voltage gradient of the accelerator, which shrinks the diameter and length of the components. Several other technical innovations resulted in major system improvements. One of these is a radically new type of accelerator structure named the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. This allowed us to eliminate the large, complicated ion source used in previous ion accelerators, and to achieve a very high quality accelerated beam. Also, by using advanced permanent magnet materials to make the focusing elements, the system becomes much simpler. Other improvements have been made in all of the accelerator components and in the methods for operating them. These will be described, and design and costing information examples given for several possible therapy and radioisotope production machines

  19. Construction Status of the Beamline for Radio-Isotope Production in the Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex

    Chung, B. H.; Yoon, S. P.; Seol, K. T.; Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The 100-MeV beamline consist of 5 target room, a TR 103 as one of these is operating beamline, and a TR 101 as the other beamline is under construction as shown in Fig. 1. The TR 101 as beamline target room will be used for the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator. The optical system of the beamline consisted of dipole and quadrupole, and it included beam position monitor (BPM) and current transformer (CT) for beam diagnostics. The beamline was inserted into the carbon block and the aluminum collimator, the end of pipe as beam window was used for the aluminum to reduce the radioactive of materials. The target transfer equipment is being installed for RI production. The RI Beamline was aligned using the laser tracker, and vacuum leak was not detected by the helium leak detector. This facility is expected to the high value-added medical isotope production and increased utilization of the proton accelerator.

  20. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na2, sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10-3 μCi/cm2. This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  1. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  2. Cores of production : reactors and radioisotopes in France

    Adamson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the technologies used in radioisotope production in the French Atomic Energy Commission (the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique) between 1946 and 1958. Particular attention is given to the various instruments used for the bombardment of isotopes, including accelerators and reactors, and their relationship with the CEA’s radioisotope preparation laboratories. Ultimately, the vast majority of bombardments took place in research reactors. These versatile machines, and the isot...

  3. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  4. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  5. Overview of radioisotope production and utilization

    Radioisotopes are in widespread and increasing daily use throughout the world. Applications include medical diagnosis, treatment of cancer, sterilization of medical disposables, the perservation of food, and the hygienization of waste products. The unique production capabilities of Canadian research reactors and CANDU electrical generating stations have enabled Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to make an important contribution to the growth of this industry. The paper describes the production, processing, transportation and applications of the major radioisotopes in use today. The equipment required for the efficient use of these radioisotopes is described and the potential for growth is discussed

  6. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm-2S-1) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 1013 n.cm-1S-1). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  7. Production of radioisotopes using a cyclotron

    Cyclotron produced radioisotopes are generally neutron deficient and decay by EC or β+ emission. They find major applications in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The production processes involve rather sophisticated technology and the areas needing research and development work include nuclear data, targetry, chemical processing, remote control, automation and quality control. A comparison of the various parameters relevant to the production of radioisotopes using a nuclear reactor and a cyclotron is given. The cyclotron products are more expensive than the reactor products; they are, however, far superior to the latter as far as in-vivo functional studies are concerned. (author)

  8. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  9. Production of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. G

    The radioisotope products such as P-32, I-131, Tc-99m, Cr-51 and others are being in the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for medical uses. Additionally, the development of the chromatographic gel-type Tc-99m generator, new method for I-131 production, inorganic ion exchanger is introduced. (N.H.A). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  10. Production of Radioisotopes in Pakistan Research Reactor: Past, Present and Future

    Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programs. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. The availability of short-lived radionuclides from radionuclide generators provides an inexpensive and convenient alternative to in-house radioisotope production facilities such as cyclotrons and reactors. The reactor offers large volume for irradiation, simultaneous irradiation of several samples, economy of production and possibility to produce a wide variety of radioisotopes. The accelerator-produced isotopes relatively constitute a smaller percentage of total use. (author)

  11. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  12. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk 131I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with 131I and 99mTc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new 131I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing 99Mo-99mTc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced 99Mo, research and development work on the preparation of 99mTc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  13. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carty, J. [US Department of Energy, Office of Isotope Production and Distribution, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  14. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carty, J. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Isotope Production and Distribution

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 and RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, Ti-44, Fe-52, Gd-148, and Hg-194. The authors will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes will be described.

  15. Radioisotopes development and production in Malaysia

    Development of radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and agriculture sector was began in 1982 after the commissioning the 1MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor. Production of Tc-99m using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) extraction began in 1985 with the capacity about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99. By 1994, we produced Tc-99m generator using fission Molybdenum imported from Indonesia. Early 1990's, we assemble I-131 plant from Hungary for production of I-131 using TeO2 irradiated inour reactor but the yield are low. We have imported I-131 to meet the demand about 10 Ci/month. Development of Sm-153 EDTMP was began in 1994 and the trial production began in 1998. We also established the procedure for production of industrial and agriculture radioisotopes such as P-32, Na-24 and Au-198. (author)

  16. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  17. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  18. Quality control of radioisotopic products

    Radiopharmaceutical quality control is a very comprehensive and responsible activity since it concerns products being used for the health care of patients. Quality control is practised by an analytical specialist in close cooperation with pharmacists who are responsible for routine quality assurance. There is also a good understanding with the production group to ensure high-quality products. Quality control also relies on the research and development group to investigate problems. Finally there is feedback from the user since he is also responsible for quality control in a limited way. The scope of quality control is comprehensive, e.g. physical inspection and chemical control of all inactive starting material including supervision of the various stages of production. The quality control of radioactive material includes nuclidic analysis, verification of radiochemical purity as well as regular stability checks. Biological controls comprise sterility tests both on final products and production environment; testing for toxicity, pyrogens and LD50 values. To test product efficacy it is imperative to rely on biodistribution. Rabbits are used for quality control screening in a qualitative static mode and the dissection of mice organs is carried out for time-consuming quantitative analyses. Since radiopharmaceuticals are being used in a dynamic mode by nuclear medicine, their quality control tests on animals should, for proper evaluation, be carried out by means of comparative studies with imported products and by using a high-resolution camera with computer facilities. The Group for Quality Control and Assurance is responsible for an extensive documentation system which ensures both good manufacturing practice and effective analytical tests. Through quality control the specialist is constantly striving for improvement to ensure a good product for the benefit of the patient

  19. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  20. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of 131I, 99Mo-99mTc, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 46Sc, 192Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as 131I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for 99mTc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of 131I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of 99mTc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for 99mTc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable 99mTc generator using Zr-(99Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for 99mTc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for 99Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of 99mTc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with 153Sm and 131I such as 153Sm-EDTMP, 131I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  1. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Gizem Bakır; Saltuk Buğra Selçuklu; Hüseyin Yapıcı

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS). Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, Pu)O2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium) are separately prepared as cylindrical r...

  2. Self-reliance politics in radioisotopes production

    Full text: The Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN), owned by National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is a non-profit government institution that produces on a national scale more than 18 radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. These radiopharmaceuticals are used in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 1.5 million people in Brazil. This level of production was achieved through the creation of new technologies and automation solutions, because of the difficulty and cost on importation of raw materials and labeling compounds ready for use. In Brazil, only CNEN has authorization to import, manipulate and distribute radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore, the quality of those radioisotopes must comply with international specifications and regulations. Much research and 40 years of improvements has won IPEN international approval for the radiopharmaceuticals that it produces, and quality standards and specifications are today as good as in any other developed country. IPEN has even developed a few solutions in radioisotope production for others countries, such as Cuba and soon Peru. The first step towards self-production was the acquisition of a cyclotron (Cyclone-30) and the improvement of the reactor power from 2 MW to 5 MW. Many technical visits were made to radiopharmaceutical institutions around the world with the purpose of bringing self-reliance and self-development solutions to IPEN. The international radiopharmaceutical community has always contributed to this effort, and only with their help our self-development and self-reliance could be possible. IPEN has ISO 9001-2000 certification and has made efforts to improve the installations in order to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice. Every effort we make today has the goal of making radiopharmaceuticals available for therapy at the most competitive price possible for our institution. (author)

  3. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  4. A Review of the Production of ''Special'' Radioisotopes

    Six useful characteristics of radioisotopes and advantages which may be taken of them are cited briefly, with examples. The Information Sheet announcing this Seminar listed four advantages of short-lived over long-lived isotopes. Two other reasons why owners of small research reactors should concern themselves with short half- life isotopes are economy and particular suitability for production, the latter being due to the pronounced effect of half-life on the net rate of production. Besides short half-life, type and energy of emitted radiation should be of concern to producers of isotopes. Nine advantages of a nuclear reactor over a particle accelerator for radioisotope production are outlined. Following this general orientation, a survey of unusual or less frequently used production techniques is presented. These include: (n, p) reactions and secondary reactions such as (t, n) and (t, p) induced by thermal neutrons, various techniques for obtaining useful fluxes of fast neutrons with which to effect other reactions, recoil techniques including classic Szilard-Chalmers reactions, use of charged wires to collect short-lived daughters of gaseous parents, parent-daughter milking system, parasitic irradiations, possible use of ''knocked- on'' protons or deuterons (from the moderator) as a means of effecting reactions such as (p,n), (d,n), etc. and the possible use of circulating ''loops'' in reactors with which to utilize the radiation from ultra-short-lived radioisotopes such as Ag110, In114, 116, Dy155m, etc. Although not a production technique, the possibility of using certain stable isotopes (e. g. of silver) as tracers which can be readily detected via subsequent activation is mentioned. Production figures for Brookhaven's ''special'' radioisotopes are cited to show differences in long- and short-term fluctuations among these isotopes, which are also compared as a class to those in heavier demand supplied by Oak Ridge. Present production methods of all 'special

  5. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.)

  6. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  7. Development of stable isotope separation technology for radioisotope production

    The ultimate goal of this project is to construct the domestic production system of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 used as target materials in accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes F-18 and Tl-201, respectively. In order to achieve this goal, diode laser spectroscopic analytical system was constructed and automatic measurement computer software for the direct analysis of H216O/H218O ratio were developed. Distillation process, laser process, and membrane diffusion process were analyzed for the evaluation of O-18 production. And electromagnetic process, plasma process, and laser process were analyzed for the evaluation of Tl-203 production. UV laser system, IR laser system, and detailed system Tl-203 production were designed. Finally, current and future worldwide demand/supply of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 were estimated

  8. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges

    V Shivarudrappa; K V Vimalnath

    2005-07-01

    Radionuclides have become powerful and indispensable tools in many endeavours of human activities, most importantly in medicine, industry, biology and agriculture, apart from R&D activities. Ready availability of radionuclides in suitable radiochemical form, its facile detection and elegant tracer concepts are responsible for their unprecedented use. Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of variety of diseases including cancer. Artificial transmutation of an element employing thermal neutrons in a reactor or high energy particle accelerators (cyclotrons) are the routes of radioisotope production world over. Availability of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope programme. Selection of stable nuclides in suitable chemical form as targets with desired isotopic and chemical purity are among the important considerations in radioisotope production. Mostly the oxide, carbonate or the metal itself are the preferred target forms for neutron activation in a research reactor. Chemical impurities, particularly from the elements of the same group, put a limitation on the purity of the final radioisotope product. Whereas the isotopic impurities result in the production of undesirable radionuclidic impurities, which affect their effective utilization. Isotope Group, BARC, is in the forefront of radioisotope production and supply in the country, meeting demands for gamut of radioisotope applications indigenously for over four decades now. Radioisotopes such as 131I, 99Mo, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 82Br, 203Hg, 198Au etc are produced in TBq quantities every month and supplied to several users and to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT). Such a large production programme puts a huge demand on the reliable sources of availability of high purity target materials which are at present mostly met

  9. Production of Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    A review is made of the current literature and a bibliography given. Selected references are cited and comment made on the general techniques currently employed by short-lived radioisotope producers. A distinction is drawn between the large centrally-local high flux reactors and local reactors for producing short-lived radioisotopes; the complementary role of the two is pointed out as, for example, the need for obtaining very high specific activities in special off-site reactors or the need for high-speed transfers and fast processing in local reactors. The equipment and procedures used for irradiating target materials to produce short-lived radioisotopes in the three routinely-operated ORNL reactors are described, as well as those for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) now under construction at ORNL, which will have a maximum flux of 5 x 1015 n/cm2s. The use of the HFIR will permit production of certain short-lived radioisotopes of unprecedented specific activity. Techniques that have been developed for irradiating samples in various kinds of reactors ranging from the 1012n/cm2 s air-cooled, graphite reactor to the high flux (1014 - 1016) water-cooled, enriched uranium reactors are described. The requirements for sample irradiations in the various kinds of reactors, such as material, method of sealing, handling, method of heat removal, and kinds of sample materials, are discussed. Pneumatic transfer tubes are used for irradiations where cooling requirements are not great and fast transfer is desired. Hydraulic tubes are used for irradiation of samples with greater heat generation, although the speed of transfer is not as great as with the pneumatic tubes. The advantages in using enriched target materials in certain cases are pointed out and several illustrations are given. In some cases, where die target nuclide occurs in low abundance, such as Ca46 in calcium (0.003%), great advantage can be obtained by using enriched target materials. This may be of importance

  10. Potential medical applications of the plasma focus in the radioisotope production for PET imaging

    Devices other than the accelerators are desired to be investigated for generating high energy particles to induce nuclear reaction and positron emission tomography (PET) producing radioisotopes. The experimental data of plasma focus devices (PF) are studied and the activity scaling law for External Solid Target (EST) activation is established. Based on the scaling law and the techniques to enhance the radioisotopes production, the feasibility of generating the required activity for PET imaging is studied. - Highlights: • Short lived radioisotopes for PET imaging are produced in plasma focus device. • The scaling law of the activity induced with plasma focus energy is established. • The potential medical applications of plasma focus are studied

  11. Utilization of material testing reactor for radioisotope production

    In April 2000, JAEA (former JAERI) and CTC reached an agreement that we took over the radioisotope production from JAEA. We set up our facility in the Tokai Research and Development Center Nuclear Science Research Institute and started services. In this paper, we state present status of the production of radioisotopes in Japan and development activities in the future. (author)

  12. Neutron-rich radioisotope production in Australia

    The author discusses Australia's Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) and the applications of the range of radioisotopes it will produce. The ANSTO's RRR will produce radioisotopes that have medical., industrial and environmental applications. Medicinal radioisotopes would provide the nuclear medicine physicians and oncologists with the necessary tool to non-invasively diagnose and cure diseases, ranging from cancer to infections. Industrial radioisotopes provide the industrial community with high technology tools to evaluate and assess the status of high reliability equipment with respect to safety and functionality in a non-destructive modality. The current commercial radioisotope sources include 60Co, 169Yb and 192Ir with source strengths limited by the HlFAR neutron flux and capacity. These sources are primarily used for industrial X ray moisture, level and thickness gauging. The RRR will allow expansion of the commercial source strengths and allow ANSTO to meet the growing commercial Australasian market for radioactive sources

  13. Production and application of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals - status and prospects

    Given are the main data on the use of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medical applications. Shown are the methods for their routine production including the results obtained in the Laboratory for Radioisotopes (Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences). Particular emphasis is devoted to the trends in the development of the agents suitable for specific diagnostic or therapeutic applications. (author)

  14. Conceptual study of a compact accelerator-driven neutron source for radioisotope production, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy

    Angelone, M; Rollet, S

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of a compact accelerator-driven device for the generation of neutron spectra suitable for isotope production by neutron capture, boron neutron capture therapy and fast neutron therapy, is analyzed by Monte Carlo simulations. The device is essentially an extension of the activator proposed by Rubbia left bracket CERN/LHC/97-04(EET) right bracket , in which fast neutrons are diffused and moderated within a properly sized lead block. It is shown that by suitable design of the lead block, as well as of additional elements of moderating and shielding materials, one can generate and exploit neutron fluxes with the spectral features required for the above applications. The linear dimensions of the diffusing-moderating device can be limited to about 1 m. A full-scale device for all the above applications would require a fast neutron source of about 10**1**4 s**-**1, which could be produced by a 1 mA, 30 MeV proton beam impinging on a Be target. The concept could be tested at the Frascati Neutron Gener...

  15. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  16. Alternative method for 64Cu radioisotope production

    The method for 64Cu production based on a 64Ni target using an 18 MeV proton energy beam was developed. The studies on the optimisation of targetry for the 18 MeV proton bombardments were performed in terms of the cost-effective target utilisation and purity of the 64Cu product. The thickness-specific 64Cu yield (μCi/(μAxμm)) was introduced into the optimisation calculation with respect to cost-effective target utilisation. A maximum target utilisation efficacy factor (TUE) was found for the proton energy range of 2.5-13 MeV with corresponding target thickness of 36.2 μm. With the optimised target thickness and proton energy range, the 64Ni target thickness saving of 45.6% was achieved, while the overall 64Cu yield loss is only 23.9%, compared to the use of the whole effective proton energy range of 0-18 MeV with target thickness of 66.6 μm. This optimisation has the advantage of reducing the target amount to a reasonable level, and therefore the cost of the expensive 64Ni target material. The 64Ni target electroplated on the Au-Tl multi layer coated Cu-substrate was a new and competent design for an economic production of high quality 64Cu radioisotope using an 18 MeV proton energy cyclotron or a 30 MeV cyclotron with proton beam adjustable to 18 MeV. In this design, the Au coating layer plays a role of protection of 'cold' Cu leakage from the Cu substrate and Tl serves to depress the proton beam energy (from 18 MeV to the energy optimised value 13 MeV). The ion exchange chromatographic technique with a gradient elution was applied to improve the 64Cu separation with respect to reducing the processing time and control of 64Cu product quality.

  17. Trends in indigenous radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production in Bangladesh

    The Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology started producing radioisotopes for medical use in 1987, as soon as the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor started operation. There are 17 nuclear medicine centres in Bangladesh and the RIPD partially meets domestic demand for medical radioisotopes, the balance being imported. The RIPD routinely produces 131I solution and 99mTc generator and from October 2005 it was scheduled to substitute the import of these items by indigenous production. The RIPD is planning to establish a 99mTc cold kit manufacturing facility by 2007-2008. (author)

  18. Shielding calculation of the radioisotope production channel at 'Tesla' cyclotron installation

    During construction of the 'Tesla' Accelerator Installation in the Vinca Institute, one of the important problems was shielding calculation for the Radioisotope production Channel. Calculations were made in three different methods: empirical, semiempirical and Monte Carlo method. The results have been compared and show good agreement. (author)

  19. Radiation technologies for industrial applications using accelerators of the electrons of the radioisotope products, for positrone emission tomographs and for the cancer diagnostics

    Full text: This article is dedicated to the intensificaion of the cancer diagnostic processes in positrone-emission tomograph systems using RPP manufacture with the accelerators of the electrons located in all the large oncologic institutions worldwide. Intensification is achieved with the realization of F-18 shorter life nucleus and other significant advantages unavailable for RPP manufacture using cyclotrons

  20. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  1. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  2. Development of the cyclotron radioisotope production technology

    Suh, Yong Sup; Chun, K.S.; Yang, S.D.; Lee, J.D.; Ahn, S.H.; Yun, Y.K.; Park, H.; Lee, J.S.; Chai, J.S.; Kim, U.S.; Hong, S.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Park, C.W.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, E. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. H

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute the advance of nuclear medicine and to the improvement of human health through the development of various accelerator radionuclides and mass production with automization of production. The results obtained from this study are following: 1) In order to introduce 30 MeV high current cyclotron, the specification of cyclotron has been made, the building site was selected and we drew the draw-up of cyclotron. The cyclotron installation contract was postponed until the financial resources could be secured. 2) For a development high purity 1-123 producing system, a Xe-124 target system, a temperature measurement system of the inner part of the target and a target window were fabricated. A Xe-124 gas target recovery system and a full production system of 1-123 was drew up. 3) For a development of a therapeutic nuclide At-211, a target for the production of At-211 via {sup 209}Bi(alpha, 2n) reaction was fabricated. Produced At-211 was separated by distillation method. 4) For development of beta-emitting nuclides, Ti-45, C-11, F{sub 2}-18, beam irradiation system suitable for each target were fabricated. 5) For automatic production of Ga-67, automated module and PLC program was made 6) For the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals, analytical method of thallium and copper by polarography was investigated and established.

  3. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  4. Introduction of KIRAMS activity for radioisotope production and its application

    Full text: Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) has a great potential for clinical and pre-clinical studies of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. For radioisotope production, we hold a lot of technologies to prepare the short-lived radioisotopes, such as F-18 and C- 11 for application of PET and the radiometals, such as Tl- 201, Ga-67 and In-111 for SPECT using 30MeV (IBA) and 50MeV (MC50) cyclotrons. Recently, we developed radioiodides like I-123 for SPECT and I-124 for PET to label monoclonal antibodies to target the cell surface markers of specific diseases. In order to improve PET radiotracers for the chelator-systems, we also developed the production techniques of new several radionuclides, such as Cu-64, Tc-94m and so on. Therefore, the radiopharmaceutical studies with various radioisotopes, produced by cyclotron, were used for the purpose of invivo imaging of tumor, brain, and organ functions. In case of clinical and pre-clinical applications, the quality control system of radiopharmaceuticals should have been carried at preparation with safety and stability. This is called QURI (QUality Examination for Radiopharmaceuticals Investigation) project as a Top Brand of KIRAMS, which is important to develop the radioisotope production and its application. The future work at KIRAMS will be focused on developing the molecular targets for the purpose of clinical and preclinical applications in order to overcome intractable diseases. (author)

  5. Cyclotrons in the production of radioisotopes for medicine, science and technology

    The general scientific and technical aspects and analyze the current situation of the radioisotope production technologies, especially those produced in accelerators (cyclotrons) are described. It also addresses the importance and the significance that the availability of radioisotopes - at the regional and the international level - has for the support and the development of the current and future technologies. It analyzes the different factors, affecting the availability of radioisotopes in Chile and in general in South America. It also identifies the critical factors, the impact and technical and economic feasibility for the installation and operation of a cyclotron in Chile. Finally, the benefits derived from such installation and operation of a Cyclotron Laboratory may have for the development of national resources with great potential for a projection in Latin America. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  6. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  7. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  8. Prospective production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in divisions of IPPE

    The first reason to commence the work on production of radioisotope production in IPPE, was the requirement of Russia medicine for original generators of technetium. The essential extension of their production in conditions of Moscow city has met the declaiming of the Moscow urban authorities. The important moment was that, in IPPE were objective possibilities to deployment the production of radioisotope production. Nowadays, nomenclature of the radioisotopes which have been produced in IPPE, constitutes 29 positions. The profile of production of radioisotope production was generated also. Restricted possibilities of the ray base, from one side, and the needs(requirement) of domestic medicine with other, in main have spotted this profile. The raw isotopes constitute a minority - on sales volumes ∼ 20 % (in main abroad), the defining part is constituted the form ready for the use by ∼ 80 % (in main in Russia). All 'know-how' is conditionally possible to divide into 3 categories: Base. It is technologies provided with an operating production sector, guaranteeing stable on quality production having a rather wide seller's market; Perspective. It is those technologies, in which the main stages of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT are fulfilled with positive result, but the working sites yet are not generated, and on the market are delivered only some samples of production. Are guessed RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT on perfecting the technology; Preparative. The technology, on which there are no regular orders, is not required of an individual working site. Sometimes it is rather precision operations, bound with usage of unique raw material, with a very stiff price of production. (authors)

  9. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy

  10. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  11. Production of radioisotopes within a plasma focus device

    In recent years, research conducted in the US and in Italy has demonstrated production of radioisotopes in Plasma Focus (PF) devices, and particularly, on what could be termed 'endogenous' production, to wit, production within the plasma itself, as opposed to irradiation of targets. This technique relies on the formation of localized small plasma zones characterized by very high densities and fairly high temperatures. The conditions prevailing in these zones lead to high nuclear reaction rates, as pointed out in previous work by several authors. Further investigation of the cross sections involved has proven necessary to model the phenomena involved. In this paper, the present status of research in this field is reviewed, both with regards to cross section models and to experimental production of radioisotopes. Possible outcomes and further development are discussed. (author)

  12. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  13. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  14. Overview on radioisotope production at TRIGA-SSR 14 MW

    The paper presents the technical support provided at Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti to accomplish various services concerning isotope production. Also it is presented the study to produce, in collaboration with Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN) Bucharest, I-131, Au-198, Mo-99, Ir-192 isotopes for medical uses. There is presented neutron physics computation for the TRIGA core to establish the proper experimental locations to accomplish the radioisotope production. (authors)

  15. Occupational radioprotection in the cyclotron laboratory radioisotope production at IEN

    The Cyclotron of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is operated mainly for radioisotope production, neutron production studies and irradiation damage analysis. The risks associated to the activities developed in these laboratories are exposition to beta, neutron and gama radiation and contamination. The radioprotection program adapted are presented briefly and the results of the air and surface contamination analysis, liquid efluents and dose equivalent of the workers in 1988 are shown. (author)

  16. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  17. A benchmark study on uncertainty of ALICE ASH 1.0, TALYS 1.0 and MCNPX 2.6 codes to estimate production yield of accelerator-based radioisotopes

    Seyed Amirhossen Feghi; Zohreh Gholamzadeh; Zahra Alipoor; Akram Zali; Mahdi Joharifard; Morteza Aref; Claudio Tenreiro

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotopes find very important applications in various sectors of economic significance and their production is an important activity of many national programmes. Some deterministic codes such as ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 are extensively used to calculate the yield of a radioisotope via numerical integral over the calculated cross-sections. MCNPX 2.6 stochastic code is more interesting among the other Monte Carlo-based computational codes for accessibility of different intranuclear cascade physical models to calculate the yield using experiment-based cross-sections. A benchmark study has been proposed to determine the codes' uncertainty in such calculations. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields by proton irradiation of silver, rubidium chloride and strontium carbonate targets are studied. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr cross-sections are calculated using ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 codes. The evaluated yields are compared with the experimental yields. The targets are modelled using MCNPX 2.6 code. The production yields are calculated using the available physical models of the code. The study shows acceptable relative discrepancies between theoretical and experimental results. Minimum relative discrepancy between experimental and theoretical yields is achievable using ISABEL intranuclear model in most of the targets simulated by MCNPX 2.6. The stochastic code utilization can be suggested for calculating 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields. It results in more valid data than TALYS 1.0 and ALICE ASH 1.0 in noticeably less average relative discrepancies.

  18. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health; Produccion de radioisotopos para aplicaciones en la salud

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators, the radio lanthanides: {sup 151}Pm, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 161}Tb, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 131}I and the {sup 32}P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the {sup 99m}Tc and the {sup 188}Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand

  20. Evaluation of medical isotope production with the accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility

    Benjamin, R.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Frey, G.D.; McLean, D.C., Jr; Spicer, K.M.; Davis, S.E.; Baron, S.; Frysinger, J.R. [Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Blanpied, G.; Adcock, D. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1997-07-10

    The accelerator production of tritium (APT) facility, with its high beam current and high beam energy, would be an ideal supplier of radioisotopes for medical research, imaging, and therapy. By-product radioisotopes will be produced in the APT window and target cooling systems and in the tungsten target through spallation, neutron, and proton interactions. High intensity proton fluxes are potentially available at three different energies for the production of proton- rich radioisotopes. Isotope production targets can be inserted into the blanket for production of neutron-rich isotopes. Currently, the major production sources of radioisotopes are either aging or abroad, or both. The use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine is growing and changing, both in terms of the number of nuclear medicine procedures being performed and in the rapidly expanding range of procedures and radioisotopes used. A large and varied demand is forecast, and the APT would be an ideal facility to satisfy that demand.

  1. Alpha-emitting radioisotopes production for radioimmunotherapy

    Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institutet of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    This review discusses the production of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in radioimmunotherapy. Radioimmunotherapy labeled with alpha-particle is expected to be very useful for the treatment of monocellular cancer (e.g. leukemia) and micrometastasis at an early stage, residual tumor remained in tissues after chemotherapy and tumor resection, due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha particle. Despite of the expected effectiveness of alpha-particle in radioimmunotherapy, its clinical research has not been activated by the several reasons, shortage of a suitable a-particle development and a reliable radionuclide production and supply system, appropriate antibody and chelator development. Among them, the establishment of radionuclide development and supply system is a key factor to make an alpha-immunotherapy more popular in clinical trial. Alpha-emitter can be produced by several methods, natural radionuclides, reactor irradiation, cyclotron irradiation, generator system and elution. Due to the sharply increasing demand of {sup 213}Bi, which is a most promising radionuclide in radioimmunotherapy and now has been produced with reactor, the cyclotron production system should be developed urgently to meet the demand.

  2. Radioisotope production at 14 MW TRIGA

    Few years after reactor first start-up it was developed a program for small-scale isotope production, as a complementary activity to the main activities at TRIGA reactor i.e. fuel and material testing in loops and capsules. We aimed to obtain radioactive material for industrial and medical use, of medium and high specific activity. In this paper, one is briefly described the irradiation conditions, irradiation devices, post-irradiation handling and the steps intended for improving the quality of this activity, referring particularly to some widely used isotopes as Ir-192, I-125, and Co-60 and to some radiopharmaceuticals (Mo-99 and I-131). One concludes by suggesting some ways to improve and enlarge isotope production at TRIGA: i. to optimize the channel filling with thinner iridium disks (0.25 mm) by re-spacing them; ii. to design and operate a better charging and discharging system of the ampoules irradiated in peripheral berylium channels; iii. to start fast neutron irradiations for getting medium half life isotopes such as P-32 and S-35; iv. to allocate a new high flux irradiation channel for cobalt, without interfering with the rest of the irradiations. (authors)

  3. Operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    At the RIPF at HANARO, Radioisotopes for industrial and medical purpose are produced and research and development for various radioisotopes are carried out. Major products include Ir-192 for NDT, I-131 for treatment and diagnosis of thyroid cancer, Mo-99/Tc-99m Generator for imaging diagnosis of cancer. Production of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical is being increased every year. Due to world-wide unstableness in the supply of Mo-99, a technology to produce (n,γ)Mo-99 generator at HANARO had been developed as a short term countermeasure. It will be available by the end of 2012. As a long term countermeasure, we are trying to build a new fully dedicated isotope reactor that will produce Fission Mo-99. At present, utilization of RIPF at HANARO is being increased. However when the construction of a new dedicated isotope reactor is completed in 2016, the role of the existing facility and new facility should be established accordingly so that none of the facilities are idling. In the near future, when the prospect of a utilization plan is completed, we expect an opportunity to present the result. (author)

  4. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    radioisotopes production are much sought worldwide. There is a universal lack of these specialists. Regarding this situation, there is an urgency to collect the right conditions which allow the organization of a Master's degree in radio-pharmacy, radio-biology and radiochemistry. The projects of complementarities between Arab countries via the Arabic Agency of the Atomic Energy, the collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Technical French Cooperation of the Atomic Energy Commission are useful to combine efforts for better training of the staff. (Author)

  5. Positron emission tomography: radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been operational within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre (A and RMC) in Melbourne for seven years. PET is a non-invasive imaging technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic facility consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities, radiopharmacy and a whole body PET scanner. A strong radiolabelling development program, including the production of 15O-oxygen, 15O-carbon monoxide, 15O-carbon dioxide, 15O-water, 13N-ammonia, 18F-FDG, 18F-FMISO, 11C-SCH23390 and 11C-flumazenil has been pursued to support an ambitious clinical and research program in neurology, oncology, cardiology and psychiatry. Copyright (1999) Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine and the College of Biomedical Engineers

  6. Design study and heat transfer analysis of a neutron converter target for medical radioisotope production

    A worldwide challenge in the near future will be to find a way of producing radioisotopes in sufficient quantity without relying on research reactors. The motivation for this innovative work on targets lies in the accelerator-based production of radioisotopes using a neutron converter target as in the transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing concept. Thermal analysis of a multi-channel helium cooled device is performed with the computational fluid dynamics code CFX. Different boundary conditions are taken into account in the simulation process and many important parameters such as maximum allowable solid target temperature as well as uniform inlet velocity and outlet pressure changes in the channels are investigated. The results confirm that the cooling configuration works well; hence such a solid target could be operated safely and may be considered for a prototype target. (author)

  7. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  8. Automatic radioisotope production devices adapted to a medical cyclotron

    The authors describe an irradiation device set up beside a compact medical cyclotron (520.CGR-MeV cyclotron). The variable energy machine can accelerate 3-22 MeV protons, 3-13 MeV deuterons, 6-26 MeV alpha particles and 5-31 MeV helium-3 particles, the currents extracted at the maximum energies reaching 50 μA for 4He and 3He, 70 μA for protons and deuterons. The essential characteristics demanded of the apparatus in order to produce a regular and abundant supply of short-lived radioisotopes were as follows: - Flexibility of use or the possibility of fast, completely non-manual target changing. - Simplicity of operation: the target-holder components must be easily interchangeable and the transfer of radioisotopes from the irradiation point to the chemical laboratory must be rapid. - Working safety: the automatic target-holder cooling controls must be duplicated by manual controls. - Target cooling efficiency: these targets, whether gaseous, liquid or solid, must be able to support a high particle current. (Auth.)

  9. Accelerators for energy production

    A tremendous progress of accelerators for these several decades, has been motivated mainly by the research on subnuclear physics. The culmination in high energy accelerators might be SSC, 20 TeV collider in USA, probably the ultimate accelerator being built with the conventional principle. The technology cultivated and integrated for the accelerator development, can now stably offer the high power beam which could be used for the energy problems. The Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) with high current, 10 kA and short pulse, 20 ns heavy ion beam (HIB) of mass number ∼200, would be the most promising application of accelerators for energy production. In this scenario, the fuel containing D-T mixture, will be compressed to the high temperature, ∼10 keV and to the high density state, ∼1000 times the solid density with the pressure of ablative plasma or thermal X ray produced by bombarding of high power HIB. The efficiency, beam power/electric power for accelerator, and the repetition rate of HIB accelerators could be most suitable for the energy production. In the present paper, the outline of HIB ICF (HIF) is presented emphasizing the key issues of high current heavy ion accelerator system. (author)

  10. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981

  11. Charged particle cross-section database for medical radioisotope production: diagnostic radioisotopes and monitor reactions. Final report of a co-ordinated research project

    Medical applications of nuclear radiation are of considerable interest to the IAEA. Cyclotrons and accelerators, available in recent years in an increasing number of countries, are being used for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The physical basis of this production is described through interaction of charged particles, such as protons, deuterons and alphas, with matter. These processes have to be well understood in order to produce radioisotopes in an efficient and clean manner. In addition to medical radioisotope production, reactions with low energy charged particles are of primary importance for two major applications. Techniques of ion beam analysis use many specific reactions to identify material properties, and in nuclear astrophysics there is interest in numerous reaction rates to understand nucleosynthesis in the Universe. A large number of medically oriented cyclotrons have been running in North America, western Europe and Japan for more than two decades. In recent years, 30-40 MeV cyclotrons and smaller cyclotrons (Ep < 20 MeV) have been installed in several countries. Although the production methods are well established, there are no evaluated and recommended nuclear data sets available. The need for standardization was thus imminent. This was pointed out at three IAEA meetings. Based on the recommendations made at these meetings, the IAEA decided to undertake and organize the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Reference Charged Particle Cross-Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production. The project was initiated in 1995. It focused on radioisotopes for diagnostic purposes and on the related beam monitor reactions in order to meet current needs. It constituted the first major international effort dedicated to standardization of nuclear data for radioisotope production. It covered the following areas: Compilation of data on the most important reactions for monitoring light ion

  12. Research reactor production of radioisotopes for medical use

    More than 70% of all radioisotopes applied in medical diagnosis and research are currently produced in research reactors. Research reactors are also an important source of certain radioisotopes, such as 60Co, 90Y, 137Cs and 198Au, which are employed in teletherapy and brachytherapy. For regular medical applications, mainly 29 radionuclides produced in research reactors are used. These are now produced on an 'industrial scale' by many leading commercial manufacturers in industrialized countries as well as by national atomic energy establishments in developing countries. Five main neutron-induced reactions have been employed for the regular production of these radionuclides, namely: (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,γ) followed by decay, and (n, fission). In addition, the Szilard-Chalmers process has been used in low- and medium-flux research reactors to enrich the specific activity of a few radionuclides (mainly 51Cr) produced by the (n,γ) reaction. Extensive work done over the last three decades has resulted in the development of reliable and economic large-scale production methods for most of these radioisotopes and in the establishment of rigorous specifications and purity criteria for their manifold applications in medicine. A useful spectrum of other radionuclides with suitable half-lives and low to medium toxicity can be produced in research reactors, with the requisite purity and specific activity and at a reasonable cost, to be used as tracers. Thanks to the systematic work done in recent years by many radiopharmaceutical scientists, the radionuclides of several elements, such as arsenic, selenium, rhenium, ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tellurium, antimony, platinum, lead and the rare earth elements, which until recently were considered 'exotic' in the biomedical field, are now gaining attention. (author)

  13. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  14. Production of I-125 radioisotope in sodium iodide solution

    Application: The Radioisotope Iodine-125 has rather long half-life, and high dose range of Gamma radiation. It will be used in two cases,in our radioisotope production department: 1-To label Radioimmunoassay Kits (RIA): T3, T4 and TSH for INVITRO investigation of Thyroid glands, in our Nuclear Medical Center in IRAN. We just started to set up Hot cell facilities and in cell equipment to supply Iodine-125 for our Radioimmunoassay Group.In this section. The above Iodine-125 will be used for labelling of their Radioimmunoassay products for Thyroid functions and also for screening of newborns for Thyroid deficiency. 2-We have also just start, the make and supply particular granules of Iodine-125 by Silver coated Iodine-125 directly and also indirectly, on the Palladium, coated Silver Wire to be used in Brachytherapy applications. Production: After filling Target with 15 g of natural Xe gas by excellent technology and closed in leak-tight allowing reactor irradiation. The target is irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 3 weeks optimally at a thermal neutron flux around Φ= 1*1014 n.cm-2.s-1.After transferring irradiated target to hot cell, The aluminium capsule is opened by putting it into the punching apparatus and pushing the needle into the bottom of the aluminium capsule by turning the handle counter-clockwise. When the needle punches the aluminium. The Xe gas is released into the chimney and the I-125 radioisotope is adsorbed on the inside wall of the aluminium capsule. After this the opened aluminium capsule is pulled off from the needle by turning the handle clockwise. The opened capsule is ready to distillation. Preparation of the distillation oven and equipment: on the first occasion the oven should be heated two-times up to 550 oC for two hours each to eliminate potential contamination. After it the radioactive aluminium capsule is put into the oven and vacuum is started. This is followed by switching on the heating. The distillation is followed through 120

  15. Revisiting homogeneous suspension reactors for production of radioisotopes

    Some 50 years ago in Geneva Conferences I, II and III (1955. 1958 and 1964) on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, and also in Vienna Symposium on Reactor Experiments (1961), several papers where presented by different countries referring to advances in homogeneous suspension reactors. In particular the Dutch KEMA Suspension Test Reactor (KSTR) was developed, built and successfully operated in the sixties and seventies. It was a 1MWth reactor in which a suspension (6 microns spheres) of mixed UO2/ThO2 in light water was circulated in a closed loop through a sphere-shaped vessel. One of the basic ideas on these suspension reactors was to apply the fission recoil separation effect as a means of purification of the fuel: the non-volatile fission products can be adsorbed in dispersed active charcoal and removed from the liquid. Undoubtedly, this method can present some advantages and better yields for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes, since they have to be extracted from a liquid in which practically no uranium is present. Details are mentioned of the different aspects that have been taken into account and which ones could be added in the corresponding actualization of suspension reactors for radioisotope production. In recent years great advances have been made in nanotechnology that can be used in the tailoring of fuel particles and adsorbent media. Recently, in CNEA Buenos Aires, a new facility has been inaugurated and is being equipped and licensed for laboratory experiments and preparative synthesis of nuclear nanoparticles. RA-6 and RA-3 experimental reactors in Argentina can be used for in-pile testing. (author)

  16. Construction and assembling of a cell to produce I-131 in the radioisotopes production plant

    It has been constructed, improved and installed a cell with iron structures, Pb shielding, with an acrylic tight precinct, an air inlet and extraction system, services of water, light, active and conventional drainage, compressed air, vacuum and installation of other facilities suitable for the I-131 radioisotope production in the Radioisotopes Production Plant (PPR)

  17. A compact high-power proton linac for radioisotope production

    Conventional designs for proton linacs use a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), followed by a drift-tube linac (DTL). For higher final beam energies, a coupled cavity linac (CCL) follows the DTL. A new structure, the coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of an Alvarez DTL and the CCL. Operating in a π/2 structure mode, the CCDTL replaces the DTL and part of the CCL for particle velocities in the range 0.1 < β < 0.5. The authors present a design concept for a compact linac using only an RFQ and a CCDTL. This machine delivers a few mA of average beam current at a nominal energy of 70 MeV and is well suited for radioisotope production

  18. Improvement of animal production through research using radioisotopes and radiation

    High birth rates coupled with greater longevity continue to increase the.world's population, especially in the less developed countries. The prevention of undernutrition and ultimately starvation will only be averted by increased food production and more efficient use of that food. At the same time people who have largely subsisted upon plant food diets and whose standards of living are rising, want to increase the use of animal products in order to upgrade their diets. To provide this high quality food animal scientists must find ways of increasing the supply especially in the less developed countries. Since most of the available pasture lands are presently being fully utilized or overgrazed, improved efficiency of the present herds and use of agroindustrial wastes are the only methods left to increase production significantly. The use of radioisotopes and radiation in research are making major contributions to the understanding of the processes necessary to achieve better animal production. In order to provide a forum for exchange of information in this field, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture organized an international symposium, held in Vienna, from 2?6 February, on the use of nuclear techniques in animal production. Among the topics discussed at the symposium were: Soil-plant-animal relations regarding minerals, Trace elements in animal nutrition, Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism, Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - ruminants Protein (nitrogen) metabolism - non-ruminants Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections Animal endocrinology with special emphasis on radioimmunoassays

  19. Cyclotron production of molecules labelled with short-lived radioisotopes β+ emitters (15O, 13N, 11C) and their clinical uses

    Clinical use of three short-lived radioisotopes: 15O, 13N and 11C is studied on two complementary aspects. A production and purification system is realized; detection instruments in medical use are studied. The production of labelled molecules with the three radiotracers 15O, 13N, 11C from the target bombardment with charged and accelerated particles was studied

  20. Production of radioisotopes by 1.5 m cyclotron and their utilization

    Radioisotopes characterized by nuclear property and uses can be produced on the accelerator, especially those playing an important role in scientific researches and biomedical uses. The status of Radioisotopes produced by 1.5 m cyclotron and their applications in our institute are summarized in this paper. The details of preparation and the results of use for radioactive sources, radiochemicals, radiopharmaceuticals of 57Co, 109Cd, 68Ge- 68Ga, and 167Tm are given respectively. (author)

  1. Economical and technical feasibility study of some radioisotopes production for medical application

    The economical and technical feasibility study of the production in reactors of some radioisotopes most used in medicine, are presented. The clinical applications of each radioisotope as well as its radioactive concentrations and specific activities are related. Irradiation procedures based in the foregoing data are given. Part of the study is dedicated to quality control. (M.A.C.)

  2. Trends in indigenous radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production in Bangladesh

    There are 17 nuclear medicine centres (NMC) in Bangladesh which are distributed all over the country. The objective of RIPD is to produce short lived radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for these NMCs. Iodine-131 generated during irradiation of natural TeO2 in the 3 MW TRIGA research reactor is separated by dry distillation method. Recently two independent dry distillation apparatus were installed in the 131I production plant for alternate use at RIPD. Since July 2003 more than 11Ci of 131I solution has been produced. At present, on average, 300mCi of 131I is produced on a weekly basis by irradiating about 38.5g of TeO2 at 2.5 MW for 15 h of interrupted irradiation. Due to the limitation in reactor operation time and target size, RIPD meets only a part of country's demand for 131I. Increase of reactor operation time and installation of more dry central thimble (DCT) in the reactor to irradiate more than one target at a time is under active consideration of the authority. Equipment for diagnostic and therapeutic 131I capsule production has recently been installed at RIPD. Test production of diagnostic 131I capsules has been done successfully. Therapeutic capsule production will be started when 131I solution with required radioactive concentration will be available. RIPD started its activity with the production of instant 99mTc by solvent extraction method by irradiating natural molybdenum (as MoO3) target in 1987. In 1988 the Division produced 99mTc-sublimation generator by irradiating titanium molybdate in the reactor. A facility for the production of chromatographic 99mTc-generator was installed at RIPD under IAEA TC Project BGD/4/014 in 1997. In this facility four 99mTc-generators per batch can be produced. So far 100 batches of 15GBq 99mTc-generators have been produced from imported fission 99Mo. Yearly production of 99mTc-generatos is shown in Fig.1. Users comment regarding the quality and performance of the locally produced 99mTc-generator are quite

  3. radioisotopes production in the ETRR-2 research reactor

    the present work was carried out to study the production of a variety of reactor produced radioisotopes via neutrons interactions with specified targets in the 22 MW ETRR-2 research reactor, egypt, compared with the 2 MW IRI, netherlands, and 2 MW ETRR-1, egypt, research reactors. no carrier added radionuclides of 131 Cs (T1/2=9,69 d), 166 Ho (T1/2=26.7 h), 67 Cu(T1/2=2.5 7 d) and 47Sc(T1/2=3.34 d) were produced by thermal neutrons interactions via 130 Ba(n,γ ) 131 Ba (β decay) 131 Cs and 164Dy(2 n,γ ) 166 Dy (βdecay) 166 Ho and fast neutrons interactions via 47 Ti(n,p) 47Sc and 67Zn(n,p) 67 Cu nuclear reactions , respectively. chemical processing was conducted using the sulfate precipitation method and dowex 2 x 8 (cl-). anion exchange, Dowex AGW 50 x 8 (H+), cation exchange and dowex AGW 50 x 8 (H+) reversed phase hplc chromatographic methods for separation of 131cs, 67cu, 47sc and 166 Ho from the barium , zinc, titanium, and dysprosium targets, respectively. the percent yields of 131 Cs, 67Cu, 47Sc and 166 Ho were found to be ∼ 91,90,98 and 42.7% respectively

  4. Characteristics of HVAC System in radioisotope production facility

    Radioisotope production facility (hereinafter called 'RIP facility'), one of the subsidiary one of the subsidiary ones in the HANARO research reactor, has been operated since 1995. They have 4 banks; bank1 consists of 4 concrete cells I-192 and Co-60 are produced, bank2 consists of 11 lead cells R and D project is conducted, bank3 consists of 6 lead cells I-131 is produced, and bank4 consists of 4 lead cells Tc-99m generator is produced. In order to prevent the gaseous radioactive material to be released to atmosphere, 3-stage charcoal adsorbent was installed at the exhaust side of the bank3. Also, prefilters and HEPA filters are mounted in all hot cell banks respectively. Charcoal cartridge and HEPA Filters are replaced every 18 month for maintenance without exception. After replacing them, we commence In-Place Leakage Test using the halide and D. O. P tester according to the ASME N510-2007. This paper describes characteristics of HVAC system in RIP facility and maintenance of their components such as AHU, HRU, blower, fan, damper as well as filters. Especially, the management of HEPA filters and charcoal adsorbents are very important for protecting environment and workers. So, I deal with the maintenance and repair of these filters and hands-on leak test result. In addition, this paper shows evaluation about radio-iodine released to atmosphere via the stack in HANARO

  5. Characteristics of HVAC System in radioisotope production facility

    Lee, Mun; Kim, Min Jin; Yoon, Byeong Joo; Youn, Dong Weon; Jung, Hoan Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotope production facility (hereinafter called 'RIP facility'), one of the subsidiary one of the subsidiary ones in the HANARO research reactor, has been operated since 1995. They have 4 banks; bank1 consists of 4 concrete cells I-192 and Co-60 are produced, bank2 consists of 11 lead cells R and D project is conducted, bank3 consists of 6 lead cells I-131 is produced, and bank4 consists of 4 lead cells Tc-99m generator is produced. In order to prevent the gaseous radioactive material to be released to atmosphere, 3-stage charcoal adsorbent was installed at the exhaust side of the bank3. Also, prefilters and HEPA filters are mounted in all hot cell banks respectively. Charcoal cartridge and HEPA Filters are replaced every 18 month for maintenance without exception. After replacing them, we commence In-Place Leakage Test using the halide and D. O. P tester according to the ASME N510-2007. This paper describes characteristics of HVAC system in RIP facility and maintenance of their components such as AHU, HRU, blower, fan, damper as well as filters. Especially, the management of HEPA filters and charcoal adsorbents are very important for protecting environment and workers. So, I deal with the maintenance and repair of these filters and hands-on leak test result. In addition, this paper shows evaluation about radio-iodine released to atmosphere via the stack in HANARO.

  6. Transmission factors for neutrons produced by radioisotopes production used in PET

    The dose transmission factor for normal concrete and the neutrons produced in the18O(p,n)18F and 13C(p,n)13N reactions are presented in this paper. These transmission factors permit to simplify the calculation of the necessary accelerator shielding to be used in the radioisotope production for positron emission tomography. The energy distributions of the neutrons resulting from the irradiation of thick targets, with 10 to 13 MeV protons, were determined using the thin target cross sections, the energy loss per path length and the energy balance of the reaction (Q-equation). The one dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and the conversion coefficients from fluence to dose, presented in the ICRP Publication 51 were employed to obtain the transmission factors. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  8. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    Park, J.H.; Han, H.S.; Park, K.B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  9. Alternative method for {sup 64}Cu radioisotope production

    Van So Le [Radiopharmaceutical Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights , P.M.B. 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)], E-mail: slv@ansto.gov.au; Howse, J.; Zaw, M.; Pellegrini, P.; Katsifis, A.; Greguric, I.; Weiner, R. [Radiopharmaceutical Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights , P.M.B. 1 Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The method for {sup 64}Cu production based on a {sup 64}Ni target using an 18 MeV proton energy beam was developed. The studies on the optimisation of targetry for the 18 MeV proton bombardments were performed in terms of the cost-effective target utilisation and purity of the {sup 64}Cu product. The thickness-specific {sup 64}Cu yield ({mu}Ci/({mu}Ax{mu}m)) was introduced into the optimisation calculation with respect to cost-effective target utilisation. A maximum target utilisation efficacy factor (TUE) was found for the proton energy range of 2.5-13 MeV with corresponding target thickness of 36.2 {mu}m. With the optimised target thickness and proton energy range, the {sup 64}Ni target thickness saving of 45.6% was achieved, while the overall {sup 64}Cu yield loss is only 23.9%, compared to the use of the whole effective proton energy range of 0-18 MeV with target thickness of 66.6 {mu}m. This optimisation has the advantage of reducing the target amount to a reasonable level, and therefore the cost of the expensive {sup 64}Ni target material. The {sup 64}Ni target electroplated on the Au-Tl multi layer coated Cu-substrate was a new and competent design for an economic production of high quality {sup 64}Cu radioisotope using an 18 MeV proton energy cyclotron or a 30 MeV cyclotron with proton beam adjustable to 18 MeV. In this design, the Au coating layer plays a role of protection of 'cold' Cu leakage from the Cu substrate and Tl serves to depress the proton beam energy (from 18 MeV to the energy optimised value 13 MeV). The ion exchange chromatographic technique with a gradient elution was applied to improve the {sup 64}Cu separation with respect to reducing the processing time and control of {sup 64}Cu product quality.

  10. Estimates for production of radioisotopes of medical interest at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility

    Luo, Wen; Bobeica, Mariana; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan M.; Niculae, Dana; Balabanski, Dimiter L.

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the production of radioisotopes of medical interest through photoneutron reactions using the high-brilliance γ-beam of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The specific activity for three benchmark radioisotopes, 99Mo/99Tc, 225Ra/225Ac and 186Re, was obtained as a function of target geometry, irradiation time and γ-beam energy. Optimized conditions for the generation of these radioisotopes of medical interest with the ELI-NP γ-beams were discussed. We estimated that a saturation specific activity of the order of 1-2 mCi/g can be achieved for thin targets with about one gram of mass considering a γ-beam flux of 10^{11} photons/s. Based on these results, we suggest that the ELI-NP facility can provide a unique possibility for the production of radioisotopes in sufficient quantities for nuclear medicine research.

  11. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  12. Summary report of the consultants' meeting on nuclear data for production of therapeutic radioisotopes

    This report summarizes the presentations, recommendations and conclusions of the Consultants' Meeting on Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radioisotopes. The purpose of this meeting was to discuss scientific and technical matters related to the subject and to advise the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) on the need and possible formation of a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP). Accurate and complete knowledge of nuclear data are essential for the production of radionuclides for therapy to achieve the specific activity and purity required for efficient and safe clinical application. The Consultants recommended updating and completing the data for production of radionuclides that are recognized to be important in therapy. In addition, the consultants recommend investigating other radionuclides that have a potential interest and for which there exists a medical rationale for therapeutic use. To date no serious effort has been devoted to evaluation of nuclear data for the reactor and accelerator production of therapeutic radionuclides. The IAEA is in the unique and privileged position to address this important public health related problem. Therefore, the consultants highly recommend the formation of a CRP with the title: 'Nuclear Data for Production of Therapeutic Radionuclides.' (author)

  13. The role of the chemist in the development and production of radioisotope preparations

    The Isotope Production Centre of the Atomic Energy Board manufactures and markets a large number of important radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and research fields which, previously, had to be imported. The development and production of radioisotope products require a multi-disciplinary approach in which a team effort by chemists, physicists, engineers, biologists and physicians is applied. Radioisotopes are usually used in the form of sealed radiation sources, simple inorganic compounds or radioisotope-labelled molecules. Sealed radiation sources such as cobalt-60 and iridium-192 are applied widely in the industrial field in, for example, level-high and level- density measurements, radiation sterilisation of medical equipment, and gamma radiography of structures. For industrial tracer and research purposes sodium-24, argon-41, bromine-82, iodine-131 and gold-198 are regularly used in simple chemical form. There are some thousands of radioisotope-labelled compounds of which the largest group compromises compounds of tritium, carbon-14 and sulphur-35. Because the last-mentioned isotopes have long physical half-lives and poor detectability in in vivo systems, they are used in vitro mainly in biomedical research. Radioisotopes such as iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, technetium-99m, krypton-81m and gallium-67 are in great demand for in vivo medical examinations because of their suitably short half-lives and detectability by the gamma camera. Iodine-125, a radioisotope which is usually manufactured in a nuclear reactor, plays a very important role in radioimmuoassays(RIA). The latter technique is an unusually sensitive, spesific in vitro analytical method which enables scientists to determine nanogram to picogram amounts of chemical compounds in blood. The design, development and manufacture of radioisotope preparations for a variety of uses offer an interesting challenge to the chemist now as well as in the future

  14. Current status of production and research of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Indonesia

    Soenarjo, Sunarhadijoso; Tamat, Swasono R. [Center for Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang (Indonesia)

    2000-10-01

    The use of radioactive preparation in Indonesia has sharply increased during the past years, indicated by increase of the number of companies utilizing radioisotopes during 1985 to 1999. It has been clearly stressed in the BATAN's Strategic Plan for 1994-2014 that the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals is one of five main industrial fields within the platform of the Indonesian nuclear industry. Research programs supporting the production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals as well as development of production technology are undertaken by the Research Center for Nuclear Techniques (RCNT) in Bandung and by the Radioisotope Production Center (RPC) in Serpong, involving cooperation with other research center within BATAN, universities and hospitals as well as overseas nuclear research institution. The presented paper describes production and research status of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Indonesia after the establishment of P.T. Batan Teknologi in 1996, a government company assigned for activities related to the commercial application of nuclear technology. The reviewed status is divided into two short periods, i.e. before and after the Chairman Decree No. 73/KA/IV/1999 declaring new BATAN organizational structure. Subsequent to the Decree, all commercial requests for radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals are fulfilled by P.T. Batan Teknologi, while demands on novel radioactive preparations or new processing technology, as well as research and development activities should be fulfilled by the Center for the Development of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals (CDRR) through non-commercial arrangement. The near-future strategic research programs to response to dynamic public demand are also discussed. The status of research cooperation with JAERI (Japan) is also reported. (author)

  15. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    2013-03-08

    ... Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope Germanium-68 AGENCY... commercial production and distribution of germanium-68, based upon private industry expression of interest in... to refrain from competition with private industry in the commercial production and distribution...

  16. Development of the radioisotope production facility for the KMRR -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    It's been 30 years since to start RI and labelled compound production in this country. But it is so limited to certain nuclide due to small research reactor and its RI production facilities. In order to upgrade and expand RI, it is necessary to operate high neutron flux reactor and advanced RI production facilities. KMRR, power is 30 MWth and maximum thermal neutron flux is 5 x 1014 n/cm2sec, is under construction and it will be completed on the end of this year. Building and basic facility for RI production were included in KMRR project but hot cell and its equipment were not. It is urged to complete RI production facilities to produce RI for medical and industrial use. Design of RI production facility was done with KAERI's 30 years accumulated experiences and reference of many advanced country's facilities. Most of equipments and components for RI facility were made and installed by domestic suppliers except a few special items. Some part of RI production facility will be completed before KMRR operation, this means will contribute RI demend for the country and KMRR utilization. Basic civil structure for RI production such as building, concrete hot cells, source storage pool and basic utility system is part of the KMRR project. Basic equipment and components for 4 concrete hot cells, 17 lead hot cells and its equipment, purification system for Co-60 source storage pool, ventilation system, radiation monitoring system, and fire protection system are under this project. The followings were carried out during second year of the project period. Installation on the first year's manufacturing order: (1) Install overhead crane (2 tons) at inside of concrete hot cell (2) Manipulator performance test for lead hot cell (3) Radiation shielding window performance test for lead hot cell. Place manufacturing order for developed items: (1) Select qualified vendor and fabricate for led hot cell (2) Select qualified vendor and fabricate for HTS

  17. Production of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals at the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor

    After reconstruction, the Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) was inaugurated on March 20th, 1984 with the nominal power of 500 kW. Since then the production of radioisotopes and labelled compounds for medical use was started. Up to now, DNRR is still the unique one in Vietnam. The reactor has been operated safely and effectively with the total of about 37,800 hrs (approximately 1,300 hours per year). More than 90% of its operation time and over 80% of its irradiation capacity have been exploited for research and production of radioisotopes. This paper gives an outline of the radioisotope production programme using the DNRR. The production laboratory and facilities including the nuclear reactor with its irradiation positions and characteristics, hot cells, production lines and equipment for the production of Kits for labelling with 99mTc and for quality control, as well as the production rate are mentioned. The methods used for production of 131I, 99mTc, 51Cr, 32P, etc. and the procedures for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals are described briefly. Status of utilization of domestic radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in Vietnam is also reported. (author)

  18. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    To increase the production of RI and labelled compounds utilizing the Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR), development of P-32 production process, devices and tools of neutron irradiation use, GMP facilities of radiopharmaceuticals, Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use for rheumatoid archritis have been carried out, respectively. To utilize NAA in analysis of environmental samples, experimental studies on air borne samples have also been carried out. An efficient P-32 production process obtaining high recovery of >98% with sufficiently high radionuclidic purity of >99% has been established through reaction 32S(n,p)32P and subsequent reduced pressure distillation purification. Various capsules, loading/unloading device for capsule/rigs, cole-welder for capsules, checking instrument for capsule sealing, working table/tools, transfer cask for the irradiated targets, etc. have been developed. To maintain cleanliness inside of hot cells, a modification has been proposed, and a two door type autoclave usable in GMP facility has been prepared. An efficient way of preparation of the Dy-165/Ho-166 macroaggregate of radiation synovectomy use as well as its clinical application scheme has been developed. A suitable process of environmental sample analyses has been established by carrying out NAA of standard/reference samples as well as airborne dust samples. (Author)

  19. Production and chemical separation of 48 V radioisotope

    The positron emitter 48 V isotope (T1/2=16 d, γ-lines: 511 keV (100%), 983.5 (100%), 1312 (97.6%)) is of interest in several fields of science. This is valid for transmitting scans in the validation process of PET-camera by positron emission. It can be used as an industrial monitoring isotope by its γ-photons having high energy and intensity. Also, it is suitable for biological study since it is the only radioisotope of the biological trace element vanadium which can be a radiotracer due to its longer half-life. The 48 V was produced by nat Ti (d,xn)48 V nuclear reaction in the U-120 cyclotron with activity of 6 mCi. The energy of irradiating beam was 13 MeV, its intensity was 5 μA and the metallic Ti target dimensions were 16 x 11 x 2 mm. For target cooling, the water circulation in the back side was used. After 3 cooling days, only 48 V, and some 46 Sc (T1/2 = 84 d), produced by the side nuclear reaction 48 Ti (d,α)46 Sc were found in the target. For the preparation of 48 V source, the Ti target was dissolved in HF and sulfuric acid. The ion exchange separation was developed for both dissolving methods. The dissolution of the chemically resistant Ti target is so violent in concentrated (3.5 % m/m) HF, that it is necessary to be carried out in polyethylene tube in order to avoid the splash of the dissolved target. An anion exchange column, Dowex 1-8 (size 100-200 mesh, length 12 cm, ID 10 mm, treated 1 day earlier, prepared fresh), was used for separation in HF media. The reduced ionic form of Ti bonds to resin, therefore the dissolved target was saturated with sulfur-dioxide produced in the Kipp-equipment by the following chemical reaction: Na2SO3 + 2 HCl → 2 NaCl + H2SO3. The treated solution was diluted to a concentration of 2 mol/l of HF and the same concentration of the HF was used as an eluent for separation. Flow rate of the elution was 1 ml/min. The eluate was cooled fractionally. The fractions were measured by γ-spectrometry, which detected only 48

  20. New developments in the experimental data for charged particle production of medical radioisotopes

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present work is to give a review of developments achieved experimentally in the field of nuclear data for medically important radioisotopes in the last three years. The availability and precision of production related nuclear data is continuously improved mainly experimentally. This review emphasizes a couple of larger fields: the Mo/Tc generator problem and the generator isotopes in general, heavy alpha-emitters and the rare-earth elements. Other results in the field of medical radioisotope production are also listed.

  1. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (API). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator

  2. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-Z target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  3. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron; Blancos solidos para produccion de radioisotopos con ciclotron

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Direccion de Investigacion Tecnologica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  4. Summary report of the 2. research co-ordination meeting on development of reference charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production

    The present report contains the summary of the second Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Charged-Particle Cross Section Database for Medical Radioisotope Production'', held at the National Accelerator Centre at Faure, near Cape Town, South Africa, from 7 to 10 April 1997. An outline of the TECDOC, summarizing the results of the project, is presented. Details are given on recommendations for proton induced reactions, and on the work plan for the second part of the project

  5. Radioisotope production for using in nuclear medicine, in the IPEN-CNEN/SP - Brazil

    The importance of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine is shown. The performance of the cyclotrons model CV-28 and studies about production of 123I are evaluated. The irradiation of mercury target as well as radioelements for using in nuclear medicine are studied. (M.J.C.)

  6. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    2012-04-10

    ... published in the Federal Register for comment on October 13, 2011 (76 FR 63668). This draft ISG provides... COMMISSION Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes..., ``Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Format...

  7. 76 FR 63668 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes..., ``Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Format and... Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-Power Reactors: Standard Review Plan and Acceptance...

  8. Physical security in the decommissioning project of the Italian Radioisotopes Production Laboratories in Iraq

    Physical security at the process of the decommissioning of the Italian Radioisotopes Production Laboratories (IRPL) is an important matter and must take in account, especially in light of heightened concerns over loots and thefts activities following the events of 2003 in Iraq. The Italian Radioisotopes Production Laboratories (IRPL) was established by Italy in 1980 at Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear site of the former Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). It was designed for production of radioisotopes, sources, labeled compound, kits for medical and industrial and temporary storage, packing and shipping of the above mentioned radiation sources. The radioisotopes Laboratories was operated in 1981 and destroyed in 1991 in second Gulf war. This paper will contain the necessary activities for the physical security, organization and responsibilities in the decommissioning project of the (IRPL) which will be in three stages including the site preparation characterization, safety removing the rubble and scrap from the project site and then dismantling the remaining constructions of the (IRPL), which includes the following: Two concrete hot cells, One metallic, Four storage tanks (for liquids waste underground at level -3-855 m). (Author)

  9. Economic Feasibility Study for the Utilization of Egyptian Reactor (ETRR-2) in Radioisotope Production

    The present study was carried out to discus the economic feasibility study of local radioisotope production in Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This study was divided into three sections; the first section included the marketing study which based on the expectation of the local demand and surplus production to export from 99Mo production. The second section discussed the financial analysis and provided a model for calculating the cost per operation hour and per curie from production. The financial analysis discussed the profitable analysis and project sensitivity to change in cost and revenue. The third section discussed the effect of this project on the national return as the national income, employment, social rate of return and trade balance. This study was carried out according to the method adopted by the International Bank for Development taking into consideration the impact of applying radioisotope production technology on the society.

  10. Experiences in radioisotope production in the German Democratic Republic with special reference to radiopharmaceuticals

    Radioisotope production has been carried out in the German Democratic Republic for 30 years. Based on a 10 MW research reactor, a cyclotron and certain irradiation facilities at units of national nuclear power stations, a widespread assortment of radioisotopes is produced with emphasis to radiopharmaceuticals as the main materials. Domestic production covers the national demand in these products where the production is technologically feasible under our conditions. A complete supply of the users in the country (more than 7000 licences) is accomplished by an intense co-operation with neighbouring countries, including mutual assistance in reactor shut down periods and supply with special radioactive materials and products. International co-operation within the framework of the IAEA takes place, mainly as scientific and technological assistance to many developing countries. (author)

  11. Radioisotope production in target fragmentation with high-energy heavy ions at HIMAC

    In order to improve utilisation of the multitracer method, two aspects of the method were pursued in this study. The production of radioisotopes from target fragmentation of 197Au nuclei was performed with high-energetic heavy ions of 12C (180, 290, 400 MeV/u) and 40Ar (290, 650 MeV/u) at HIMAC facilities. The yields of products were measured by using a thick-target-thick-catcher method and off-line gamma spectrometry with Ge semiconductor detectors. Besides, a special apparatus for practice of the radioisotope production was designed in application of the tracers for separation of the products from target material with high efficiency and the target material and shape for the design was investigated in a trial examination. (author)

  12. Homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors for the production of Mo-99 and other short lived radioisotopes

    Technetium-99m (99mTc), the daughter of Molybdenum-99 (99Mo), is the most commonly used medical radioisotope in the world. It accounts for over twenty-five million medical procedures each year worldwide, comprising about 80% of all radiopharmaceutical procedures. 99Mo is mostly prepared by the fission of uranium-235 targets in a nuclear reactor with a fission yield of about 6.1%. Currently over 95% of the fission product 99Mo is obtained using highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. Smaller scale producers use low enriched uranium (LEU) targets. Small quantities of 99Mo are also produced by neutron activation through the use of the (n, γ) reaction. The concept of a compact homogeneous aqueous reactor fuelled by a uranium salt solution with off-line separation of radioisotopes of interest (99Mo, 131I) from aliquots of irradiated fuel solution has been cited in a few presentations in the series of International Conference on Isotopes (ICI) held in Vancouver (2000), Cape Town (2003) and Brussels (2005) and recently some corporate interest has also been noticeable. Calculations and some experimental research have shown that the use of aqueous homogeneous reactors (AHRs) could be an efficient technology for fission radioisotope production, having some prospective advantages compared with traditional technology based on the use of solid uranium targets irradiated in research reactors. This review of AHR status and prospects by a team of experts engaged in the field of homogeneous reactors and radioisotope producers yields an objective evaluation of the technological challenges and other relevant implications. The meeting to develop this report facilitated the exchange of information on the 'state of the art' of the technology related to homogeneous aqueous solution nuclear reactors, especially in connection with the production of radioisotopes. This publication presents a summary of discussions of a consultants meeting which is followed by the technical presentations

  13. A radioisotope production facility using 70-120 MeV protons

    A facility with five target stations for the production of radioisotopes is now available for use by research groups. Four production systems can accept beam intensities from 10 to 100 microamps, with the fifth being under development for proton therapy. The first target is molten LiBr, the second is molten NaI, the third system is for irradiating solid target materials, and the fourth target is molten cesium

  14. An INVAP perspective on the production of medical radioisotopes: past and present

    This presentation gives a perspective on medical radionuclide production methods from INVAP, Argentina. INVAP is a company headquartered in Argentina and is involved amongst other activities in nuclear, medical and scientific equipment. It describes INVAP's involvement in research reactor projects in a number of countries around the world. The paper describes a number of turn-key facilities for the production of radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research activities.

  15. Medical Isotope Production with a High Energy Accelerator

    'Co-production of medical radioisotopes in an accelerator facility of the APT class would provide significant benefits to mankind through improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and also reduce the potential cost through sales of medical isotopes for radio pharmaceutical preparation. A business plan has been developed by the Economic Development Partnership to evaluate the viability of a joint business venture of this type with private industry. Results of the economic analysis indicate a positive cash flow after two years of operation and an internal rate of return in excess of 40 percent. Including provision for payment of a use fee to DOE, annual profits in excess of $150 million are projected.'

  16. Nuclear reactors and production of medicinal radioisotopes : case of the CNSTN's subcritical assembly

    Nuclear reactors and cyclotrons are today the main producing facilities of artificial radioisotopes. These radionuclides are widely used, in particular, in nuclear medicine, such as in radiation therapy (utilizing the Cobalt-60 radioisotope) and medical imaging (utilizing the technetium-99 radioisotope). We propose to summarize, the basic information concerning the production of radioisotopes with research reactors, as well as information about the current project to implement a subcritical assembly-reactor in the National Centre of Nuclear Sciences and Technology (CNSTN). The CNSTN's subcritical assembly will serve as efficient tool for educating and training students and scientists. It would be then made available as a service to the community e.g. for industrial benefit and to academic organizations as an institutional benefit. The subcritical assembly is planned to be operational at the beginning of 2016 and will contribute for the initiation of the first steps (including the enacting of new legislation and the establishment of competent and independent nuclear safety regulator) needed for the development of the Tunisian nuclear power program and the related infrastructure, already considered. This project is carried out with the assistance and the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (Author)

  17. Production of medical radioisotopes in ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron

    Procedures, targets, and costs are discussed for the production of iodine-123 at the ORNL 86-Inch Cyclotron. The cyclotron is a fixed frequency machine producing 22-MeV proton beams with currents of 3 mA. Flat plate targets are used in the bombardment of readily fabricated metals when highest production rates are necessary, while capsule targets are used when flat plate coatings are difficult or when high production rates are not required. Window targets with metal foils or powders, inorganic compounds, or isotopically enriched materials are also used. (PMA)

  18. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  19. Operational aspects of the radiological control in a radioisotopes plant production

    The purpose of this paper is to inform about the results obtained in the control operations carried out by the radioprotection area of the radioisotopes plant production during 1994 and then were compared with the limits established by the regulations of radiological radioprotection. In the general inter-texture of the activities that are developed in the radioisotopes plant production, the carried out controls are: area monitoring, air monitoring, personnel monitoring, monitoring in the expedition of radioactive material and monitoring and control in the evacuation of solid and liquid wastes. The result obtained in the present paper states that the doses received by the exposed occupationally staff are below the allowed limits. (author). 3 refs

  20. Modelling study on production cross sections of 111In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of 111In radioisotope via 111-114Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  1. Excitation functions and production of arsenic radioisotopes for environmental toxicology and biomedical purposes

    Basile, D.; Birattari, C.; Bonard, M.; Salomone, A. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)); Goetz, L.; Sabbioni, E. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1981-06-01

    Many arsenic radionuclides have come to be used as tracers in biology and in the study of environmental pollution of both water and soil. In nuclear medicine, radioactive /sup 74/As has been employed as a positron emitter for the localization of brain tumors, cerebral occlusive vascular lesions, arterious-venous malformations, etc. The aim of the work described was to study the excitation functions for the production of the arsenic radioisotopes from targets of natural germanium via nuclear reactions (p, xn).

  2. Radioisotope production for medical and non-medical application at the Nuclear Energy Unit (UTN)

    Radioisotopes are produced by using a low power research reactor, TRIGA MARK II situated at UTN. Products intended for use as radiopharmaceuticals undergo a more stringent precaution. The solvent extraction technique used to separate 99mTC from the radioactive solution of Potassium molybdate (K299Mo04) is explained in detail. The specific activity of 99Mo obtained at a neutron flux of 2.5 x 1012 n/cm2, s ranges from 1.75 mCi99Mo/g MoO3 to 6.25 mCi 99Mo/g MoO3. However, the specific activity of 99Mo obtained could be increased by a factor of 6 using the central thimble facility. There are 14 radioisotopes being currently produced. Commonly used cold kits for 99mTC labelling are also produced. Sn-MDP kit for bone scintigraphy is prepared under aseptic environment and freeze-drived. Products are terminally sterilized using γ-irradiation. Uptake studies done on laboratory animals indicate good bone uptake. A few radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals products to be produced by UTN in future are reviewed. (author)

  3. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in 86SrCl2 for production of PET radioisotope 86Y

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope 86Y by the low energy 86Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of 86Y (1.2+/−0.1 mCi (44.4+/−3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated 86SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the 86Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. - Highlights: • High energy proton accelerator was used to produce 86Y via low energy 86Sr(p,n) reaction. • Proton energy was tailored by degradation. • Radioisotopic purity of yttrium fraction is comparable to that obtained in “small” cyclotron. • Energy loss calculations were not reliable

  4. Development of the radioisotope production facility for the HANARO

    Hot cell and related facilities were developed in the RI production building of the HANARO. 1. development of concrete H/C and related components 2. development of lead H/C and related components 3. development of the hydraulic transfer system 4. development of radiation monitoring system 5. development of purification system for Co-60 storage pool 6. development of the fire fighting system for H/C 7. development of the experimental equipment. (author). 15 figs

  5. Short-Lived Radioisotope Production, Processing, Distribution and Applications in Korea

    The production, processing and distribution of short-lived radioisotopes by the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Korea are discussed. The radioisotopes concerned are Na24, Cu64, K42, Mo99, W187, colloidal Au198, Br82m and I128. The paper also deals with applications of these isotopes in various fields in Korea. The most important application is the use of Na24 for the detection of leaks in irrigation water storage containers. Since there are nearly 1500 such containers in South Korea, the detection of leaks is a nation-wide problem. Na24 is also applied to metabolic studies in hypertension and to the study of the mixing mechanism in miscible liquid-liquid phase systems. (author)

  6. Radioisotope production with CV-28 in Rio de Janeiro

    Since Brazil's nuclear program began in the seventies with the construction of Angra dos Reis Nuclear Plant, Brazilians have been excluded from participation in this technological process, primarily due to the political events of that time. This exclusivity has resulted in a major segment of the current population being unaware of the wide range of applications and benefits of nuclear technology. In the past few decades, Brazil has invested little in the development of its own nuclear technology. The progress that has been achieved is the result of the research and hard work of dedicated professionals who have struggled to bridge this technological gap since the 1970's. EEN-lnstitute of Nuclear Engineering is one of the research niches in the country that, in spite of the monopoly of knowledge, bureaucracy and insufficient resources, has been carrying out nuclear engineering projects and products. Nowadays, these are extremely useful to society in the most diverse market segments. For the past three years, IEN has invested R$ 2 million in adapting its facilities aiming at producing iodine-123 ultra-pure. In 1998 it started producing this cyclotron radiopharmaceutical in large scale, thus giving new directions to nuclear medicine in Brazil. The present policy of the IEN, regarding priorities and Institute's goals for the coming years has been defined. The Institute will concentrate its efforts on technological research, that is, identify the country's needs in nuclear engineering and providing society with methodologies, products and services that can effectively contribute to improve life quality in Brazil. The lEN's policy has been committed to quality, deadlines, costs and results as well as to research work based on the population's needs and aimed at meeting them efficiently. Several projects have been given priority, and great effort has been aimed at optimizing human and financial resources

  7. Development Of The irradiation Facility at The Batan's Cyclotron for radioisotope production of Fluor-18

    The irradiation facility for producing radioisotope of F-18 using enriched water target,H218O,has been installed at the BATAN 's Cyclotron. Radioisotope of F-18,pure positron emitter (β+=100%; t12=109.6 m,is widely used for preparing PETradiopharmaceuticals. The irradiation facility designed,fabricated and installed consists of target loading and unloading system. The target chamber and its window (thickness=100μΜ)were made of stainless steel with a volume capacity of 1.4mL for water target enriched with 18O.A vacuum window wiyh the stainless steel with a volume capacity of 1.4 mL for water the proton energy from 26.5 MeV was made of aluminum foil materials as a 'degrader' to lower experimental results using either natural pure water or enriched water (18Ο∼ 3.16% Al) targets show the performance of the target irradiation system is suitable for radioisotope production of F-18

  8. Chemical Process for Treatment of Tellurium and Chromium Liquid Waste from I-131 Radioisotope Production

    The I-131 radioisotope is used in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The I-131 radioisotope is produced by wet distillation at Bandung Nuclear Research Center and generated about 4,875 Itr of liquid waste containing 2,532.8 ppm of tellurium and 1,451.8 ppm chromium at pH 1. Considering its negative impact to the environment caused by toxic behaviour of tellurium and chromium, it is necessary to treat chemically that's liquid waste. The research of chemical treatment of tellurium and chromium liquid waste from I-131 radioisotope production has been done. The steps of process are involved of neutralisation with NaOH, coagulation-flocculation process for step I using Ca(OH)2 coagulant for precipitation of sulphate, sulphite, oxalic, chrome Cr3+, and coagulation-flocculation process for step II using BaCI2 coagulant for precipitation of chrome Cr6+ and tellurium from the supernatant of coagulation in step I. The best result of experiment was achieved at 0.0161 ppm of chromium concentration on the supernatant from coagulation-flocculation of step I using 3.5 g Ca(OH)2 for 100 ml of liquid waste, and 0.95 ppm of tellurium concentration on the final supernatant from coagulation-flocculation by of step II using 0.7 g BaCI2 for supernatant from coagulation of step I. (author)

  9. Utilization of the Dalat Research Reactor for Radioisotope Production, Neutron Activation Analysis, Research and Training

    The Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor (DNRR) is a 500 kW pool type reactor loaded with a mixed core of HEU (36% enrichment) and LEU (19.75% enrichment) fuel assemblies. The reactor is used as a neutron source for the purposes of radioisotopes production, neutron activation analysis, basic and applied research and training. The reactor is operated mainly in continuous runs of 108 hours for cycles of 3–4 weeks for the above mentioned purposes. The current status of safety, operation and utilization of the reactor is given and some aspects for improvement of commercial products and services of the DNRR are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  10. Production and supply of 99Mo, 153Sm radioisotopes for medical applications - societal benefits

    Application of radioisotopes in medicine has led to the evolution of a new branch of medicine called 'Nuclear Medicine' wherein radioisotope products in the form radiopharmaceuticals are used for the diagnosis of diseases, their follow up, detecting recurrence and also in the treatment of certain diseases. Large scale production, processing and supply of number of radioisotopes for medical application has been a feature of our laboratory. 99Mo is an important radionuclide produced in our reactors to obtain 99mTc, the most commonly used diagnostic radionuclide in the preparation of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals through 99Mo-99mTc radionuclide generators. 99Mo for the preparation of generators based on solvent extraction technology is produced by irradiation of natural MoO3 target in Dhruva and Cirus reactors. About 1.5 TBq (∼40 Ci) of 99Mo is processed and supplied to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT) every week on Saturdays to meet the requirements of nuclear medicine centres in the country. 153Sm-EDTMP is a ready-to-use radiopharmaceutical approved for the palliative treatment of metastatic bone pain in patients suffering from primary lung, breast and prostate cancers. 153SmCl3, the primary radiochemical for preparation of 153Sm-radiopharmaceutical is produced by neutron activation of natural or enriched Sm2O3 target in our medium flux research reactors. 150 GBq (4Ci) 153Sm is processed and supplied every month to BRIT for radiopharmaceutical production and further supply to nuclear medicine centres. Logistics of regular production of both 99Mo and 153Sm radionuclides, their quality control and the scope for the production of these radiochemicals with high specific activity to meet the increasing demands in the years to come with concomitant health care benefits to the society at large are discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Low level radioactive waste produced from the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Libya

    The Radioisotope Production Laboratory was established in 1980. The Production program depends mainly on the research reactor IRT. At the start of operation 131I, 51Cr, 35S, 24Na , 198Au and 32P were produced and supplied to the users. In the Last years some facilities had been upgraded in cooperation with IAEA such as the production of 99mTc, 131I, and 82Br. Little and low level radioactive waste are produced during these activities. These radioactive wastes which produced after the production are: Cation resin column, glass- wool, Alumina column, Membrane filter, Disposal Filter Assembly, Syringe and needle, Na299MoO4 solution after repeated extraction of 99mTc from Na299MoO4 solution for 5-7 days. TeO2 Target after distillation of 131I, laboratory glassware and vials, the aluminum containers which used for irradiation and the contaminated water used for the vacuum pump during the method of dry distillation of 131I and Animal waste, including carcasses or other biological or pathological wastes contaminated with radioisotopes. The solid waste accumulated in suitable container for storage, shipment, further treatment, or disposal. Removal of over 99% of most long and short-lived products has been achieved in this manner by using anion and cation-exchange resin. (author)

  12. Beam Diagnostics and Radioisotope Production in Low and Medium Power Plasma Focus Devices

    The report deals with activity at two distinct plasma focus facilities. The first with 7 kJ bank energy represents the traditional apparatus used for more than ten years at the University of Ferrara. The other, just constructed, reaches 150 kJ bank energy and is exclusively dedicated to the production of sizeable quantities of medical radioisotopes. In regards to the first device, the energy spectra of X rays generated by the impact of electron beams on high- and medium- Z targets following the pinch implosion of plasma focus (PF) devices are discussed in terms of the possible mechanisms of X ray production following electron impact ionization. In addition, a temperature measurement of the PF inner electrode is reported and some results have been proved useful in order to optimize the device functionalities. An experimental campaign was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of short lived radioisotope (SLR) production within the pulsed discharges of a plasma focus (PF) device. This so-called ''endogenous production'' technique rests on the exploitation of nuclear reactions for the creation of SLR directly within the plasma, rather than on irradiating an external target. Following the results displayed in such campaign a second high energy PF machine was designed and its characteristics together with the first tests are presented too. (author)

  13. Application of radioisotope methods of investigation and control techniques in tube production

    Various spheres of radioactive isotopes application of closed and open type in tube production are described. Due to the usage of radioactive indicator method in combination with physicochemical methods and metallography new data are obtained in the theory and practice of tube centrifugal casting, rolling and pressing. Adsorption properties of lubricants and element distribution in the joint weld region of the big diameter tubes are investigated. The application of radioactive isotopes as ionizing radiation source made it possible to develop some radioisotope methods and instruments for tube wall thickness and the wall thickness difference control. Short characteristics of such instruments are given

  14. Conceptual design of a new homogeneous reactor for medical radioisotope Mo-99/Tc-99m production

    Liem, Peng Hong [Nippon Advanced Information Service (NAIS Co., Inc.) Scientific Computational Division, 416 Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tran, Hoai Nam [Chalmers University of Technology, Dept. of Applied Physics, Div. of Nuclear Engineering, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sembiring, Tagor Malem [National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Center for Reactor Technology and Nuclear Safety, Kawasan Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, Banten (Indonesia); Arbie, Bakri [PT MOTAB Technology, Kedoya Elok Plaza Blok DA 12, Jl. Panjang, Kebun Jeruk, Jakarta Barat (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    To partly solve the global and regional shortages of Mo-99 supply, a conceptual design of a nitrate-fuel-solution based homogeneous reactor dedicated for Mo-99/Tc-99m medical radioisotope production is proposed. The modified LEU Cintichem process for Mo-99 extraction which has been licensed and demonstrated commercially for decades by BATAN is taken into account as a key design consideration. The design characteristics and main parameters are identified and the advantageous aspects are shown by comparing with the BATAN's existing Mo-99 supply chain which uses a heterogeneous reactor (RSG GAS multipurpose reactor)

  15. 1919-1984 - 70 years of the Institute for Research, Production and Application of Radioisotopes

    The publication issued on the occasion of the Institute's anniversary presents a brief overview of the Institute's history, a bibliography of studies in radiology published by Czech scientists up to 1939 and chapters on current activities of the Institute's departments. Described are the production of organic compounds labelled with radioisotopes, research and production of radioimmunoassay kits, the manufacture of sealed radionuclide sources, research of methods of absolute and relative precision measurement of basic dosimetric quantities, and the production of radioactivity calibration standards. The Institute organizes and evaluates the national personel dosimetry service and is responsible for research in this area including the methodology of dosemeter standardization. It also provides technical service in instrumental activation analysis, radiotracer and radiographic methods and other special activities. (M.D.). 56 figs

  16. Production of Radioisotopes and NTD-Silicon in the BR2 Reactor

    The BR2 reactor is a multipurpose 100 MWth high flux 'Materials Testing Reactor' operated by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN) in which various research and commercial programmes are performed. The commercial activities such as radioisotope production and silicon doping have been actively developed since the early 1990s to generate additional revenues. Currently, they represent a significant contribution to the reactor operating costs and are carried out in accordance with a 'Quality System' that has been certified to the requirements of the ''EN ISO 9001:2000'' in December 2006. Due to its operating flexibility, its reliability and its production capacity, the BR2 reactor is considered as a major facility for these commercial activities worldwide. The availability of thermal neutron fluxes up to 1015 cm-2s-1 allows the production of a wide range of radioisotopes for various applications in nuclear medicine, industry and research such as 99Mo (99mTc), 131I, 133Xe, 192Ir, 75Se 186Re, 153Sm, 169Er, 90Y, 32P, 188W (188Re), 203Hg, 82Br, 79Kr, 41Ar, 125I, 177Lu, 117mSn,89Sr, 169Yb, 147Nd, etc. Some irradiation devices allow the loading and unloading of irradiated targets during the operation of the reactor. Hot-cells and storage facilities are available to prepare and organize the shipment of the irradiated targets to dedicated processing facilities. In the frame of the current 99Mo/99mTc global shortage, new dedicated irradiation devices have been installed in April 2010 to increase the 99Mo production capacity by 50%. Special efforts have also been made to develop the production of therapeutic radioisotopes as 177Lu which is supplied by both direct and indirect routes. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) Silicon activities for the semiconductor industry started at SCK·CEN in 1992 with the commissioning of SIDONIE, a single channel light water device that is located in a 200 mm diameter beryllium channel within the reactor pressure vessel. Its design

  17. Radioisotope instruments

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  18. Modernization of the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of the La Reina Nuclear Center in Chile: Incorporating advanced concepts of safety and good manufacturing practices

    A radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals production laboratory was established in Chile in the 1960s for research activities. From 1967 until January 2012, it was dedicated to the manufacturing of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical diagnosis and treatment purposes. In 2012, modernization of the facility’s design and technology began as part of the IAEA technical cooperation project, Modernizing the Radioisotopes Production Laboratory of La Reina Nuclear Centre by Incorporating Advanced Concepts of Safety and Good Manufacturing Practices, (CHI4022)

  19. Production of Medical Radioisotopes with High Specific Activity in Photonuclear Reactions with $\\gamma$ Beams of High Intensity and Large Brilliance

    Habs, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine in $(\\gamma,x{\\rm n}+y{\\rm p})$ photonuclear reactions or ($\\gamma,\\gamma'$) photoexcitation reactions with high flux [($10^{13}-10^{15}$)$\\gamma$/s], small diameter $\\sim (100 \\, \\mu$m$)^2$ and small band width ($\\Delta E/E \\approx 10^{-3}-10^{-4}$) $\\gamma$ beams produced by Compton back-scattering of laser light from relativistic brilliant electron beams. We compare them to (ion,$x$n$ + y$p) reactions with (ion=p,d,$\\alpha$) from particle accelerators like cyclotrons and (n,$\\gamma$) or (n,f) reactions from nuclear reactors. For photonuclear reactions with a narrow $\\gamma$ beam the energy deposition in the target can be managed by using a stack of thin target foils or wires, hence avoiding direct stopping of the Compton and pair electrons (positrons). $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ isomer production via specially selected $\\gamma$ cascades allows to produce high specific activity in multiple excitations, where no back-pumping of the isomer to the ground st...

  20. Proton linac for hospital-based fast neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    Recent developments in linac technology have led to the design of a hospital-based proton linac for fast neutron therapy. The 180 microamp average current allows beam to be diverted for radioisotope production during treatments while maintaining an acceptable dose rate. During dedicated operation, dose rates greater than 280 neutron rads per minute are achievable at depth, DMAX = 1.6 cm with source to axis distance, SAD = 190 cm. Maximum machine energy is 70 MeV and several intermediate energies are available for optimizing production of isotopes for Positron Emission Tomography and other medical applications. The linac can be used to produce a horizontal or a gantry can be added to the downstream end of the linac for conventional patient positioning. The 70 MeV protons can also be used for proton therapy for ocular melanomas. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. The operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    Researches and production of radio-isotopes, radio-pharmaceuticals and cold kits are carried out in the Radio-isotope Production Facility (RIPF). Four concrete hot cells in Bank-1 are to produce the Ir-192 source for NDT. Eleven lead hot cells in Bank-2 are to produce Ho-166, Cr-51, P-32/33, Tc-99m, Lu-177, Sr-90/Y-90 and W-188/Re-188 for research purpose. Six lead hot cells in Bank-3 are used for the production of I-131 for diagnosis and therapy of cancer in the hospital. A hot cell in Bank-3 is also utilized for the research of I-125 and Br-82. Four lead hot cells in Bank-4 are utilized for the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators since 2005. The major systems including the Heat and Ventilated Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and the air cleaning system such as charcoal and HEPA filter trains to filter the radioactive contaminants are in operation. So are the systems such as power supply and distribution system, UPS, fire protection system, liquid radioactive waste collection systems. Recently, the repair work and replacements of the air cleaning system are successfully finished and the replacement of the electric power supply systems is in progress because they almost reached the lifespan of the electrical components. In order to monitor the gas effluent of the building, a continuous air monitoring system is in operation to measure the concentration of I-131, noble gas and the particle at the stack of RIPF. Modification and upgrade of the main control panel and fire alarm and receiving panel are also in consideration to utilize the state-of-the-art technology so that the remote control and supervisory of RIPF would be enabled in the near future

  2. GEANT4 simulation of cyclotron radioisotope production in a solid target.

    Poignant, F; Penfold, S; Asp, J; Takhar, P; Jackson, P

    2016-05-01

    The use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine is essential for diagnosing and treating cancer. The optimization of their production is a key factor in maximizing the production yield and minimizing the associated costs. An efficient approach to this problem is the use of Monte Carlo simulations prior to experimentation. By predicting isotopes yields, one can study the isotope of interest expected activity for different energy ranges. One can also study the target contamination with other radioisotopes, especially undesired radioisotopes of the wanted chemical element which are difficult to separate from the irradiated target and might result in increasing the dose when delivering the radiopharmaceutical product to the patient. The aim of this work is to build and validate a Monte Carlo simulation platform using the GEANT4 toolkit to model the solid target system of the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) GE Healthcare PETtrace cyclotron. It includes a GEANT4 Graphical User Interface (GUI) where the user can modify simulation parameters such as the energy, shape and current of the proton beam, the target geometry and material, the foil geometry and material and the time of irradiation. The paper describes the simulation and presents a comparison of simulated and experimental/theoretical yields for various nuclear reactions on an enriched nickel 64 target using the GEANT4 physics model QGSP_BIC_AllHP, a model recently developed to evaluate with high precision the interaction of protons with energies below 200MeV available in Geant4 version 10.1. The simulation yield of the (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu reaction was found to be 7.67±0.074 mCi·μA(-1) for a target energy range of 9-12MeV. Szelecsenyi et al. (1993) gives a theoretical yield of 6.71mCi·μA(-1) and an experimental yield of 6.38mCi·μA(-1). The (64)Ni(p,n)(64)Cu cross section obtained with the simulation was also verified against the yield predicted from the nuclear database TENDL and

  3. Supervision of I-125 Production at the Center of Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical

    The production of I-125 is one of the many research conducted at the Center for Radioisotope and Radiopharmaceutical. The supervision of I-125 production ia aimed in to managing an acceptance of external radiation doses of radiation by workers who engaged in the production of I-125 as dissolution and purification process of I-125 give a certain radiation exposure to the operator. According to the work instruction for preparation of I-125. The process has to closely monitored and supervised by Radiation Protection Officer (PPR). The production process of I-125 usually involves four radiation workers and one PPR. The acceptance of external radiation doses during the production process of I-125 was recorded was the PPR by using digital pen dose and radiation exposure rate was monitored by using survey meter. The acceptance of external radiation dose found was then compare the acceptance of external radiation dose from the TLD-badge reading and also to the dose limit value established by the monitoring board (BAPETEN). The acceptance of external radiation doses in the production of single batch of I-125 was found to be below the dose limit value (NBD) defined by BAPETEN. (author)

  4. Production and radiochemical separation of 203Pb radioisotope for nuclear medicine

    Complete text of publication follows. The heavy metal pollution due to their industrial production, waste repository or accident as the cyanide spill in river Tisza in 2002, increase the scientific interest for using an ideal trace isotope for monitoring these type of events. The lead is one of the most toxic and commonly used heavy metal, its poisoning is often deadly because very difficult to recognize and identify. The neuro-scientific study of biodegradation effect of lead could be an impressive scientific field of application of 203Pb radioisotope. However the targeted radionuclide therapy especially the α-emitting radioisotope therapy is also strongly interested to find an ideal tracer for the 213Bi and 212Pb therapy. Therefore the 203Pb is a potential radioisotope for this role due to its radiation behaviour and as heavy metal element. The 203Tl(p,n) 203Pb nuclear reaction was chosen for the production. The irradiation was done at the compact cyclotron of Atomki with proton beam 14.5 MeV energy and beam current of 7 μAs. The thickness of the target material was 840 μm, the irradiation time was 3 hours and the produced activity was 40 MBq at EOB. It corresponds to 1.87 MBq/μAh physical yield of the reaction which correlating with the cross section curve. A new technique was developed for target preparation. The metal Tl was pressed into a copper backing and covered with a HAWAR foil with thickness of 11 μm. The covering foil saved the surface of the Tl from the oxidation and also transferred the dissipating heat to the cooling He gas. The back side of the target was cooled with pressured cold water. The irradiated Tl target was pressed out from the copper backing, which had only the thickness of 0.2 mm. Then the Thallium was dissolved in nitric acid. The excess acid was evaporated slowly. The nitrate form was transferred to chloride form by 8 mol/dm 3 HCl and the Thallium was kept in 3+ oxidation stage by hydrogen peroxide. The separation was carried out

  5. Estimating individual exposure to 131I for radiation workers at radioisotope production using air sampling and smartphone techniques

    Indoor individual exposure at radioisotope production depends strongly on temporal concentration variation, contacting time and working location of radiation workers. To estimate personal exposure to indoor air polluted with 131I for the workers at radioisotope production, we had employed a low cost indoor model appropriate for their specific situation. In this model, time-microenvironment occupied by the workers was recorded by a smartphone sensitive motion software. Simultaneously, on the work days, indoor air in the three iodine production rooms was sampled by a portable air sampler coupled with activated carbon cartridges impregnated by TEDA. Then the low background gamma spectrometer was used to measure activity of the cartridges and the concentration of 131I in these rooms was calculated with the temporal resolution of one hour. By combining the hourly concentration with the high temporal resolution of activity patterns, we estimated the actual exposures for the group of workers producing radioisotopes in Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for the first four months of 2015. The highest daily average exposure was 410.2 Bq/m3 while the highest average exposure of the group was 147.2 Bq/m3. It showed an useful value for minimizing risks and estimating internal doses as well. This feasibility study may be applied for assessing personal exposure at radioisotope production, but also for many other indoor environments. (author)

  6. Stabilization and shutdown of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Radioisotopes Production Facility

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in the production and distribution of a variety of radioisotopes for medical, scientific and industrial applications since the late 1940s. Production of these materials was concentrated in a number of facilities primarily built in the 1950s and 1960s. Due to the age and deteriorating condition of these facilities, it was determined in 1989 that it would not be cost effective to upgrade these facilities to bring them into compliance with contemporary environmental, safety and health standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) instructed ORNL to halt the production of isotopes in these facilities and maintain the facilities in safe standby condition while preparing a stabilization and shutdown plan. The goal was to place the former isotope production facilities in a radiologically and industrially safe condition to allow a 5-year deferral of the initiation of environmental restoration (ER) activities. In response to DOE's instructions, ORNL identified 17 facilities for shutdown, addressed the shutdown requirements for each facility, and prepared and implemented a three-phase, 4-year plan for shutdown of the facilities. The Isotopes Facilities Shutdown Program (IFSP) office was created to execute the stabilization and shutdown plan. The program is entering its third year in which the actual shutdown of the facilities is initiated. Accomplishments to date have included consolidation of all isotopes inventory into one facility, DOE approval of the IFSP Environmental Assessment (EA), and implementation of a detailed management plan for the shutdown of the facilities

  7. Radiochemical separation and quality assessment for the 68Zn target based 64Cu radioisotope production

    The radiochemical separation of the different radionuclides (64Cu, 67Cu, 67Ga, 66Ga, 56Ni, 57Ni, 55Co, 56Co, 57Co, 65Zn, 196Au ) induced in the Ni supported Cu substrate - 68Zn target system, which was bombarded with the 29.0 MeV proton beam, was performed by ion-exchange chromatography using successive isocratic and/or concentration gradient elution techniques. The overlapped gamma-ray spectrum analysis method was developed to assess the 67Ga and 67Cu content in the 64Cu product and even in the post-67Ga production 68Zn target solution without the support of radiochemical separation. This method was used for the assessment of 64+67Cu radioisotope separation from 67Ga , the quality control of 64Cu product and the determination of the 68Zn (p,2p)67Cu reaction yield. The improvement in the targetry and the optimization of proton beam energy for the 68Zn target based 64Cu and 67Ga production were proposed based on the stopping power and range of the incident proton and on the excitation functions, reaction yields and different radionuclides induced in the target system. (author)

  8. Accelerator Production Options for 99MO

    Bertsche, Kirk; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    Shortages of {sup 99}Mo, the most commonly used diagnostic medical isotope, have caused great concern and have prompted numerous suggestions for alternate production methods. A wide variety of accelerator-based approaches have been suggested. In this paper we survey and compare the various accelerator-based approaches.

  9. Bombardment facilities for radioisotope production at the NAC and the production of iron-52, iron-55 and rubidium-81

    A versatile target bombardment station and several ancillary facilities for the routine production of radioisotopes with high-intensity proton beams are discussed. Local irradiation shielding was provided to protect radiation sensitive materials inside the irradiation vault against excessive radiation damage, and to reduce neutron activation of the vault and its contents. The efficacy of the local shielding of the target bombardment station was investigated by means of absorbed dose rate measurements, as well as with radiation transport calculations utilizing the discrete-ordinates method and the point kernel method. One-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculations were performed with the CCC-254/ANISN-ORNL computer code, and two-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculations with the CCC-276/DOT 3.5 code, in conjunction with the multigroup cross-section library DLC-87/HILO. Measured and calculated dose rates and dose attenuation factors are compared. The helium cooling of window foils in a double-foil beam-window cofiguration was studied by means of simulations in which electrically heated copper elements served to model the beam heating. Temperature profiles of window foils were calculated theoretically. Excitation functions and production rates for the production of 52Fe, 55Fe and 81Rb, as well as for their co-produced radionuclidic contaminants, were measured, covering the proton energy regions 0-200 MeV (for 52Fe), 0-100 MeV (for 55Fe) and 0-120 MeV (for 81Rb). Thick-target production rates were derived from the measured excitation functions, or measured directly in order to determine optimum production routes for these radioisotopes. Targetry for the production of the above-mentioned radioisotopes with high-intensity proton beams was investigated. Measured excitation functions and production rates are compared with theoretical model calculations. The computer code ALICE/85/300 was used for this purpose. The calculations were performed within the framework of the

  10. Feasibility Study on Simultaneous Multi-Radioisotope Production using Double Stacked Target in MC-50 Cyclotron

    This work was mainly focused on the feasibility of double target system for simultaneous two-radioisotope production. A simple double target was simulated for simultaneous production of 117mSn and 211At. To determine the optimum thickness of target layer, We demonstrated that the combination of double target system with a cyclotron capable of generating 47 MeV alpha particle provides simultaneous production of 117mSn and 211At. The radionuclides are often used in medicine for diagnosis, treatment and research. Alpha and beta(or electron) emitting radionuclides have become a promising method for the treatment of some tumors. 117mSn emits short-range electrons with a high linear energy transfer, and thus a high S value resulting in high quality therapeutic radiation. 211At has gained considerable interest for cancer treatment because its half-life of 7.2 hours matches better with the biological half-life of most carrier molecules. Moreover its decay scheme exhibits practically 100% yield for the emission of α-particles, with very low intensity gamma emissions

  11. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    Nickles, Robert Jerome [Univ of Wisconsin

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing

  12. IPENS's social role in scientific and technological development of radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production - (1950 -1980)

    Some facts and figures are present in the existent interaction between the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) and the medical community. Among other characteristics, the IPEN has a permanent seat in the Biology and Nuclear Medicine Society and, the present Radiopharmacy Center, has had the continuous concern, since the Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA) creation until today (2009), to perform an excellent approach with the medical faculty. In the past, some physicians would complete their courses in Europe and in the United States of America, and there noticed the importance of radioisotopes applications in medicine, mainly, in the beginning of these activities, with the I-131. Returning to Brazil, they requested that the former IEA, today IPEN researchers used the research reactor IEA-R1, installed in Sao Paulo, at Universidade Sao Paulo (USP) campus, for radioisotopes production. Then, in the late 1959, the first production line from the I-131 took place. The IPEN starts to accomplish what was planned as one of its targets, at the act of its official creation on August 31, 1956. From 1961 on, there was a continuous flux of I-131 and other radiopharmaceuticals production. The recovery and analysis of these happenings, in the Brazilian society cultural historic context, were partially published in different previous works. Nevertheless, history is dynamic and gains new interpretations, in the present research, from the reading of novel research sources, both primary and secondary, not explores so far - reports, interviews with IPEN researchers and papers published or divulged in meetings, either scientific or bureaucratic. This research is part of project supported by the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), with the aim, among others, of contributing for the analysis of the transformations occurred in all of the IPEN research lines, plus the social role of this institution for science and technology development. The

  13. A novel approach to the production of medical radioisotopes: the homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor

    Bonin, H.W., E-mail: bonin-h@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Hilborn, J.W. [retired, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Carlin, G.E. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gagnon, R.; Busatta, P. [Royal Canadian Navy, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    In 2009, the unexpected 15-month outage of the Canadian NRU nuclear reactor resulted in a sudden 30% world shortage, with higher shortages experienced in North America than in Europe. Commercial radioisotope production is from just eight nuclear reactors, most being aging systems near the end of their service life. This paper proposes a more efficient production and distribution model. Tc-99m unit doses would be distributed to regional hospitals from ten integrated 'industrial radiopharmacies', located at existing licensed nuclear reactor sites in North America. At each site, one or more 20 kW Homogeneous SLOWPOKE nuclear reactors would deliver 15 litres of irradiated aqueous uranyl sulfate fuel solution daily to industrial-scale hot cells, for extraction of Mo-99; and the low-enriched uranium would be recycled. Purified Mo-99 would be incorporated in large Mo-99/Tc-99m generators for extraction of Tc-99m five days a week; and each automated hot-cell facility would be designed to load up to 7,000 Tc-99m syringes daily for road delivery to all of the nuclear medicine hospitals within a 3-hour range. At the current price of $20 per unit dose, the annual gross income from 10 sites would be approximately $360 million. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor evolved from the inherently safe SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor, with a double goal: replacing the heterogeneous SLOWPOKE-2 reactors at the end-of-core life, enabling them to continue their primary missions of research and education, together with full time commercial radioisotope production. The Homogeneous SLOWPOKE reactor was modelled using both deterministic and probabilistic reactor simulation codes. The homogeneous fuel mixture is a dilute aqueous solution of low-enriched uranyl sulfate containing approximately 1 kg of U-235. The reactor is controlled by mechanical absorber rods in the beryllium reflector. Safety analysis was carried out for both normal operation and transient conditions. The most severe

  14. Production and world-wide distribution of radioisotopes and allied products from NTP at Pelindaba, South Africa

    Nuclear Technology Products (NTP) a business division of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd. (NECSA) is today a leading supplier of a range or radioisotope and supporting products to markets throughout the world. To achieve this status in the face of large technological, logistical and business barriers to entry has required the development of integrated and effective processes from a diverse and unconsolidated range of expertise and other resources. The various facilities and competencies established at NECSA over a period of 40 years had as their objective the accomplishment of strictly non-commercial strategic imperatives. Major emphasis was placed at Pelindaba on development of the capability to beneficiate the country's resources of uranium which are extracted as a by-product of gold mining. Fuel enrichment processes (using a method unique to NECSA) and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities were developed and commissioned during the period 1975 - 1990 and substantial quantities of enriched and depleted uranium material was produced. A small amount of locally produced, highly enriched fuel has been used to power the 20 MW SARARI -1 Research Reactor at Pelindaba which has been in operation since 1965. Major political and economic changes affecting South Africa gave rise, in the late 1980s, to the necessity for a fundamental strategic reorientation of NECSA. Over a period of time the fuel enrichment and fabrication programmes were terminated and ever greater emphasis was placed on development of businesses from established, diverse facilities and competencies with the objective of promoting increased financial independence and long term viability for the organisation. It was at this time that NTP the business responsible for production and marketing of radiation-based products at NECSA, was established. The various developments which facilitated the capacity of NTP to accede to its current position as a significant and growing provider of

  15. Evaluation of the population dose due to the gaseous emission of a radioisotopes production unit

    In order to control the emission of gaseous radioactive iodine from the unit responsible for the production of radioisotopes of IPEN-CNEN/SP, a discharge monitoring is carried out. In 1988 an activity of 65 GBq of I-131 was discharged to the environment. Based upon this value and the site analysis, the effective equivalent dose in the general public was evaluated for normal operation and for an incidental discharge. The evaluation was carried out by using a diffusion atmospheric model, 500 to 7000 m away from the discharge point and using 8 different wind direction sectors. The critical group was identified as being the people who lives 3000 m far from the discharge point, in the diffusion sector NW. The dose evaluated at this point is 109 times lower than the annual dose limit for individual of the public, according to Radiological Protection Standards. The derived limit for discharge of iodine was also evaluated and it was concluded that the IPEN-CNEN/SP can increase their production up to a level which results in an annual discharge of 1,5 x 1012 of I-131. (author)

  16. Development of a cryogenic gas target system for intense radioisotope beam production at CRIB

    A cryogenic gas target system was developed for the radioisotope (RI) beam production at CNS Radio Isotope Beam separator (CRIB). Hydrogen gas was cooled to 85-90 K using liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target having a thickness of 2.3mg/cm2. An intense 7Be beam (2x108 particles per second) was successfully produced using this target. We observed a density-reduction effect at the gas target for high-current primary beams with about 7.5 W heat deposition. One main feature of the target system is forced circulation of the target gas. We have found that the circulation of the target gas at a rate of 55 standard liters per minute (slm) was effective in eliminating the density reduction. The extent to which the forced flow can prevent the density reduction had not been known well. In this work, the relation between the density reduction and the forced circulation rate was quantitatively studied

  17. The operation status and prospect of radioisotope production facility in HANARO

    Researches and production of radioisotopes, radio pharmaceuticals and cold kits are carried out in the Radio isotope Production Facility (RIPF). Four concrete hot cells in Bank-1 are to produce the Ir-192 source for NDT. Eleven lead hot cells in Bank-2 are to produce Ho-166, Cr-51, P-32/33, Tc-99m, Lu-177, Sr-90/Y-90 and W-188/Re-188 for research purpose. Six lead hot cells in Bank-3 are used for the production of I-131 for diagnosis and therapy of cancer in the hospital. A hot cell in Bank-3 is also utilized for the research of I-125 and Br-82. Four lead hot cells in Bank-4, are utilized for the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators since 2005. The major systems including the Heat and Ventilated Air Conditioning (HVAC) system and the air cleaning system such as charcoal and HEPA filter trains to filter the radioactive contaminants are in operation. So are the systems such as power supply and distribution system, UPS, fire protection system, liquid radioactive waste collection systems. Recently the repair work and replacements of the air cleaning system are successfully finished and the replacement of the electric power supply systems is in progress because they almost reached the lifespan of the electrical components. In order to monitor the gas effluent of the building, a continuous air monitoring system is in operation to measure the concentration of I-131, noble gas and the particle at the stack of RIPF. Modification and upgrade of the main control panel and fire alarm and receiving panel are also in consideration to utilize the state of the art technology so that the remote control and supervisory of RIPF would be enabled in near future

  18. Present status of research on Re-186 radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center

    Mutalib, A. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium shows a close chemical similarity to technetium and is suitable for radiotherapy because the {beta}-emitting radionuclides {sup 186}Re (t{sub 1/2} 90 h, E{sub {beta}} = 1.1 MeV, E{sub {gamma}} = 137 keV) and {sup 188}Re (t{sub 1/2} = 17 h, E{sub {beta}} = 2.1 MeV). The {gamma}-emission associated with decay of {sup 186}Re is also useful in scintigraphy. The research on {sup 186}Re radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center has been carried out since April 1997. Interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) led us to the development of labeling antibodies with rhenium isotopes. Although there are several methods for coupling radiometal to antibody, we prefer an indirect labeling method in which a bifunctional chelating agent is used for coupling of {sup 186}Re to monoclonal antibodies. In this report we outline the study on the preparation of {sup 186}Re DMSA-TFP as precursor for labeling with monoclonal antibody. (author)

  19. Cross sections for fuel depletion and radioisotope production calculations in TRIGA reactors

    For TRIGA Reactors, the fuel depletion and isotopic inventory calculations, depends on the computer code and in the cross sections of some important actinides used. Among these we have U-235, U-238, Pu-239, Pu-240 and Pu-241. We choose ORIGEN2, a code with a good reputation in this kind of calculations, we observed the cross sections for these actinides in the libraries that we have (PWR's and BWR), the fission cross section for U-235 was about 50 barns. We used a PWR library and our results were not satisfactory, specially for standard elements. We decided to calculate cross sections more suitable for our reactor, for that purpose we simulate the standard and FLIP TRIGA cells with the transport code WIMS. We used the fuel average flux and COLAPS (a home made program), to generate suitable cross sections for ORIGEN2, by collapsing the WIMS library cross sections of these nuclides. For the radioisotope production studies using the Central Thimble, we simulate the A and B rings and used the A average flux to collapse cross sections. For these studies, the required nuclides sometimes are not present in WIMS library, for them we are planning to process the ENDF/B data, with NJOY system, and include the cross sections to WIMS library or to collapse them using the appropriate average-flux and the program COLAPS. (author)

  20. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    Carneiro, J.C.G.G.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Campos, D.; Nogueira, P.R.; Damatto, S.R.; Pecequilo, B.R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m{sup 3} ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to {sup 125}I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y{sup -1} , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1} for workers. (author)

  1. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3 ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1 , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  2. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/SP, and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in charcoal and paper filters) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum permissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1, below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  3. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  4. Preliminary definition of the design of a nuclear reactor for research and radioisotope production using natural uranium and heavy water

    A study was conducted about the evolution of the Brazilian importations of radioisotopes, from the beginning of the 70's since they have been increasingly used in the Country. In view of the limited production capacity of radioactive isotopes now existing in Brazil, a nuclear reactor type (natural uranium and heavy water) was defined, for research and production of radioisotopes, wich, besides providing, at least partially, the Brazilian needs of said isotopes, permits a large national participation in its project, construction and operating maintenance. The processes for heavy water production have been analyzed and it could be detected what is the best alternative for the production thereof, in low scale, in Brazil. The options concerning the definition of the main components of the reactor were justified and its most important features were determined, in relation to the neutronic and thermal aspects, being so defined its most significant parameters. The annual quantities were estimated, in terms of total and specific activity, for the radioisotopes that could be obtained by means of the proposed reactor, which, by now, are participating, to a large extent, in the total of Brazilian importation of radioactive isotopes. (Author)

  5. Radioisotope applications in industry

    After a short mention of the economic importance of the industrial application of radioisotopes the most necessary fundamental principles of nuclear physics are given. The nature and the laws of the radioactive decay are illustrated, the interaction of radiation with matter and the absorption laws are described and the production of radioisotopes are mentioned. Subsequent the various detectors for measuring radioactivity are described with a short reference to the problems of the electronic measuring devices. At the end the various measuring techniques and the methods of application for radioisotopes in industry are illustrated. (author)

  6. Development of indigenous technology at CNEN in the fields of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear techniques

    The main objectives of the program developed at CNEN in the field of nuclear medicine, nuclear detectors, instrumentation, radioisotope production and application of nuclear technique are described. (E.G.)

  7. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 99Mo production by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo using accelerator neutrons

    We proposed a new route to produce a medical radioisotope 99Mo by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction using accelerator neutrons. A high-quality 99Mo with a minimum level of radioactive waste can be obtained by the proposed reaction. The decay product of 99Mo, 99mTc, is separated from 99Mo by the sublimation method. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99Mo. (author)

  9. Distribution of natural radioisotopes in industrial products of titanium production technological cycle

    Distribution of source and decay product nuclides in industrial products of industrial technology is studied to evaluate the radiation factor and examine the possibility of natural uranium and possibility of natural uranium and thorium group radionuclide concentration in separate products and wastes of processes related to ilmenite reprocessing and titanium tetrafluoride production. Determination of gamma-radiating radionuclides is performed by precision gamma spectrometry method, determination of thorium and polonium-210 isotopes - by alpha-spectrometry method using isotope dilution with the participation of polonium-210 and polonium-208. It is ascertained that during ilmenite melting the source radionuclides as well as radium isotopes transfer to a slag fraction, and lead-210 and polonium-210 isotopes get to a dust fraction. 5 refs., 4 tabs

  10. Choice of the technological procedures for the production of 123 I radioisotope for nuclear medical applications

    The technological procedures for the routine production of 123 I based on direct and indirect nuclear reactions on cyclotron are given and compared. According to the parameters of the Accelerator installation TESLA in Vinca Institute the choice of the optimal production route should be made. Four nuclear reactions were considered: direct 124 Te (p,2n) 123 I and indirect sup 12 I (p,5n) 123 Xe, 127 I (d,6n) 123 Xe and 124 Xe (p,2n) 123 Cs → 123 Xe. The optimal conditions offers the reaction on the gaseous target consisting of highly enriched 124 Xe. By using this nuclear reaction high activities of 123 I of the highest radionuclidic purity are produced. According to these characteristics it seems that this would be the method of choice for the routine production of 123 I on the cyclotron VINCY. (author)

  11. Production, Characterization, and Acceleration of Optical Microbunches

    Sears, Christopher M.S.; /Stanford U. /SLAC

    2008-06-20

    Optical microbunches with a spacing of 800 nm have been produced for laser acceleration research. The microbunches are produced using a inverse Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) followed by a dispersive chicane. The microbunched electron beam is characterized by coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) with good agreement to the analytic theory for bunch formation. In a second experiment the bunches are accelerated in a second stage to achieve for the first time direct net acceleration of electrons traveling in a vacuum with visible light. This dissertation presents the theory of microbunch formation and characterization of the microbunches. It also presents the design of the experimental hardware from magnetostatic and particle tracking simulations, to fabrication and measurement of the undulator and chicane magnets. Finally, the dissertation discusses three experiments aimed at demonstrating the IFEL interaction, microbunch production, and the net acceleration of the microbunched beam. At the close of the dissertation, a separate but related research effort on the tight focusing of electrons for coupling into optical scale, Photonic Bandgap, structures is presented. This includes the design and fabrication of a strong focusing permanent magnet quadrupole triplet and an outline of an initial experiment using the triplet to observe wakefields generated by an electron beam passing through an optical scale accelerator.

  12. Spallation products in the Accelerator Production of Tritium device

    When the 1,700 MeV protons strike the materials of the Accelerator Production of Tritium target, hundreds of different kinds of isotopes (spallation products) of varying energies are produced. Because the spallation products are born with kinetic energy, they can be born in one material and be deposited in another. In this paper, the authors present their estimates of the spallation product contamination of the 3He gas and heavy-water coolant streams

  13. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  15. Thyroid Dose Estimation Using WBC and I-131 Concentration in Working Area of Radioisotope Production at Normal Operation

    Thyroid dose estimation at Radioisotope Production Centre workers using WBC and calculation based on I-131 concentration in working area has been done. The aim of this research is to get the relation between WBC result and calculation using I-131 concentration in working area. The result indicates differences in a range of 3,2% to 53,2%. These differences caused of parameters which influence the calculation are not accurate. These results also indicate that dose estimation using WBC is relatively batter and more accurate but need to have certain information about time of intake

  16. Project and implantation of automation in irradiation systems for solid, liquid and gaseous targets in cyclotrons aiming the production of radioisotopes

    Araujo, S G D

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays, two cyclotron are being operated at IPEN-CNEN/SP: one model CV-28, capable of accelerating p, d sup 3 He sub 4 and alpha, with energies of 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively, and beam currents up to 30 mu A; the other one, model Cyclone 30, accelerates protons with energy of 30 MeV and currents up to 350 mu A. Both have the objective of irradiating targets both for radioisotopes production for use in nuclear medicine, such as sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I, sup 1 sup 8 F and general research. The development of irradiating systems completely automatic was the objective of this work, always aiming to reduce the radiation exposition dose to the workers and to increase the reliability of use of these systems, because very high activities are expected in these processes. In the automation, a Programmable Logical Controller (PCL) was used connected to a feedback net, to manage all the variables involved in the irradiation processes. The program of the PCL was developed using S...

  17. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for April 2000 through June 2000

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-10-23

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at ORNL.

  18. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed

  19. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  20. The Production and Distribution of Short-Lived Radioisotopes in the United Kingdom

    Materials irradiated for short periods must be loaded and unloaded while the reactor is operating. Devices are described for accomplishing this with graphite-moderated (BEPO) and heavy-water moderated (DIDO) reactors. Problems of nuclear heating and reactivity changes are discussed. A review is given of the distribution of short-lived radioisotopes produced in the research reactors at Harwell. Table 3 shows the number of deliveries made during the past ten years and gives the distances over which they have been despatched. (author)

  1. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  2. Production and Use of Short-Lived Radioisotopes from Reactors Vol. I. Proceedings of a Seminar on the Practical Applications of Short-Lived Radioisotopes Produced in Small Research Reactors

    There are many radioisotope applications in which it is important that the radiation should rapidly fall to an insignificant level once the initial intense activity has served its purpose. Such applications include diagnostic tests in medicine, where it is essential to reduce the radiation dose to the patient to a minimum, non-destructive testing methods which must be applied without contaminating the material or product concerned, and repeated routine tests which are possible only if the residual activity from the previous test is negligible. All these applications call for radionuclides whose half- lives are measured in hours or even minutes. Similarly, in the new but increasingly important technique of activation analysis, whereby the quantities of elements present in a material can be determined by irradiating the material in a reactor and assaying the radionuclides produced, the latter are mainly short-lived and must be measured immediately. While the production of long-lived radionuclides can most economically be left to the large reactors at the main radioisotope centres, short-lived isotopes must be produced, or materials activation performed, in a reactor at or near the place of intended use or analysis; this, then, represents one of the most important uses for the large number of small reactors which have been installed in recent years, or will come into operation in the near future, in many parts of the world. Since in many countries the new problems of producing, separating and applying short-lived radioisotopes are being faced for the first time, the International Atomic Energy Agency believed it would be valuable to survey the state of the art by convening an international Seminar on Practical Applications of Short-lived Radioisotopes produced in Small Research Reactors at its Vienna headquarters in November, 1962. This Seminar provided an opportunity for the producers and users of short-lived radioisotopes from many countries to meet and discuss the

  3. Production of medical radioisotope 153Sm in the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) through theoretical calculations and practical tests

    Highlights: ► Production of 153Sm isotope by neutron activation in a nuclear reactor was studied. ► Optimal parameters for weight and irradiation time were found. ► This study led to an empirical correction factor (kf). ► Kf enhanced the production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. ► The results led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process. - Abstract: The feasibility of producing 2000–3000 mCi 153Sm by irradiation of 152Sm in 5 MW TRR was studied via TRR core simulation. In this study the cross-section of 152Sm (n,γ) 153Sm reaction from ENDF/B library was used. The effective activation cross section for production of 153Sm is obtained using the neutron spectra in different irradiation channel of the core. The activity of the simulated samples is calculated using the obtained fluxes and cross sections. Then samples were prepared and irradiated under different conditions and fluxes. The final production’s specific activity was measured by the standard dose calibrator ISOMED 1010. By comparison of the theoretical calculations and actual measurements, an empirical correction factor (Kf) was obtained, which is helpful in production procedure of the 153Sm radioisotope. The optimal weight of the samples and irradiation time was studied according to the flux calculations based on the location of the sample and saturated activity calculation. In order to test the proposed conditions, samples were prepared and were irradiated under the proposed conditions. According to the compared results with the initial irradiation condition, the new proposed sample which weighed 4 mg of Sm2O3 is acceptable for the labeling, therefore this study led to nearly 60% decrease in the amount of material used in the production process

  4. Radioisotope generator

    A radioisotope generator is described in which it is possible to interupt the elution process at any desired time, i.e. before the electron flacon is full. The interuption is performed in such a way that sterile air is simultaneously admitted into the generator, into both the column and the elution flacon. (Th.P.)

  5. The IEA-R1 research reactor: 50 years of operating experience and utilization for research, teaching and radioisotopes production

    This paper describes almost 50 years of operating experience and utilization of the IEA-R1 research reactor for research, teaching and radioisotopes production. The current and future program of upgrading the reactor is also described. IEA-R1 research reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil is the largest power research reactor in Brazil, with a maximum power rating of 5 MWth. It is being used for basic and applied research in the nuclear and neutron related sciences, for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, and for providing services of neutron activation analysis, real time neutron radiography, and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. IEA-R1 is a swimming pool reactor, with light water as the coolant and moderator, and graphite and beryllium as reflectors. The reactor was commissioned on September 16, 1957 and achieved its first criticality. It is currently operating at 3.5 MWth with a 64-hour cycle per week. In the early sixties, IPEN produced 131I, 32P, 198Au, 24Na, 35S, 51Cr and labeled compounds for medical use. In the year 1980, production of 99mTc generator kits from the fission 99Mo imported from Canada was started. This production is continuously increasing, with the current rate of about 16,000 Ci of 99mTC per year. The 99mTc generator kits, with activities varying from 250 mCi to 2,000 mCi, are distributed to more than 260 hospitals and clinics in Brazil. Several radiopharmaceutical products based on 131I , 32P, 51Cr and 153Sm are also produced. During the past several years, a concerted effort has been made in order to upgrade the reactor power to 5 MWth through refurbishment and modernization programs. One of the reasons for this decision was to produce 99Mo at IPEN. The reactor cycle will be gradually increased to 120 hours per week continuous operation. It is anticipated that these programs will assure the safe and sustainable operation of the IEA-R1 reactor for

  6. The Scottish Research Reactor Centre and its Facilities for the Production and Exploitation of Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    The Scottish Research Reactor Centre is now under construction and will be completed and in operation by the summer of 1963. The reactor is 100 kW of the tank type with water cooling and water/graphite moderation using enriched U235 fuel. The experimental facilities include a large thermal column, a large shield experiment water tank and a radioisotope production facility with transfer rabbit tubes. There are effectively three through tubes in the central core; one through tube in the thermal column, several small central vertical stringers and one six-inch square vertical stringer penetrating to the centre of the core. Many horizontal stringers pass through the thermal column, the central one penetrating to within one inch of a fuel tank. The reactor facilities are supported by a wide variety of adjacent small laboratories. These include hot source handling and preparation facilities, changing rooms, electrical and mechanical workshops, darkrooms, microcurie laboratories, animal house, biological and chemical laboratories, low-background counting room, lecture theatre and a library. It is expected that the research will extend over many scientific and technological disciplines; a good proportion of the work will involve short-lived radioisotopes and typical projects are described. (author)

  7. Automated production of copper radioisotopes and preparation of high specific activity [64Cu]Cu-ATSM for PET studies

    60Cu and 64Cu are useful radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals and may be used for the preparation of promising agents for diagnosis and radiotherapy. In this study, the production and purification of 60/64Cu starting from 60/64Ni using a new automated system, namely Alceo, is described. A dynamic process for electrodeposition and dissolution of 60/64Ni/60/64Cu was developed. Preliminary production yields of 60Cu and 64Cu were 400 and 300 mCi, respectively. 64Cu was used to radiolabel the hypoxia detection tracer ATSM with a specific activity of 2.2±1.3 Ci/μmol.

  8. Optimization of physical and technical parameters relevant to the production and separation of 123 I radioisotope using low energy cyclotrons

    Radioisotopes of iodine are very frequently used in nuclear medicine. They have been used as scanning agents or for radiotherapy in liver, pancreas, kidneys and thyroid tumors. 131I (T1/2 = 8.03 d) and 125I (T1/2 59.4 d) are extensively used, the former in therapy and the latter for in-vitro testes. In recent years, 124I (T1/2 = 4.18 d) and 120I (T1/2 = 81 min) found some applications in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). 123I (T1/2 =13.2 h) is utilized in diagnostic studies using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). One of the suitable reactions for production of 123I from Te targets using low energy cyclotrons is the 123Te(p,n)123I reaction. In this work the excitation functions for production of iodine radioisotopes including 123I have been measured using natTe. The cross section values of natTe(p,x n)120g,121,123,124,125,126,128,130I reactions have been determined from their respective threshold energy up to 14.5 MeV. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used and the samples were prepared by an electrodeposition method. In order to validate the data, nuclear model calculations were performed using the code ALICE-IPPE which is based on the preequilibrium-evaporation model. All of the measured excitation curves were compared with those obtained by nuclear model calculation as well as the available data in the literature. From the experimental results the theoretical yields for all of the investigated radionuclides were calculated and plotted as a function of proton energy. The production yield and impurity levels were estimated in the recommended energy ranges. The thick target yields have been determined theoretically from the excitation function curves and measured experimentally by irradiated thick Te target and the results were compared.For production of 123I radionuclide, TeO2 target was prepared on platinum substrate for irradiation. Dry distillation method was used in the separation process. The parameters affecting of the target

  9. Analysis of metal radioisotope impurities generated in [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O during the cyclotron production of fluorine-18

    Gillies, J.M. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jgillies@picr.man.ac.uk; Najim, N. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Zweit, J. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We show the separation of metal radioistope impurities using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The methodology used is an improvement of existent protocols for separation of stable metal ions. Production of fluorine-18 using [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O-enriched water encased in a titanium target body results in the production of several metal radioisotope impurities. Optimisation of the conditions for CE separation of the metal radioisotope impurities incorporated the use of 6 mM 18-Crown-6 in combination with 12 mM glycolic acid as complexing agents within the running buffer (10 mM pyridine, pH 4.0). Using this optimised procedure, we were able to separate and detect a number of metal radioisotopes, including chromium, cobalt, manganese, vanadium and berillium, within the fM concentration range.

  10. Radioisotope method for characterization of vegetable tannins, extracted from waste of forestry production in Cuba

    Vegetable tannins are polyphenolic plants secondary metabolites, widely distributed in all parts of trees and herbs. The role of these substances in many metabolic processes is very important. Vegetable tannins have been implicated as probable antinutritional factors, decreasing the assimilation of diet protein assimilation by cattle. On the other hand, protective antioxidant and antimutagenic properties have been ascribed for these compounds. Characterization of vegetable tannins is important in order to find new sources of natural raw materials with medical and pharmaceutical applications. Protein precipitation capacity as a function of pH, competitive protein and ADN binding assays and the determination of tannins concentration are described. Radioisotope labeled protein and tannins were used in all of the determinations. (author)

  11. Radioisotope Power Sources

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  12. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    King, James F [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  13. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    Greenfield, Bryce A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  14. Excitation functions of reactions of production of radioisotopes 201Tl, 201Pb, 201Bi (experimental and theoretical data)

    The results of calculations of charged particle induced reactions for the production of neutron deficient radioisotopes 201Tl, 201Pb, 201Bi and concomitant ones are discussed. The excitation functions for reactions 202Hg(p,xn), 197Au(a,xn), 203,205Tl(p,xn), 203,205Tl(d,xn), 203,205Tl(p,pxn), 204Pb(p,xn), 204Pb(p,p3n), 206Pb(p,6n), 206Pb(p,p5n), 207Pb(p,7n), 207Pb(p,p6n), 208Pb(p,xn) and 208Pb(p,p7n) are calculated on the base of statistical model in energy range up to 80 MeV. For the most reactions producing 201Tl the data on the calculated and practical yields under optimum conditions are given and the main admixture levels are pointed out. 30 refs., 9 figs

  15. Internal individual dose monitoring and estimation of dose equivalent from workers of the development and production of radioisotopes in CIAE

    The results of internal individual dose monitoring from workers of the development and production of radioisotopes in CIAE (1995-2000) are presented. The annual average committed effective dose is 1.8 x 10-2 - 8.0 x 10-1 mSv and the collective committed effective dose is 2.9 x 10-3 - 9.8 x 10-2 man·Sv in 1995-2000. The collective committed effective dose is 1.6 x 10-1 man·Sv and the annual average committed effective dose is 1.8 x 10-1 mSv for the 873 persons from 1995-2000

  16. Production of radioisotopes by cyclotron at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - an evaluation of the present stage of development

    Since 1974 a variable energy isochronous cyclotron (CV-28) is operating at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro, with the main purpose of producing radioisotopes for medical diagnosis. To accomplish this, besides the conventional chemical laboratories and related facilities, hot chemistry laboratories with their specific equipment and remote handling devices had to be designed and constructed at this Institute, and are still being developed, due to a lack of engineering companies working in this field. Other equipment, intrinsically related to cyclotrons like high power density target holders, collimators etc. were also conceived and constructed. Among the produced raioisotopes, high purity gallium-67 and indium-111 have been periodically sent to hospitals and some efforts are still being made in order to improve and simplify the chemical processing as well as the operational procedures. Some work has also been devoted to the development and improvement of methods for the production of iodine-123, bromine-77 and thallium-201. (Author)

  17. Validation and upgrading of the recommended cross section data of charged particle reactions used for production of PET radioisotopes

    A validation test and upgrading of the recommended cross section database for production of PET radioisotopes in charged particle induced reactions, published by the IAEA in 2001, was performed. Experimental microscopic cross section data published earlier or measured recently and not yet included in the evaluation work of IAEA were collected and added to the primary database in order to improve the quality of the recommended data. The newly compiled experimental data supported the previous recommended data in most cases, but in a few cases this influenced the decision made earlier and resulted in new selected cross section data sets. A spline fitting method was applied to the selected data sets and updated recommended data were produced in these cases. The integral thick target yields deduced from the new recommended cross sections were critically compared with experimental yield data available in the literature

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals in positron emission tomography: Radioisotope productions and radiolabelling procedures at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.G.; Cook, M. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Positron Emission Tomography

    1997-10-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that utilizes positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals to map the physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology of the human body. Positron-emitting radioisotopes produced in a medical cyclotron are incorporated into compounds that are biologically active in the body. A scanner measures radioactivity emitted from a patient`s body and provides cross-sectional images of the distribution of these radiolabelled compounds in the body. It is the purpose of this paper to review the variety of PET radiopharmaceuticals currently produced at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. Radioisotope production, radiolabelling of molecules and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed. A few examples of their clinical applications will be shown as well. During the last five years we achieved a reliable routine production of various radiopharmaceuticals labelled with the four most important positron-emitters: oxygen-15 (t,{sub 1/2}=2min), nitrogen-13 (t{sub 1/2}= 10 min), carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2}=20 min) and fluorine-18 (t{sub 1/2}= 110 min). These radiopharmaceuticals include [{sup 15}O]oxygen, [{sup 15}O]carbon monoxide, [{sup 15}O]carbon dioxide, [{sup 15}O]water, [{sup 13}N]ammonia, [{sup 11}C]flumazenil, [{sup 11}C]SCH23390, [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG). In addition, since the half life of [{sup 18}F] is almost two hours, regional distribution can be done, and the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre is currently supplying [{sup 18}F]FDG in routine to other hospitals. Future new radiopharmaceuticals development include a [{sup 18}F]thymidine analog to measure cell proliferation and a [{sup 11}C]pyrroloisoquinoline to visualize serotonergic neuron abnormalities. (authors) 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Summary report of the third research co-ordination meeting on development of reference charged-particle cross section database for medical radioisotope production

    The report summarizes results of the final coordination meeting of the IAEA research project on ''Development of Reference Charged-Particle Cross Section Database for Medical Radioisotopes Production''. Details are given on the status of the Database and preparation of the TECDOC, two major results of the project. Actions and deadlines are specified towards finalizing these results in the near future. (author)

  20. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  1. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  2. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  3. The Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. Market impacts of converting to low-enriched uranium targets for medical isotope production

    The reliable supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) and its decay product, technetium-99m (99mTc), is a vital component of modern medical diagnostic practices. At present, most of the global production of 99Mo is from highly enriched uranium (HEU) targets. However, all major 99Mo-producing countries have recently agreed to convert to using low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets to advance important non-proliferation goals, a decision that will have implications for the global supply chain of 99Mo/99mTc and the long-term supply reliability of these medical isotopes. This study provides the findings and analysis from an extensive examination of the 99Mo/99mTc supply chain by the OECD/NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR). It presents a comprehensive evaluation of the potential impacts of converting to the use of LEU targets for 99Mo production on the global 99Mo/99mTc market in terms of costs and available production capacity, and the corresponding implications for long-term supply reliability. In this context, the study also briefly discusses the need for policy action by governments in their efforts to ensure a stable and secure long-term supply of 99Mo/99mTc

  4. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  5. Radioisotope programme in Iran

    The Nuclear Research Centre of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has taken up a program for the production of short-lived radioisotopes. The initial purpose of this program was to give service to isotope users, mainly researchers, who were importing radioisotopes. With the commissioning of the reactor and installation of handling facilities at the temporary isotope laboratories at NRC the scope of the production program elaborated. Meanwhile the application of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine was actively encouraged. The production of radioisotopes in medicine is one of the prime objectives. The development of Tc-99m technology in NRC of AEOI will not only meet the demands of existing nuclear medicine centres, but also help the country to develop know-how in this important area. The output of this project will be the production and supply of Tc-99m generator, which is a primary objective with the technical assistance of IAEA. At the present moment the Tc-99m is processing using Mo-99 produced in the NRC reactor by irradiation Mo03. In view of the easier availability of fission product Mo-99 from several suppliers, now the NRC is seriously considering the preparation of Tc-99m generators using imported fission Mo-99. We are also working on the production of high specific activity Cr-51, P-32, S-33 and Au-198 colloid and some other short-lived radioisotopes in milicurie level. Iodine-131 is processed using the wet distillation method with good recovery. The iodine-131 is tested for radiochemical purity tellurium content and radionuclide purity and is found to be satisfactory. With these studies the processing and quality control of I-131 can be considered complete and batches of one curie activity can be planned. Specifications have been standardized for I-131 labelled formulations radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  6. Design and experimental activities supporting commercial U.S. electron accelerator production of Mo-99

    99mTc, the daughter isotope of 99Mo, is the most commonly used radioisotope for nuclear medicine in the United States. Under the direction of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are partnering with North Star Medical Technologies to demonstrate the viability of large-scale 99Mo production using electron accelerators. In this process, 99Mo is produced in an enriched 100Mo target through the 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo reaction. Five experiments have been performed to date at ANL to demonstrate this process. This paper reviews the current status of these activities, specifically the design and performance of the helium gas target cooling system.

  7. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  8. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  9. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  10. The progress of radioisotope technology and application in China

    Zhang Jinrong; Luo Zhifu

    2008-01-01

    The inception of radioisotope and its application in China are introduced. The research, development, produc-tion, application progress and the future development prospect of radioisotope and its products are described.

  11. Radioisotope production using U-120 cyclotron, Central Institute for Nuclear Research, Rossendorf (DDR)

    The method of radionuclide production at the Rossendorf U-120 cyclotron and chemical reprocessing of the products produced into radiopharmaceuticals, aimed at application in nuclear medice, are described. The radionuclides are produced by target irradiation at nuclear reactions (4He, 2n), (d, 2n), (d, n), (d, α) and others. 67Ga, 81Rb-21mKr, 211At, 111In, 123I, 18F radionuclide production are considered in detail. The Rossendorf U-120 cyclotron beam parameters are also presented

  12. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in nuclear medicine to allow physicians to explore bodily structures. The thyroid, bones, heart, liver and many other organs can be easily imaged and disorder in their functions revealed. Technetium-99, a radioisotope is a decay product of Molybdenum-99, a radionuclide with half life of sixty-six hours is discussed. It is widely used in nuclear medical procedure. In this application, the radio nuclide is chemically attached to a drug chosen for its tendency to collect in specific organ of the body and the so is then injected into the patient's body. After a short time, half life of only six hours, an image is collected with a radio sensitive detector for analysis. Technetium-99 decays by isomeric process which emits gamma rays and low energy beta particles. (author)

  13. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    Nasrabadi, M. N., E-mail: mnnasrabadi@ast.ui.ac.ir; Sepiani, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Hezarjerib Street, 81746-73441, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  14. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of 64Cu and 67Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields

  15. Production of radio-isotopes 197Hg and 198Au from 198Hg

    Studies on excitation functions of neutron induced reactions are of considerable importance for testing nuclear models as well as for practical applications. Mercury can be a suitable material for spallation neutron source in an accelerator driven system (ADS) if corrosion, due to chemical wetting, gradient mass transfer, and high density heat generation are taken care of. In order to design the target system, estimation of induced activity in the target is important among other factors. In an ADS this radioactivity is induced by neutrons along with that by the primary projectile. An ADS is operated at a few GeV beam energy, but often logistic studies are carried out at much lower energies. Quantitative knowledge of the induced activity at such operating parameters is important for proper planning of the experiments. The aim of the present work is to determine the excitation functions of 198Hg (n, 2n) 197Hg and 198Hg (n, p) 198Au reactions for 1-50 MeV energy using statistical and pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction model codes. This will help us to determine the total yield and induced activities due to these radio nuclides. The computed excitation functions are compared with and the reported measured data and cross sections from ENDF database

  16. Consumer Promotions and the Acceleration of Product Purchases

    Scott A. Neslin; Caroline Henderson; John Quelch

    1985-01-01

    One potential consequence of consumer promotions is the acceleration of consumer category purchases. Purchase acceleration can assume two forms: purchasing of a larger quantity or shortening of interpurchase time. This research presents an analytical framework for measuring purchase acceleration, and applies that framework to the analysis of two product classes. The effects of coupons, manufacturer and retailer advertising, and price cuts are examined. Different market segments and loyalty gr...

  17. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  18. Successes and problems in the development of medical radioisotope production in Russia

    Zhuikov, B. L.

    2016-05-01

    There are many challenges that face radionuclide production and application for medical diagnostics and therapy in Russia. In this article, the development of novel production methods for medical radionuclides (82Sr, 82Sr/82Rb-generator, 117mSn, 225Ac, etc.) at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS is described, providing an example of how supporting basic nuclear facilities, backing fundamental research, granting scientists and medical specialists freedom in choosing a research area, and effective international collaboration involving developed countries combine to enable progress in the field.

  19. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    None listed

    2005-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  20. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  1. Dual-label radioisotope method for simultaneously measuring bacterial production and metabolism in natural waters

    Bacterial production and amino acid metabolism in aquatic systems can be estimated by simultaneous incubation of water samples with both tritiated methyl-thymidine and 14C-labeled amino acids. This dual-label method not only saves time, labor, and materials, but also allows determination of these two parameters in the same microbial subcommunity. Both organic carbon incorporation and respiration can be estimated. The method is particularly suitable for large-scale field programs and has been used successfully with eutrophic estuarine samples as well as with oligotrophic oceanic water. In the mesohaline portion of Chesapeake Bay, thymidine incorporation ranged seasonally from 2 to 635 pmol liter-1 h-1 and amino acid turnover rates ranged from 0.01 to 28.4% h-1. Comparison of thymidine incorporation with amino acid turnover measurements made at a deep, midbay station in 1985 suggested a close coupling between bacterial production and amino acid metabolism during most of the year. However, production-specific amino acid turnover rates increased dramatically in deep bay waters during the spring phytoplankton bloom, indicating transient decoupling of bacterial production from metabolism. Ecological features such as this are readily detectable with the dual-label method

  2. Frontiers in radioisotope application

    Radioisotopes and radiation are being used in numerous and diverse fields to benefit mankind. A glimpse at the recent advances in terms of usage of new radionuclides or new techniques, in some of the important areas are discussed. Use of radionuclides in medicine, industries, agriculture and water resource management are delineated. The various uses of radiation such as cancer therapy, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food products, food preservation, industrial radiography, nucleonic gauges, crop mutation to raise better quality seeds, cross-linking and curing of materials, coatings etc. and treatment of municipal waste are discussed. (author). 56 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Accelerator business in Japan expanding

    Accelerators have become to be used increasingly in Japan in such fields as medicine, physics research and industry. This has caused stiff competition for market share by the manufacturers of accelerators. Electron beam accelerators for industrial use provide an indispensable means for adding values to products, for example, electric cables with incombustible insulators. Linear accelerators for the nondestructive inspection of nuclear components have been widely installed at equipment manufacturing plants. Active efforts have been exerted to develop small synchrotron radiation accelerators for next generation electronic industry. Cyclotrons for producing short life radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and electron beam accelerators for radiation therapy are also used routinely. The suppliers of accelerators include the companies manufacturing heavy electric machinery, heavy machinery and the engineering division of steelmakers. Accelerator physics is being formed, but universities do not yet offer the course regarding accelerators. Accelerator use in Japan and the trend of accelerator manufacturers are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Massive particle production from accelerated sources in high magnetic fields

    Fregolente, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Non-electromagnetic emissions from high energy particles in extreme environments has been studied in the literature by using several variations of the semi-classical formalism. The detailed mechanisms behind such emissions are of great astrophysical interest since they can alter appreciably the associated energy loss rates. Here, we review the role played by the source proper acceleration $a$ in the particle production process. The acceleration $a$ determines the typical scale characterizing the particle production and, moreover, if the massive particle production is inertially forbidden, it will be strongly suppressed for $a$ below a certain threshold. In particular, we show that, for the case of accelerated protons in typical pulsar magnetospheres, the corresponding accelerations $a$ are far below the pion production threshold.

  5. Shielding calculations by using the analytic methods : Application to the radio-isotopes production in the CENM reactor

    Full text: this work is part of developing an analytical method for solving the neutrons transport equation in improving the treatment of the anisotropy of neutron scattering through heterogeneous shielding. We also develop the tools necessary for the formation of multigroup libraries (cross section) with the best choice of the weighting function. Among the radioprotection problems of radioisotopes production experiments in the research reactor core is mainly the photons gamma generation produced by radiative capture: activation of samples and their capsules. So, in order to review the safety of operating personnel and the public is essential to quantify the neutrons flux and gamma photons produced. In this study a numerical methods is used in two different Fortran program to solve the neutron transport problem and to determine the neutron and photon flux. This program based on the Monte Carlo method: the neutron is born with a unit statistical weight, this corrected after each imposed scattering event during its whole history within the shield. The final neutron statistical weight is used in an appropriate estimator to determine the searched response. The generated gamma rays by neutron capture are calculated of different isotopes, and then the equivalent dose rate is evaluated in biological tissue for different neutron source energies. We have identified and studied the choice of the best weighting function to calculate a library of multigroup cross sections self protected by using the energy weighting function. A Fortran program is used as a mathematical tool to solve the neutron slowing down equation in infinite homogeneous medium for different dilutions. We determined the energetic flux distribution and the effective integrals. The results of both calculations are in a good agreement; the relative error is less than 0.5%.

  6. Hadronic multiparticle production in extensive air showers and accelerator experiments

    Meurer, Christine; Blümer, Johannes; Engel, Ralph; Haungs, Andreas; Roth, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Using CORSIKA for simulating extensive air showers, we study the relation between the shower characteristics and features of hadronic multiparticle production at low energies. We report about investigations of typical energies and phase space regions of secondary particles which are important for muon production in extensive air showers. Possibilities to measure relevant quantities of hadron production in existing and planned accelerator experiments are discussed.

  7. A new generator for production of short-lived Au-195m radioisotope

    A generator has been developed to produce multimillicurie amounts of 30.6 second Au-195m. Gold-195m, a daughter isotope of 41.6 hour Hg-195m, is eluted as neutral and sterile sodium thiosulphatoaurate(I) complex, and as such, is indicated for dynamic studies in cardiology. Mercury-195m is produced by irradiation of gold targets with 28 MeV protons, yielding by the (p,3n) nuclear reaction Hg-195m and Hg-195 (9.9 hours) at rates of 4.6 and 12 mCi/μAh, respectively. Mercury is separated from irradiated gold by distillation and collection in nitric acid. This solution is neutralized and loaded on a column of silica gel modified with metallic sulphide. Columns are eluted at 3-5 minute intervals with a solution containing 29.8 mg/ml sodium thiosulphate, pentahydrate and 10 mg/ml sodium nitrate. Yields of Au-195m vary between 24-45% of theory, depending on the total Hg activity and the generator production method. Gold-195m is obtained in 3-4 seconds by eluting with 2 ml under pressure. Contamination of the eluate with mercury isotopes decreases after about 20 elutions to 0.4 - 0.8 μCi Hg-195m/ mCi Au-195m

  8. The RF system for accelerator production of tritium

    A high-power proton linac (linear accelerator) is being proposed for the next generation tritium source for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The proposed proton linac requires a substantial continuous wave (CW) RF system. This paper presents an overview of accelerator-based tritium production and the details of the CW RF system design. Based on the current tritium production requirement, the proposed accelerator will require in excess of 200 MW of installed CW RF power. The availability requirements for the RF system are quite high and an efficient low-cost approach to providing redundancy will be discussed. Also presented are the baseline choices for the RF sources as well as the technology development goals and how they impact the RF system design

  9. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    King, James F [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  10. Calculation of excitation functions of proton, alpha and deuteron induced reactions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I

    Artun, Ozan, E-mail: ozanartun@yahoo.com; Aytekin, Hüseyin, E-mail: huseyinaytekin@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    In this work, the excitation functions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I with proton, alpha, and deuteron induced reactions were calculated by two different level density models. For the nuclear model calculations, the Talys 1.6 code were used, which is the latest version of Talys code series. Calculations of excitation functions for production of the {sup 122–125}I isotopes were carried out by using the generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Fermi-gas model (FGM). The results have shown that generalized superfluid model is more successful than Fermi-gas model in explaining the experimental results.