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Sample records for accelerator driven transmuter

  1. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies

    The basic principles of accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT) are outlined and their assets highlighted. Current designs of ADTT facilities pursue 3 basic objectives: (i) Systems designed to generate power and convert nuclear wastes produced by conventional nuclear reactors into long-lived radioisotopes by transmutation. Such isotopes will be separated from molten salts by centrifugal separation. A single subcritical assembly will 'burn' wastes produced by several conventional NPPs. (ii) Systems for power generation using thorium fuel. Such systems are not designed for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The amount of transuranium elements produced by the thorium cycle is minimal, whereby the problem of storage of very long lived isotopes is virtually eliminated. (iii) Systems for transmutation of plutonium reclaimed from nuclear weapons. As to the future of ADTT in comparison with nuclear fusion, an asset of the former is that there remain no unsolved principal physical problems that would preclude its implementation. What has to be solved is materials and technological problems and, in particular, the financial problem. Implementation of ADTT is impossible in any way other than on the basis of a wide international cooperation. There exists a group of people dealing with ADTT in the Czech Republic, joining academic and industrial experts; this group is fostering contacts with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, U.S.A. The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, has set up an ADTT Documentation Center, which is accessible to any person interested in this promising field of science and technology. (P.A.). 3 figs

  2. Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste

    Venneri, Francesco

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage. Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear energy, reprocessing and non-proliferation. The current United States policy is to store unprocessed spent reactor fuel in a geologic repository. Other countries are opting for treatment of nuclear waste, including partial utilization of the fissile material contained in the spent fuel, prior to geologic storage. Long-term uncertainties are hampering the acceptability and eventual licensing of a geologic repository for nuclear spent fuel in the US, and driving up its cost. The greatest concerns are with the potential for radiation release and exposure from the spent fuel for tens of thousands of years and the possible diversion and use of the actinides contained in the waste for weapons construction. Taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and of the natural flexibility of subcritical systems, the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept offers the United States and other countries the possibility to greatly reduce plutonium, higher actinides and environmentally hazardous fission products from the waste stream destined for permanent storage. ATW does not eliminate the need for, but instead enhances the viability of permanent waste repositories. Far from being limited to waste destruction, the ATW concept also brings to the table new technologies that could be relevant for next-generation power producing reactors. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to the ATW site where the plutonium, transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their first and only pass through the

  3. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  4. An overview of accelerator-driven transmutation technology

    Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology, or ADT2, is a collection of programs that share a common theme - they each have at their heart an intense source of neutrons generated by a high-energy proton beam striking a heavy metal target. The beam energy, typically 1000 MeV, is enough for a single proton to smash a target atom into atomic fragments. This so-called spallation process generates large numbers of neutrons (around 20 to 30 per proton) amid the atomic debris. These neutrons are of high value because they can be used to transmute neighboring atoms by neutron capture. Three distinct ADT2 program elements will be described. These are ADEP - accelerator-driven energy production, ABC - accelerator based conversion (of plutonium) and ATW - accelerator transmutation of waste

  5. Design windows for accelerator driven pebble-bed transmutators

    Nuclear waste transmutation can be achieved by different strategies. In this paper, the studies are focused in the 'Once Through' scenario, consisting in the nuclear waste transmutation until a maximum burnup (BU) is achieved. After transmutation, the fuel elements can be disposed in a Deep Storage Facility (DSF.) The main advantage of this strategy is that only one reprocess step is necessary. The drawback of this strategy consists mainly in the need of a fuel element design capable of withstanding very high burn-ups. It has been demonstrated that pebbles fuel elements in a pebble bed reactor design can withstand 700 MWd/Kg BU. This reactor presents the possibility of attainment different neutron spectrum with different fuel element designs, presents good safety characteristics, and the possibility of replacing the fuel elements easily inside the reactor (necessary for recycling strategies.) The transmutation process can be achieved in two steps. The first one, as a critical reactor, and the second one, as a subcritical assembly driven by an accelerator. In this paper, the optimum spectrum for the 'Once Through' strategy is presented, and some safety characteristics of the subcritical assembly are introduced. (authors)

  6. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  7. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  8. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  9. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  10. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power

  11. Parametric study of the accelerator-driven transmutation system

    A couple of parametric studies were performed for an accelerator-driven transmutation system in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). For the analysis, LAHET code system developed by LANL was employed. Molten salt fuel was adopted with its chemical composition of 64NaCl3-1Pu-35MA(Minor Actinide)Cl3. The isotope compositions of Pu and Ma were determined based on the composition in the 10-year cooled spent fuel having 3.2 W% initial enrichment and 33GWD/MTU discharge burnup. Proton beam of 20 mA, 1 GeV was assumed for the neutron production by the spallation reaction with the fuel. The fuel was designed to perform multifunction such as target, coolant. From the calculation results, one proton was believed to produce about 27 neutrons and the neutron multiplication factor was found to be 0.95 for the given system condition. For the beam of 20 mA, 1 GeV, the neutron flux reached up to 1.26x1015 n/cm2 and the corresponding total thermal power was 773 MWth. It was believed that the proposed system could transmute 502 kg of MA a year. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Transmutation of fission products in reactors and accelerator-driven systems

    Energy flows and mass flows in several scenarios are considered. Economical and safety aspects of the transmutation scenarios are compared. It is difficult to find a sound motivation for the transmutation of fission products with accelerator-driven systems. If there would be any hesitation in transmuting fission products in nuclear reactors, there would be an even stronger hesitation to use accelerator-driven systems, mainly because of their lower energy efficiency and their poor cost effectiveness. The use of accelerator-driven systems could become a 'meaningful' option only if nuclear energy would be banished completely. (orig./HP)

  13. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  14. FZK proposal on transient benchmark in accelerator driven transmuter

    The benchmark should help to understand the behavior of a subcritical system with external source under transient conditions. It should allow to test and compare available methods and codes; include the knowledge base gained by experiments. The benchmark should be largely flexible, starting from simple configurations and transients up to comprehensive dynamics problems. It should help improving the description of transient and accident related phenomena in an ADS. General proposals on transient benchmark in accelerator driven transmuter are described. Select one or more systems to be analysed in details: solid and movable (molten salt) fuel systems; oxide, nitride, and other fuels for the solid option; Pb/I, Pb, Na coolants for the solid option; Pu+MA, LWR Pu, introduction of Th, other fuels; ADS and critical reactors; small (k-eff>0.97), very small (>0.99) or large deviations from k=1; intermediate, small, large reactor. Select types type of analyses: transient, static (reactivity coefficients, power peak factors), MA incineration rate calculations. In the transient case select: unprotected (no Control Rod, constant beam power) reactivity transients: benchmark exercise, investigation of the influence of the subcriticality level, other types of analyses. The investigation of dynamics of the ADS could be structured as short time-scale and long time-scale. Study of the ADT with dedicated fuels and cores is proposed including the safety aspects. Benchmark cores and fuels are defined. Spec-time kinetics of subcritical ADS should be recalculated. ADS/critical reactor behaviour and point kinetics should be included

  15. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1999

    In 1996, SKB commenced funding of the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target'. The aim of the project was stated as: Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets, development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation. target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration experiment. In the present report, activities within and related to the framework of the project, performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1999, are accounted for

  16. Research on accelerator-driven transmutation and studies of experimental facilities

    Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on accelerator-driven transmutation systems under the national OMEGA Program that aims at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Research facilities for accelerator-driven transmutation experiments are proposed to construct within the framework of the planned JAERI Neutron Science Project. This paper describes the features of the proposed accelerator-driven transmutation systems and their technical issues to be solved. A research facility plan under examination is presented. The plan is divided in two phases. In the second phase, technical feasibility of accelerator-driven systems will be demonstrated with a 30-60 MW experimental integrated system and with a 7 MW high-power target facility. (author)

  17. Technical issues of accelerator-driven transmutation and a research facility

    In the late 1980s, Japan launched an ambitious long-term program on partitioning and transmutation (P-T), called OMEGA, aiming at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and to recover useful elements from HLW. This paper describes the concept of double stratum nuclear fuel cycle and the concept of accelerator-driven transmutation systems, which are proposed by JAERI as the most efficient strategy and system for the deployment of P-T. Technical issues of accelerator-driven transmutation and a research facility plan under reviewing are summarized. More detail descriptions of technical issues and research facility plan are presented in the successive two companion papers. National and international R and D activities on accelerator-based transmutation are overviewed with emphasis placed on engineering experiment and demonstration test part of programs. (author)

  18. Accelerator driven systems: Energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report

    The report includes 31 individual contributions by experts from six countries and two international organizations in different areas of the accelerator driven transmutation technology intended to be applied for the treatment of highly radioactive waste and power generation. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  19. Accelerator-driven transmutation: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    This paper discusses current technical and political issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution and improvements of the design technologies are identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Transmutation of waste has been historically viewed by nuclear engineers as one of those technologies that is too good to be true and probably too expensive to be feasible. The concept discussed in the present paper uses neutrons ( which result from protons accelerated into spallation targets)to transmute the major very long-lived hazardous materials such as the radioactive isotopes of technetium, iodine, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. Although not a new concept, accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) lead by a team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has made some significant advances which are discussed in the present paper. (authors)

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project `Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety` - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups 31 refs, 23 figs

  1. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project 'Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety' - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups

  2. Research progress for accelerator driven sub-critical Transmutation system (ADS)

    The minimization of the nuclear waste is the key problem for the long term and sustainable nuclear energy development. Accelerator driven system (ADS) is a kind of high efficient nuclear waste transmutation machine (or incinerator), which is the key technique to solve the nuclear water problem. The basic theory of ADS and driven influence of ADS and driven influence of ADS on the advanced accelerator, advanced cooling technique, etc are introduced. Mean while the present research situations of ADS in some countries are compared. At last, the key problem of the ADS development and the relationship between ADS and the development of nuclear energy in China is discussed. (authors)

  3. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Abánades, A.; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Rafael; GARCÍA FAJARDO, LAURA; Escrivá, A.; Pérez-Navarro Gómez, Ángel; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel f...

  4. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Abánades Velasco, Alberto; C. García; García, L.; Escrivá, A.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fu...

  5. Neutronic and burnup studies of accelerator-driven systems dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation

    Tucek, Kamil

    2004-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of plutonium, americium, and curium is inevitable if the radiotoxic inventory of spent nuclear fuel is to be reduced by more than a factor of 100. But, admixing minor actinides into the fuel severely degrades system safety parameters, particularly coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and (effective) delayed neutron fractions. The incineration process is therefore envisioned to be carried out in dedicated, accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS). Howev...

  6. Accelerator driven systems for transmutation and energy production: challenges and dangers

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are an old technological idea: relativistic proton accelerators deliver their beams onto massive heavy element targets, thus producing abundant neutron fluences. Placing this target into sub-critical nuclear fission assemblies is yielding substantial fission reactions, thus additional fission energy (Rubbia called such a system ''energy amplifier''). This technology has recently attracted considerable attention due to advances in the construction of powerful accelerators. It allows the safe and cheap production of nuclear energy simultaneously with the destruction (transmutation) of long lived radioactive waste, in particular plutonium and other minor actinides (neptunium and americium). The principles and the present-state-of-the-art are described, including first experiments to transmute plutonium this way. This technology needs, however, many more years of further ''research and development'' before large scale ADS's can be constructed. It may be even necessary to investigate the question, if all basic physics phenomena of this technology are already sufficiently well understood. (orig.)

  7. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  8. Transmutation of transuranium elements in a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system

    The peaceful usage of nuclear energy by light and boiling water reactors is connected with a buildup of long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Compared to the direct disposal, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered as an effective way to reduce this waste in its quantity by converting it into short-lived radio nuclides. By that the long term radiotoxicity is reduced compared to direct disposal. Subcritical systems, which are powered by spallation processes for free neutron production to maintain the nuclear chain reaction, allow a target-oriented transmutation. As a subcritical system a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) for transmutation of transuranic elements has been modeled in this thesis to evaluate the reduction of the radio toxicity by P and T. The simulation of neutron-physical processes is based on the Monte Carlo computer program MCNPX. The development of an equilibrium core made it possible to study the transmutation and operating behavior for several fuel variations in a magnesium oxide matrix and develop a simplified burnup method. Americium as part of the fuel has a stabilizing effect on the neutron multiplication due to its conversion into plutonium during the operation. Thorium was investigated as an alternative matrix for the fuel in order to replicate the stabilizing effect of americium by the conversion of thorium in 233U. By that a consistent operating cycle in the later P and T-process is ensured. Calculation of the nuclide composition at the end of a P and T-process leads to an expansion of the mathematical description of the mass reduction (transmutation efficiency) by the material located in the reactor. The achieved transmutation efficiency with the investigated ADS is 98.8 %. The transmutation time was examined with different operating strategies regarding the number, size and thermal power of use of transmutation facilities to determine the effort for the P and T-process depending on efficiency. It turns out

  9. Accelerator-driven transmutation of plutonium and nuclear waste

    The ultimate disposition of spent reactor fuel and processed high-level nuclear waste (HLW) has been a subject of much concern and little progress since the dawn of the nuclear era. In the United States today, the spent fuel from more than 110 commercial light water reactors continues to be stored onsite while highly toxic liquid HLW continues to be stored in tanks at several U.S. Department of Energy sites. The management policy that has been followed in the United States for the past 12 yr is defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and its subsequent amendment of 1987. The NWPA requires the disposal of spent fuel assemblies in geologic waste repositories, the first of which will presumably be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The pace of the process for implementing the Yucca Mountain repository discussed in a recent General Accounting Office (GAO) assessment, remains frustratingly slow. By GAO estimation, an operational permanent waste repository at Yucca Mountain could be delayed beyond the 2020 time frame. The approach to formulating an acceptable HLW disposal strategy has always involved serious consideration of nonproliferation issues. Most recently, the nuclear weapon build-down following the Cold War has stimulated the need for the United States and Russia to dispose of surplus plutonium. Consideration of this has motivated (a) a recognition that all plutonium is a proliferation hazard and (b) a renewed debate on the best approach to dispose of plutonium in general. From an international perspective, there is little agreement on the best strategy for the ultimate disposition of HLW and plutonium. This paper discusses the concept of transmutation of plutonium

  10. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  11. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current

  12. Accelerator driven systems (ADS): A principal neutronics and transmutation potential

    An accelerator-based system using a beam of high energy protons to produce supplementary neutrons as a result of spallation processes in a target is investigated. The spallation neutrons are successively used to feed a subcritical blanket where they create a neutron surplus available for incineration of those long-lived toxic nuclei which require neutrons (long-lived fission products and minor actinides), and enhance the deterministic safety features for reactivity-type of accidents

  13. Simulation study of an accelerator driven as a transmutation and energy generation system

    In twenty first century world is facing two issues of future concern, generation of clean energy and the protection of the environment. Oil price is soaring to a level of jeopardizing world economy and on the other hand burning fossil fuel is reaching to a point of endangering life of all creatures. The sole solution to compete the energy shortage is exploiting nuclear energy and other clean energy sources. The main concern of nuclear energy is long term radioactive waste. In principle, any nuclear reactor is able to burn and transmute minor actinides, but reactors with fast neutron spectrum must be preferred, as they allow a positive neutron gain throughout the burning process. A core dedicated to the transmutation of the minor actinides should be designed in order to minimize its self-production of actinides. A possible solution to these problems is represented by a subcritical system driven by an accelerator, which is able to safely bum and/or transmute actinides and long lived fission products, as it does not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have only limited importance during transient response. In this study, an accelerator driven system based on Japanese design was simulated using MCNPX code to calculate neutron spectrum flux level, core sub-criticality and peaking factor

  14. Accelerator-driven transmutation technology: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    This paper discusses current technical and non-technical issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution of the current U.S. conceptual design is identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Although a number of key challenges are identified in this paper, the benefits of the research and development effort and the potential paradigm shift in attitude toward resource stewardship could greatly enhance public confidence in nuclear waste management that will have rapid positive repercussions on nuclear technology research and commercial applications. (author)

  15. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  16. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Westlen, D. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2002-03-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  17. Assessment of the transmutation capability an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic alloy

    1. PURPOSE The reduction of long-lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) is a key point for the public acceptability and economy of nuclear energy. In principle, any nuclear fast reactor is able to burn and transmute MA, but the amount of MA content has to be limited a few percent, having unfavourable consequences on the coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and delayed neutron fraction, and therefore on the dynamic behaviour and control. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are instead able to safely burn and/or transmute a large quantity of actinides and LLFP, as they do not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have very little importance during accidents. Such systems are very innovative being based on the coupling of an accelerator with a subcritical system by means of a target system, where the neutronic source needed to maintain the neutron reaction chain is produced by spallation reactions. To this end the PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an experimental Accelerator Driven System) project was funded by the European Community in the 5th Framework Program in order both to demonstrate the feasibility of the coupling between an accelerator and a sub-critical core loaded with standard MOX fuel and to investigate the transmutation capability in order to achieve values suitable for an Industrial Scale Transmuter. This paper summarizes and compares the results of neutronic calculations aimed at evaluating the transmutation capability of cores cooled by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic alloy and loaded with assemblies based on (Pu, Am, Cm) oxide dispersed in a molybdenum metal (CERMET) or magnesia (CERCER) matrices. It also describes the constraints considered in the design of such cores and describes the thermo-mechanical behaviour of these innovative fuels along the cycle. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK: The U-free composite fuels (CERMET and CERCER) were selected for this study, being considered at European level

  18. Accelerator-driven transmutation projects in Sweden in a European perspective

    Accelerator driven transmutation projects in Sweden are dealt with within the country's energy policy and energy plans as well as in relation to European perspectives. ADS activities at Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and Sweden are concerned with: Conceptual design nitride fueled ADS) of Sing-Sing core (heavily 'poisoned'; Development of nitride fuel (in a EU-frame); transients of ADS; Managing nuclear data and stimulating development dedicated data libraries; Development of Monte-Carlo burnup; Design of RVACS for ADS. Besides the mentioned, this paper describes projects in fourth Framework Programme of European Union, fifth Framework Programme of EU and Experiments related to ADS

  19. Preliminary neutronics design analysis on accelerator driven subcritical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation

    By taking minor actinides (MA) transmutation performance as evaluation index, preliminary neutronics design analyses were performed on ADS-NWT which is a lead-alloy cooled accelerator driven subcritical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation. In the specific design, liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and transuranic metallic dispersion fuel were used as coolant and a fuel of ADS-NWT, respectively. The neutronics calculations and analyses were performed by using CAD-based multi-functional 4D neutronics and radiation simulation system named VisualBUS and the nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). The preliminary results showed that based on specific deign of MA/Pu volume ratio of 7 : 3, the transmutation rate of MA was approximately 650 kg/a, the high thermal reactor power output was ∼1000 MW when energy self-sustaining was satisfied and relatively deep subcriticality and negative reactivity coefficients made sure of good inherent safety of ADS-NWT. (authors)

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  1. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Tucek, Kamil [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics] [and others

    2004-12-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  2. Development of accelerator driven transmutation system concept and related R and D activities at JAERI

    JAERI has carried out R and D on transmutation of long-lived nuclides with a special emphasis placed on accelerator-driven systems (ADS) under the Japanese OMEGA Program. The ADS is designed to be introduced as a dedicated transmutation system into the second stratum of a double-strata nuclear fuel cycle concept. Early ADS concepts employed sodium coolant and solid tungsten target. A chloride molten-salt system and a molten-alloy system were investigated as advanced options to pursue the possibility of taking full advantages of liquid fuel systems. The current reference ADS design employs eutectic lead-bismuth as spallation target material and coolant. The fuel for the subcritical core is minor-actinide mononitride. The system consists of a 1.5-GeV, 14-mA proton accelerator and an 800-MWt subcritical core with an effective neutron multiplication factor of 0.95. The design incorporates salient features that the coolant inventory is large due to the tank-type configuration, the temperature rise through the core is relatively low, and the power conversion is operated on a saturated steam turbine cycle. These features help mitigate the problems of plant transient during beam interruptions. ADS related R and D is underway in various fields such as scenario study, lead-bismuth technology development, nitride fuel and fuel cycle technology development, nuclear data development, and high-intensity accelerator development. Construction of ADS experimental facilities is planned under the JAERI-KEK Joint Project of a high-power proton accelerator. (author)

  3. Monte Carlo studies in accelerator-driven systems for transmutation of high-level nuclear waste

    A spallation neutron source was modeled using a high energy proton accelerator. The aim of the core design is to optimise the core parameters for maximizing the minor actinides and fission products transmutation rates, which is created from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the production of electricity, while maintaining the structural material damage and decay heat as low as possible. The transmutation system is composed of a natural lead target, beam window, subcritical core, reflector, and structural material. The neutrons are produced by the spallation reaction of protons from a high intensity linear accelerator in the spallation target, and the fission reaction in the core. It is used a hexagonal lattice for the waste and fuel assemblies. The system is driven by a 1 GeV proton beam incident on a natural lead cylindrical target, 20 cm radius, 70 cm height , and entering the target through a 5.3 cm radius hole. The protons were uniformly distributed across the beam of radius 2 cm. The core is cylindrical assembly, 2.3 m radius, 4.6 m high. The wall thickness of the main vessel is 2 cm. The main vessel surrounded by a reflector made of graphite, 40 cm thick. The axes of proton beam and target are concentric with the main vessel axis. The structural walls and beam window are made of the same material, stainless steel, HT9. All dimensions of systems are results of target and core optimization that keeps most of the spallation neutrons within the lead target and transmutes the largest fraction of the long-lived waste. We investigated the following neutronics parameters with presence and absence of fissile materials: o spallation neutron and other particles such as proton, pions and muons yields (per one incident proton) from the spallation target, - spatial and energy distribution of the spallation neutrons, and protons in target, - heat deposition distribution in the spallation target, - heat deposition in beam window, core, reflector and structural

  4. The Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept development of the ATW target/blanket system

    The studies carried out in the frame of the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) program developed at Los Alamos in order to solve the nuclear waste problem and to build a new generation of safer and non-proliferant nuclear power plants, are presented

  5. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2004-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL.

  6. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    The results of the research activities on System and Safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation (ADS) at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics are described in this report followed by the Appendices of the relevant scientific papers published in 2005. PhD and Licentiate dissertations of Marcus Ericsson, Per Seltborg, Christina Lagerstedt and Daniel Westlen (see Appendices) reflect the research mainstream of 2005. Year 2005 was also very rich in international activities with ADS in focus. Summary of conferences, seminars and lecturing activities is given in Chapter 9 Research activities of 2005 have been focused on several areas: system and safety studies of ADS; subcritical experiments; ADS source efficiency studies; nuclear fuel cycle analysis; potential of reactor based transmutation; ADS fuel development; simulation of radiation damage; and development of codes and methods. Large part of the research activities has been well integrated with the European projects of the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of the European Commission in which KTH is actively participating. In particular European projects: RED-IMPACT, CONFIRM, FUTURE, EUROTRANS and NURESIM

  7. Los Alamos transmutation research: heavy liquid metal coolant technology and accelerator-driven materials test station

    The US Department of Energy is developing technologies needed to reduce the quantity of high-level nuclear waste bound for deep geologic disposal. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of transmutation research in support of this mission. This report summarises two research programmes in the portfolio development of lead-alloy coolant technology and materials, and the Materials Test Station (MTS) using an accelerator-driven spallation target. We have been developing lead and lead-bismuth coolant technology and materials for advanced transmutation and nuclear energy systems since the mid-1990. Our programme mainly consists of operating a medium-scale lead-bismuth eutectic materials and thermal-hydraulic test loop (DELTA), conducting tests and experiments, developing associated coolant chemistry and liquid metal flow measurement and control sensors, instrumentation and systems, building and validating system corrosion models. We are also building a high-temperature natural convection lead test loop using an advanced material (Al-rich oxide dispersion strengthened steel). Key activities and an assessment of the technological readiness level will be given. (authors)

  8. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation Annual Report 2005

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Arzhanov, Vasily; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Westlen, Daniel; Lagerstedt, Christina; Isaksson, Patrick; Persson, Carl-Magnus; Aalander, Alexandra [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2006-11-15

    The results of the research activities on System and Safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation (ADS) at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics are described in this report followed by the Appendices of the relevant scientific papers published in 2005. PhD and Licentiate dissertations of Marcus Ericsson, Per Seltborg, Christina Lagerstedt and Daniel Westlen (see Appendices) reflect the research mainstream of 2005. Year 2005 was also very rich in international activities with ADS in focus. Summary of conferences, seminars and lecturing activities is given in Chapter 9 Research activities of 2005 have been focused on several areas: system and safety studies of ADS; subcritical experiments; ADS source efficiency studies; nuclear fuel cycle analysis; potential of reactor based transmutation; ADS fuel development; simulation of radiation damage; and development of codes and methods. Large part of the research activities has been well integrated with the European projects of the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of the European Commission in which KTH is actively participating. In particular European projects: RED-IMPACT, CONFIRM, FUTURE, EUROTRANS and NURESIM.

  9. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL

  10. Transmutation of neptunium, americium, technetium, and iodine in fast spectrum cores driven by accelerated protons

    A neutronic analysis is presented of three incinerator subcritical lattices, driven by accelerated protons and designed to transmute the minor actinides, the 99Tc and the 129I, of light water reactor (LWR) waste. A calculational methodology must first be established to enable a neutronic burnup analysis of fission cores driven by high-energy protons. The methodology is based on the following codes: HERMES, the Forschungszentrum Juelich adaptation of HETC, for high-energy interactions; MCNP3, for neutron interactions below 20 MeV of neutron energy; and KORIGEN, the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe adaptation of ORIGEN, for burnup analysis. A result of applying the methodology is that the minor actinides, the 99Tc, and the 129I, of LWR waste may be transmuted in subcritical cores, driven by the spallation neutrons emanating from the bombardment of the cores with 1600-MeV protons. Three cores types are required. Core type 1 is fueled by the minor actinides and is a modification of the Brookhaven National Laboratory PHOENIX. With a proton current of 20 mA, the core incinerates the minor actinide waste of 14 LWRs. Core type 2 contains the 99Tc, 129I, and plutonium waste of 19 LWRs. With a proton beam of 130 mA, the core incinerates the technetium and 60% of the iodine. With a faction of the plutonium coming out of this core, the remaining 40% of 129I is incinerated in core type 3. All three cores run to 100,000 MWd/tonne or slightly higher; on the average, no core is a net consumer of grid electricity; all are cooled by sodium but remain subcritical with the loss of coolant

  11. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  12. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program

  13. Proceedings of the international symposium on acceleration-driven transmutation systems and Asia ADS network initiative

    An International Symposium on 'Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative' was held on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Gakushi-Kaikan, Tokyo, hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. The objectives of this symposium are to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for research and development (R and D) of ADS in the world and to enhance the initiation of an international collaborative network for ADS in Asia. This report records the papers and the materials of 15 presentations in the symposium. On the first day of the symposium, current activities for R and D of ADS were presented from United States, Europe, Japan, Korea, and China. On the second day, R and D activities in the fields of accelerator and nuclear physics were presented. After these presentations, a panel discussion was organized with regard to the prospective international collaboration and multidisciplinary synergy effect, which are essential to manage various technological issues encountered in R and D stage of ADS. Through the discussion, common understanding was promoted concerning the importance of establishing international network. It was agreed to establish the international network for scientific information exchange among Asian countries including Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam in view of the future international collaboration in R and D of ADS. (author)

  14. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA

  15. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  16. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MWe. 19 refs., 20 figs

  17. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology Project

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the US and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives

  18. European research programme for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste in an accelerator-driven system: Eurotrans

    The EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High-level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator-driven System) Integrated Project within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS-based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating critical masses of resources (23 M euros contribution, 43 M euros total eligible costs) and activities of 29 partners from 14 countries, within industry (10 partners), national research centres (18 partners) and 17 universities in Europe. The universities are collectively represented by one partner, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN). EUROTRANS is the logical continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It takes credit from the Road-map on ADS of the Technical Working Group. EUROTRANS strengthens and consolidates the European research and development activities with regard to transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industry assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005

  19. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies for resolution of long-term nuclear waste concerns

    The paper provides a rationale for resolution of the long-term waste disposition issue based on complete destruction of fissile material and all higher actinides. It begins with a brief history of geologic storage leading to the present impasse in the US. The proliferation aspects of commercial plutonium are presented in a new light as a further driver for complete destruction. The special problems in Russia and the US of the disposition of the highly enriched spent naval reactor fuel and spent research reactor fuel are also presented. The scale of the system required for complete destruction is also examined and it is shown that a practical system for complete destruction of commercial and defense fissile material must be widely dispersed rather than concentrated at a single site. Central tenants of the US National Academy of Sciences recommendations on waste disposition are examined critically and several technologies considered for waste destruction are described briefly and compared Recommendations for waste disposition based on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology suitable for both the US and Russia are presented

  20. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1998/99

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started according to the plan 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Institute. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; and constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. In this document, we give a status report after the first year (1998-07-01--1999-06-30) of the project

  1. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1998/99

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research. The Svedberg Lab.

    1999-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started according to the plan 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Institute. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; and constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. In this document, we give a status report after the first year (1998-07-01--1999-06-30) of the project.

  2. Nuclear energy generation and waste transmutation using an accelerator-driven intense thermal neutron source

    We describe a new approach for commercial nuclear energy production without a long-term high-level waste stream and for transmutation of both fission product and higher actinide commercial nuclear waste using a thermal flux of accelerator-produced neutrons in the 1016 n/cm2-s range. Continuous neutron fluxes at this intensity, which is approximately 100 times larger than is typically available in a large scale thermal reactor, appear practical owing to recent advances in proton linear accelerator technology and to the spallation target-moderator design presented here. This large flux of thermal neutrons makes possible a waste inventory in the transmutation system which is smaller by about a factor of 100 than competing concepts. The accelerator allows the system to operate well below criticality so that the possibility for a criticality accident is estimated. No control rods are required. The successful implementation of this new method for energy generation and waste transmutation would eliminate the need for nuclear waste storage on a geologic time scale. The production of nuclear energy from 232Th or 238U is used to illustrate the general principles of commercial nuclear energy production without long-term high-level waste. There is sufficient thorium to meet the world's energy needs for many millenia. 27 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  3. AIP conference on accelerator driven transmutation technologies and applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 25-29, 1994

    This conference was the first to bring together US and foreign researchers to define Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts in several important national and international application areas - nuclear waste transmutation, minimizing of world plutonium inventories, and long-term energy production. The conference covered a number of diverse technological areas - accelerators, target/blankets, separations, materials - that make up ADTT systems. The meeting provided one of the first opportunities for specialists in these technologies to meet together and learn about system requirements, components, and interface issues. It was also an opportunity to formulate plans for future developments in ADTT. During the conference over one hundred technical presentations were made describing ADTT system and technology concepts as well as the impact of ADTT on issues related to global plutonium management and the high-level nuclear waste problem areas. Separate abstracts have been entered into the database for articles from this report

  4. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001/2002

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research and The Svedberg Laboratory

    2002-07-01

    The present project started 1998-07-01. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish in influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research (INF)at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. Transmutation techniques in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) involve high-energy neutrons, created in the proton-induced spallation of a heavy target nucleus. The existing nuclear data libraries developed for reactors of today go up to about 20 MeV,which covers all available energies for that application; but with a spallator coupled to a core, neutrons with energies up to 1 - 2 GeV will be present. Although a large majority of the neutrons will be below 20 MeV, the relatively small fraction at higher energies still has to be characterized. Above {approx} 200 MeV, direct reaction models work reasonably well, while at lower energies nuclear distortion plays a non-trivial role. This makes the 20 - 200 MeV region the most important for new experimental cross section data. Very little high-quality neutron-induced data exist in this energy domain.Only the total cross section and the np scattering cross section have been investigated extensively. Besides this, there are data on neutron elastic scattering

  5. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001/2002

    The present project started 1998-07-01. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish in influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research (INF)at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. Transmutation techniques in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) involve high-energy neutrons, created in the proton-induced spallation of a heavy target nucleus. The existing nuclear data libraries developed for reactors of today go up to about 20 MeV,which covers all available energies for that application; but with a spallator coupled to a core, neutrons with energies up to 1 - 2 GeV will be present. Although a large majority of the neutrons will be below 20 MeV, the relatively small fraction at higher energies still has to be characterized. Above ∼ 200 MeV, direct reaction models work reasonably well, while at lower energies nuclear distortion plays a non-trivial role. This makes the 20 - 200 MeV region the most important for new experimental cross section data. Very little high-quality neutron-induced data exist in this energy domain.Only the total cross section and the np scattering cross section have been investigated extensively. Besides this, there are data on neutron elastic scattering from UC Davis at

  6. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Jollkonen, Mikael; Westlen, D. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2003-06-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been largely determined by the program of the European projects of the the 5th Framework Programme. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimized for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel - so called Sing-Sing Core; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel - both designs investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; c) emergency heat removal from ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE, YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; e) material studies for ADS, in particular theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (or proton) fluxes; f) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, special efforts were put in the frame of the European Project PDS-XADS to perform sensitivity studies of the different nuclear data libraries; g) studies of transmutation potential of critical reactors in particular High Temp Gas Cooled Reactor. Most important finding and conclusions from our studies: A strong positive void coefficient was found for lead/bismuth cooled cores. This considerable void effect is attributed to a high fraction of americium (60%) in the fuel. It was found that void reactivity insertion rates increases with P/D; in response to the beam overpower accident the Pb/Bi-cooled core featured the twice longer grace time compared to the sodium-cooled core; an important safety issue is the high void worth that could

  7. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been largely determined by the program of the European projects of the the 5th Framework Programme. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimized for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel - so called Sing-Sing Core; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel - both designs investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; c) emergency heat removal from ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE, YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; e) material studies for ADS, in particular theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (or proton) fluxes; f) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, special efforts were put in the frame of the European Project PDS-XADS to perform sensitivity studies of the different nuclear data libraries; g) studies of transmutation potential of critical reactors in particular High Temp Gas Cooled Reactor. Most important finding and conclusions from our studies: A strong positive void coefficient was found for lead/bismuth cooled cores. This considerable void effect is attributed to a high fraction of americium (60%) in the fuel. It was found that void reactivity insertion rates increases with P/D; in response to the beam overpower accident the Pb/Bi-cooled core featured the twice longer grace time compared to the sodium-cooled core; an important safety issue is the high void worth that could

  8. Towards standardized calculation tools for the Accelerator-Driven Systems and their application to various scenarios for nuclear waste transmutation

    This thesis discusses the question of partitioning and transmutation of actinides and some long-lived fission products as a way of reducing the mass and radio-toxicity of wastes from nuclear power facilities. Numerical benchmarking and computational exercises carried out in related projects are discussed and the quantitative assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of various transmutation strategies are discussed, as is the role of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) and Advanced Fast Reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. According to the author, the study allows three main options in nuclear waste management - open cycle, plutonium recycling and the recycling of all actinides - to be compared. The last part of the dissertation is dedicated to two phase-out schemes employing either ASDs or critical reactors

  9. Accelerator transmutation of 129I

    Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered

  10. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    Shetty, Nikhil Vittal

    2013-01-31

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  11. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  12. The accelerator driven transmutation technology - A study on the linac for proton accelerator

    Han, Bum Soo; Joh, Ki Hun; Kim, Sung Myun; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Jong Pil; Kang, Bo Sun [Samsung Heavy Industries, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the manufacturing technology of proton accelerators, and to find the adequate manufacturing technique for construction of such proton accelerators. Review of manufacturing technology for RFQ has been carried out - RFQ machine of other country has been reviewed on the aspects of manufacturing, - Machining of engineering mock-up has been performed based on the designed data, - Brazing technology for RFQ, and brazing test and analysis of Copper specimen. Adequate brazing conditions for RFQ - 1st brazing (vane to section, 950 deg C), Filler metal composition: Cu-20Sn, Brazing conditions: peak temp. 950 deg C (holding time 20min, rising rate 7 deg C/min), Atmosphere: H{sub 2}. - 2nd brazing (section to section, 850 deg C or less), Filler metal: Cu-Sn4%-P7.5%-Ag6%, Brazing conditions: peak temp. 750 deg C (holding time 20min, rising rate 7 deg C/min), Atmosphere: H{sub 2}. 8 refs., (author). 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Waste Transmutation in Subcritical Reactors Driven by Target-Distributed Accelerators

    Blanovsky, A

    2004-01-01

    A radioactive waste transmutation system based extensively on existing nuclear power technology is presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform long-lived waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors. The design is based on a small pressurized water reactor, fission electric cell (FEC), target-distributed accelerator (TDA) and power monitoring system with in-core gamma-ray detectors, now under development in several countries. The TDA, in which an FEC electric field compensates for lost beam energy in the target, offers a new approach to obtain large neutron fluxes. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of TDA design aspects including the wave model of observed relativistic phenomena, in-core microwave power source, the FEC with a multistage collector (anode) and layered cathode.

  14. Scientific-technical problems on creation of accelerator driven systems for transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste and simultaneously for production of energy (Russian experience)

    The scientific base of nuclear transmutation for long-lived radioactive waste of atomic industry with application of Accelerator Driven system is considered in current review. The problems on creation of facilities of such kind were analysed. The results of conceptual investigations for different versions of Accelerator Driven system carried out in Russian nuclear centres are presented. The main directions of research and development on grounding of installation's design and creation of demonstration facility are considered

  15. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  16. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and transmutation of nuclear waste: Options and trends

    The scope of the lecture is to present: 1) the rationale for transmutation, 2) the principle of ADS (spallation source, sub-critical blanket), 3) an overview of the main concepts being investigated and the ongoing R and D activities in this area, 4) development trends for this technology. (author)

  17. The impact of the core configuration on safety and transmutation behavior in an accelerator driven system; Auswirkung der Brennstoffwahl auf das Transmutationsverhalten in einem beschleunigergetriebenen System

    Biss, K.; Nabbi, R.; Thomauske, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearen Brennstoffkreislauf (INBK)

    2012-11-01

    For the reduction of the long-term hazards of high-level wastes transmutation is one of the candidate techniques. For an effective conversion of transuranic elements, esp. minor actinides, the use of accelerator driven systems (ADS) is the favored concept. The subcritical system AGATE (advanced gas-cooled accelerator driven transmutation experiment)is a 100 MW(th) facility using a proton beam to produce the required spallation neutrons. The fuel zone includes 120 uniform fuel elements with hexagonal structure (each one with 91 fuel rods) in an annular configuration around the spallation target. Neutron flux and energy spectra are determined and averaged for each zone allowing a fast calculation of fuel element variants and geometry variations. For modeling the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.7 is used. The transmutation rate for pure PuMA fuel show high values for americium, but the isotope analysis shows that the largest fraction is transmuted to plutonium. The use of thorium as matrix material reduces the transmutation rate of transuranic elements but allows a long-term burnup cycle without required fuel element replacement.

  18. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  19. Performances on actinide transmutation based accelerator-driven systems (ADS) at CIEMAT

    The FACET group at CIEMAT is studying the properties and potentialities of several liquid metal-cooled ADS designs for actinide and fission product transmutation. The main characteristics of these systems are the use of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic as primary coolant and moderator and fuels made by transuranics. The program has two main research lines. The first one is dedicated to the development of concepts, designs, operation models and computer simulation tools characteristics of this kind of systems. The second line includes the participation and the data analysis of the most advanced experiments in the field and international benchmarks. (authors)

  20. Reduction of burden for waste disposal for accelerator-driven transmutation technology. Preparing for unforeseeable future by nuclear fuel cycle for back-end

    Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is an innovative nuclear system to transmute minor actinides. By coupling transmutation technology by ADS and partitioning technology, the burden for nuclear waste disposal is expected to be largely reduced. Under the present status where the future of nuclear fuel cycle is unforeseeable, it is desirable to proceed with the research and development of ADS which can flexibly harmonize well with various options in the future. The research and development of ADS should be promoted by international and interdisciplinary collaboration. In this context, Transmutation Experimental Facility under the J-PARC phase-2 project is expected to play an important role to lead worldwide activities to cope with radioactive wastes. (author)

  1. Design Study of Full Scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS, for Transmuting High Level Waste of MA/Pu

    Marsodi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ADS system used in this study consisting of a high intensity proton linear accelerator, a spallation target, and a sub-critical reactor core. The Pb-Bi spallation target is bombarded by high intensity protons coming from the accelerator. The fast neutrons generated from the spallation reaction were used to drive the sub-critical reactor core. In this ADS system, the neutron source is in the center of reactor core region, so that the neutron distribution was concentrated in the center of core region. In this case, the B/T of MA/Pu could be performed effectively in the center of core region. The neutron energy in the outer region of reactor core was decreased due to the moderation of fuel and coolant materials. Such condition gives a chance to perform Burning and/or Transmutation of LLFPs.The basic parameters of this system are shown in the form of neutronic design, neutron spectrum and B/T rate, including other aspects related to the safety operation system. Furthermore, the analysis of the ADS system was accomplished using ATRAS computer code of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI[1]. Due to the complexity of the reactor calculation codes, the author has carried out only those calculations needed for analyzing the neutronics system and some parameters related to the safety system. Design study of the transmutation system was a full-scale power level system of 657.53 MWt sub-critical reactor for an accelerator-driven transmutation system. The liquid Pb-Bi was used together as the spallation target materials and coolant of the system, because of some advantages of Pb-Bi in the system concerning the comparison with the sodium coolant. Moreover, they have a possibility to achieve a hard neutron energy spectrum, avoid a positive void reactivity coefficient, allow much lower system operating temperatures, and are favorable for safety in the event of coolant leakage. The multiplication factor of sub-critical core design was adjusted

  2. JAERI accelerator driven system project

    In Japan a national program called OMEGA was started in 1988 for research and development of new technologies for partitioning and transmutation of nuclear waste. Under this program JAERI is carrying out research and development for proton accelerator-driven transmutation, together with transmutation with fast burner reactor and advanced partitioning technology. Two types of accelerator driven transmutation systems are proposed: a solid system and a molten-salt system. An outline of the OMEGA program and the partitioning and transmutation studies at JAERI are presented in this report

  3. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well

  4. Assessment of americium and curium transmutation in magnesia based targets in different spectral zones of an experimental accelerator driven system

    Haeck, W.; Malambu, E.; Sobolev, V. P.; Aït Abderrahim, H.

    2006-06-01

    The potential to incinerate minor actinides (MA) in a sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a subject of study in several countries where nuclear power plants are present. The performance of the MYRRHA experimental ADS, as to the transmutation of Am and Cm in the inert matrix fuel (IMF) samples consisting of 40 vol.% (Cm0.1Am0.5Pu0.4)O1.88 fuel and 60 vol.% MgO matrix with a density of 6.077 g cm-3 in three various spectrum regions, were analysed at the belgian nuclear research centre SCK · CEN. The irradiation period of 810 effective full power days (EFPD) followed by a storage period of 2 years was considered. The ALEPH code system currently under development at SCK · CEN was used to carry out this study. The total amount of MA is shown to decrease in all three considered cases. For Am, the decrease is the largest in the reflector (89% decrease) but at the cost of a net Cm production (92% increase). In the two other positions (inside the core region), 20-30% of Am has disappeared but with a lower production of Cm (between 7% and 11%). In the reflector, a significant build-up of long-lived 245Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm and 248Cm was also observed while the production of these isotopes is 10-1000 times smaller in the core. The reduction of the Pu content is also the highest in the reflector position (41%). In the other positions the incinerated amount of Pu is much smaller: 1-5%.

  5. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation technology project

    The paper describes a new accelerator-based nuclear technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory which offers total destruction of the weapons Plutonium inventory, a solution to the commercial nuclear waste problem which greatly reduces or eliminates the requirement for geologic waste storage, and a system which generates potentially unlimited energy from Thorium fuel while destroying its own waste and operating in a new regime of nuclear safety

  6. System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation Driven by Target-Distributed Accelerators

    Blanovsky, A

    2004-01-01

    A design concept and characteristics for an epithermal breeder controlled by variable feedback and external neutron source intensity are presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could improve safety and perform radioactive waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors (HFSR). To increase neutron source intensity the HFSR is divided into two zones: a booster and a blanket operating with solid and liquid fuels. Use of a liquid actinide fuel permits transport of the delayed-neutron emitters from the blanket to the booster where they can provide additional neutrons or all the necessary excitation. With blanket and booster multiplication factors of k=0.95 and 0.98, respectively, an external photoneutron source rate of at least 10.sup.15 n/s (electron beam power 2.5MW) is needed to control the HFSR that produces 300MWt. An inexpensive method of obtaining large neutron fluxes is target-distributed accelerators (TDA), in which a fission electrical cell (FEC) compensates for lost beam energy...

  7. Selection of flowing liquid lead target structural materials for accelerator driven transmutation applications

    The beam entry window and container for a liquid lead spallation target will be exposed to high fluxes of protons and neutrons that are both higher in magnitude and energy than have been experienced in proton accelerators and fission reactors, as well as in a corrosive environment. The structural material of the target should have a good compatibility with liquid lead, a sufficient mechanical strength at elevated temperatures, a good performance under an intense irradiation environment, and a low neutron absorption cross section; these factors have been used to rank the applicability of a wide range of materials for structural containment Nb-1Zr has been selected for use as the structural container for the LANL ABC/ATW molten lead target. Corrosion and mass transfer behavior for various candidate structural materials in liquid lead are reviewed, together with the beneficial effects of inhibitors and various coatings to protect substrate against liquid lead corrosion. Mechanical properties of some candidate materials at elevated temperatures and the property changes resulting from 800 MeV proton irradiation are also reviewed

  8. Transmutation calculations for the accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program

    The disposal of radioactive waste by the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is being considered; now using neutrons produced with an intense beam of 1.6-GeV protons on a Pb-Bi target. Study teams have been active in the areas of accelerator design, beam transport, radiation transport, transmutation, fluid flow and heat transfer, process chemistry and system analyses. Work is of a preliminary and developmental nature. Here we describe these preliminary efforts in transmutation calculations; the tools developed, status of basic nuclear data, and some early results. These calculations require the description of the intensity and spectrum of neutrons produced by the beam, the distribution of nuclides produced in the medium-energy reactions, the transport of particles produced by the beam, the transmutation of the target materials and transmutation products, and the decay properties of the inventory of radionuclides produced

  9. Review of national accelerator driven system programmes for partitioning and transmutation. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    One of the current important issues of nuclear power is the long lived radioactive waste toxicity problem. The sharpness of this problem could be considerably reduced if, during energy production, there was the possibility to incinerate at least the most toxic radioactive isotopes (long lived fission products and minor actinides). The combination of external intensive neutron sources with facilities containing nuclear fuel, so-called hybrid systems, are under investigation in several countries. The surplus of neutrons in such systems may be used to convert most of the long lived radioactive nuclides into isotopes having a shorter lifetime. Currently, an increasing number of groups are entering this field of research. There is clearly a need for co-originated their efforts, and also for the exchange of information from nationally or internationally co-ordinated activities. Consideration of the advantages of hybrid systems, and the wide field of interdisciplinary areas of research involved, show the need for an international co-operation in this novel R and D area. The International Atomic Energy Agency has maintained an active interest in advanced nuclear technology related to accelerator driven systems (ADS), and related activities have been carried out within the framework of its programme on emerging nuclear energy systems. After thorough analyses of the outcomes of several international forums and recommendations of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation (Madrid, Spain, 1997), the IAEA conducted an Advisory Group Meeting on Review of National Accelerator Driven System Programmes in Taejon, Republic of Korea, from 1 to 4 November 1999. The scope of the meeting included review of the current R and D programmes in the Member States and the assessment of the progress in the development of hybrid concepts. The programme of the AGM included the following topics

  10. Redesign of a pilot international online course on accelerator driven systems for nuclear transmutation to implement a massive open online course

    Alonso-Ramos, M.; Fernandez-Luna, A. J.; Gonzalez-Romero, E. M.; Sanchez-Elvira, A.; Castro, M.; Ogando, F.; Sanz, J.; Martin, S.

    2014-07-01

    In April 2013, a full-distance international pilot course on ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) for advanced nuclear waste transmutation was taught by UNED-CIEMAT within FP7 ENEN-III project. The experience ran with 10 trainees from the project, using UNED virtual learning platform a LF. Video classes, web-conferences and recorded simulations of case studies were the main learning materials. Asynchronous and synchronous communication tools were used for tutoring purposes, and a final examination for online submission and a final survey were included. (Author)

  11. Redesign of a pilot international online course on accelerator driven systems for nuclear transmutation to implement a massive open online course

    In April 2013, a full-distance international pilot course on ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) for advanced nuclear waste transmutation was taught by UNED-CIEMAT within FP7 ENEN-III project. The experience ran with 10 trainees from the project, using UNED virtual learning platform a LF. Video classes, web-conferences and recorded simulations of case studies were the main learning materials. Asynchronous and synchronous communication tools were used for tutoring purposes, and a final examination for online submission and a final survey were included. (Author)

  12. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required

  13. Comparative study of accelerator driven system (ADS) of different transmutation scenarios for actinides in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    The full text follows. In recent years transmutation has raised as a complementary option to solve the problem of the long-lived radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. The main advantages expected from transmutation are the reduction in volume of the high level waste and a significant decrease in the long-term radiotoxicity inventory, with a probable impact in the final costs and potential risks of the geological repository. This paper will describe the evaluation of different systems proposed for actinide transmutation, their integration in the waste management process, their viability, performances and limitations. Particular attention is taking of comparing transmutation scenarios where the actinides are transmuted inside fertile (U, Th) or inert matrix. This study has been supported by ENRESA inside the CIEMAT-ENRESA collaboration for the study of long-lived isotope transmutation. (authors)

  14. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  16. Study of the fuel behavior, safety characteristics and transmutation performance of a gas cooled accelerator driven system (ADS)

    The neutronic behavior of an ADS system based on gas cooling is examined in this work by using the simulation tools MCNPX and ORIGEN. The main character of the MCNPX code is the use of the Monte-Carlo method allowing a high dimensional simulation of the physical processes. The whole model of the core is represented in 3 dimensional zones including the target structure, which provides the initial spallation neutrons for the chain reaction in the fuel zone. At the beginning, MOX fuel with 19.5 wt. Pu/(Pu+U) is loaded in order to investigate the technical feasibility of a test facility. The fuel assemblies are replaced step by step with Plutonium and minor actinides (PuMa) uranium free fuel according to a loading and shuffling pattern. The designed test facility consists of 120 fuel assemblies each 91 fuel rods which are arranged around the spallation target. For a thermal power of 100 MW the burn-up and transmutation rate is studied. The first results for the MOX and partially PuMa fuel loaded core are presented in this paper. For the PuMa fuel two compositions are investigated. Both fuel types chosen for the analysis demonstrate the capability of the incineration of americium. The simulations show that the initial composition has significant influence on the transmutation rate. The deployment of MOX type fuel in the ADS core causes a considerable consumption of Pu but also a significant generation of americium

  17. IAEA activities on accelerator-driven systems

    A brief account is given of the following IAEA programmes and events: Special Scientific Programme on 'Use of High Energy Accelerators for Transmutation of Actinides and Power Production'; Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies; Accelerator-driven systems: energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste (status report); Coordinated Research Programme on the Use of Thorium-based Fuel Cycle in Accelerator Driven Systems to Incinerate Plutonium and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicities; Technical Committee Meeting on 'Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation'; Data-base on experimental facilities and computer codes for ADS related research and development; Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Safety, Environmental and Non-Proliferation Aspects of Partitioning and Transmutation of Actinides and Long-lived Fission Products. (P.A.)

  18. A proposal of particle beam engineering in some 100 MeV energy field used beam line of accelerator-driven transmutation experimental facility

    To develop the researches of particle beam engineering in the middle energy field, construction of 'particle beam engineering experimental device' in the nuclear transmutation physics experimental facility of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility was investigated and proposed. The basis of proposal is experiments using short pulse proton beam (<1ns) produced by laser charge exchange method and construction of two targets: one is the low power target (10 W) for proton beam experiments and other the high power target (1kW) for neutron induced reaction experiments. This facility consists of target chamber, target exchange device, beam dump, some neutron TOF lines. This facility pressed forward the important experiments in the middle energy field such as basic data of proton and neutron in the nuclear transmutation physics and engineering, effects and elementary process of cosmic radiation, basic test of application of particle beam to medical treatment and development and characteristics test of detector. (S.Y.)

  19. High-current deuteron cyclotron complex as meson and neutron generator for accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) and energy production

    The research and development results are given for the Deuteron Cyclotron Complex with the final energy about 900 MeV/nucleon and average beam intensity in the milli ampere range. The complex consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ-linac) and two superconducting sector cyclotrons DC-I and DC-II. The possibility of replacing a linac by a cyclotron injector with the deuteron energy 15 MeV and with 'warm' or superconducting sector magnets is discussed. A DC-II version with 10 superconducting sector magnets and 6 main and 2 flat-top radio frequency (RF) resonators is proposed. Information on the constructing of the full-scale prototype for several DC-I systems is given

  20. The JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerator and overview of nuclear transmutation experimental facilities

    A status of the JAERI/KEK joint project on High Intensity Proton Accelerator is overviewed. It is highlighted that Experimental facilities for development of the accelerator driven system (ADS) for nuclear transmutation technology is proposed under the project. (author)

  1. EC-FP7 ARCAS: technical and economical comparison of Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems for transmutation of Minor Actinides

    The ARCAS project aims to compare, on a technological and economical basis, Accelerator Driven Systems and Fast Reactors as Minor Actinide burners. It is split in five work packages: the reference scenario definition, the fast reactor system definition, the accelerator driven system definition, the fuel reprocessing and fabrication facilities definition and the economical comparison. This paper summarizes the status of the project and its five work packages. (author)

  2. Requirements for an evaluated nuclear data file for accelerator-based transmutation

    The importance of intermediate-energy nuclear data files as part of a global calculation scheme for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste systems (for instance with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor) is discussed. A proposal for three intermediate-energy data libraries for incident neutrons and protons is presented: - a data library from 0 to about 100 MeV (first priority), - a reference data library from 20 to 1500 MeV, - an activation/transmutation library from 0 to about 100 MeV. Furthermore, the proposed ENDF-6 structure of each library is given. The data needs for accelerator-based transmutation are translated in terms of the aforementioned intermediate-energy data libraries. This could be a starting point for an ''International Evaluated Nuclear Data File for Transmutation''. This library could also be of interest for other applications in science and technology. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations concerning future evaluation work are given. (orig.)

  3. A proposal of reactor physics research of accelerator drive system using transmutation physics experimental Facility

    Reactor physics section of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) recognizes an accelerator driven system (ADS) as the next generation reactor and to promote researches using it. History of this section activity on ADS, outline of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility in the 'High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project', a proposal of reactor physics section to the project and future actions of this section are explained. The Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility consists of a fast neutron subcritical system and a nuclear spallation neutron source. The contents of experiments are evaluation of nuclear properties of fast neutron subcritical system driven by nuclear spallation source, verification of operation and control of accelerator driven hybrid system and evaluation of nuclear transmutation characteristics of MA (Minor Actinides) and LLFP (Long-Lived Fission Product). Themes of R and D of ADS contain operation control of ADS, critical control of subcritical system, properties of reactor with nuclear spallation neutron source and nuclear transmutation characteristics. The experimental items are measurement of dynamic characteristics of reactor at beam change, R and D of method of output control and stop, R and D of contentious monitoring method of subcritical multiplication, measurement of dynamic characteristics of behaviors of reactivity, effects on reactor characteristics of high energy neutron, effects on reactor physics of beam duct and large target, nuclear transmutation efficiency and simulation of nuclear transmutation reactor core. (S.Y.)

  4. Accelerator driven radiation clean nuclear power system conceptual research symposium

    The R and D of ADS (Accelerators Driven Subcritical System) in China introduced. 31 theses are presented. It includes the basic principle of ADS, accelerators, sub-critical reactors, neutron physics, nuclear data, partitioning and transmutation

  5. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  6. The U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste program

    A national project to develop a future capability to separate actinides and long-lived fission products from spent fuel, to transmute them, and to dispose off the remaining waste in optimal waste forms has begun in the United States. This project is based on the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program developed during the 1990s at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and has its technological roots in several technologies that have been developed by the multi-mission laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In the Fiscal Year 1999 Energy and Water Appropriation Act, the U.S. Congress directed the DOE to study ATW and by the end of FY99 to prepare a 'roadmap' for developing this technology. DOE convened a steering committee, assembled four technical working groups consisting of members from many national laboratories, and consulted with several individual international and national experts. The finished product, 'A Roadmap for Developing ATW Technology - A Report to Congress', recommends a five-year, $281 M, science-based, technical-risk-reduction program. This paper provides an overview of the U.S. Roadmap for developing ATW technology, the organization of the national ATW Project, the critical issues in subsystems and technological options, deployment scenarios, institutional challenges, and academic and international collaboration

  7. Laser-driven photo-transmutation of 129I - a long-lived nuclear waste product

    Intense laser-plasma interactions produce high brightness beams of gamma rays, neutrons and ions and have the potential to deliver accelerating gradients more than 1000 times higher than conventional accelerator technology, and on a tabletop scale. This paper demonstrates one of the exciting applications of this technology, namely for transmutation studies of long-lived radioactive waste. We report the laser-driven photo-transmutation of long-lived 129I with a half-life of 15.7 million years to 128I with a half-life of 25 min. In addition, an integrated cross-section of 97 ± 40 mbarns for the reaction 129I(γ, n)128I is determined from the measured ratio of the (γ, n) induced 128I and 126I activities. The potential for affordable, easy to shield, tabletop laser technology for nuclear transmutation studies is highlighted. (rapid communication)

  8. Transmutation of high level wastes in a fusion-driven transmuter (FDT)

    This study presents the transmutations of both the minor actinides (MAs: 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm) and the long-lived fission products (LLFPs: 99Tc, 129I and 135Cs), discharged from high burn-up PWR-MOX spent fuel, in a fusion-driven transmuter (FDT) and the effects of the MA and LLFP volume fractions on their transmutations. The blanket configuration of the FDT is improved by analyzing various sample blanket design combinations with different radial thicknesses. Two different transmutation zones (TZMA and TZFP which contain the MA and LLFP nuclides, respectively) are located separately from each other. The volume fraction of the MA is raised from 10 to 20% stepped by 2%. The MAs are cladded with the graphite (10%) and cooled with the high-pressured helium gas for nuclear heat transfer. The volume fraction of helium is reduced from 80 to 70% depending on that of MA. Furthermore, the volume fraction of graphite is raised from 10 to 80% stepped by 5% to slow down the energy of neutrons entering into the TZFP while the volume fraction of LLFP is reduced from 80 to 10% depending on the graphite volume fraction. The calculations are performed for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (η) under a neutron wall load (P) of 5 MW/m2 to estimate neutronic parameters and transmutation characteristics per D-T fusion neutron. The transmutation rates of the LLFP nuclides increase linearly with the increase of volume fractions of the MA, and the 99Tc nuclide among them has the highest transmutation rate

  9. Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and of transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems A summary of the TARC Project at CERN

    The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3x3.3x3 m3 lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments 99Tc and 129I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation

  10. Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and of transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems A summary of the TARC Project at CERN

    Abanades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C.A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J.I.; Cerro, E.; Moral, R.D.R.Del; Diez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Galvez, J.; Garcia, J.; Geles, C.; Giorni, A.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Le Naour, C.; Lopez, C.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Enciso, E.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P. E-mail: Jean-Pierre.Revol@cern.ch; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldana, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J.B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K

    2001-05-11

    The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3x3.3x3 m{sup 3} lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation.

  11. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on accelerator-based transmutation

    The meeting was organised under the auspices of OECD Nuclear Agency's International Information Exchange Programme on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation. In the original announcement for the meeting the following sessions were proposed: 1) Concepts of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 2) Nuclear design problems of accelerator-based transmutation systems with emphasis on target facilities and their interfaces with accelerators, 3) Data and methods for nuclear design of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 4) Related cross-section measurements and integral experiments, 5) Identification of discrepancies and gaps and discussion of desirable R+D and benchmark activities. Due to the large number of papers submitted it was necessary to split session 2 into two parts and to reassign some papers in order to balance the sessions more evenly. No papers were submitted for session 5 and this was replaced by a summary and general discussion session. These proceedings contain all 30 papers in the order they were presented at the meeting. They are copies of the duplication-ready versions given to us during or shortly after the meeting. In the Table of Contents, the papers are listed together with the name of the presenter. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Spallation target design and integration into an accelerator-based transmutation system

    Spallation target design and system integration is critical for the success of accelerator-based transmutation systems. Issues which must be considered in the design of spallation targets are identified, and representative parametric studies on the system integration of a sample target are given. The results illustrate the importance of a systems-driven target design approach due to the large effects that the target design can have on both the economics and physics performance of the system

  13. ULOF and unprotected blockage accident analyses of the 400MWth-class EFIT accelerator driven transmuter with the SIMMER-III code

    In the EUROTRANS Programme of the 6th FP of the EC the EFIT, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, a generic conceptual design of a full 400 MWth ADS transmuter loaded with a CERCER U-free fuel with an MgO matrix, is developed. The safety objectives for the EFIT are achieved on the basis of the defense-in-depth concept. For the safety assessment various protected and unprotected design basis conditions (DBC) and design extension conditions (DEC) transients have been analyzed as e.g. the protected and unprotected loss of flow (PLOF/ULOF), beam trip transients, over power transients and especially the unprotected blockage accidents (UBAs). Key safety analyses of the EFIT core have been performed with the SIMMER-III code, currently the only code which can handle core disruptive conditions for heavy liquid metal reactors. Unprotected transients set upper safety limits and play an important role in the overall safety assessment and transient behaviors of MgO based fuel and T91 cladding. Especially the high temperature range is still connected with significant uncertainties, therefore, unprotected accidents with a potential of fuel failure and gas release deserve special attention. In this paper, analyses of the ULOF and the UBA will be presented. Simulations of the core under the steady operation state have been carried out first, whose results show good agreement with the design data. In addition the safety parameters as e.g. the void worth of the core and the Doppler constant have been determined. In the ULOF analysis, the pump head is assumed to be completely lost within 1 or 5 seconds. Due to the loss of the pump head, coolant mass flow rate in the reactor will decrease and finally arrive at its new steady state because of the remained natural convection. Calculated results indicate that, under the current assumptions, the EFIT design can survive a ULOF without fuel pin failure whilst a larger safety margin exists if the pump halving time is longer

  14. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  15. Neutrino-driven nuclear reactions of cold fusion and transmutation

    The term 'neutrino-driven nuclear reactions' is usually attributed to some reactions of direct or reverse β-decay having, as a rule, an extremely small interaction cross section and is applied for detection of neutrino (antineutrino). The author considers that a great majority of intense reactions of β-decay, nuclear fission and partly of fusion, formerly described without participation of neutrinos as an input, are neutrino-driven ones. The facts listed below demonstrate that the reactions of direct and reverse β-decay, including nuclear fission and partly nuclear fusion, are driven from the outside. Significance of a radioactive decay rate variation and its correlation with the solar activity variation is demonstrated after some decades long observations. Variation of decay rate after variation of crystalline and chemical environment was observed since the 40. years of the 20. century. Variation of nuclear transmutation rates is even more significant after low energy non-nuclear actions on media (cold fusion and transmutation of nuclei). It was also stated that the Chernobyl accident produced radioisotopes (in particular, 137Cs) for some years after their fallout had reduced half-life periods (3.5 and 17 years for 1988 and 1992 years' samples, respectively), hereinafter asymptotically increasing incrementally up to the conventional values (30.6 years). And, last but not least: there are some data on an opportunity of radioisotopes decay and other nuclear transformations initiating by means of so-called torsion radiation (scalar fields, non-hertzian energy and so on). We suggest the hypothesis of neutrino-driven nuclear reactions for explication of abnormally fast nuclear reactions surveyed above and conformities to natural laws observed under the noted reactions proceeding. The not-high energy neutrino (NNN) is abundant in Nature, which is a solid fact. The author suggests that correct interpretation by many other authors of experimental data allow the

  16. Accelerator transmutation of wastes (ATW) - Prospects and safety

    Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) has during last years gained interest as a technologically possible method to transform radioactive wastes into short-lived or stable isotopes. Different ATW-projects are described from the physical and technical point of view. The principal sketch of the safety analysis of the ATW-idea is given. Due to the very limited technical data for existing ATW-projects the safety analysis can cause some risks for the health and environmental safety for the closest environment. General public should not be affected. 35 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  17. Status of development of actinide blanket processing flowsheets for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste

    An accelerator-driven subcritical nuclear system is briefly described that transmutes actinides and selected long-lived fission products. An application of this accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept to spent fuel from a commercial nuclear power plant is presented as an example. The emphasis here is on a possible aqueous processing flowsheet to separate the actinides and selected long-lived fission products from the remaining fission products within the transmutation system. In the proposed system the actinides circulate through the thermal neutron flux as a slurry of oxide particles in heavy water in two loops with different average residence times: one loop for neptunium and plutonium and one for americium and curium. Material from the Np/Pu loop is processed with a short cooling time (5-10 days) because of the need to keep the total actinide inventory, low for this particular ATW application. The high radiation and thermal load from the irradiated material places severe constraints on the separation processes that can be used. The oxide particles are dissolved in nitric acid and a quarternary, ammonium anion exchanger is used to extract neptunium, plutonium, technetium, and palladium. After further cooling (about 90 days), the Am, Cm and higher actinides are extracted using a TALSPEAK-type process. The proposed operations were chosen because they have been successfully tested for processing high-level radioactive fuels or wastes in gram to kilogram quantities

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of models for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program is directed toward the dual goals of alleviating the problems associated with existing high-level radioactive defense wastes, and of developing systems for the generation of fission energy with minimal production of high-level, long-lived nuclear wastes. In the Los Alamos ATW concept, a high-current, high-energy proton accelerator creates and intense flux of neutrons through spallation in heavy metal targets. The high neutron flux levels available in such systems allow the rapid burning even of nuclides with small cross sections, the design of systems with dilute inventories, and the operation of systems far from criticality. A crucial tool for ATW simulations is the LAHET Code System (LCS), which consists of the Los Alamos version of the HETC Monte Carlo code, a special version of the MCNP code, and several tallying and postprocessing utilities. Here we present results for a baseline system designed to transmute technetium. 16 refs

  19. Chemical separations technologies for the US accelerator transmutation of waste programme

    Management of the spent nuclear fuel generated by the operating commercial reactors in the United States is entering a new phase because it is clear that the continued rate of accumulation of spent fuel is such that the spent fuel inventory will soon exceed the legislated capacity of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. An integrated chemical separations system has been conceived for the partitioning of this fuel preparatory to transmutation of transuranic elements and long-lived fission products in an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor. A hybrid aqueous/pyrochemical separations system is being developed, with the initial separation done with an aqueous solvent extraction process called UREX. The UREX process extracts uranium, technetium and iodine and directs the transuranic elements and other fission products to the liquid waste stream. The uranium is sufficiently pure that it can be disposed as a low-level waste, while the technetium and iodine are converted into targets for transmutation to stable isotopes. The liquid waste stream containing the transuranics is converted to solid oxide form and the transuranics are separated from the fission products by electrorefining after having been converted to the metallic state. Demonstrations of the process with actual LWR spent fuel are in progress. (author)

  20. Accelerator transmutation studies at Los Alamos with LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER'90

    Versions of the CINDER code have been used over three decades for determination of reactor fuel inventories and aggregate neutron absorption and radioactive decay properties. The CINDER'90 code, an evolving version which requires no predetermined nuclide chain structure, is suitable for a wider range of transmutation problems including those treated with older versions. In recent accelerator transmutation studies, the CINDER'90 code has been linked with the LAHET Code System (LCS) and, for high-energy calculations, with SUPERHET. A description of the nature of these linked calculational tools is given; data requirements for the transmutation studies are described; and, examples of linked calculations are described for some interesting accelerator applications

  1. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  2. Materials compatibility and corrosion issues for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The need to understand the materials issues in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system is essential. This report focuses on the spallation container material, as this material is exposed to some of the most crucial environmental conditions of simultaneous radiation and corrosion in the system. The most severe design being considered is that of liquid lead. In previous investigations of lead compatibility with materials, the chemistry of the system was derived solely from the corrosion products; however, in an ATW system, the chemistry of the lead changes not only with the derived corrosion products of the material being tested but also with the buildup of the daughter production with time. Daughter production builds up and introduces elements that may have a great effect on the corrosion activity of the liquid lead. Consequently, data on liquid lead compatibility can be regarded only as a guide and must be reevaluated when particular daughter products are added. This report is intended to be a response to specific materials issues and concerns expressed by the ATW design working group and addresses the compatibility/corrosion concerns

  3. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    A small scale experiment designed to demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is described. The experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator to produce neutrons with a molten Lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate Plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from Thorium

  4. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste by a charged particle accelerator

    Transmutation of minor actinides and fission products using proton accelerators has many advantages over a transmutor operated in a critical condition. The energy required for this transmutation can be reduced by multiplying the spallation neutrons in a subcritical assembly surrounding the spallation target. The authors have studied the relation between the energy requirements and the multiplication factor, k, of the subcritical assembly, while varying the range of several parameters in the spallation target. A slightly subcritical reactor is superior to a reactor with large subcriticality in the context of the energy requirement of a small proton accelerator, the extent of radiation damage, and other safety problems. To transmute the fission products, the transmutor reactor must have a good neutron economy, which can be provided by a transmutor operated by a proton accelerator. The paper discusses the use of minor actinides to improve neutronics characteristics, such as a long fuel burn-up rather than simply transmuting this valuable material

  5. Advanced fuel developments for an industrial accelerator driven system prototype

    Delage, Fabienne; Ottaviani, Jean Pierre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA (France); Fernandez-Carretero, Asuncion; Staicu, Dragos [JRC-ITU (Germany); Boccaccini, Claudia-Matzerath; Chen, Xue-Nong; Mascheck, Werner; Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); D' Agata, Elio [JRC-IE (Netherlands); Klaassen, Frodo [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sobolev, Vitaly [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Wallenius, Janne [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Abram, T. [National Nuclear Laboratory - NNL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation in a fast spectrum, can be described as a highly innovative concept in comparison with fuels used in critical cores. ADS fuel is not fertile, so as to improve the transmutation performance. It necessarily contains a high concentration ({approx}50%) of minor actinides and plutonium. This unusual fuel composition results in high gamma and neutron emissions during its fabrication, as well as degraded core performance. So, an optimal ADS fuel is based on finding the best compromise between thermal, mechanical, chemical, neutronic and technological constraints. CERCER and CERMET composite fuels consisting of particles of (Pu,MA)O{sub 2} phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix are under investigation within the frame of the ongoing European Integrated Project EUROTRANS (European Research programme for Transmutation) which aims at performing a conceptual design of a 400 MWth transmuter: the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). Performances and safety of EFIT cores loaded with CERCER and CERMET fuels have been evaluated. Out-of-pile and in-pile experiments are carried out to gain knowledge on the properties and the behaviour of these fuels. The current paper gives an overview of the work progress. (authors)

  6. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ferguson, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  7. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  8. Laser driven particle acceleration

    This dissertation summarizes the last ten years of research at the Laboratory of Applied Optics on laser-plasma based electron acceleration. The main result consists of the development and study of a relativistic electron source with unique properties: high energy (100-300 MeV) in short distances (few millimeters), mono-energetic, ultra-short (few fs), stable and tunable. The manuscript describes the steps that led to understanding the physics, and then mastering it in order to produce this new electron source. Non linear propagation of the laser pulse in the plasma is first presented, with phenomena such as non linear wakefield excitation, relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing in the short pulse regime, self-compression. Acceleration and injection of electrons are then reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Experimental demonstrations of self-injection in the bubble regime and then colliding pulse injection are then presented. These experiments were among the first to produce monoenergetic, high quality, stable and tunable electron beams from a laser-plasma accelerator. The last two chapters are dedicated to the characterization of the electron beam using transition radiation and to its applications to gamma radiography and radiotherapy. Finally, the perspectives of this research are presented in the conclusion. Scaling laws are used to determine the parameters that the electron beams will reach using peta-watt laser systems currently under construction. (author)

  9. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  10. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  11. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137Cs, and 90Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  12. 次锕系元素在加速器驱动的次临界快堆中嬗变的研究%Study of Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical Fast Reactor

    杨永伟; 古玉祥

    2001-01-01

    选取加速器驱动次临界快堆(ADSFR),进行嬗变来自于PWR(U)乏燃料 中次锕系元素 的研究。在堆芯内,燃料为NpAmCm的氧化物,选取液态钠为冷却剂。利用下列程序对所选方 案进行物理计算和分析:LAHET -模拟质子与靶核的相互作用;MCNP4A-模拟次临界包层内 20MeV以下的中子与材料核的相互作用;ORIGEN2-利用MCNP4A的输出提供的一群等效截面对 堆芯进行燃耗计算。计算分析的结果表明:考虑临界安全、功率密度和燃耗等因素,利用所 选方案进行次锕系元素嬗变是可行的。%Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical Fast Reactor (ADSFR)is chosenfor transmu ta tion of minor actinides from the spent fuel of PWR(U). In the core, the fuel type is (PuNpAmCm)Ox. Liquid sodium is chosen as coolant The neutronics calcul ation and analysis of the selected scheme have been done by using the following codes: LAHET, for the simulation of the interaction between the protons and the nuclei of the target; MCNP4A, for the simulation of interaction between neutron s with energy below 20MeV and the nuclei of materials in the sub-critical blank e t; ORIGEN2, for the multi-region burnup calculation of the blanket by using the one-group effective cross-section provided in the output of MCNP4A. The neutro ni cs calculation and analysis show that the proposed scheme is feasible for trans mutation of minor actinides, considering the factors such as the criticality s afety, power density, burnup, etc.

  13. Uncertainty assessment for accelerator-driven systems

    The concept of a subcritical system driven by an external source of neutrons provided by an accelerator ADS (Accelerator Driver System) has been recently revived and is becoming more popular in the world technical community with active programs in Europe, Russia, Japan, and the U.S. A general consensus has been reached in adopting for the subcritical component a fast spectrum liquid metal cooled configuration. Both a lead-bismuth eutectic, sodium and gas are being considered as a coolant; each has advantages and disadvantages. The major expected advantage is that subcriticality avoids reactivity induced transients. The potentially large subcriticality margin also should allow for the introduction of very significant quantities of waste products (minor Actinides and Fission Products) which negatively impact the safety characteristics of standard cores. In the U.S. these arguments are the basis for the development of the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), which has significant potential in reducing nuclear waste levels. Up to now, neutronic calculations have not attached uncertainties on the values of the main nuclear integral parameters that characterize the system. Many of these parameters (e.g., degree of subcriticality) are crucial to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of this concept. In this paper we will consider uncertainties related to nuclear data only. The present knowledge of the cross sections of many isotopes that are not usually utilized in existing reactors (like Bi, Pb-207, Pb-208, and also Minor Actinides and Fission Products) suggests that uncertainties in the integral parameters will be significantly larger than for conventional reactor systems, and this raises concerns on the neutronic performance of those systems

  14. The TARC experiment (PS211): neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing

    The main purpose of the TARC experiment is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (En≥1 MeV) slow down quasi adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates of LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of 99Tc or 129I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications. (orig.)

  15. Current US plans for development of fuels for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The United States is currently investigating the feasibility of proposed technologies for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept, which is funded as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program. The ATW concept is proposed as a means to transmute transuranic isotopes and, perhaps, long-lived fission products removed from light water reactor spent fuel to shorter-lived fission products. To attain maximum possible transmutation rates, no fertile material (i.e., U-238 or Th-232) is to be incorporated into the fuel. Fuel forms currently proposed for ATW application include non-fertile dispersions of metal alloy or nitride fuel particles in a metal matrix, a non-fertile metal alloy, or non-fertile nitride pellets for a fast-spectrum, liquid metal-cooled transmuter, and non-fertile TRISO-coated particles dispersed in graphite compacts for a thermal-spectrum, gas-cooled transmuter. There is little or no experience with these non-fertile fuels, so an extensive fuel development program is envisioned. Current plans call for initial effort to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed fuel forms by the end of 2005, consistent with AAA program decision milestones. Feasibility research and development will consist of the following: Development of fabrication processes to demonstrate fabricability of the proposed fuel forms; Simple irradiation tests to screen samples of each fuel type for unexpected or poor performance; and Determination of intrinsic properties or characteristics (e.g., out-of pile interdiffusion behavior of fuel and constituents and thermophysical properties). If the decision is made to continue development of the ATW concept beyond 2005, then of the successful candidate forms, one or two will be selected for further development, with more extensive irradiation testing and fuel property characterization. (author)

  16. Assessment of General Atomics accelerator transmutation of waste concept based on gas-turbine-modular helium cooled reactor technology

    An assessment has been performed for an Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept based on the use of the high temperature gas reactor technology. The concept has been proposed by General Atomics for the ATW system. The assessment was jointly conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos national laboratory to assess and to define the potential candidates for the ATW system. This report represents the assessment work performed at ANL. The concept uses recycled light water reactor (LWR)-discharge-transuranic extracted from irradiated oxide fuel in a critical and sub-critical accelerator driven gas-cooled transmuter. In this concept, the transmuter operates at 600 MWt first in the critical mode for three cycles and then operates in a subcritical accelerator-driven mode for a single cycle. The transmuter contains both thermal and fast spectrum transmutation zones. The thermal zone is fueled with the TRU oxide material in the form of coated particles, which are mixed with graphite powder, packed into cylindrical compacts, and loaded in hexagonal graphite blocks with cylindrical channels; the fast zone is fueled with TRU-oxide material in the form of coated particles without the graphite powder and the graphite blocks that has been burned in the thermal region for three critical cycles and one additional accelerator-driven cycle. The fuel loaded into the fast zone is irradiated for four additional cycles. This fuel management scheme is intended to achieve a high Pu isotopes consumption in the thermal spectrum zone, and to consume the minor actinides in the fast-spectrum zone. Monte Carlo and deterministic codes have been used to assess the system performance and to determine the feasibility of achieving high TRU consumption levels. The studies revealed the potential for high consumption of Pu-239 (97%), total Pu (71%) and total TRU (64%) in the system. The analyses confirmed the need for burnable absorber for both suppressing the initial excess

  17. Photo-transmutation of long-lived radionuclide Cs-135 by laser-plasma driven electron source

    Wang, X L; Zhu, Z C; Wang, X D; Song, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic electrons, accelerated by the laser ponderomotive force, can be focused onto a high-Z convertor to generate high-brightness beams of gamma-rays, which in turn can be used to induce photonuclear reactions. In this work, the possibility of photo-transmutation of long-lived radionuclide Cs-135 by laser-plasma driven electron source has been demonstrated through Geant4 simulations. High energy electron generation, bremsstrahlung and photonuclear reaction have been observed at four different laser intensities of 10^{20} W/cm^2, 5 times 10^{20} W/cm^2, 10^{21} W/cm^2 and 5 times 10^{21} W/cm^2, respectively. It was shown that the laser intensity and the target geometry have strong effect on the transmutation reaction yield. At different laser intensities the recommended target sizes were found to obtain the maximum reaction yield. The remarkable feature of this work is to evaluate the optimal laser intensity to produce maximum reaction yield of 10^8 per Joule in laser pulse energy, which is 10^{21} W/c...

  18. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  19. Simulation of accelerator transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    The incineration of minor actinides with a hybrid reactor (i.e. coupled with an accelerator) could reduce their radioactivity. The scientific tool used for simulations, the GEANT code implemented on a paralleled computer, has been confirmed initially on thin and thick targets and by simulation of a pressurized water reactor, a fast reactor like Superphenix, and a molten salt fast hybrid reactor 'ATP'. Simulating a thermal hybrid reactor seems to indicate the non-negligible presence of neutrons which diffuse back to the accelerator. In spite of simplifications, the simulation of a molten lead fast hybrid reactor (as the CERN Fast Energy Amplifier) might indicate difficulties in the radial power distribution in the core, the life time of the window and the activated air leak risk. Finally, we propose a thermoelectric compact hybrid reactor, PRAHE - small atomic board hybrid reactor - the principle of which allows a neutron coupling between the accelerator and the reactor. (author)

  20. Status of Accelerator Driven Systems Research and Technology Development

    One of the greatest challenges for nuclear energy is how to properly manage the highly radioactive waste generated during irradiation in nuclear reactors. In order for nuclear power to exploit its full potential as a major sustainable energy source, there needs to be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Since 1995, several scenario studies have been conducted on different advanced nuclear fuel cycle and waste management options in various countries. Examples include the collaborative projects under “Global sustainable nuclear energy scenarios for long term development and deployment of nuclear energy” of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, and the scenario studies conducted under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Euratom research project PATEROS — Partitioning and Transmutation European Roadmap for Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Some of the proposed long term nuclear fuel cycles include an innovative concept of a hybrid system for the transmutation of long lived radioisotopes. This is usually the called accelerator driven system (ADS) — or accelerator driven transmutation of waste (ATW) — and consists of a high power proton accelerator, a heavy metal spallation target that produces neutrons when bombarded by the high power beam, and a subcritical core that is neutronically coupled to the spallation target. The ADS, which has been developed in different countries for more than 40 years, is claimed to offer new prospects and advantages for the transmutation of high level radioactive waste. The ADS would convert highly radioactive material to non-radioactive material or material with a much shorter half-life. In addition, these hybrid systems can generate electricity during the conversion of transuranic waste. In 1997, under the guidance of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA published IAEA-TECDOC-985, Accelerator Driven Systems: Energy

  1. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient keff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  2. Thorium fuel cycle concept for KAERI's accelerator driven system project

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been carrying out accelerator driven system related research and development called HYPER for transmutation and energy production. HYPER program is aiming to develop the elemental technologies for the subcritical system by 2001 and build a small bench scale test facility (∼5MW(th)) by the year 2006. Some major features of HYPER have been developed and employed, which are on-power fueling concepts, a hollow cylinder-type metal fuel, and Pb-Bi as a coolant and spallation target material. Another fuel cycle concept for HYPER has been also studied to utilize thorium as a molten salt form to produce electricity as well as to transmute TRU elements. At the early stage of the fuel cycle, fissile plutonium isotopes in TRU will be incinerated to produce energy and to breed 233U from thorium. Preliminary calculation showed that periodic removal of fission products and small amount of TRU addition could maintain the criticality without separation of 233Pa. At the end of the fuel cycle, the composition of fissile plutonium isotopes in TRU was significantly reduced from about 60% to 18%, which is not attractive any more for the diversion of plutonium. Thorium molten salt fuel cycle may be one of the alternative fuel cycles for the transmutation of TRU. The TRU remained at the end of fuel cycle can be incinerated in HYPER having fast neutron spectrums. (author)

  3. Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based nuclear waste transmutation schemes

    An overview of the most significant studies in the last 35 years of partitioning and transmutation of commercial light water reactor spent fuel is given. Recent Accelerator-based Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems are compared with liquid-fuel thermal reactor systems that accomplish the same objectives. If no long-lived fission products (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) are to be burned, under ideal circumstances the neutron balance in an ATW systems becomes identical to that for a thermal reactor system. However, such a reactor would need extraordinarily rapid removal of internally-generated fission products to remain critical at equilibrium without enriched feed. The accelerator beam thus has two main purposes (1) the burning of long-lived fission products that could not be burned in a comparable reactor's margin (2) a relaxing of on-line chemical processing requirements without which a reactor-based system cannot maintain criticality. Fast systems would require a parallel, thermal ATW system for long-lived fission product transmutation. The actinide-burning part of a thermal ATW system is compared with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) using the well-known Pigford-Choi model. It is shown that the ATW produces superior inventory reduction factors for any near-term time scale. (author)

  4. Introduction to Physical and Technical Analysis of Accelerator Driven System

    In the present paper the main elements of the accelerator driven system (ADS) are discussed. Describing the spallation source it is underlined that beside the well accepted theory of spallation, the spallation phenomena is not yet sufficiently investigated. Dealing with the sub-critical reactor as an energy amplifier of the primary spallation source a suggestion for the specific neutron spectrum is proposed to obtain optimal conditions for energy production, burn-up and transmutation. In the chapter devoted for the accelerators which accelerates the charged particles, the two accelerator principles are presented on the examples of working accelerators: the linear accelerator - LINAC and cyclotron. Finally, there is presented the project of accelerator driven system - MYRHA for research and development worked out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - SCK-CEN and the conception of nuclear power station of RBMK-1000 type with spallation source together with analysis of the balance of energy worked out by the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. (author)

  5. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    Nanni, Emilio Alessandro; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators is dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency (RF) accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV/m gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional RF structures. However, laser-driven electron accelerators require intense sources and suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here, we demonstrate the first linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically-generated terahertz (THz) pulses. THz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. Increasing the operational frequency of accelerators into the THz band allows for greatly increased accelerating ...

  6. A steady-state core analysis code for the modeling of accelerator-driven subcritical reactors

    In order to analyze and evaluate Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (ADSR) efficiently, a neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling analysis code named LAVENDER has been developed. In the neutronics calculation, the three dimensional deterministic neutron transport method is adopted. The nuclides transmutation analysis is implemented by the micro-depletion method with the Transmutation Trajectory Analysis algorithm (TTA). In the thermal-hydraulics calculation, a heat transfer model is established to consider thermal feedback and examine thermal-hydraulics design. The validations are performed based on several benchmarks. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the design and steady-state analysis of ADSR. (author)

  7. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee's review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues

  8. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    García, C.; Rosales, J.; García, L.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Escrivá, A.; Abánades Velasco, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas-cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, cooled by helium which enables high temperatures (...

  9. Developments in laser-driven plasma accelerators

    Hooker, Simon Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser-driven plasma accelerators provide acceleration gradients three orders of magnitude greater than conventional machines, offering the potential to shrink the length of accelerators by the same factor. To date, laser-acceleration of electron beams to particle energies comparable to those offered by synchrotron light sources has been demonstrated with plasma acceleration stages only a few centimetres long. This article describes the principles of operation of laser-driven plasma accelerators, and reviews their development from their proposal in 1979 to recent demonstrations. The potential applications of plasma accelerators are described and the challenges which must be overcome before they can become a practical tool are discussed.

  10. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    Yu Qi; Xu Tao Guang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  11. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  12. A study of the transmutation performance of externally driven sub-critical assemblies

    For transmutation systems based on externally driven sub-critical assemblies with a fast neutron spectrum, there is an incentive to expose the actinides directly to the source neutrons, since these neutrons have higher energies than the fission neutrons. To evaluate the transmutation effectiveness of such systems, a parameter study based on the PHOENIX system, i.e. a sodium-cooled system with a minor actinide (MA) oxide fuelled target was performed. An interesting result is that the high-energy source neutrons give rise to a 20-25% increase in the fission-to-capture ratio of the important (fissionable) nuclides. Moreover, the performance of such a system can be further improved by substituting the oxide fuel by metal fuel and by reducing the volume fraction of steel in the target. Replacing the liquid sodium coolant by liquid lead has only a small effect on the fission-to-capture ratio, however, for a given proton current, the neutron production in the target increases. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  13. A prototype Accelerator Driven System in Belgium: the Myrrha project

    The renewed interest in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) world-wide, has given a new increased effort in several related research domains. The communications within the ICANS, ICENES and ADTT meetings have shown that all major research institutes are somehow conducting research in this new field. Within this research forum, most of the e proposed systems deal with spallation sources in the MW-range, addressing needs for accelerators and sub-critical facilities that are out of current reliability and sometimes even out of current technology range. The necessary research in several sub-domains has to be addressed once and will need prototype systems enabling the validation and test of calculational tools and technological items. At SCK.CEN, the Belgian nuclear research center, the Myrrha project has been started end of 1995. This project intends to design, develop and possibly realize a prototype accelerator driven system as advanced neutron source and with four main objectives. . research of ADS-development as an option for transmutation . in-core irradiation experiments as extension and continuing support in the field of reactor physics and technology and safety-related experiments; . medical and industrial applications (including radioisotope production, known as the ADONIS-project) . extension of current SCK.CEn-research and extensions into new fields based on the availability of performing in-core and neutron-beam experiments This paper will describe the current status of this project and planning og ongoing research as well the description of two specific applications, i. e. radioisotope production and transmutation studies. (Author) 10 refs

  14. Proton-driven plasma acceleration at CERN

    Plasma-based acceleration methods have seen important progress over the last years. Recently, it has been proposed to experimentally study plasma acceleration driven by proton beams, in addition to the established research directions of electron and laser-driven plasmas. This talk presents the planned experiment and the research efforts carried out at CERN.

  15. Conceptual study on high performance dual-cooled blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    A preliminary conceptual design of high performance dual-cooled blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter has been proposed based on the core D-T plasma parameter level achieved or to be achieved in the near future. The calculation shows that this kind of blanket is tritium self-sustainable and could safely transmute the long-lived actinides produced by 102 GWe·year PWRs, with several tons of fission products per year and 11600 MW thermal power output

  16. Ability to burn plutonium and minor actinides. Interest of accelerator driven system compared to critical reactor

    In the frame of the French Act of December 1991, EDF is presently assessing the interest of Acceleration Driven System (ADS) for the Transmutation of the Plutonium and Minor Actinides (MA) produced by its park of nuclear reactors. The studies presented here assess the efficiency of ADS and critical reactors to incinerate Pu and MA (Minor Actinides) and the potential interest of ADS for that purpose. (author)

  17. Subcritical set coupled to accelerator (ADS) for transmutation of radioactive wastes: an approach of computational modelling

    Nuclear fission devices coupled to particle accelerators ADS are being widely studied. These devices have several applications, including nuclear waste transmutation and producing hydrogen, both applications with strong social and environmental impact. The essence of this work was to model an ADS geometry composed of small TRISO fuel loaded with a mixture of MOX uranium and thorium target material spallation of uranium, using methods of computational modeling probabilistic, in particular the MCNPX 2.6e program to evaluate the physical characteristics of the device and their ability to transmutation. As a result of the characterization of the spallation target, it can be concluded that production of neutrons per incident proton increases with increasing dimensions of the spallation target (thickness and radius), until it reached the maximum production of neutrons per incident proton or call the region saturation. The results obtained in modeling the ADS device bed kind of balls with respect to isotopic variation in the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides considered in the analysis revealed that accumulation of mass of the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides increase for subcritical configuration considered. In the particular case of the isotope 239Pu, it is observed a reduction of the mass from the time of burning of 99 days. The increase of power in the core, whereas tungsten spallation targets and Lead is among the key future developments of this work

  18. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV m-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  19. Advanced Computational Models for Accelerator-Driven Systems

    In the nuclear engineering scientific community, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) have been proposed and investigated for the transmutation of nuclear waste, especially plutonium and minor actinides. These fuels have a quite low effective delayed neutron fraction relative to uranium fuel, therefore the subcriticality of the core offers a unique safety feature with respect to critical reactors. The intrinsic safety of ADS allows the elimination of the operational control rods, hence the reactivity excess during burnup can be managed by the intensity of the proton beam, fuel shuffling, and eventually by burnable poisons. However, the intrinsic safety of a subcritical system does not guarantee that ADSs are immune from severe accidents (core melting), since the decay heat of an ADS is very similar to the one of a critical system. Normally, ADSs operate with an effective multiplication factor between 0.98 and 0.92, which means that the spallation neutron source contributes little to the neutron population. In addition, for 1 GeV incident protons and lead-bismuth target, about 50% of the spallation neutrons has energy below 1 MeV and only 15% of spallation neutrons has energies above 3 MeV. In the light of these remarks, the transmutation performances of ADS are very close to those of critical reactors.

  20. Conceptual design study of an accelerator-based actinide transmutation plant with sodium-cooled solid target/core

    Research and development works on accelerator-based nuclear waste transmutation are carried out at JAERI under the national program OMEGA. The preliminary design of the proposed minor actinide transmutation plant with a solid target/core is described. The plant consists of a high intensity proton accelerator, spallation target of solid tungsten, and subcritical core loaded with actinide alloy fuel. Minor actinides are transmuted by fast fission reactions. The target and core are cooled by the forced flow of liquid sodium coolant. Thermal energy is recovered to supply electricity to power its own accelerator. The core with an effective multiplication factor of about 0.9 generates. The thermal power of 820 MW by using a 1.5 GeV proton beam with a current of 39 mA. The average burnup is about 8%, about 250 kg of actinides, after one year operation at an 80% of load factor. With the conventional steam turbine cycle, electric output of about 246 MW is produced. The design of the transmutation plant with sodium-cooled solid target/core is mostly based on the well-established technology of current LMFRs. Advantages and disadvantages of solid target/core are discussed. Recent progress in the development of intense proton accelerator, the development of simulation code system, and the spallation integral experiment is also presented. (author)

  1. Laser-driven electron accelerators

    The following possibilities are discussed: inverse free electron laser (wiggler accelerator); inverse Cerenkov effect; plasma accelerator; dielectric tube; and grating linac. Of these, the grating acceleraton is considered the most attractive alternative

  2. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system

  3. Summary: 'A roadmap for developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology'. A report to Congress

    The U.S. Congressional Conference Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 1999 Energy and Water Development Appropriation Act directed the U.S. Department of Energy, through its Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to conduct a study of accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). It was transmitted to the U.S. Congress on November 1, 1999. The Report to Congress made it clear that the U.S. Administration, in transmitting the report, was not taking a position either way on those recommendations. If an ATW program were to be undertaken in the U.S., the pace and funding would have to be evaluated and planned in light of the currently unproven technologies involved, the potential benefits, and overall Government budget priorities. (author)

  4. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  5. Progress of Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    There is a great interest worldwide in plasma accelerators driven by ultra-intense lasers which make it possible to generate ultra-high gradient acceleration and high quality particle beams in a much more compact size compared with conventional accelerators. A frontier research on laser and plasma accelerators is focused on high energy electron acceleration and ultra-short X-ray and Tera Hertz radiations as their applications. These achievements will provide not only a wide range of sciences with benefits of a table-top accelerator but also a basic science with a tool of ultrahigh energy accelerators probing an unknown extremely microscopic world.Harnessing the recent advance of ultra-intense ultra-short pulse lasers, the worldwide research has made a tremendous breakthrough in demonstrating high-energy high-quality particle beams in a compact scale, so called ''dream beams on a table top'', which represents monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators and GeV acceleration by capillary plasma-channel laser wakefield accelerators. This lecture reviews recent progress of results on laser-driven plasma based accelerator experiments to quest for particle acceleration physics in intense laser-plasma interactions and to present new outlook for the GeV-range high-energy laser plasma accelerators

  6. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    A small scale experiment is described that will demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology. This experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator and will be located in the Area-A experimental hall. Beam currents of up to 1 mA will be used to produce neutrons with a molten lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from thorium. The experiment will be operated at power levels up to 5 MWt

  7. Dynamic response of an accelerator driven system to accelerator beam interruptions for criticality

    Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by intense neutron sources can be very suitable tools for nuclear waste transmutation, particularly in the case of minor actinides with very low fractions of delayed neutrons. A proper control of these systems needs to know at every time the absolute value of the reactor subcriticality (negative reactivity), which must be measured by fully reliable methods, usually conveying a short interruption of the accelerator beam in order to assess the neutron flux reduction. Those interruptions should be very short in time, for not disturbing too much the thermal magnitudes of the reactor. Otherwise, the cladding and the fuel would suffer from thermal fatigue produced by those perturbations, and the mechanical integrity of the reactor would be jeopardized. It is shown in this paper that beam interruptions of the order of 400 μs repeated every second would not disturb significantly the reactor thermal features, while enabling for an adequate measurement of the negative reactivity

  8. Thorium utilization in heavy water moderated Accelerator Driven Systems

    Research on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) is being carried out around the world primarily with the objective of waste transmutation. Presently, the volume of waste in India is small and therefore there is little incentive to develop ADS based waste transmutation technology immediately. With limited indigenous U availability and the presence of large Th deposits in the country, there is a clear incentive to develop Th related technologies. India also has vast experience in design, construction and operation of heavy water moderated reactors. Heavy water moderated reactors employing solid Th fuels can be self sustaining, but the discharge burnups are too low to be economical. A possible way to improve the performance such reactors is to use an external neutron source as is done in ADS. This paper discusses our studies on Th utilization in heavy water moderated ADSs. The study is carried out at the lattice level. The time averaged k-infinity of the Th bundle from zero burnup up to the discharge burnup is taken to be the same as the core (ensemble) averaged k-infinity. For the purpose of the analysis we have chosen standard PHWR and AHWR assemblies. Variation of the pitch and coolant (H2O/D2O) are studied. Both, the once through cycle and the recycling option are studied. In the latter case the study is carried out for various enrichments (% 233U in Th) of the recycled Th fuel bundles. The code DTF as modified for lattice and burnup calculations (BURNTRAN) was used for carrying out the study. The once through cycle represents the most attractive ADS concept (Th burner ADS) possible for Th utilization. It avoids reprocessing of Th spent fuel and in the ideal situation the use of any fissile material either initially or for sustaining itself. The gain in this system is however rather low requiring a high power accelerator and a substantial fraction of the power generated to be fed back to the accelerator. The self sustaining Th-U cycle in a heavy moderated ADS is a

  9. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability. 8 figs., 1 tab

  10. Diagnostics for laser-driven plasma accelerators

    When generating relativistic plasmas with high power laser systems small-scale particle accelerators can be realized producing particle pulses which exhibit parameters complementary to conventional accelerators. To be able to resolve the physical processes underlying the acceleration mechanisms diagnostics well-suited for this plasma environment need to be designed and realized. In this presentation, several techniques are introduced, and recent results are discussed. They have lead to the first time-resolved visualization of the plasma wave necessary for laser-driven electron acceleration, its non-linear evolution and the actual breaking of the plasma wave. Furthermore, diagnostic techniques relevant for laser-driven ion acceleration based on optical and particle probing are presented.

  11. Results from the TARC experiment: spallation neutron phenomenology in lead and neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing

    Abanades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C.A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J.I.; Cerro, E.; Moral, R. Del; Diez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Galvez, J.; Garcia, J.; Geles, C.; Giorni, A.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Naour, C. Le; Lopez, C.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Enciso, E.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P. E-mail: jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldana, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J.B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K

    2002-02-11

    We summarize here the results of the TARC experiment whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (E{sub n}{>=}1 MeV) slow down quasi-adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 mx3.3 mx3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of {sup 99}Tc or {sup 129}I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications.

  12. A European roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste incineration. Executive summary

    In 1998 the Research Ministers of France, Italy and Spain, set up a Ministers' Advisors Group on the use of accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation. This led to the establishing of a technical working group under the chairmanship of Prof. Carlo Rubbia to identify the critical technical issues and to prepare a 'Roadmap' for a demonstration programme to be performed within 12 years. In the following Roadmap, the technical working group (consisting of representatives from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the JRC) has identified the steps necessary to start the construction of an experimental accelerator driven system towards the end of the decade. This is considered as an essential prerequisite to assess the safe and efficient behaviour of such systems for a large-scale deployment for transmutation purposes in the first half of this century. The development and deployment of accelerator driven systems requires three steps: a comprehensive mid- and long-term R and D program, to develop the single elements and components of the system. This includes development of new fuels and fuel cycle systems; planning, design, construction and operation of an Experimental Accelerator Driven System for the demonstration of the concept; planning, design, construction and operation of a large size prototype accelerator driven systems with subsequent large-scale deployment. Following a first phase of R and D focused on the understanding of the basic principles of ADS (already partly underway), the programmes should be streamlined and focused on a practical demonstration of the key issues. These demonstrations should cover high intensity proton accelerators (beam currents in the range 1-20 mA), spallation targets of high power (of power in excess of 1 megawatt), and their effective coupling with a sub-critical core. Cost estimates are taken into account as well as the ADS activities in Japan and USA

  13. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power

  14. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-12-31

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power.

  15. TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment (TRADE)

    This short report is derivated from the TRADE FINAL FEASIBILITY REPORT (March 2002) that is the result of the collective effort of a Working Group composed by ENEA, CEA, CERN, ANSALDO under Carlo Rubbia (ENEA) and Massimo Salvatores (CEA) supervision. The TRADE experiment, to be performed in the TRIGA reactor of the ENEA Casaccia Centre consists in the coupling of an external proton accelerator to a target to be installed in the Central thimble of the reactor scrammed to sub-criticality. This pilot experiment, aimed at a global demonstration of the ADS concept, is based on an original idea of Carlo Rubbia, presented at CEA in October 2000. (author)

  16. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  17. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  18. Proton-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration

    Caldwell, Allen; Pukhov, Alexander; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas excited by laser beams or bunches of relativistic electrons have been used to produce electric fields of 10–100 GV m$^{-1}$. This has opened up the possibility of building compact particle accelerators at the gigaelectronvolt scale. However, it is not obvious how to scale these approaches to the energy frontier of particle physics—the teraelectronvolt regime. Here, we introduce the possibility of proton-bunch-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration, and demonstrate through numerical simulations that this energy regime could be reached in a single accelerating stage.

  19. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  20. Preliminary design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system demonstrator

    At the present time, nuclear power appears to be the best solution for producing a large amount of electricity from both economical and ecological viewpoints, provided that acceptable answers to the nuclear waste concern are found. In France, this is the subject of the law 91-1381 (December 30th , 1991). The transmutation of most of the long-lived radioactive wastes is a promising solution which could play a substantial role for the safety of the fuel cycle. Sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS), coupling an ion accelerator and a sub-critical reactor, seems to have a high capacity for the fission of minor actinides and transmutation of long life fission products. The practicality on an industrial scale of partitioning and transmutation through ADS for reducing the amount of long life radio-nuclides has to be evaluated. It was recognised that the most efficient way, in terms of cost and planning, to conclusively assess the potential and the feasibility of a full scale industrial programme on ADS was to design and operate an ADS Demonstrator. The main ADS DF characteristics, defined within a joint working group, and reactor design features are described and justified. Then, main issues which call for research and development support are identified. (authors)

  1. Preliminary neutronics design and analysis for accelerator driven subcritical tritium production reactor ADS-T

    In this paper, by using self-developed multi-functional 4D neutronics simulation system VisualBUS4.2 and hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL3.0, sensitivity analysis on spallation neutron energy, abundance of 6Li in tritium breeding material, structural steel, initial keff, neutron energy spectrum as well as the placement of tritium production assembly was performed for lead-alloy cooled accelerator driven subcritical nuclear waste transmutation and tritium production reactor ADS-T (ADS- Tritium). Finally, preliminary neutronics options of ADS-T were given, an attractive tritium production pathway was provided. (authors)

  2. Neutronic studies in support of accelerator-driven systems: The MUSE experiments in the MASURCA facility

    Soule, R.; Assal, W.; Chaussonnet, P.; Destouches, C.; Domergue, C.; Jammes, C.; Laurens, J.-M.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Mellier, F.; Perret, G.; Rimpault, G.; Servière, H.; Imel, G.; M. Thomas, G.; VILLAMARIN D.

    2004-01-01

    The MUSE program (multiplication with an external source) is in progress at the MASURCA critical facility at the Cadarache Research Center of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique in France. The program is dedicated to the physics studies of accelerator-driven systems in support of transmutation studies of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. It began in 1995 with the coupling of a Cf source in MASURCA and was followed by a commercial (d,T) source. In 2001, a specially constructed...

  3. MYRRHA project: a Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for R and D

    The objective of the MYRRHA project is to develop a multipurpose neutron source for research and development applications on the basis of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Current activities in this area focus on (1) the continuation and the extension towards ADS of the ongoing programmes at SCK-CEN in the field of reactor materials, fuel and reactor physics research; (2) the enhancement and the triggering of new R and D activities such as nuclear waste transmutation, ADS technology, liquid metal embrittlement; (3) the initiation of medical applications, for example proton therapy and PET production, or proton Based irradiation programmes. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  4. Cosmic acceleration driven by mirage inhomogeneities

    A cosmological model based on an inhomogeneous D3-brane moving in an AdS5 x S5 bulk is introduced. Although there are no special points in the bulk, the brane universe has a centre and is isotropic around it. The model has an accelerating expansion and its effective cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the distance from the centre, giving a possible geometrical origin for the smallness of a present-day cosmological constant. Besides, if our model is considered as an alternative of early-time acceleration, it is shown that the early stage accelerating phase ends in a dust-dominated FRW homogeneous universe. Mirage-driven acceleration thus provides a dark matter component for the brane universe final state. We finally show that the model fulfils the current constraints on inhomogeneities

  5. Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation

    The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)

  6. Disposition of Nuclear Waste Using Subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems

    Doolen, G.D.; Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.A.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-06-27

    ATW destroys virtually all the plutonium and higher actinides without reprocessing the spent fuel in a way that could lead to weapons material diversion. An ATW facility consists of three major elements: (1) a high-power proton linear accelerator; (2) a pyrochemical spent fuel treatment i waste cleanup system; (3) a liquid lead-bismuth cooled burner that produces and utilizes an intense source-driven neutron flux for transmutation in a heterogeneous (solid fuel) core. The concept is the result of many years of development at LANL as well as other major international research centers. Once demonstrated and developed, ATW could be an essential part of a global non-proliferation strategy for countries that could build up large quantities of plutonium from their commercial reactor waste. ATW technology, initially proposed in the US, has received wide and rapidly increasing attention abroad, especially in Europe and the Far East with major programs now being planned, organized and tided. Substantial convergence presently exists on the technology choices among the programs, opening the possibility of a strong and effective international collaboration on the phased development of the ATW technology.

  7. LAVENDER: A steady-state core analysis code for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Kai; He, Mingtao; Li, Xunzhao

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new code system for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) is developed. • S{sub N} transport solver in triangular-z meshes, fine deletion analysis and multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis are coupled in the code. • Numerical results indicate that the code is reliable and efficient for design studies of ADSRs. - Abstract: Accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) have been proposed and widely investigated for the transmutation of transuranics (TRUs). ADSRs have several special characteristics, such as the subcritical core driven by spallation neutrons, anisotropic neutron flux distribution and complex geometry etc. These bring up requirements for development or extension of analysis codes to perform design studies. A code system named LAVENDER has been developed in this paper. It couples the modules for spallation target simulation and subcritical core analysis. The neutron transport-depletion calculation scheme is used based on the homogenized cross section from assembly calculations. A three-dimensional S{sub N} nodal transport code based on triangular-z meshes is employed and a multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis model is integrated. In the depletion calculation, the evolution of isotopic composition in the core is evaluated using the transmutation trajectory analysis algorithm (TTA) and fine depletion chains. The new code is verified by several benchmarks and code-to-code comparisons. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the steady-state analysis and reactor core design of ADSRs.

  8. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  9. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  10. Update on Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    Xia, G; Lotov, K; Pukhov, A; Kumar, N; An, W; Lu, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C; Huang, C; Muggli, P; Assmann, R; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the update of proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PDPWA) is given. After a brief introduction to the scheme of PDPWA, a future demonstration experiment is discussed. The particle-in-cell simulation results based on the realistic proton beams from the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are presented, followed by a simulation study of proton bunch compression. Presented at AAC’10, 13-19 June 2010, Annapolis, MD, USA

  11. Preliminary neutronics analysis of a spallation target for transmutation

    Accelerator Driven subcritical System (ADS) was recognized as an effective nuclear waste transmutation device. Target in liquid or solid in an independent loop bombarded by the charged particle beam was considered as the neutron source. Heavy metal was chosen as target material or coolant. The present work was to discuss the possibility of taking Minor Actinides as part of spallation target material, for a better transmutation performance of entire ADS. According to the thermal cooling and irradiation time limitation, a conceptual design of target for transmutation was proposed. And preliminary neutronics analysis for target performance assessment including neutron flux, neutron yield as well neutron spectrum is shown in this work. (author)

  12. MYRRHA: a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development

    SCK-CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, and IBA s.a., Ion Beam Application, a world leader in accelerator technology, want to fulfil a prominent role in the Accelerator Driven Systems field and are designing an ADS prototype, the MYRRHA Project, and conducting an associated R and D programme. The partners are foreseeing MYRRHA as a first step towards the European ADS-Demo facility. The project focuses primarily on ADS related research, i.e. structural materials and nuclear fuel research, liquid metals and associated aspects, sub-critical reactor physics and subsequently on applications such as waste transmutation, radioisotope production and safety research on sub-critical systems. In this respect, the MYRRHA system should become a new major research infrastructure for the European partners presently involved in the ADS Demo development, supporting and enabling the international R and D programs. Ion Beam Applications, the Belgium world leader in particle accelerators, had joined the MYRRHA Project to perform the accelerator development. Currently the study and preliminary conceptual design of the MYRRHA system is going on and an intensive R and D programme is conducted to assess the most risky points of the present design. This study will define the final choice of the characteristics of the facility depending on the selected fields of application to be achieved. The MYRRHA concept, as it is today, is based on the coupling of an upgraded commercial proton accelerator with a spallation target surrounded by a subcritical neutron-multiplying medium. Its design is determined by the versatility m applications that should be made possible. Further technical and/or strategic developments of the project might change the concept. A cyclotron, based on positive ion acceleration technology brings the protons up to an energy level of 350 MeV. The nominal current is 5 mA of protons. The spallation target system consists in a circuit with, at the upper part, a free

  13. Transmutation experiments ion I-129, La-139 and Np-237 using the Nuclotron accelerator

    Westmeier, W.; Brandt, B. A.; Langrock, E. J.; Odoj, R.; Adam, Jindřich; Bradnova, V.; Golovatyuk, VM.; Krasnov, VA.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Sosnin, A. N.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Vladimirova, NM.; Hashemi-Nezhad, R. S.; Zamani-Valasiadou, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2005), s. 65-73. ISSN 0033-8230 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA213 Keywords : transmutation * relativistic proton beam * moderator Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2005

  14. Scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in the framework of the French Act on Waste Management

    In the framework of the French Act on Waste Management, options of minor actinides (MA) transmutation are studied, based on several scenarios of sodium fast reactor deployment. Basically, one of these scenarios considers the deployment of a 60 GWe SFR fleet in two steps (20 GWe from 2040 to 2050 and 40 GWe, as well as, from 2080 to 2100). For this scenario, the advantages and drawbacks of different transmutation options are evaluated: - transmutation of all minor actinides or only of americium; - transmutation in homogeneous mode (MA bearing fuel in all the core or just in the outer core) or in heterogeneous mode (MA bearing radial blankets). Scenarios have been optimised to limit the impacts of MA transmutation on the cycle: - reduction of the initial MA content in the core in the case of transmutation in homogeneous mode to reduce the impact on reactivity coefficients; - reduction of the number of rows of blankets and fuel decay heat in the case of transmutation in heterogeneous mode. The sensitivity of transmutation options to cycle parameters such as the fuel cooling time before transportation is also assessed. Thus, the transmutation of only americium in one row of radial blankets containing initially 10 pc % Am and irradiated during the same duration as the standard fuel assemblies appears to be a suitable solution to limit the transmutation impacts on fuel cycle and facilities. A comparison of results obtained with MA transmutation in dedicated systems is also presented with a symbiotic scenario considering ADS (accelerator-driven system) deployment to transmute MA together with a SFR fleet to produce energy. The MA inventory within the cycle is higher in the case of transmutation in ADS than in the case of transmutation in SFR. Considering the industrial feasibility of MA transmutation, it appears important to study 'independently' SFR deployment and MA transmutation. Consequently, scenarios of progressive introduction of MA options are assessed

  15. Designing of the laser driven dielectric accelerator

    A phase-modulation-masked-type laser-driven dielectric accelerator was studied. Although the preliminary analysis made a conclusion that a grating period and an electron speed must satisfy the matching condition of LG=λ=v=c, a deformation of a wavefront in a transmission grating relaxed the matching condition and enabled the slow electron to be accelerated. The simulation results by using the FDTD code, Meep, showed that the low energy electron of 20 keV felt the acceleration field strength of 20 MV/m and gradually felt higher field as the speed was increased. The ultra relativistic electron felt the field strength of 600 MV/m. The Meep code also showed that a length of the accelerator to get energy of 1 MeV was 3.8 mm, the required laser power and energy were 11 GW and 350 mJ, respectively. Restrictions on the laser was eased by adopting sequential laser pulses. If the accelerator is illuminated by sequential N pulses, the pulse power, pulse width and the pulse energy are reduced to 1=N, 1=N and 1=N2, respectively. The required laser power per pulse is estimated to be 2.2 GW when ten pairs of sequential laser pulse is irradiated. (author)

  16. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    Lee, Hee Seok; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility.

  17. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility

  18. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  19. On the use of WIMS-7 for calculations on accelerator-driven systems

    De Kruijff, W.J.M.; Freudenreich, W.J.M

    1998-02-01

    The WIMS-7 code package has successfully been applied for a simple benchmark of a lead-cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS). With WIMS-7 it is possible to model a fixed source and to calculate the multiplication in a subcritical system. The calculations have shown that WIMS-7 is capable of treating this benchmark of a homogenized lead-cooled system with a fast neutron spectrum. The results described in this report are very promising and stimulate further investigation of WIMS-7 to study ADS-applications and lead-cooled reactor cores. It is useful to have a more extensive validation of WIMS-7 for lead-cooled ADS. In this report we have only considered a simple homogenized system. In the near future the application of WIMS-7 will be twofold. First, WIMS-7 can be applied to calculate the neutron spectrum in an accelerator-driven system in order to perform transmutation studies with a burnup code. Second, WIMS-7 can be used to study in more detail the neutronics of accelerator-driven systems. This is useful in order to learn more about the physics of accelerator-driven systems. 6 refs.

  20. On the use of WIMS-7 for calculations on accelerator-driven systems

    The WIMS-7 code package has successfully been applied for a simple benchmark of a lead-cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS). With WIMS-7 it is possible to model a fixed source and to calculate the multiplication in a subcritical system. The calculations have shown that WIMS-7 is capable of treating this benchmark of a homogenized lead-cooled system with a fast neutron spectrum. The results described in this report are very promising and stimulate further investigation of WIMS-7 to study ADS-applications and lead-cooled reactor cores. It is useful to have a more extensive validation of WIMS-7 for lead-cooled ADS. In this report we have only considered a simple homogenized system. In the near future the application of WIMS-7 will be twofold. First, WIMS-7 can be applied to calculate the neutron spectrum in an accelerator-driven system in order to perform transmutation studies with a burnup code. Second, WIMS-7 can be used to study in more detail the neutronics of accelerator-driven systems. This is useful in order to learn more about the physics of accelerator-driven systems. 6 refs

  1. Laser driven proton acceleration and beam shaping

    Sinigardi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In the race to obtain protons with higher energies, using more compact systems at the same time, laser-driven plasma accelerators are becoming an interesting possibility. But for now, only beams with extremely broad energy spectra and high divergence have been produced. The driving line of this PhD thesis was the study and design of a compact system to extract a high quality beam out of the initial bunch of protons produced by the interaction of a laser pulse with a thin solid target, usi...

  2. Accelerator-induced transients in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

    Achieving higher particles energies and beam powers have long been the main focus of research in accelerator technology. Since Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (ADSRs) have become the subject of increasing interest, accelerator reliability and modes of operation have become important matters that require further research and development in order to accommodate the engineering and economic needs of ADSRs. This paper focuses on neutronic and thermo-mechanical analyses of accelerator-induced transients in an ADSR. Such transients fall into three main categories: beam interruptions (trips), pulsed-beam operation, and beam overpower. The concept of a multiple-target ADSR is shown to increase system reliability and to mitigate the negative effects of beam interruptions, such as thermal cyclic fatigue in the fuel cladding and the huge financial cost of total power loss. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of the temperature-to-reactivity feedback mechanisms in ADSRs. A comparison of shutdown mechanisms using control rods and beam cut-off highlights the intrinsic safety features of ADSRs. It is evident that the presence of control rods is crucial in an industrial-scale ADSR. This paper also proposes a method to monitor core reactivity online using the repetitive pattern of beam current fluctuations in a pulsed-beam operation mode. Results were produced using PTS-ADS, a computer code developed specifically to study the dynamic neutronic and thermal responses to beam transients in subcritical reactor systems.

  3. Coupling of a System Analysis with a Neutronics Analysis for Conceptual Study of Fusion- Driven Transmutation Reactor

    A compact tokamak reactor concept as a 14 MeV neutron source is desirable from an economic viewpoint for a fusion-driven transmutation reactor. For the optimal design of a reactor, a radial build of reactor components has to be determined by considering the plasma physics and engineering constraints which interrelate various reactor components. In a transmutation reactor, design of blanket and shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor; the blanket should produce enough tritium for tritium self-sufficiency, the transmutation rate of waste has to be maximized, and the shield should provide sufficient protection for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil. To determine the radial build of the blanket and the shield, not only a radiation transport analysis but also a burn-up calculation were coupled with the system analysis and it allowed the self-consistent determination of the design parameters of a transmutation reactor. For neutronic optimization of the blanket and the shield, the quantities such as the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), nuclear heating, radiation damage to the toroidal field coil have to be calculated and burn-up rates of Li, actinides and fission products have to be calculated. Thus the neutronic analysis need to be coupled in the system analysis. In most of the previous system studies, neutronic calculation and plasma analysis are performed separately, so blanket and shield size was determined independently from the reactor size. In this work, to account for the interrelation of blanket and shield with the other components of a reactor system, we coupled the system analysis with one-dimensional neutronic calculation to determine the reactor parameters in self consistent manner. LAR (Low Aspect Ratio) tokamak plasma has the potential of high β operation with high bootstrap current fractions. In the LAR tokamak reactor, the radial build of TF coil(TFC) and the shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor since it

  4. Accelerator-driven system design concept for disposing of spent nuclear fuels

    At present, the US SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) inventory is growing by about 2,000 metric tonnes (MT) per year from the current operating nuclear power plants to reach about 70,000 MT by 2015. This SNF inventory contains about 1% transuranics (700 MT), which has about 115 MT of minor actinides. Accelerator-driven systems utilising proton accelerators with neutron spallation targets and subcritical blankets can be utilised for transmuting these transuranics, simultaneously generating carbon free energy, and significantly reducing the capacity of the required geological repository storage facility for the spent nuclear fuels. A fraction of the SNF plutonium can be used as a MOX fuel in the current/future thermal power reactors and as a starting fuel for future fast power reactors. The uranium of the spent nuclear fuel can be recycled for use in future nuclear power plants. This paper shows that only four to five accelerator-driven systems operating for less than 33 full power years can dispose of the US SNF inventory expected by 2015. In addition, a significant fraction of the long-lived fission products will be transmuted at the same time. Each system consists of a proton accelerator with a neutron spallation target and a subcritical assembly. The accelerator beam parameters are 1 GeV protons and 25 MW beam power, which produce 3 GWt in the subcritical assembly. A liquid metal (lead or lead-bismuth eutectic) spallation target is selected because of design advantages. This target is located at the centre of the subcritical assembly to maximise the utilisation of spallation neutrons. Because of the high power density in the target material, the target has its own coolant loop, which is independent of the subcritical assembly coolant loop. Mobile fuel forms with transuranic materials without uranium are considered in this work with liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic as fuel carrier

  5. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    Wawrzynek, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  6. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (Pfus ∼ 10-100 MW, βN ∼ 2-3, Qp ∼ 2-5, R ∼ 3-5 m, I ∼ 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-a-vis a neutron source is reviewed. (author)

  7. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    Stacey, W. M.

    2001-02-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are reviewed. The likely parameter ranges for tokamak neutron sources that could produce an interesting transmutation rate of 100s to 1000s of kg/FPY (where FPY stands for full power year) are identified (Pfus approx 10-100 MW, βN approx 2-3, Qp approx 2-5, R approx 3-5 m, I approx 6-10 MA). The electrical and thermal power characteristics of transmutation reactors driven by fusion and accelerator spallation neutron sources are compared. The status of fusion development vis-à-vis a neutron source is reviewed.

  8. The Italian R and D and industrial programme for an accelerator driven system experimental plant

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), coupling an accelerator with a target and a sub-critical reactor, could simultaneously burn minor actinides and transmute long-lived fission products, while producing a consistent amount of electrical energy. A team of Italian R and D organizations and industries has set up a network of coordinated programs addressed to study the design issues of an 80 MWth Experimental Facility. The present memo focalizes the attention on some results obtained by the R and D activities and by the on-going industrial short term activities aiming at the preparation of the proposed preliminary design, leaving the deal to define the details of the subsequent medium term activities to the expected common program in the European context. (author)

  9. Transmutation research in Europe: Steps towards a demonstrator

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Fazio, Concetta; Struwe, Dankward [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Lepoldshafen (Germany); Abderrahim, Hamid Ait; D' hondt, Pierre [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, BR1 Building, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Cinotti, Luciano [ANSALDO NUCLEARE, Divisione di ANSALDO ENERGIA SpA, Corso Perrone, 25, 16100 Genova (Italy); Giot, Michel [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place de l' Universite, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Giraud, Benoit [Framatome ANP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Gonzalez, Enrique [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22 E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Granget, Gilbert; Pillon, Sylvie; Warin, Dominique [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex (France); Monti, Stefano [ENEA FIS-NUC, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mueller, Alex C. [CNRS, 3, rue Michel-Ange, 75794 Paris cedex 16 (France); Salvatores, Massimo [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Lepoldshafen (Germany); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the design and the feasibility assessment of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS will strengthen and consolidate the European research and development activities in transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industries assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005. (authors)

  10. Transmutation research in Europe: Steps towards a demonstrator

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the design and the feasibility assessment of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS will strengthen and consolidate the European research and development activities in transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industries assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005. (authors)

  11. Assessment of reference structural materials, heavy liquid metal technology and thermal-hydraulics for European waste transmutation ADS

    The R and D program, named DEMETRA (DEvelopment and assessment of structural materials and heavy liquid MEtal technology for TRAnsmutation systems) program is a domain of the integrated EU project EUROpean Research Program for the TRANSmutation of High-Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS). DEMETRA has been fully defined on the basis of the design needs for the European Accelerator Driven System devoted to the transmutation of spent nuclear waste. The subjects addressed in DEMETRA are materials assessment, chemical-physical characterization of the LBE, technologies and thermal-hydraulics. (author)

  12. Subcritical reactivity monitoring in accelerator driven systems

    In this paper, an absolute measurements technique for the subcriticality determination is presented. The development of accelerator driven systems (ADS) requires the development of methods to monitor and control the subcriticality of this kind of system, without interfering with its normal operation mode. This method is based on the stochastic neutron and photon transport theory that can be implemented by presently available neutron transport codes. As a by-product of the methodology a monitoring measurement technique has been developed and verified using two coupled Monte Carlo programs. The first one, LAHET, simulates the spallation collisions and the high energy transport and the other, MCNPDSP, is used to estimate the counting statistics from neutron ray counter in fissile system, and the transport for neutrons with energies less than 20 Mev. Through the analysis of the counter detectors it is possible to determine the kinetics parameters and the keff value. We present two different ways to obtain these parameters using the accelerator or using a Cf-252 source. A good agreement between theory and simulations has been obtained with both sources

  13. A measurement of actinide neutron transmutations with accelerator mass spectrometry in order to infer neutron capture cross sections

    Bauder, William K.

    Improved neutron capture cross section data for transuranic and minor actinides are essential for assessing possibilities for next generation reactors and advanced fuel cycles. The Measurement of Actinide Neutron TRAnsmutation (MANTRA) project aims to make a comprehensive set of energy integrated neutron capture cross section measurements for all relevant isotopes from Th to Cf. The ability to extract these cross sections relies on the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to analyze isotopic concentrations in samples irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The AMS measurements were performed at the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS) and required a number of key technical developments to the ion source, accelerator, and detector setup. In particular, a laser ablation material injection system was developed at the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. This system provides a more effective method to produce ion beams from samples containing only 1% actinide material and offers some benefits for reducing cross talk in the source. A series of four actinide measurements are described in this dissertation. These measurements represent the most substantial AMS work attempted at ATLAS and the first results of the MANTRA project. Isotopic ratios for one and two neutron captures were measured in each sample with total uncertainties around 10%. These results can be combined with a MCNP model for the neutron fluence to infer actinide neutron capture cross sections.

  14. Achievement of accelerator parameters needed for energy producing and waste transmuting ADS

    An attractive approach to the achievement of the accelerator parameters needed for systems producing energy and burning wastes, based on the use of circular machines, which are more compact compared with the linear accelerators, is briefly presented

  15. Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems. Second International Workshop Proceedings, Nantes, France, 21-23 May 2013

    The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Following the success of the workshop series on the utilisation and reliability of the High Power Proton Accelerators (HPPA), the scope of this new workshop series on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems has been extended to cover subcritical systems as well as the use of neutron sources. The workshop organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provided experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of ADS and neutron sources. A total of 40 papers were presented during the oral and poster sessions. Four technical sessions were organised addressing ADS experiments and test facilities, accelerators, simulation, safety, data, neutron sources that were opportunity to present the status of projects like the MYRRHA facility, the MEGAPIE target, FREYA and GUINEVERE experiments, the KIPT neutron source, and the FAIR linac. These proceedings include all the papers presented at the workshop

  16. Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Driven Systems: Feasibility Calculations

    Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium

  17. A New Type of Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Driven by Magnetowaves

    Chen, Pisin(Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, 10617, Taipei, Taiwan); Chang, Feng-Yin; Lin, Guey-Lin; Noble, Robert J.; Sydora, Richard

    2008-01-01

    We present a new concept for a plasma wakefield accelerator driven by magnetowaves (MPWA). This concept was originally proposed as a viable mechanism for the "cosmic accelerator" that would accelerate cosmic particles to ultra high energies in the astrophysical setting. Unlike the more familiar Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) and the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) where the drivers, the charged-particle beam and the laser, are independently existing entities, MPWA invokes the high-fre...

  18. Partitioning and transmutation (P and D) 1995. A review of the current state of the art

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P/T) is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D efforts are summarized. Nuclear transmutation with energy production is feasible in nuclear reactors where fast and thermal breeders are the most efficient for transmutation purposes. The operation of subcritical nuclear reactors by high current proton accelerators that generate neutrons in a spallation target is also an interesting option for transmutation and energy production, that has to be more carefully evaluated. These accelerator-driven systems are probably the only solution for the transmutation of long-lived fission products with small neutron capture cross sections and actinide isotopes with small fission cross sections. The requirements on the separation chemistry in the partitioning process depends on the transmutation strategy chosen. Recent developments in aqueous based separation chemistry opens some interesting possibilities to meet some of the requirements, such as separation of different actinides and some fission products and reduction of secondary waste streams. In the advanced accelerator-driven transmutation systems proposed, liquid fuels such as molten salts are considered. The partitioning processes that can be used for these types of fuel will, however, require a long term research program. The possibility to use centrifuge separation is an interesting partitioning option that recently has been proposed. 51 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  19. A DC arc plasma beam source for thermal hydraulic simulation of target - proton beam interaction for accelerator driven sub critical systems

    Studies on accelerator driven sub critical (ADS) nuclear reactors have taken a new dimension due to their extremely high safety level and incredible potential in terms of both thorium utilization as well as nuclear waste transmutation. This paper presents the design and operational data of the plasma source including V-I characteristics, electro thermal efficiency and the heat source spatial distribution on the target

  20. Thermal-hydraulics of lead bismuth for accelerator driven systems

    Full text of publication follows: Lead bismuth has been selected as one of the most suitable coolants to be used in accelerator driven systems (ADS) for transmutation of minor actinides. It serves both, as a target material of the spallation source to balance the neutron economy, and as a coolant with high thermal inertia to provide a safe and reliable heat transfer to the secondary power cycle. With the aim to develop the required technologies to enable the later design of such ADS systems, the Karlsruhe Lead bismuth LAboratory KALLA, consisting of three test loops, has been built and set into operation at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe since 2000, keeping more than 45 t of PbBi in operation at temperatures up to 550 deg. C. The test program includes oxygen control systems, heat flux simulation tools, electro-magnetic and mechanical pump technologies, heat transfer and flow measurements, reliability and corrosion tests. In a first test campaign, a technology loop called THESYS was built to develop measurement technologies for the acquisition of scalar quantities, like pressures, temperatures, concentrations, and flow rates, as well as velocity fields, which are required for both operational and scientific purposes. THESYS also allowed to perform generic turbulent heat transfer experiments necessary to provide liquid metal adapted turbulent heat transfer models for ADS design analyses. The second loop, the thermalhydraulic loop THEADES with an installed power of 2.5 MW, has been built to conduct prototypical component experiments for beam windows (e.g. MEGAPIE or MYHRRA) or fuel rod configurations. First test results will be reported. The experimental team is supported by a numerical team who studied the thermal hydraulics of the tested components in order to enable a later transfer of the results to industrial systems. Three different types of codes are being improved: lumped parameter codes (e.g. ATHLET) to perform system analyses for lead bismuth in loops

  1. Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and fast reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    The long-term hazard of radioactive waste arising from nuclear energy production is a matter of continued discussion and public concern in many countries. Through partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products, the radiotoxicity of high-level waste (HLW) can be reduced by a factor of 100 compared with the current once-through fuel cycle. This requires very effective reactor and fuel cycle strategies, including fast reactors (FR) and/or accelerator-driven, sub-critical systems (ADS). The present study compares FR- and ADS-based actinide transmutation systems with respect to reactor properties, fuel cycle requirements, safety, economic aspects and (R and D) needs. Several advanced fuel cycle strategies are analysed in a consistent manner to provide insight into the essential differences between the various systems in which the role of ADS is emphasised. The report includes a summary aimed at policy makers and research managers as well as a detailed technical section for experts in this domain. (authors)

  2. Preliminary studies of a new accelerator-driven minor actinide burner in industrial scale

    Highlights: • A new accelerator-driven minor actinide (MA) burner was proposed. • Comprehensive design of spallation target, fuel assembly and subcritical core was performed. • Preliminary safety analyses indicate the inherent safety of the core in the reactivity insertion (500 pcm) and beam overpower (50% increase) transients. - Abstract: Pursuing high transmutation rate of minor actinide (MA), a preliminary conceptual design of a lead-bismuth (LBE) cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) is proposed in this study. Parametric studies are performed to optimize the neutronics and thermal–hydraulics performances. The proton energy and axial position of the proton beam impact is investigated to obtain high neutron source efficiency and spallation neutron yield. The influences of MA/Pu mixing ratio and the ratio of pin pitch to diameter (P/D) are also optimized to control the burnup reactivity swing and the minimum coolant velocity for adequate cooling. To reduce the power peak, three kinds of power flattening techniques are adopted and compared. The results show that the inert matrix ratio zone loading method seems more versatile. Based on the analyses, an optimized three zone loading pattern is proposed for the 800 MWth subcritical core. The total transmutation rate of MA is 328.8 kg per effective full power year. Preliminary safety analyses based on the balance of power method (BOP) are performed and the results show that in the reactivity insertion and beam overpower transients, the core shows inherent safety, but the scram is necessary by cutting off the beam current to protect the core from possible damages caused by the loss of flow

  3. Preliminary studies of a new accelerator-driven minor actinide burner in industrial scale

    Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, No. 54, Beijing 100082 (China); Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A new accelerator-driven minor actinide (MA) burner was proposed. • Comprehensive design of spallation target, fuel assembly and subcritical core was performed. • Preliminary safety analyses indicate the inherent safety of the core in the reactivity insertion (500 pcm) and beam overpower (50% increase) transients. - Abstract: Pursuing high transmutation rate of minor actinide (MA), a preliminary conceptual design of a lead-bismuth (LBE) cooled accelerator-driven system (ADS) is proposed in this study. Parametric studies are performed to optimize the neutronics and thermal–hydraulics performances. The proton energy and axial position of the proton beam impact is investigated to obtain high neutron source efficiency and spallation neutron yield. The influences of MA/Pu mixing ratio and the ratio of pin pitch to diameter (P/D) are also optimized to control the burnup reactivity swing and the minimum coolant velocity for adequate cooling. To reduce the power peak, three kinds of power flattening techniques are adopted and compared. The results show that the inert matrix ratio zone loading method seems more versatile. Based on the analyses, an optimized three zone loading pattern is proposed for the 800 MWth subcritical core. The total transmutation rate of MA is 328.8 kg per effective full power year. Preliminary safety analyses based on the balance of power method (BOP) are performed and the results show that in the reactivity insertion and beam overpower transients, the core shows inherent safety, but the scram is necessary by cutting off the beam current to protect the core from possible damages caused by the loss of flow.

  4. Design, safety and fuel developments for the EFIT accelerator-driven system with CERCER and CERMET cores

    European R and D for ADS design, fuel and general technology development is driven in the 6. FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS programme. In EUROTRANS, two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an accelerator-driven System. The longer-term EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, with which this paper is deals, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. The EUROTRANS Domain DM1 (DESIGN) developed the conceptual reference design of the EFIT, a 400 MWth ADT, loaded with a CERCER, U-free fuel based on an MgO matrix. The Domain DM3 (AFTRA), responsible for fuel development within EUROTRANS, in parallel developed a core loaded with a Mo-92 CERMET matrix-based fuel. In both cores for the cladding, the 9Cr1MoVNb T91 steel has been chosen. The core coolant is pure lead with inlet and outlet temperatures of 673 K and 753 K. The windowless target for the 800 MeV proton beam also contains pure lead. The EFIT concept was intended to be optimised towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burn-up, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high level of safety. In the current paper the two designs are reported and discussed. For the project, detailed design calculations have been performed both with deterministic and Monte Carlo methods. An extensive safety study is currently under way for the CERCER reference core. For the CERMET core the most important safety analyses have already been performed, sufficient for a preliminary safety assessment. The status of the design work and fuel development for the CERCER and CERMET cores is presented. In addition the results of the CERMET safety analyses are given. (authors)

  5. Transmutation Scenarios Impacts on Advanced Nuclear Cycles (fabrication/reprocessing/transportation)

    In the frame of the French Law for waste management, minor actinides transmutation scenarios have been studied for a sodium-cooled fast reactors fleet using homogeneous or heterogeneous recycling modes. Americium, neptunium and curium can be transmuted once included together in the standard MOX fuel, or the sole Americium can be incorporated in Am-bearing radial blanket. MAs transmutation in Accelerator Driven System has also been studied while Plutonium is recycling in SFR. Assessments and comparisons of these advanced cycles have been performed in light of technical and economic aspects criteria. The purpose of this study is to present the results in terms of impacts of the transmutation scenarios on fuel cycle plants (fabrication, reprocessing) and transportations taking into account thermal, radiation and criticality parameters. Comparison with no transmutation option is also presented. (author)

  6. First order Fermi acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection

    Drury, Luke O'C

    2012-01-01

    A box model is used to study first order Fermi acceleration driven by magnetic reconnection. It is shown, at least in this simple model, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles is related to the total compression in the same way as in diffusive shock acceleration and is not, as has been suggested, a universal $E^{-5/2}$ spectrum. The acceleration time-scale is estimated and some comments made about the applicability of the process.

  7. Calculations of different transmutation concepts. An international benchmark exercise

    In April 1996, the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) Expert Group on Physics Aspects of Different Transmutation Concepts launched a benchmark exercise to compare different transmutation concepts based on pressurised water reactors (PWRs), fast reactors, and an accelerator-driven system. The aim was to investigate the physics of complex fuel cycles involving reprocessing of spent PWR reactor fuel and its subsequent reuse in different reactor types. The objective was also to compare the calculated activities for individual isotopes as a function of time for different plutonium and minor actinide transmutation scenarios in different reactor systems. This report gives the analysis of results of the 15 solutions provided by the participants: six for the PWRs, six for the fast reactor and three for the accelerator case. Various computer codes and nuclear data libraries were applied. (author)

  8. Conceptual study of transmutation experimental facility. (2) Study on ADS target test facility

    To perform the research and development for accelerator-driven system (ADS), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) plans to build a Transmutation Experimental Facility within the JAERI-KEK joint J-PARC program. Transmutation Experimental Facility consists of two buildings, Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility to make reactor physics experiment with subcritical core, and ADS Target Test Facility for the preparation of irradiation database for various structural materials. In this report, purpose to build, experimental schedule, and design study of the ADS Target Test Facility with drawer type spallation target are summarized. (author)

  9. Reduction of the Radiotoxicity of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using a Two-Tiered System Comprising Light Water Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems

    H.R. Trellue

    2003-06-01

    Two main issues regarding the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors in the United States in the geological repository Yucca Mountain are: (1) Yucca Mountain is not designed to hold the amount of fuel that has been and is proposed to be generated in the next few decades, and (2) the radiotoxicity (i.e., biological hazard) of the waste (particularly the actinides) does not decrease below that of natural uranium ore for hundreds of thousands of years. One solution to these problems may be to use transmutation to convert the nuclides in spent nuclear fuel to ones with shorter half-lives. Both reactor and accelerator-based systems have been examined in the past for transmutation; there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each. By using existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) to burn a majority of the plutonium in spent nuclear fuel and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADSs) to transmute the remainder of the actinides, the benefits of each type of system can be realized. The transmutation process then becomes more efficient and less expensive. This research searched for the best combination of LWRs with multiple recycling of plutonium and ADSs to transmute spent nuclear fuel from past and projected nuclear activities (assuming little growth of nuclear energy). The neutronic design of each system is examined in detail although thermal hydraulic performance would have to be considered before a final system is designed. The results are obtained using the Monte Carlo burnup code Monteburns, which has been successfully benchmarked for MOX fuel irradiation and compared to other codes for ADS calculations. The best combination of systems found in this research includes 41 LWRs burning mixed oxide fuel with two recycles of plutonium ({approx}40 years operation each) and 53 ADSs to transmute the remainder of the actinides from spent nuclear fuel over the course of 60 years of operation.

  10. Reduction of the Radiotoxicity of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using a Two-Tiered System Comprising Light Water Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems

    Two main issues regarding the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors in the United States in the geological repository Yucca Mountain are: (1) Yucca Mountain is not designed to hold the amount of fuel that has been and is proposed to be generated in the next few decades, and (2) the radiotoxicity (i.e., biological hazard) of the waste (particularly the actinides) does not decrease below that of natural uranium ore for hundreds of thousands of years. One solution to these problems may be to use transmutation to convert the nuclides in spent nuclear fuel to ones with shorter half-lives. Both reactor and accelerator-based systems have been examined in the past for transmutation; there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each. By using existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) to burn a majority of the plutonium in spent nuclear fuel and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADSs) to transmute the remainder of the actinides, the benefits of each type of system can be realized. The transmutation process then becomes more efficient and less expensive. This research searched for the best combination of LWRs with multiple recycling of plutonium and ADSs to transmute spent nuclear fuel from past and projected nuclear activities (assuming little growth of nuclear energy). The neutronic design of each system is examined in detail although thermal hydraulic performance would have to be considered before a final system is designed. The results are obtained using the Monte Carlo burnup code Monteburns, which has been successfully benchmarked for MOX fuel irradiation and compared to other codes for ADS calculations. The best combination of systems found in this research includes 41 LWRs burning mixed oxide fuel with two recycles of plutonium (∼40 years operation each) and 53 ADSs to transmute the remainder of the actinides from spent nuclear fuel over the course of 60 years of operation

  11. High power radiation guiding systems for laser driven accelerators

    This paper reviews the main problems encountered in the design of an optical system for transmitting high fluence radiation in a laser driven accelerator. Particular attention is devoted to the analysis of mirror and waveguide systems. (orig.)

  12. High intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Ion acceleration by intense laser-plasma interactions is a very active field of research whose development can be traced in a large number of publications over the last few years. Past studies were mostly performed irradiating thin foils where protons are predominantly accelerated to energies up to 60 MeV in an exponentially decaying spectrum by a mechanism named target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). We present our latest experimental advances on acceleration schemes away from TNSA, such as shock acceleration, ion beam generation from relativistically transparent targets and radiation-pressure acceleration. These results are a major step towards highly energetic, mono-chromatic ion beams generated at high conversion efficiencies as demanded by many potential applications. Those include fast ignition inertial confinement fusion (ICF) as well as oncology and radiation therapy of tumors.

  13. Accelerator-based systems for plutonium destruction and nuclear waste transmutation

    Accelerator-base systems are described that can eliminate long-lived nuclear materials. The impact of these systems on global issues relating to plutonium minimization and nuclear waste disposal can be significant. An overview of the components that comprise these systems is given, along with discussion of technology development status and needs. A technology development plan is presented with emphasis on first steps that would demonstrate technical performance

  14. The R&D Works on the High Intensity Proton Linear Accelerator for Nuclear Waste Transmutation

    Ito, N; Ino, H; Kawai, M; Kusano, J; Mizumoto, M; Murata, H; Oguri, H; Okumura, Y; Touchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    The R&D works of the 10MeV/10mA proton linear accelerator have been carried out for last four years. A high brightness hydrogen ion source, an RFQ and an RF power source have been developed and examined to achieve 2MeV proton beam. A DTL hot test model was also fabricated and a high power test has been carried out. The present status of the R&D works are described in this paper.

  15. Beam-driven, Plasma-based Particle Accelerators

    Muggli, P

    2016-01-01

    We briefly give some of the characteristics of the beam-driven, plasma-based particle accelerator known as the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). We also mention some of the major results that have been obtained since the birth of the concept. We focus on high-energy particle beams where possible.

  16. Choosing the optimal parameters of subcritical reactors driven by accelerators

    Physical aspects of a subcritical Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) driven by proton accelerators are considered. Estimated theoretical calculations are made for subcritical regimes of various types of reactors. It was shown that the creation of the quite effective explosion-safe NPP is real at an existing level of the accelerator technique by using available reactor units (including the serial ones). (author)

  17. Results from Accelerator Driven TRIGA Reactor Experiments at The University of Texas at Austin

    Accelerator Driven Transmutation of High-Level Waste (ATW) is one possible solution to the fuel reprocessing back-end problem for the disposal of high level waste such as minor actinides (Am, Np or Cm) and long-lived fission products. International programs continue to support research towards the eventual construction and operation of a proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source coupled to a subcritical 'neutron amplifier' for more efficient HLW transmutation. This project was performed under DOE AFCI Reactor-Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE). A 20 MeV Electron Linac was installed in the BP no 5 cave placing neutron source adjacent to an offset reactor core to maximize neutron coupling with available systems. Asymmetric neutron injection 'wasted' neutrons due to high leakage but sufficient neutrons were available to raise reactor power to ∼100 watts. The Linac provided approximately 100 mA but only 50% reached target. The Linac cooling system could not prevent overheating at frequencies over 200 Hz. The Linac electron beam had harmonics of primary frequency and periodic low frequency pulse intensity changes. Neutron detection using fission chambers in current mode eliminated saturation dead time and produced better sensitivity. The Operation of 'dual shielded' fission chambers reduced electron noise from linac. Benchmark criticality calculation using start-up data showed that the MCNPX model overestimates reactivity. TRIGA core was loaded to just slightly supercritical by adding graphite elements and measuring reactivity of $0.037. MCNPX modeled TRIGA core with and without graphite to arrive at 'true' measured subcritical multiplication of 0.998733± 0.00069. Thus, Alpha for the UT-RACE TRIGA core was approximately 155.99 s-1. The Stochastic Feynman-Alpha Method (SFM) accuracy was evaluated during transients and reactivity changes. SFM was shown to be a potential real-time method of reactivity determination in future ADSS but requires stable

  18. Research and development activities for transmutation physics experimental facility in J-PARC

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the plan to construct Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility (TEF-P) under a framework of J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) project. TEF-P is a critical assembly which can load Minor Actinide (MA) fuels to perform reactor physics experiments for transmutation systems such as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) or Fast Reactor (FR). The facility can also use proton beam from the J-PARC accelerator to investigate the controllability of ADS. Current status and activities for TEF-P are described. (author)

  19. Laser-driven wakefield electron acceleration and associated radiation sources

    The first part of this research thesis introduces the basic concepts needed for the understanding of the laser-driven wakefield acceleration. It describes the properties of the used laser beams and plasmas, presents some notions about laser-plasma interactions for a better understanding of the physics of laser-driven acceleration. The second part deals with the numerical modelling and the presentation of simulation tools needed for the investigation of laser-induced wakefield acceleration. The last part deals with the optical control of the injection, a technique analogous to the impulsion collision scheme

  20. Investigation of Lead Target Nuclei Used on Accelerator-Driven Systems for Tritium Production

    Tel, E.; Aydin, A.

    2012-02-01

    High-current proton accelerators are being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory and other laboratories for accelerator production of tritium, transmuting long-lived radioactive waste into shorter-lived products, converting excess plutonium, and producing energy. These technologies make use of spallation neutrons produced in ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions on high-Z targets. Through ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions, neutrons are produced and are moderated by heavy water. These moderated neutrons are subsequently captured on 3He to produce tritium via the ( n,p) reaction. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial fusion power plant. Rubbia succeeded in a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier. This plant is to be known the accelerator-driven system (ADS). The ADS can be used for production of neutrons in spallation neutron source and they can act as an intense neutron source in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, capable of incinerating nuclear waste and of producing energy. Thorium and Uranium are nuclear fuels and Lead, Bismuth, Tungsten are the target nuclei in these reactor systems. The spallation targets can be Pb, Bi, W, etc. isotopes and these target material can be liquid or solid. Naturally Lead includes the 204Pb (%1.42), 206Pb (%24.1), 207Pb (%22.1) and 208Pb (%52.3) isotopes. The design of ADS systems and also a fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems require the knowledge of a wide range of better data. In this study, by using Hartree-Fock method with an effective nucleon-nucleon Skyrme interactions rms nuclear charge radii, rms nuclear mass radii, rms nuclear proton, neutron radii and neutron skin thickness were calculated for the 204, 206, 208Pb isotopes . The calculated results have been compared with those of the compiled experimental and theoretical values of other studies.

  1. The nuclear fuel cycle for transmutation: a critical review

    This review presents a critical common FZK and CEA discussion of the transmutation possibilities of actinide nuclei and of fission products as Tc and I in reactors (PWRs and FBRs) and in accelerator-driven subcritical configurations. The activities in the Research Center Karlsruhe in the chemical area are briefly discussed. Activities in the chemical area at CEA are presented elsewhere at this conference. The alternate waste disposal with transmutation is compared to the direct disposal option, as seen from the FZK point of view. Work in France on this point is still underway according to a law, voted in the French Parliament in 1991. The aim of this study is to evaluate, how the short-term and long-term risks of nuclear waste, including both direct disposal and transmutation scenarios, realistically could be minimized. (authors)

  2. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  3. Superpower linear proton accelerator for neutron generator and accelerator-driven system

    The perspectives of development of superpower linear proton accelerators for high-intensive neutron generators and accelerator-driven systems are discussed. The main technical characteristics of the projects on neutron generators based on linear accelerators are presented. These projects are developed in USA, Japan, Italy and Russia. The RFQ structures are used in all projects for the initial acceleration of protons up to 5-7 MeV. The different modifications of drift tubes are applied for acceleration up to 100 MeV. The main acceleration (up to 1 GeV) is supposed to perform in superconducting resonators

  4. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  5. Simulation of accelerator transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes; Simulation de transmutation de dechets nucleaires a vie longue par accelerateur

    Wolff-Bacha Fabienne [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-07-09

    The incineration of minor actinides with a hybrid reactor (i.e. coupled with an accelerator) could reduce their radioactivity. The scientific tool used for simulations, the GEANT code implemented on a paralleled computer, has been confirmed initially on thin and thick targets and by simulation of a pressurized water reactor, a fast reactor like Superphenix, and a molten salt fast hybrid reactor `ATP`. Simulating a thermal hybrid reactor seems to indicate the non-negligible presence of neutrons which diffuse back to the accelerator. In spite of simplifications, the simulation of a molten lead fast hybrid reactor (as the CERN Fast Energy Amplifier) might indicate difficulties in the radial power distribution in the core, the life time of the window and the activated air leak risk. Finally, we propose a thermoelectric compact hybrid reactor, PRAHE - small atomic board hybrid reactor - the principle of which allows a neutron coupling between the accelerator and the reactor. (author) 270 refs., 91 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. Monte-Carlo Simulation of the Features of Bi-Reactior Accelerator Driven Systems

    Bznuni, S A; Khudaverdian, A G; Barashenkov, V S; Sosnin, A N; Polyanskii, A A

    2002-01-01

    Parameters of accelerator-driven systems containing two "cascade" subcritical assemblies (liquid metal fast reactor, used as a neutron booster, and a thermal reactor, where main heat production is taking place) are investigated. Three main reactor cores analogous to VVER-1000, MSBR-1000 and CANDU-6 reactors are considered. Functioning in a safe mode (k_{eff}=0.94-0.98) these systems under consideration demonstrate much larger capacity in the wide range of k_{eff} in comparison with analogous systems without intermediate fast booster reactor and simultaneously having the density of thermal neutron flux equal to Phi^{max}=10^{14} cm^{-2}c^{-1} and operating with the fast and thermal zones they are capable to transmute the whole scope of nuclear waste reducing the requirements on the beam current of the accelerator by one order of magnitude. It seems to be the most important in case when molten salt thermal breeder reactor cores are considered as a main heat generating zone.

  7. Photonic crystal laser-driven accelerator structures

    Cowan, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs, including two- and three-dimensional planar structures and fibers. The discussion of 2D structures demonstrates guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in a photonic crystal lattice and reveals design considerations and trade-offs. With a three-dimensional lattice, we introduce a candidate geometry and discuss beam dynamics, coupling, and manufacturing techniques for that structure. In addition we discuss W-band scale tests of photonic crystal structures. The computational methods are also discussed.

  8. Compact Couplers for Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    Photonic crystal waveguides are promising candidates for laser-driven accelerator structures because of their ability to confine a speed-of-light mode in an all-dielectric structure. Because of the difference between the group velocity of the waveguide mode and the particle bunch velocity, fields must be coupled into the accelerating waveguide at frequent intervals. Therefore efficient, compact couplers are critical to overall accelerator efficiency. We present designs and simulations of high-efficiency coupling to the accelerating mode in a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide from a waveguide adjoining it at 90o. We discuss details of the computation and the resulting transmission. We include some background on the accelerator structure and photonic crystal-based optical acceleration in general.

  9. ADS specific accelerator developments: Status in Europe

    The EUROpean research programme for the TRANSmutation of high level radioactive waste in accelerator driven systems (EUROTRANS) is funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Programme, and involves 31 partners (research agencies and nuclear industries) with the contribution of 16 universities [4.32]. EUROTRANS is a 4-year programme (2005–2009) extending previous activities (PDS-XADS, Preliminary Design Study for an eXperimental Accelerator Driven System) and paving the road towards the construction, during the next EC framework programmes, of an eXperimental facility demonstrating the technical feasibility of Transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (XT-ADS)

  10. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    The purpose and problems of the research - creation of a safe and reliable ADS for processing of about 25 tons of weapons plutonium in 30 years on the basis of a proton-accelerator with energies 0.8-1.2 GeV and a current of 10-30 mA; liquid Pb/Bi eutectic targets; one-directionally coupled fast/thermal blanket with plutonium fuel. The approach to weapons-Pu utilization is based on the understanding of the unconditional priority of safety features of ADS over economic considerations and, accordingly, on the priority of subcritical systems over critical. The description of a variant of ADS from the point of view of possibilities of its realization in an acceptable period of time on the base of approbated technologies is presented here. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems for transmutation. Annual report 2008

    Arzhanov, Vasily; Bergloef, Calle; Fokau, Andrei; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Runevall, Odd; Sandberg, Nils; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang (Div. of Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-07-15

    Within this project, research on design and safety of subcritical reactors for recycling of minor actinides is performed. During 2008, the reactor physics division at KTH has made a design study of a source efficient ADS with nitride fuel, based on the EFIT design made within the EUROTRANS project. Transient analysis for EFIT-400 ADS with cercer and cermet fuels was made with SAS4A, taking into account flow reversal phenomena. Using Pulsed Neutron Source techniques, reference reactivity values for detectors in the sub-critical YALINA booster facility were obtained and it was observed that the results carry strong spatial effects. It was shown that the beam trip technique can be used to obtain the reactivity at beam trips and the values can be used for calibration of a current-to-flux reactivity indicator. Multi-scale modelling of helium desorption from molybdenum was performed, with the final aim to predict the in-pile behaviour of Mo based CERMET fuel. Good agreement with experimental data was obtained, except at the highest temperatures

  12. Neutronic parameters characterizing accelerator driven system (ADS)

    An hybrid system is a reactor where an external source of spallation neutrons is supplied to a subcritical multiplying medium. The neutronic parameters characterising such a system include, in addition to the multiplication factor which measures the sub-criticality level, another physics parameter measuring the 'importance' of the external source. The aim of this thesis is, on the one hand, to investigate basic neutronic phenomena taking place in fast sub- critical media in either steady-state or transient operation, and, on the other hand, to assess the performance of the ERANOS neutronic code package applied to the analysis of such systems. To this aim, the first part of the work is focused on the MUSE program and in particular the MUSE3 experiment, which consists of different sub-critical configurations driven by a 14-MeV neutron source. This study has been pursued in two directions : the first one was the interpretation of the calculation-experiment (C-E) discrepancies which lead to the development of original calculation methods for sensitivity studies ; the second one was the experimental analysis which allowed an extensive neutronic characterization of the sub-critical system. A correlation between the external source importance and some directly measurable parameters (i.e. fission rate) was derived. The second part of the thesis addresses representativity issues between an experimental facility and an actual power reactor. Important conclusions have been drawn with regard to the operation of an ADS. Finally, representativity studies lead to the recommendation that a demonstration reactor should be built before an industrial plant is constructed. (author)

  13. Activity report of working party on reactor physics of accelerator-driven system. July 1999 to March 2001

    Under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics, the Working Party on Reactor Physics of Accelerator-Driven System (ADS-WP) was set in July 1999 to review and investigate special subjects related to reactor physics research for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System (ADS). The ADS-WP, at the first meeting, discussed a guideline of its activity for two years and decided to concentrate upon three subjects: (1) neutron transport calculations in high energy range, (2) static and kinetic (safety-related) characteristics of subcritical system, and (3) system design including ADS concepts and elemental technology developments required. The activity of ADS-WP continued from July 1999 to March 2001. In this duration, the members of ADS-WP met together four times and discussed the above subjects. In addition, the ADS-WP conducted a questionnaire on requests and proposals for the plan of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project, which is a joint project between JAERI and KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). This report summarizes the results obtained by the above ADS-WP activity. (author)

  14. Partitioning and transmutation of 99Tc in fission reactors and hybrids systems

    Partitioning and transmutation of radioactive and long lived component from the highly radioactive waste stream in order to reduce or probably eliminate their radio toxic inventory was the important option for the nuclear waste management. The important fission products that deserve most attention is the technetium. Technetium is present as a single isotopic species (99Tc) can be transmuted by single neutron capture into the stable noble metal ruthenium ( 100Ru). The technetium separation from spent fuel is possible with PUREX process. An, other chemical process was developed to separate a priory technetium with uranium is the UREX process. The transmutation of 99Tc in thermal reactor such as LWRs will be difficult because of the long transmutation half-lives and the large inventory required. Better result can be obtained in fast reactors, or in accelerator driven height flux reactor

  15. Investigation of subcritical multiplication parameters in TRIGA Mark II accelerator driven system

    Highlights: • TRIGA ADS neutron external source was numerically investigated. • Source target material, radius, position, and incident beam energy were studied. • Maximum neutron yield for W, Pb, and W–Cu targets are at radii 3.25, 3.5 and 7 cm. • Maximum source efficiency for targets at the given core is achieved at the center. • Maximum source efficiency is achieved at 40 MeV incident electron beam energy. - Abstract: The accelerator driven system (ADS) is a very interesting option to improve the safety of nuclear power reactor and for transmutation of spent fuel. The Texas phase of the reactor–accelerator coupling experiment (RACE), completed in March 2006, demonstrated the feasibility of operating a training research isotopes general atomic (TRIGA) research reactor in a subcritical configuration driven to a significant power by an electron LINAC neutron source (photoneutron). In the present study, the effects of changing the source cylindrical target material, radius, position and the electron beam energy on the final neutron production, fission probability, and the subcritical system multiplication of TRIGA Mark II research reactor, have been numerically investigated. Three target materials are used: Tungsten, Lead and Tungsten–Copper alloy, while varying the target radius from 2 to 8 cm, the source position at three locations, and the beam energy from 10 to 55 MeV. The investigation is based on the numerical calculation of the subcritical multiplication factor and the external source efficiency using Monte Carlo MCNPX code. Through the comparison of the studied cases results, the favorable target material and radius, source position, and beam energy can be obtained

  16. MYRRHA, a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development. February 2003 Progress status

    SCK-CEN in partnership with IBA s.a. is designing a 40 MWth multipurpose ADS (Accelerator Driven System) for R and D applications - MYRRHA - driven by a proton accelerator delivering a 1.75 MW beam (350 MeV x 5 mA). The spallation target is made of liquid Pb-Bi with a windowless concept in an isolated circuit from the sub-critical core coolant circuit. The sub-critical core is made out of typical fast reactor MOX fuel with a total Pu content limited to 30% in weight. The primary coolant chosen for the core is also liquid Pb-Bi. SCK CEN is conducting an associated R and D support programme for alleviating the most demanding topics as regards to the proposed design. In the first stage, the project focuses mainly on demonstration of the ADS concept and safety research on sub-critical hybrid systems. In a later stage, the device will also be used as an irradiation facility for research on structural materials, nuclear fuel, liquid metals and associated aspects and on sub-critical reactor physics. Subsequently, it will be used for research on applications such as nuclear waste transmutation and radioisotope production. The MYRRHA system is expected to become a major research infrastructure for the European partners involved in the ADS Demo development. The preliminary conceptual design of MYRRHA will be completed at the fall of 2003 and an intensive R and D programme is established. In this paper we will be presenting the MYRRHA concept and will report on the status of the MYRRHA project at the end of 2002 and on the methods and results of the R and D support programme presently conducted at SCK-CEN with a series of partners. (author)

  17. Conceptual design of a commercial accelerator driven thorium reactor

    This paper describes the substantial work done in underpinning and developing the concept design for a commercial 600 MWe, accelerator driven, thorium fuelled, lead cooled, power producing, fast reactor. The Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR TM) has been derived from original work by Carlo Rubbia. Over the period 2007 to 2009 Aker Solutions commissioned this concept design work and, in close collaboration with Rubbia, developed the physics, engineering and business model. Much has been published about the Energy Amplifier concept and accelerator driven systems. This paper concentrates on the unique physics developed during the concept study of the ADTR TM power station and the progress made in engineering and design of the system. Particular attention is paid to where the concept design has moved significantly beyond published material. Description of challenges presented for the engineering and safety of a commercial system and how they will be addressed is included. This covers the defining system parameters, accelerator sizing, core and fuel design issues and, perhaps most importantly, reactivity control. The paper concludes that the work undertaken supports the technical viability of the ADTR TM power station. Several unique features of the reactor mean that it can be deployed in countries with aspirations to gain benefit from nuclear power and, at 600 MWe, it fits a size gap for less mature grid systems. It can provide a useful complement to Generation III, III+ and IV systems through its ability to consume actinides whilst at the same time providing useful power. (authors)

  18. Perspectives of partitioning and transmutation technology

    When we explore the sustainable utilization of nuclear power, reasonable and environmentally preferable waste management is indispensable. The Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology has been studied in many countries aiming at reduction of the burden for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This technology, coupled with the geological disposal, is now regarded as a part of advanced fuel cycle, and hence various research and development (R and D) are under way. As for the partitioning process of spent fuel, various innovative extractants and methods are being studied and proposed to separate actinide and lanthanide from other fission product (FP), to separate minor actinide (MA) from lanthanide, and so on. As for the transmutation of long-lived nuclides, various types of system, such as MA loading (both homogeneous and heterogeneous concepts) to a fast reactor (FR) and dedicated transmutation of MA in an accelerator-driven system (ADS), are being studied and proposed, and respective types of MA-bearing fuel are being investigated. One of problems to proceed with R and D on this technology is in the difficulty to provide and handle a certain amount of MA. To overcome this point, international collaboration to make use of facilities and MA resources is desirable. (author)

  19. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  20. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  1. Monte Carlo studies of accelerator driven systems energy and spatial distribution of neutrons in multiplying and non-multiplying media

    Hashemi-Nezhad, S R; Brandt, R; Krivopustov, M I; Kulakov, B A; Odoj, R; Sosnin, A N; Wan, J S; Westmeier, W

    2002-01-01

    The LAHET code system is used to study the behaviour of the spallation neutrons resulting from the interaction of 2.5 GeV/c protons with a massive lead target within a large (approx 32 m sup 3) lead and graphite moderating environments. The spatial and energy distribution of the neutrons with presence and absence of a fissile material in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are investigated. It is shown that the energy spectra of the neutrons in graphite and lead moderators are very different and such difference is expected to result in noticeable differences in the nuclear waste transmutation abilities of the ADSs that use graphite and lead for neutron moderation and storage.

  2. Monte Carlo studies of accelerator driven systems: energy and spatial distribution of neutrons in multiplying and non-multiplying media

    The LAHET code system is used to study the behaviour of the spallation neutrons resulting from the interaction of 2.5 GeV/c protons with a massive lead target within a large (∼32 m3) lead and graphite moderating environments. The spatial and energy distribution of the neutrons with presence and absence of a fissile material in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are investigated. It is shown that the energy spectra of the neutrons in graphite and lead moderators are very different and such difference is expected to result in noticeable differences in the nuclear waste transmutation abilities of the ADSs that use graphite and lead for neutron moderation and storage

  3. Transmutation detectors

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, Jan; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 632, č. 1 (2011), s. 109-111. ISSN 0168-9002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Transmutation detector * Activation method * Neutron detector * Neutron fluence Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  4. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    One of the main SCKCEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Reacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R and D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions

  5. Nonlinear Laser Driven Donut Wakefields for Positron and Electron Acceleration

    Vieira, J.; Mendonça, J. T.

    2014-05-01

    We show analytically and through three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that nonlinear wakefields driven by Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses can lead to hollow electron self-injection and positron acceleration. We find that higher order lasers can drive donut shaped blowout wakefields with strong positron accelerating gradients comparable to those of a spherical bubble. Corresponding positron focusing forces can be more than an order of magnitude stronger than electron focusing forces in a spherical bubble. Required laser intensities and energies to reach the nonlinear donut shaped blowout are within state-of-the-art experimental conditions.

  6. Ashing vs. electric generation in accelerator driven system

    Accelerator Driven Systems have been conceived as an alternative for the processing of the radioactive wastes contained in spent fuel elements from nuclear power plants. These systems are formed by the coupling of a nuclear reactor - preferably a subcritical reactor - with a particle accelerator providing particles with energy in the order of the GeV. The long-lived fission products and actinides of the spent fuels are transformed by nuclear reactions in stable isotopes or in short-lived radioisotopes. The basic parameters for the electric energy production of the different systems are analysed. (author)

  7. Laser-driven particle acceleration towards radiobiology and medicine

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the new method of laser-driven acceleration for application to radiation biophysics and medicine. It provides multidisciplinary contributions from world leading scientist in order to assess the state of the art of innovative tools for radiation biology research and medical applications of ionizing radiation. The book contains insightful contributions on highly topical aspects of spatio-temporal radiation biophysics, evolving over several orders of magnitude, typically from femtosecond and sub-micrometer scales. Particular attention is devoted to the emerging technology of laser-driven particle accelerators and their applicatio to spatio-temporal radiation biology and medical physics, customization of non-conventional and selective radiotherapy and optimized radioprotection protocols.

  8. Advanced Approaches to High Intensity Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. Ho...

  9. Reactivity Monitoring of Accelerator-Driven Nuclear Reactor Systems

    Uyttenhove, W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis provides a methodology and set-up of a reactivity monitoring tool for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). The reactivity monitoring tool should guarantee the operation of an ADS at a safe margin from criticality. Robustness is assured in different aspects of the monitoring tool: the choice of the measurement techniques, the evaluation methods to derive the reactivity from experimental data, and the detector type and positioning. In the first chapter of the work, the experience from ...

  10. Intense tera-hertz laser driven proton acceleration in plasmas

    Sharma, A.; Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the acceleration of a proton beam driven by intense tera-hertz (THz) laser field from a near critical density hydrogen plasma. Two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell simulation results show that a relatively long wavelength and an intense THz laser can be employed for proton acceleration to high energies from near critical density plasmas. We adopt here the electromagnetic field in a long wavelength (0.33 THz) regime in contrast to the optical and/or near infrared wavelength regime, which offers distinct advantages due to their long wavelength ( λ = 350 μ m ), such as the λ 2 scaling of the electron ponderomotive energy. Simulation study delineates the evolution of THz laser field in a near critical plasma reflecting the enhancement in the electric field of laser, which can be of high relevance for staged or post ion acceleration.

  11. First-Order Particle Acceleration in Magnetically-driven Flows

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Li, Hui

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. Some examples of such flows include spontaneous turbulent reconnection and decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, where a magnetic field relaxes to a lower-energy configuration and transfers part of its energy to kinetic motions of the fluid. We show that this energy transfer, which normally causes turbulent cascade and heating of the fluid, also results in a first-order acceleration of non-thermal particles. Since it is generic, this acceleration mechanism is likely to play a role in the production of non-thermal particle distribution in magnetically dominant environments such as the solar chromosphere, pulsar magnetospheres, jets from supermassive black holes, and γ-ray bursts.

  12. Importance of delayed neutron data in transmutation system

    The accelerator-driven transmutation system has been studied at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This system is a hybrid system which consists of a high intensity accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core region. The subcritical core is driven by neutrons generated by spallation reaction in the target region. There is no control rod in this system, so the power is controlled only by proton beam current. The beam current to keep constant power change with effective multiplication factor of subcritical core. So, the evaluation of delayed neutron fraction which is strongly connected to the measurement of subcritical level is important factor in operation of accelerator-driven system. In this paper, important nuclides for the delayed neutron fraction of ADS will be discussed, moreover, present state of delayed neutron data in evaluated nuclear data library is presented. (author)

  13. Study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation and safety characteristics of an hybrid system: sub critical accelerator reactor

    The study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation for the new reactor systems - hybrid reactors - was the object of this work. Global review of different projects is presented. The basic physical parameters definitions, as neutron surplus and relative importance of external source neutrons, are introduced and explained. For these parameters, numerical values are obtained. The advantage in neutron surplus of fast system is noted. Equilibrium model and corresponding toxicities of different isotopes nd nuclear cycles are presented. Numerical analysis for equilibrium model converge validation are performed also. The study of neutron consumption by 'transmutable' Long-Lived Fission Products (Tc, I and Cs) show the possibility of their incineration in dedicated fast hybrid reactors. Equilibrium model shown the influence of reprocessing losses level to cycle toxicity level. Relations between specific fuel inventories (mass normalised by power unit) for thermal and fast spectra are examined. The differences are relatively small. Finally, few hybrid reactor concepts with different objects were analysed. These studies confirm that in frameworks of certain Nuclear Energy scenarios the fast hybrid systems can reduce significantly the radio-toxicity of fuel cycle. Preliminary analyses of sub-critical reactor behaviour show big potential of this reactor type in 'Transient of Power' kind of accident, even if more detailed study is necessary. (author)

  14. Accelerated Ions from a Laser Driven Z-pinch

    Helle, Michael H; Kaganovich, Dmitri; Chen, Yu-hsin; Palastro, John P; Ting, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Intense laser acceleration of ions is inherently difficult due to the velocity mismatch between laser pulses moving at the speed of light and slowly moving massive ions. Instead of directly accelerating the ions, current approaches rely on TV/m laser fields to ionize and drive out electrons. The ions are then accelerated by the resulting electrostatic fields from charge separation. Here we report experimental and numerical acceleration of ions by means of laser driven Z-pinch exiting a sharp plasma interface. This is achieved by first driving a plasma wakefield in the self-modulated bubble regime. Cold return currents are generated to maintain quasi-neutrality of the plasma. The opposite current repel and form an axial fast current and a cylindrical-shell cold return current with a large (100 MG) azithmuthal field in between. These conditions produce a Z-pinch that compresses the fast electrons and ions on axis. If this process is terminated at a sharp plasma interface, a beam of ions are then accelerated in ...

  15. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C6+ and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C6+ spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times increase in

  16. Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration

    Henig, Andreas

    2010-04-26

    Since the pioneering work that was carried out 10 years ago, the generation of highly energetic ion beams from laser-plasma interactions has been investigated in much detail in the regime of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA). Creation of ion beams with small longitudinal and transverse emittance and energies extending up to tens of MeV fueled visions of compact, laser-driven ion sources for applications such as ion beam therapy of tumors or fast ignition inertial con finement fusion. However, new pathways are of crucial importance to push the current limits of laser-generated ion beams further towards parameters necessary for those applications. The presented PhD work was intended to develop and explore advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration that reach beyond TNSA. In this spirit, ion acceleration from two novel target systems was investigated, namely mass-limited microspheres and nm-thin, free-standing diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils. Using such ultrathin foils, a new regime of ion acceleration was found where the laser transfers energy to all electrons located within the focal volume. While for TNSA the accelerating electric field is stationary and ion acceleration is spatially separated from laser absorption into electrons, now a localized longitudinal field enhancement is present that co-propagates with the ions as the accompanying laser pulse pushes the electrons forward. Unprecedented maximum ion energies were obtained, reaching beyond 0.5 GeV for carbon C{sup 6+} and thus exceeding previous TNSA results by about one order of magnitude. When changing the laser polarization to circular, electron heating and expansion were shown to be efficiently suppressed, resulting for the first time in a phase-stable acceleration that is dominated by the laser radiation pressure which led to the observation of a peaked C{sup 6+} spectrum. Compared to quasi-monoenergetic ion beam generation within the TNSA regime, a more than 40 times

  17. Development of an accelerating-piston implosion-driven launcher

    Huneault, Justin; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    The ability to soft-launch projectiles at velocities exceeding 10 km/s is of interest to several scientific fields, including orbital debris impact testing and equation of state research. Current soft-launch technologies have reached a performance plateau below this operating range. The energy and power density of high explosives provides a possible avenue to reach this velocity if used to dynamically compress a light driver gas to significantly higher pressures and temperatures compared to light-gas guns. In the implosion-driven launcher (IDL), linear implosion of a pressurized tube drives a strong shock into the gas ahead of the tube pinch, thereby forming an increasingly long column of compressed gas which can be used to propel a projectile. The McGill IDL has demonstrated the ability to launch a 0.1-g projectile to 9.1 km/s. This study focuses on the implementation of a novel launch cycle wherein the explosively driven pinch is accelerated down the length of the tube in order to maintain a relatively constant projectile base pressure early in the launch cycle. The experimental development of an accelerating driver which utilizes an explosive lens to phase the detonation wave is presented. The design and experimental performance of an accelerating-piston IDL is also discussed.

  18. Transformer ratio saturation in a beam-driven wakefield accelerator

    Farmer, J. P.; Martorelli, R.; Pukhov, A. [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich Heine Universität, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We show that for beam-driven wakefield acceleration, the linearly ramped, equally spaced train of bunches typically considered to optimise the transformer ratio only works for flat-top bunches. Through theory and simulation, we explain that this behaviour is due to the unique properties of the plasma response to a flat-top density profile. Calculations of the optimal scaling for a train of Gaussian bunches show diminishing returns with increasing bunch number, tending towards saturation. For a periodic bunch train, a transformer ratio of 23 was achieved for 50 bunches, rising to 40 for a fully optimised beam.

  19. Candidate molten salt investigation for an accelerator driven subcritical core

    SOOBY Elizabeth; Baty, Austin; BENES ONDREJ; McIntyre, Peter; Pogue, Nathaniel; Salanne, Mathieu; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2013-01-01

    We report a design for accelerator-driven subcritical fission in a molten salt core (ADSMS) that utilizes a fuel salt composed of NaCl and transuranic (TRU) chlorides. The ADSMS core is designed for fast neutronics (28% of neutrons >1 MeV) to optimize TRU destruction. The choice of a NaCl-based salt offers benefits for corrosion, operating temperature, and actinide solubility as compared with LiF-based fuel salts. Molecular dynamics (MD) codes have been used to estimate properties of the molt...

  20. Stochastic acceleration of ions driven by Pc1 wave packets

    The stochastic motion of protons and He+ ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10−4 nT2/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data

  1. Design Considerations for Plasma Accelerators Driven by Lasers or Particle Beams

    Schroeder, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. The implications for accelerator design and the different physical mechanisms of laser-driven and beam-driven plasma acceleration are discussed. Driver propagation is examined, as well as the effects of the excited plasma wave phase velocity. The driver coupling to subsequent plasma accelerator stages for high-energy physics applications is addressed.

  2. Studies of partitioning and transmutation

    Part 1: Current status of partitioning and transmutation: The purpose of the project covered in this report is to contribute to a watching brief exercise for the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) on the subject of the Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) of long-lived radionuclides present in high level radioactive waste (HLW). The watching brief is intended to ensure that DETR are aware of international developments and progress so that UK policy continues to be soundly based. This has been achieved by attendance at international meetings and conferences and studies of the published literature, and also by participation in the Fourth Framework R and D Programme of the European Commission (EQ) in the field of P and T (see Part 2 below). Answers have been developed to a list of questions about certain aspects of P and T, provided by the DETR; and further information has also been provided about progress in the current EC programme and elsewhere. National programmes on P and T are in progress in various countries, and the motivations for these vary. These programmes concentrate exclusively on high level waste (HLW) in spite of the environmental importance of other waste streams. P and T is not generally seen as a viable waste management strategy in the short or medium term, but as an option for the future. A considerable new impetus has been imparted to P and T research by the development of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) which provide high neutron fluxes suitable for transmutation. Such systems may be more effective than current fission reactors for this purpose. Good progress has also been made in the separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from HLW, using both aqueous and dry (pyrochemical) processes. P and T is more likely to be implemented in future decades as part of a radically new type of fuel cycle, probably pyrochemical, rather than as an extension of PUREX reprocessing. However, pyrochemical reprocessing

  3. Seed and blanket ADS using thorium–reprocessed fuel: Parametric survey on TRU transmutation performance and safety characteristics

    Highlights: • The seed and blanket ADS reference configuration without MA enrichment shows a large reactivity swing due to burnup. • The larger amount of MA introducing into the core, the more TRUs are transmuted. • With larger MA content, the smaller reactivity swing in the system can be achieved. • Increasing core size by introducing more thorium and reprocessed fuel assemblies into the system reduces reactivity swing. - Abstract: Conceptual designs of accelerator driven systems (ADS) that utilize thorium fuel as blanket and reprocessed fuel as seed for fission reaction in order to transmute the transuranic elements in spent nuclear fuel and produce energy from thorium utilization was proposed. In order to analyze the TRU transmutation performance of the system while the safety margin during the operation is satisfied, a parametric survey is done in this study. The impact of minor actinide (MA) amount and the reactor size on transmutation efficiency and safety characteristics of the ADS is investigated using MCNPX code using the ENDF/B-VII. As the results, with increasing MA content, TRU transmutation rate is increased while void reactivity of the system becomes less negative. Besides, increasing the core size by introducing more thorium and reprocessed fuel assemblies into the system reduces the TRU transmutation rate and reactivity swing due to burnup of the system. In order to match the efficient transmutation purpose and safety features during operation, higher MA content is suggested to introduce into the system

  4. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    The ability of short but intense laser pulses to generate high-energy electrons and ions from gaseous and solid targets has been well known since the early days of the laser fusion program. However, during the past decade there has been an explosion of experimental and theoretical activity in this area of laser-matter interaction, driven by the prospect of realizing table-top plasma accelerators for research, medical and industrial uses, and also relatively small and inexpensive plasma accelerators for high-energy physics at the frontier of particle physics. In this focus issue on laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators, the latest advances in this field are described. Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators Contents Slow wave plasma structures for direct electron acceleration B D Layer, J P Palastro, A G York, T M Antonsen and H M Milchberg Cold injection for electron wakefield acceleration X Davoine, A Beck, A Lifschitz, V Malka and E Lefebvre Enhanced proton flux in the MeV range by defocused laser irradiation J S Green, D C Carroll, C Brenner, B Dromey, P S Foster, S Kar, Y T Li, K Markey, P McKenna, D Neely, A P L Robinson, M J V Streeter, M Tolley, C-G Wahlström, M H Xu and M Zepf Dose-dependent biological damage of tumour cells by laser-accelerated proton beams S D Kraft, C Richter, K Zeil, M Baumann, E Beyreuther, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, Y Dammene, W Enghardt, U Helbig, L Karsch, T Kluge, L Laschinsky, E Lessmann, J Metzkes, D Naumburger, R Sauerbrey, M. Scḧrer, M Sobiella, J Woithe, U Schramm and J Pawelke The optimum plasma density for plasma wakefield excitation in the blowout regime W Lu, W An, M Zhou, C Joshi, C Huang and W B Mori Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET M J Hogan, T O Raubenheimer, A Seryi, P Muggli, T Katsouleas, C Huang, W Lu, W An, K A Marsh, W B Mori, C E Clayton and C Joshi Electron trapping and acceleration on a downward density ramp: a two-stage approach R M G M Trines, R Bingham, Z Najmudin

  5. Alternative definitions of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems

    Highlights: ► New definition of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems. ► Difference between effective and average delayed neutron fraction. ► Difference between effective and average prompt neutron lifetime. ► Effect of the neutron source (Cf, D–D, D–T) on ksrc. ► Effect of the (n, xn) reactions and source energy-angle distribution on ksrc. - Abstract: This study introduces a new formulation of kinetic parameters for accelerator driven systems and it is structured into two parts. The first part is dedicated to the classic definition of the kinetic parameters and compares different calculation methodologies. The second part considers a new definition of the kinetic parameters for subcritical assemblies, with particular emphasis on the delayed neutron fraction and the prompt neutron lifetime. This new definition takes into account neutrons from the external neutron source and (n, xn) reactions, which increase the fraction of prompt neutrons. The developed theoretical framework has been applied by Monte Carlo and deterministic calculations to the YALINA Thermal subcritical assembly located in Belarus. This facility can be driven by californium, deuterium–deuterium (D–D), or deuterium–tritium (D–T) external neutron sources. For the D–T neutron source, (n, xn) reactions must be taken into account in order to produce accurate results because the average energy of D–T source neutrons is 14.1 MeV, a value which is much higher than the threshold energy of the (n, 2n) cross section of uranium isotopes.

  6. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden

    This report contains a review of the transmutation technology and an elucidation of the consequences of the use of transmutation in Sweden. Transmutation has often been mentioned in the public debate as a way of rendering harmless the high-level waste from nuclear power such that the final disposal of the waste can be substantially simplified or even completely avoided. However, it can be noted that even with an exploitation of transmutation, significant amounts of radioactive waste requiring qualified final disposal will be generated. The transmutation technology will make it possible to reduce the longevity of the high-level waste by converting primarily the transuranic elements to fission products with shorter half lives. The long-term radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel is dominated by the transuranics. Hence, transmutation will lead to a substantial decrease of the long-term radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. The research on transmutation has been focussed on sub-critical so called ADS-reactors (Accelerator Driven System). In such a system protons are accelerated to very high energy levels (in the order of GeV) in an electromagnetic field. The accelerated protons are impacted on a spallation source consisting of heavy atoms, e.g. lead or a mixture of lead and bismuth. At the impact the heavy nuclei are spalled releasing a number of neutrons that can be used for fissioning the nuclei of the substances to be transmuted, primarily the transuranics. ADS-reactors are still at the research stage. It is a common view that it will take several decades before the technology has reached a maturity that allows the construction of a demonstration facility. Calculations performed at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm show that using the ADS-technology would allow a reduction of the inventory of transuranics in the spent fuel from Swedish reactors by 50-85% within a 50-100 years period. The goal to transmute 99% of the transuranics inventory has been achieved in

  7. Once-Through Thermal-Spectrum Accelerator-Driven Light Water Reactor Waste Destruction Without Reprocessing

    An accelerator-driven thermal-spectrum liquid-fueled system is described for transmutation of spent fuel from commercial power reactors. The primary purpose of the system is to destroy the weapons-useful plutonium and neptunium in commercial spent fuel and thereby eliminate international concerns about the recovery of such material from geologic repositories for nuclear weapons purposes. The system also extracts ∼80% of the fission energy available in the plutonium, and this energy is converted into electricity and sold into the commercial grid to pay nearly all of the capital and operating costs. The 20% of the material not destroyed is converted to an isotopic composition of no interest from a weapons perspective. These functions are accomplished without recycling or separation of a stream of pure plutonium. With technological development enabling widespread deployment in the 2015 to 2025 time frame, the world's inventory of nuclear weapons useful material could be reduced by a factor of 100 or more by the middle of the next century. This system does not eliminate the need for geologic storage of the remnant waste since the 20% remnant must be stored somewhere for tens of thousands of years, but it eliminates the possibility of mining geologic repositories for weapons material, it enables the recovery of nearly all of the energy carried by the plutonium, it reduces the amount of actinides that must be permanently stored by a factor of 5, and it enhances the repository's performance by reducing the load of long-lived radioactive actinide. Furthermore, since weapons material is eliminated, it transforms the ultimate disposition of the spent-fuel waste remnant from a subject of profound international concern to one in which nations need have little interest in how others solve this problem. Most of the concerns about the waste legacy from continued light water reactor deployment would be made moot by the advent of this waste destruction technology

  8. Neutronic Studies in Support of Accelerator-Driven Systems: The MUSE Experiments in the MASURCA Facility

    The MUSE program (multiplication with an external source) is in progress at the MASURCA critical facility at the Cadarache Research Center of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique in France. The program is dedicated to the physics studies of accelerator-driven systems in support of transmutation studies of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. It began in 1995 with the coupling of a Cf source in MASURCA and was followed by a commercial (d,T) source. In 2001, a specially constructed (d,D)/(d,T) neutron generator (GENEPI) was placed in MASURCA and the MUSE-4 program commenced.We describe the first phases of the MUSE-4 program, with data presented that were obtained up to about the summer of 2002. We present some results from the 'reference' configuration, which can operate at critical. We present traverses of measured fission reaction rates, with comparison to calculations. Also in the reference configuration, we performed activation foil measurements and present these results compared to calculations.Because a major objective of the MUSE program is to test and qualify methods of subcritical reactivity measurement, we have devoted a major portion of our studies to this area. We have used classical methods (rod drop, source multiplication) to attempt to measure the subcritical level. In these early phases we studied core configurations of around keff = 0.995. Deeper subcriticality (keff = 0.96) was achieved by inserting a safety rod.In addition to the methods mentioned above, we have devoted a lot of effort to pulse neutron source, fluctuation (Rossi-α and Feynman-α), and transfer function methods (e.g., cross-power spectral density). We present our preliminary results of all the methods, with some discussion regarding cross comparison

  9. A regulated power supply for accelerator driven system

    This paper discusses a regulated high voltage power supply (RHVPS) developed for accelerator driven systems to drive a klystron. The RHVPS uses a large no. of small voltage choppers. These choppers are switched in tandem by a novel technique to regulate output voltage. Various parts of the system are novel. The front end is a pair of transformer with 40 secondaries each. Each secondary feeds a switched power module (SPM) which has a rectifier-filter unit followed by an IGBT switch to get 1.3 kV. All 80 SPMs are connected in series. The final output is taken from the two end SPMs. A central controller uses voltage sample from each SPM and generates switching pulses for each IGBT switch. IGBTs of all SPMs are switched with a fixed phase lag from each other, resulting in purely constant voltage with ripple limited to one SPM voltage. The frequency of ripple is high and can be filtered out with a simpler filter. The system can turn off for protection of the load in less than 2 microseconds, the essential attribute for a power supply to be used with klystrons. The results of wire burn tests measure the low stored energy at fault turn off (less than10 J). The power supply (rated for 100 kV at 2.5 MW) will be used for a continuous duty with the klystron for accelerator driven system at BARC (India). A power supply giving 80 kV, 75A is being used with an accelerator system for extraction of beam along with a Neutral Beam Injector. This paper discusses the technology and experimental results of the system. It also discusses various other options with similar power supply. (author)

  10. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden; Separation och transmutation. Belysning av tillaempning i Sverige

    Grundfelt, Bertil; Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report contains a review of the transmutation technology and an elucidation of the consequences of the use of transmutation in Sweden. Transmutation has often been mentioned in the public debate as a way of rendering harmless the high-level waste from nuclear power such that the final disposal of the waste can be substantially simplified or even completely avoided. However, it can be noted that even with an exploitation of transmutation, significant amounts of radioactive waste requiring qualified final disposal will be generated. The transmutation technology will make it possible to reduce the longevity of the high-level waste by converting primarily the transuranic elements to fission products with shorter half lives. The long-term radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel is dominated by the transuranics. Hence, transmutation will lead to a substantial decrease of the long-term radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. The research on transmutation has been focussed on sub-critical so called ADS-reactors (Accelerator Driven System). In such a system protons are accelerated to very high energy levels (in the order of GeV) in an electromagnetic field. The accelerated protons are impacted on a spallation source consisting of heavy atoms, e.g. lead or a mixture of lead and bismuth. At the impact the heavy nuclei are spalled releasing a number of neutrons that can be used for fissioning the nuclei of the substances to be transmuted, primarily the transuranics. ADS-reactors are still at the research stage. It is a common view that it will take several decades before the technology has reached a maturity that allows the construction of a demonstration facility. Calculations performed at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm show that using the ADS-technology would allow a reduction of the inventory of transuranics in the spent fuel from Swedish reactors by 50-85% within a 50-100 years period. The goal to transmute 99% of the transuranics inventory has been achieved in

  11. Study of a multi-beam accelerator driven thorium reactor

    The primary advantages that accelerator driven systems have over critical reactors are: (1) Greater flexibility regarding the composition and placement of fissile, fertile, or fission product waste within the blanket surrounding the target, and (2) Potentially enhanced safety brought about by operating at a sufficiently low value of the multiplication factor to preclude reactivity induced events. The control of the power production can be achieved by vary the accelerator beam current. Furthermore, once the beam is shut off the system shuts down. The primary difference between the operation of an accelerator driven system and a critical system is the issue of beam interruptions of the accelerator. These beam interruptions impose thermo-mechanical loads on the fuel and mechanical components not found in critical systems. Studies have been performed to estimate an acceptable number of trips, and the value is significantly less stringent than had been previously estimated. The number of acceptable beam interruptions is a function of the length of the interruption and the mission of the system. Thus, for demonstration type systems and interruption durations of 1sec 5mins 2500/yr and 50/yr are deemed acceptable. However, for industrial scale power generation without energy storage type systems and interruption durations of t 5mins, the acceptable number of interruptions are 25000, 2500, 250, and 3 respectively. However, it has also been concluded that further development is required to reduce the number of trips. It is with this in mind that the following study was undertaken. The primary focus of this study will be the merit of a multi-beam target system, which allows for multiple spallation sources within the target/blanket assembly. In this manner it is possible to ameliorate the effects of sudden accelerator beam interruption on the surrounding reactor, since the remaining beams will still be supplying source neutrons. The proton beam will be assumed to have an

  12. Transmutation of nuclear wastes with gas-cooled pebble-bed ads

    Transmutation of nuclear wastes is being explored for its application to waste management, a fundamental issue for nuclear industry. Several concepts are under consideration, mainly fast breeder reactors and accelerator driven systems (ADS). Inside this second category, we are analysing a helium-cooled graphite moderated sub-critical assembly, which uses as fuel units a small amount of transuranics diluted, in the form of TRISO coated particles, in graphite pebbles. This configuration (PBT) allows for neutron spectra that, taking advantage of the existence of huge capture resonances in the epithermal region, increase in a substantial factor the system transmutation efficiency. Neutronic studies to determine transmutation performance and thermal behaviour are presented and discussed together with an analysis of the additional studies to address before going into detailed design activities. (author)

  13. A regulated high voltage power supply for accelerator driven system; A regulated high voltage power supply for accelerator driven system

    This paper discusses a regulated high voltage power supply (RHVPS) developed for accelerator driven systems to drive a klystron. The RHVPS uses a large no. of small voltage choppers. These choppers are switched in tandem by a novel technique to regulate output voltage. Various parts of the system are novel. The front end is a pair of transformer with 40 secondaries each. Each secondary feeds a switched power module (SPM) which has a rectifier-filter unit followed by an IGBT switch to get 1.3 kV. All 80 SPMs are connected in series. The final output is taken from the two end SPMs. A central controller uses voltage sample from each SPM and generates switching pulses for each IGBT switch. IGBTs of all SPMs are switched with a fixed phase lag from each other, resulting in purely constant voltage with ripple limited to one SPM voltage. The frequency of ripple is high and can be filtered out with a simpler filter. The system can turn off for protection of the load in less than 2 μs, the essential attribute for a power supply to be used with klystrons. The results of wire burn tests measure the low stored energy at fault turn off (less than 10 J). The power supply (rated for 100 kV at 2.5 MW) will be used for a continuous duty with the klystron for accelerator driven system at BARC (India). A power supply giving 80 kV. 75 A is being used with an accelerator system for extraction of beam along with a Neutral Beam Injector. This paper discusses the technology and experimental results of the system. It also discusses various other options with similar power supply. (author)

  14. The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator-driven Systems'

    Document in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been conducting the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator-driven Systems' within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). The overall objective of the CRP is to increase the capability of interested member states in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilisation and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative subcritical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a subcritical core and an external neutron source [e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)]. The objective of these experimental programmes is to validate computational methods, to obtain high-energy nuclear data, to characterise the performance of subcritical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for subcriticality monitoring. With the CRP in its final year, the paper summarises, on behalf of all the participants, the status of work and preliminary CRP benchmarks results. (authors)

  15. Preliminary research on safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor

    The safety and control characteristics of accelerator driven reactor are studied with calculation and simulation running. The results show that the prompt criticality for accelerator driven reactor does not easily happen, its safety characteristics are better than critical reactor's, the higher the subcritical degree, the better the safety. The control loop of accelerator driven reactor has a little time constant, a little overshoot, and short regulating time, its control characteristics are also better than critical reactor's

  16. Dynamics of electron acceleration in laser-driven wakefields. Acceleration limits and asymmetric plasma waves

    Popp, Antonia

    2011-12-16

    The experiments presented in this thesis study several aspects of electron acceleration in a laser-driven plasma wave. High-intensity lasers can efficiently drive a plasma wave that sustains electric fields on the order of 100 GV/m. Electrons that are trapped in this plasma wave can be accelerated to GeV-scale energies. As the accelerating fields in this scheme are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, the necessary acceleration distance can be reduced by the same factor, turning laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) into a promising compact, and potentially cheaper, alternative. However, laser-accelerated electron bunches have not yet reached the parameter standards of conventional accelerators. This work will help to gain better insight into the acceleration process and to optimize the electron bunch properties. The 25 fs, 1.8 J-pulses of the ATLAS laser at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics were focused into a steady-state flow gas cell. This very reproducible and turbulence-free gas target allows for stable acceleration of electron bunches. Thus the sensitivity of electron parameters to subtle changes of the experimental setup could be determined with meaningful statistics. At optimized experimental parameters, electron bunches of {approx}50 pC total charge were accelerated to energies up to 450 MeV with a divergence of {approx}2 mrad FWHM. As, in a new design of the gas cell, its length can be varied from 2 to 14 mm, the electron bunch energy could be evaluated after different acceleration distances, at two different electron densities. From this evolution important acceleration parameters could be extracted. At an electron density of 6.43. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} the maximum electric field strength in the plasma wave was determined to be {approx}160 GV/m. The length after which the relativistic electrons outrun the accelerating phase of the electric field and are decelerated again, the so-called dephasing length

  17. Dynamics of electron acceleration in laser-driven wakefields. Acceleration limits and asymmetric plasma waves

    The experiments presented in this thesis study several aspects of electron acceleration in a laser-driven plasma wave. High-intensity lasers can efficiently drive a plasma wave that sustains electric fields on the order of 100 GV/m. Electrons that are trapped in this plasma wave can be accelerated to GeV-scale energies. As the accelerating fields in this scheme are 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, the necessary acceleration distance can be reduced by the same factor, turning laser-wakefield acceleration (LWFA) into a promising compact, and potentially cheaper, alternative. However, laser-accelerated electron bunches have not yet reached the parameter standards of conventional accelerators. This work will help to gain better insight into the acceleration process and to optimize the electron bunch properties. The 25 fs, 1.8 J-pulses of the ATLAS laser at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics were focused into a steady-state flow gas cell. This very reproducible and turbulence-free gas target allows for stable acceleration of electron bunches. Thus the sensitivity of electron parameters to subtle changes of the experimental setup could be determined with meaningful statistics. At optimized experimental parameters, electron bunches of ∼50 pC total charge were accelerated to energies up to 450 MeV with a divergence of ∼2 mrad FWHM. As, in a new design of the gas cell, its length can be varied from 2 to 14 mm, the electron bunch energy could be evaluated after different acceleration distances, at two different electron densities. From this evolution important acceleration parameters could be extracted. At an electron density of 6.43. 1018 cm-3 the maximum electric field strength in the plasma wave was determined to be ∼160 GV/m. The length after which the relativistic electrons outrun the accelerating phase of the electric field and are decelerated again, the so-called dephasing length, was found to be 4.9 mm

  18. Burnup calculations using serpent code in accelerator driven thorium reactors

    In this study, burnup calculations have been performed for a sodium cooled Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR) using the Serpent 1.1.16 Monte Carlo code. The ADTR has been designed for burning minor actinides, mixed 232Th and mixed 233U fuels. A solid Pb-Bi spallation target in the center of the core is used and sodium as coolant. The system is designed for a heating power of 2 000 MW and for an operation time of 600 days. For burnup calculations the Advanced Matrix Exponential Method CRAM (Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method) and different nuclear data libraries (ENDF7, JEF2.2, JEFF3.1.1) were used. The effective multiplication factor change from 0.93 to 0.97 for different nuclear data libraries during the reactor operation period. (orig.)

  19. Burnup calculations using serpent code in accelerator driven thorium reactors

    Korkmaz, M.E.; Agar, O. [Karamanoglu Mehmetbey Univ., Karaman (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Yigit, M. [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2013-07-15

    In this study, burnup calculations have been performed for a sodium cooled Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTR) using the Serpent 1.1.16 Monte Carlo code. The ADTR has been designed for burning minor actinides, mixed {sup 232}Th and mixed {sup 233}U fuels. A solid Pb-Bi spallation target in the center of the core is used and sodium as coolant. The system is designed for a heating power of 2 000 MW and for an operation time of 600 days. For burnup calculations the Advanced Matrix Exponential Method CRAM (Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method) and different nuclear data libraries (ENDF7, JEF2.2, JEFF3.1.1) were used. The effective multiplication factor change from 0.93 to 0.97 for different nuclear data libraries during the reactor operation period. (orig.)

  20. MYRRHA: a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development

    The development of a new nuclear installation that is able to fulfil the economical, social, environmental and technological demands, is a cornerstone for the future provision of sustainable energy. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) can pave the way for a more environmentally safe and acceptable nuclear energy production. Fundamental and applied R and D are crucial in the development of ADS technologies and demand the availability of appropriate prototype installations. In answer to this need and in order to update its current irradiation potential, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK·CEN), in partnership with Ion Beam Applications s. a. (IBA), is launching the MYRRHA project. It is focussed on the design, development and realisation of a modular and flexible irradiation facility based on the ADS concept. This paper describes the concept, the applications foreseen in the MYRRHA installation and the accompanying design activities currently being performed at SCK·CEN and IBA. (authors)

  1. Accelerator driven systems from the radiological safety point of view

    P K Sarkar; Maitreyee Nandy

    2007-02-01

    In the proposed accelerator driven systems (ADS) the possible use of several milliamperes of protons of about 1 GeV incident on high mass targets like the molten lead–bismuth eutectic is anticipated to pose radiological problems that have so far not been encountered by the radiation protection community. Spallation reaction products like high energy gammas, neutrons, muons, pions and several radiotoxic nuclides including Po-210 complicate the situation. In the present paper, we discuss radiation safety measures like bulk shielding, containment of radiation leakage through ducts and penetration and induced activity in the structure to protect radiation workers as well as estimation of sky-shine, soil and ground water activation, release of toxic gases to the environment to protect public as per the stipulations of the regulatory authorities. We recommend the application of the probabilistic safety analysis technique by assessing the probability and criticality of different hazard-initiating events using HAZOP and FMECA.

  2. Radiological Hazard of Spallation Products in Accelerator-Driven System

    The central issue underlying this paper is related to elucidating the hazard of radioactive spallation products that might be an important factor affecting the design option of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). Hazard analysis based on the concept of Annual Limit on Intake identifies alpha-emitting isotopes of rare earths (REs) (dysprosium, gadolinium, and samarium) as the dominant contributors to the overall toxicity of traditional (W, Pb, Pb-Bi) targets. The matter is addressed from several points of view: code validation to simulate their yields, choice of material for the neutron producing targets, and challenging the beam type. The paper quantitatively determines the domain in which the toxicity of REs exceeds that of polonium activation products broadly discussed now in connection with advertising lead-bismuth technology for the needs of ADSs

  3. Radiological Impact of the TRIGA Accelerator-Driven Experiment (TRADE)

    Herrera-Martínez, A; Kadi, Y; Zanini, L; Parks, G T; Rubbia, Carlo; Burgio, N; Carta, M; Santagata, A; Cinotti, L

    2002-01-01

    The TRADE project, which is part of the European Roadmap towards the development of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), foresees the coupling of a 110 MeV, 2 mA proton cyclotron with the core of a 1 MW Triga research reactor. We performed radioprotection studies using two state-of-the-art computer code packages, FLUKA and EA-MC. We concentrated on the calculation of the neutron and particle flux and dose rates during normal operation as well as in the case of several possible accidents, in order to assess the radiation damage and define the design of key components of the facility, such as the beam-line shielding. Both high-energy particle interactions and low-energy neutron transport are treated with a sophisticated method based on a full Monte Carlo simulation, combined with the use of modern nuclear data libraries.

  4. Neutron cross-sections above 20 MeV for design and modeling of accelerator driven systems

    J Blomgren

    2007-02-01

    One of the outstanding new developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P&T) concerns accelerator-driven systems (ADS) which consist of a combination of a high-power, high-energy accelerator, a spallation target for neutron production and a sub-critical reactor core. The development of the commercial critical reactors of today motivated a large effort on nuclear data up to about 20 MeV, and presently several million data points can be found in various data libraries. At higher energies, data are scarce or even non-existent. With the development of nuclear techniques based on neutrons at higher energies, nowadays there is a need also for higher-energy nuclear data. To provide alternative to this lack of data, a wide program on neutron-induced data related to ADS for P&T is running at the 20–180 MeV neutron beam facility at `The Svedberg Laboratory' (TSL), Uppsala. The programme encompasses studies of elastic scattering, inelastic neutron production, i.e., (, ′) reactions, light-ion production, fission and production of heavy residues. Recent results are presented and future program of development is outlined.

  5. A neutron booster for spallation sources—application to accelerator driven systems and isotope production

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.; Van Dam, H.; Valko, J.

    2002-06-01

    One can design a critical system with fissile material in the form of a thin layer on the inner surface of a cylindrical neutron moderator such as graphite or beryllium. Recently, we have investigated the properties of critical and near critical systems based on the use of thin actinide layers of uranium, plutonium and americium. The thickness of the required fissile layer depends on the type of fissile material, its concentration in the layer and on the geometrical arrangement, but is typically in the μm-mm range. The resulting total mass of fissile material can be as low as 100 g. Thin fissile layers have a variety of applications in nuclear technology—for example in the design neutron amplifiers for medical applications and "fast" islands in thermal reactors for waste incineration. In the present paper, we investigate the properties of a neutron booster unit for spallation sources and isotope production. In those applications a layer of fissile material surrounds the spallation source. Such a module could be developed for spallation targets foreseen in the MYRRHA (L. Van Den Durpel, H. Aı̈t Abderrahim, P. D'hondt, G. Minsart, J.L. Bellefontaine, S. Bodart, B. Ponsard, F. Vermeersch, W. Wacquier. A prototype accelerator driven system in Belgium: the Myrrha project, Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid concepts for Nuclear Energy generation and Transmutation, Madrid, Spain, September 17-19, 1997 [1]). or MEGAPIE (M. Salvatores, G.S. Bauer, G. Heusener. The MEGAPIE initiative: executive outline and status as per November 1999, MPO-1-GB-6/0_GB, 1999 [2]) projects. With a neutron multiplication factor of the booster unit in the range 10-20 (i.e. with a keff of 0.9-0.95), considerably less powerful accelerators would be required to obtain the desired neutron flux. Instead of the powerful accelerators with proton energies of 1 GeV and currents of 10 mA foreseen for accelerator driven systems, similar neutron fluxes can be obtained

  6. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    Mueller, Alex C

    2012-01-01

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven syste...

  7. Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems

    In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, 99Tc and 129I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining

  8. Effect of target configuration on the neutronic performance of the gas-cooled ADS for transmutation

    The safe disposal and enclosure of high level radioactive waste (HLW) in long time rang is a great responsibility. In this respect Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) represent a feasible way for efficient reduction and minimisation of the radiotoxic potential of highly radioactive transuranic elements including their radiological impact on the geological formations and environment. As a possible and promising option the use of the Accelerated-Driven Systems (ADS), consisting of a high power spallation neutron source and fuelled transmutation zone, is increasingly considered and proposed in the framework of national and international research and development programs for utilization. Due to the complexity of the particle beam transport in the target assembly and neutron multiplication as well as the interaction with the transmutation core a sophisticated model has to be developed in the framework of our transmutation research project aiming at the study of the neutronic behaviour and performance of the whole system. For this purpose the concept of Advanced Gas-cooled Accelerator driven Transmutation Experiment (AGATE) is taken as a reference for the target -core interaction study and neutronic optimization of the design and configuration. As a result of comprehensive study a unique target design entitled layered spallation target is proposed which allows an extended neutron flux field covering large fuel zone for efficient transmutation. The work in this paper is focused on the study of the neutronic performance of the target-core system in terms of neutronic yield, flux shape and distribution as well as the aspect of source neutron multiplication for further improvements. (orig.)

  9. The physics of accelerator driven sub-critical reactors

    S B Degweker; Biplab Ghosh; Anil Bajpal; S D Pranjape

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in accelerator driven systems (ADS) due to their perceived superior safety characteristics and their potential for burning actinides and long-lived fission products. Indian interest in ADS has an additional dimension, which is related to our planned large-scale thorium utilization for future nuclear energy generation. The physics of ADS is quite different from that of critical reactors. As such, physics studies on ADS reactors are necessary for gaining an understanding of these systems. Development of theoretical tools and experimental facilities for studying the physics of ADS reactors constitute important aspect of the ADS development program at BARC. This includes computer codes for burnup studies based on transport theory and Monte Carlo methods, codes for studying the kinetics of ADS and sub-critical facilities driven by 14 MeV neutron generators for ADS experiments and development of sub-criticality measurement methods. The paper discusses the physics issues specific to ADS reactors and presents the status of the reactor physics program and some of the ADS concepts under study.

  10. Two-stage fuel cycles with accelerator-driven systems

    As part of ongoing efforts to assess nuclear fuel cycle options, four fuel cycle options based on the same two reactor technologies have been studied. All four options are composed of two stages, one which contains pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and the other, fast spectrum accelerator-driven systems (ADS). The performance characteristics and material mass flows have been determined for the fuel cycle options considered, and compared. The three major difficulties encountered when modeling and analyzing these fuel cycle options have been to maintain the PWR fuel temperature reactivity coefficient negative when multi-recycling MOX fuel, to design the ADS core to be a breeder, and to achieve a high enough keff in the ADS to avoid the accelerator power consumption to be larger than the power generated by the ADS core. The differences observed in the performance characteristics and mass flows between the four fuel cycle options analyzed are discussed in this paper. Overall it is found that despite the four fuel cycle options being based on the same reactor technologies and seemingly similar at first sight, they perform differently and offer different features: resource utilization, need for uranium enrichment, required reprocessing capacity, and material type to be stored. (author)

  11. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles

    2001-07-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  12. The status of fast reactor technology development and accelerator driven subcritical system researches in China

    Since last May in mainland China there are two nuclear power plants with total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation and four NPPs in construction. It is envisaged that the total nuclear power capacity will be about 8.5 GWe in the year 2005. Recently the Government is considering four other new NPPs with a total capacity of about 4 GWe and starting their construction during 'tenth five years Plan' (2001-2005). The three new nuclear systems, FBR, ADS and Hybrid, have started to be developed with a rather moderate project and are all still in the early stage. For fast reactor engineering development, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) of 65 MWt is the first step. After some additional accidents analysis, especially sodium spray fire accident analysis, the reactor building construction will be continued. The main components including of the reactor block, primary and secondary circuits, fuel handling system have been ordered. It is foreseen to have CEFR reaching first criticality at the end of 2005. The second step 300 MWe Modular Fast Reactor (MPFR) is under consideration, which will be a prototype for large size fast reactor. Based on the size of MPFR, the role of MA transmutation has been evaluated. For the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS), we are making great efforts to accomplish the research tasks worked out in the first phase program (1998-2002) with emphasis on the system optimization, reactor physics and technology, accelerator physics and technology and nuclear and material data base, and are enthusiastically preparing to step to the second phase program which is marked by ADS concept verification study (2000-2007). As to the Fusion-Fission Hybrid System, in near-term the emphasis will be put on the experiments on two big testing facilities HL-1M and HT-7 on one hand, and on the other hand, we will determine the targets of medium-term and long-term development for Hybrid system and work out relative development program

  13. High-flux fusion neutron source for transmutation of fission products

    Transmutation of long-lived fission products is often referred to as a crucial step toward harmonized Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System. The feasibility of their incineration is determined by available neutron excess in the nuclear energy system as a whole and appropriate transmutation environment (neutron spectra and flux) in a dedicated transmuter. The present paper highlights the remarkable transmutation environment of Fusion Neutron Source with ITER-like plasma parameters in approaching the transmutation characteristics which are superior to that of fission and accelerator based transmuters. Quantitative example of zirconium and cesium transmutation is addressed. (author)

  14. Inherent Safety Features and Passive Prevention Approaches for Pb/Bi-cooled Accelerator-Driven Systems

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of passive safety and inherent features of subcritical nuclear transmutation systems - accelerator-driven systems. The general objective of this research has been to improve the safety performance and avoid elevated coolant temperatures in worst-case scenarios like unprotected loss-of-flow accidents, loss-of-heat-sink accidents, and a combination of both these accident initiators. The specific topics covered are emergency decay heat removal by reactor vessel auxiliary cooling systems, beam shut-off by a melt-rupture disc, safety aspects from locating heat-exchangers in the riser of a pool-type reactor system, and reduction of pressure resistance in the primary circuit by employing bypass routes. The initial part of the research was focused on reactor vessel auxiliary cooling systems. It was shown that an 80 MWth Pb/Bi-cooled accelerator-driven system of 8 m height and 6 m diameter vessel can be well cooled in the case of loss-of-flow accidents in which the accelerator proton beam is not switched off. After a loss-of-heat-sink accident the proton beam has to be interrupted within 40 minutes in order to avoid fast creep of the vessel. If a melt-rupture disc is included in the wall of the beam pipe, which breaks at 150 K above the normal core outlet temperature, the grace period until the beam has to be shut off is increased to 6 hours. For the same vessel geometry, but an operating power of 250 MWth the structural materials can still avoid fast creep in case the proton beam is shut off immediately. If beam shut-off is delayed, additional cooling methods are needed to increase the heat removal. Investigations were made on the filling of the gap between the guard and the reactor vessel with liquid metal coolant and using water spray cooling on the guard vessel surface. The second part of the thesis presents examinations regarding an accelerator-driven system also cooled with Pb/Bi but with heat-exchangers located in the

  15. Preferential enhancement of laser-driven carbon ion acceleration from optimized nanostructured surfaces

    Malay Dalui; W.-M. Wang; T. Madhu Trivikram; Subhrangshu Sarkar; Sheroy Tata; Jha, J.; Ayyub, P.; Sheng, Z. M.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses focused on metal targets readily generate hot dense plasmas which accelerate ions efficiently and can pave way to compact table-top accelerators. Laser-driven ion acceleration studies predominantly focus on protons, which experience the maximum acceleration owing to their highest charge-to-mass ratio. The possibility of tailoring such schemes for the preferential acceleration of a particular ion species is very much desired but has hardly been explored. ...

  16. CME-driven Coronal Shock Acceleration Of Energetic Electrons

    53 impulsive (38-315 keV) near-relativistic solar electron events with beam-like pitch-angle distributions were observed by the ACE/EPAM experiment while the SOHO/LASCO coronographs were observing coronal mass ejections (CME) between 2.5 and 30 R·. Simnett, Roelof and Haggerty [in companion papers to be published in Ap. J., 2002] report a close association among the impulsive electron beams, solar electromagnetic emissions, and western hemisphere CMEs, jets, etc. They find that the electron injections are delayed ∼10 minutes after the electromagnetic emissions and ∼20 minutes after the CME launches, so that the electron release occurs when the CME has travelled 1-2 R· beyond the CME launch altitude. The median exciter speed of the associated solar type III radio bursts (deduced from WIND/WAVES decametric spectrograms) is 0.08c, implying that the characteristic electron energies in the exciter front are only a few keV. Since no prompt near-relativistic electrons are injected until ∼10 minutes after the type III burst, the energy spectrum of the type III associated electrons must be steep at these energies. Therefore the near-relativistic electrons that must be present to produce the microwave and hard X-ray bursts also do not escape promptly with intensities measurable by ACE/EPAM. Inverse correlation between the finite delays of near-relativistic electrons after the CME launch confirms that the electrons are injected when the CMEs are ∼1-2 R· above the photosphere. The positive correlation between CME speed and electron intensity (as well as spectral hardness) is consistent with the process of shock acceleration. Therefore we conclude that the simplest explanation of the observational associations is that the electrons are accelerated by CME-driven shocks in the corona at altitudes ∼1-2 R· above the photosphere. We see no reason why ions should not also be accelerated concurrently in the corona by this same process, although the final velocity of the

  17. Thermal hydraulics of accelerator driven system windowless targets

    Bruno ePanella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the fluid dynamics of the windowless spallation target of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS is presented. Several target mockup configurations have been investigated: the first one was a symmetrical target, that was made by two concentric cylinders, the other configurations are not symmetrical. In the experiments water has been used as hydraulic equivalent to lead-bismuth eutectic fluid. The experiments have been carried out at room temperature and flow rate up to 24 kg/s. The fluid velocity components have been measured by an ultrasound technique. The velocity field of the liquid within the target region either for the approximately axial-symmetrical configuration or for the not symmetrical ones as a function of the flow rate and the initial liquid level is presented. A comparison of experimental data with the prediction of the finite volume FLUENT code is also presented. Moreover the results of a 2D-3D numerical analysis that investigates the effect on the steady state thermal and flow fields due to the insertion of guide vanes in the windowless target unit of the EFIT project ADS nuclear reactor are presented, by analysing both the cold flow case (absence of power generation and the hot flow case (nominal power generation inside the target unit.

  18. Computer codes and methods for simulating accelerator driven systems

    A large set of computer codes and associated data libraries have been developed by nuclear research and industry over the past half century. A large number of them are in the public domain and can be obtained under agreed conditions from different Information Centres. The areas covered comprise: basic nuclear data and models, reactor spectra and cell calculations, static and dynamic reactor analysis, criticality, radiation shielding, dosimetry and material damage, fuel behaviour, safety and hazard analysis, heat conduction and fluid flow in reactor systems, spent fuel and waste management (handling, transportation, and storage), economics of fuel cycles, impact on the environment of nuclear activities etc. These codes and models have been developed mostly for critical systems used for research or power generation and other technological applications. Many of them have not been designed for accelerator driven systems (ADS), but with competent use, they can be used for studying such systems or can form the basis for adapting existing methods to the specific needs of ADS's. The present paper describes the types of methods, codes and associated data available and their role in the applications. It provides Web addresses for facilitating searches for such tools. Some indications are given on the effect of non appropriate or 'blind' use of existing tools to ADS. Reference is made to available experimental data that can be used for validating the methods use. Finally, some international activities linked to the different computational aspects are described briefly. (author)

  19. The consequences of a sharp temperature change in the fuel pins of an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    The effect of temperature changes and in particular those that are accompanied by strong gradients was extensively investigated for fast reactors. Subcritical systems designed for their transmutation ability are to some extent similar to critical power reactors in their subassembly structure. However, they differ in two main aspects. First, the coolant in a subcritical system is lead or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and not sodium, and second, the main cause for steep temperature gradients in a fast power reactor is sudden control rod insertion, or scram, whereas in subcritical systems shutdown of the accelerator and its proton beam is the main cause for temperature gradients. Furthermore, the increased probability of operational interruptions in an accelerator driven system is largely due to the instability of the accelerator generating the proton beam. This study uses the knowledge gained from fast reactors as a preliminary reference and concentrates further on the unique features of the proposed subcritical systems. In particular, the effect of beam trips on the fuel pin integrity is evaluated as a function of the temperature gradients and the duration of the beam trips. It seems, however, that the largest hazard to the fuel pin integrity is due to the lead (or LBE) coolant. In particular, the stability of the protective oxide layer built on the clad surface with the lead coolant appears quite sensitive to sudden temperature changes. In the second part of this study, several available experimental results show that even very moderate temperature changes are sufficient to cause crack formation in the oxide layer thereby exposing the clad surface to enhanced LBE corrosion. In the worst case, complete exfoliation of the magnetite outer layer is observed. As a consequence, clad failure probability due to corrosion is considerably increased. (authors)

  20. Fission of 209Bi, natPb and 197Au in the particle field of a fast accelerator driven system

    Highlights: ► Fission rates of Bi, Pb and Au were measured in a particle field similar to that of fast ADS. ► The experimental results on fission rates are in agreement with MCNPX calculations. ► The most up to date fission cross-sections and related parameterizations were used. ► New parameterizations were produced from the published cross-section data. - Abstract: Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are expected to have particle spectra of significantly greater energy range than that of current power reactors. The Energy plus Transmutation (EpT) set-up of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, is designed to emulate the neutron spectrum in a fast ADS through the use of a spallation target surrounded by a blanket of natural uranium. The spectrum is further modified by a reflective layer of polyethylene and an internal absorbing layer of cadmium. The spallation target of EpT was irradiated with a beam of 4 GeV deuterons, and the fission rates of bismuth, lead and gold samples, placed in the target-blanket region were recorded using a fission track detector technique. The fission rates were also calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code with the INCL4 cascade model and cross sections for nucleon induced fission obtained from literature. Agreement between the measured and calculated results indicates the model’s ability to predict the particle spectra and spatial distribution

  1. Research coordination meeting of the coordinated research project on analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems. Working material

    The Technical Meeting hosted at the Belarus National Academy of Sciences in Minsk by the Joint Institute of Power Engineering and Nuclear Research 'SOSNY' from 5-9 December 2005 was the kick-off Research Coordination Meeting (RCM) of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS)'. The CRP had received proposals for research agreements and contracts from scientists representing the following 25 institutions: Centro Atomico Bariloche, SCK CEN Mol, Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares Sao Paulo, Joint Institute of Power Engineering and Nuclear Research SOSNY Minsk, China Institute of Atomic Energy, CEA Cadarache, CNRS Paris, FZ Rossendorf, FZ Karlsruhe, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Politecnico di Torino, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG) Petten, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, AGH-University of Science and Technology Krakow, Institute of Atomic Energy Otwock/Swierk, ITEP Moscow, MEPHI Moscow, Kurchatov Institute, JINR Dubna, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, CIEMAT Madrid, Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute and Technology', and Argonne National Laboratory). These institutions represent 18 IAEA Member States (i.e., Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, USA), and one International Organization (JINR Dubna). The overall objective of the CRP is contributing to the generic R and D efforts in various fields common to innovative fast neutron system development, i.e., heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics, dedicated transmutation fuels and associated core designs, theoretical nuclear reaction models, measurement and evaluation of nuclear data for transmutation, and development and validation of calculational methods and codes. Ultimately, the CRP

  2. Fuel cycle aspects of accelerator-driven energy systems

    The proposal by Carlo Rubbia and his associates at CERN for a particular variety of accelerator-driven system as an 'Energy Amplifier' is discussed. The paper is concerned with the fuel cycle and its implications. Using thorium is a secondary aspect of the CERN proposal, but important, and less fully established than may be supposed. The necessary processes have yet to be proved consistently reliable, tolerably inexpensive, and safe under all credible conditions to the satisfaction of regulatory bodies. This presents difficulties. Reasons for preferring thorium to uranium are often taken to be self-evidently sound, whereas the underlying assumptions are themselves questionable. The following conclusions have been arrived at. The attractions of accelerator-driven systems have prompted a great deal of interest in the physics and engineering of the basic system, considerably less in the fuel cycle needed to sustain it. In order to minimise avoidable risks on the development path, a conventional uranium or uranium-plutonium fuel would be more appropriate in the first instance than the thorium-based type postulated in the original 'energy amplifier' proposal and subject to greater problems of industrial innovation than appear to have been generally recognised. Apart from a possible capability for higher burn-up, and reactivity-flattening properties that might usefully diminish variations in the energy amplification factor, the advantages of thorium over uranium relate chiefly to its producing little of the transuranic elements and therefore being better suited to incinerating those already in existence. How far this is a feasible and worth-while objective needs to be critically examined. Difficulties are to be expected particularly in reprocessing the fuel and in separating long-lived radionuclides from present or future nuclear wastes, including those from thorium itself, where methods developed experimentally or for specialised purposes may not be readily or

  3. Monte Carlo calculations on transmutation of transuranic nuclear waste isotopes using spallation neutrons. Difference of lead and graphite moderators

    Transmutation rates of 239Pu and some minor actinides (237Np, 241Am, 245Cm and 246Cm), in two accelerator driven systems (ADS) with lead or graphite moderating environments, were calculated using the LAHET code system. The ADS that were used had a large volume (∼ 30 m3) and contained no fissile material, except for a small amount of fissionable waste nuclei that existed in some cases. Calculations were performed at incident proton energy of 1.5 GeV and spallation target was lead. Also breeding rates of 239Pu and 233U as well as the transmutation rates of two long-lived fission products 99Tc and 129I were calculated at different locations in the moderator. It is shown that an ADS with graphite moderator is a much more effective transmuter than that with lead moderator

  4. The transmutation and irradiation performances of the XT-ADS

    The EUROTRANS project is an integrated project in the 6. European Framework Programme in the context of partitioning and transmutation (P and T). The objective of this project is the step-wise approach of a European Transmutation Demonstration. This project aims to deliver an advanced design of a small-scale accelerator-driven system (ADS), XT-ADS, as well as the conceptual design of a European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, EFIT. The design of both machines is co-ordinated in Domain 1 (DM1) ''Design'' of the project. The main objectives of the XT-ADS are: demonstration of the ADS concept, providing a test facility for transmutation and providing irradiation possibilities in conditions representative of EFIT operating conditions. The latter allows the use of the XT-ADS as a materials testing facility as well as an aid for the fuel qualification of EFIT and for the qualification of candidate structural materials. The XT-ADS core is based on MOX fuel relatively high in Pu content and is cooled using a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). The combination of these two components results in a fast spectrum core. During the first 18 months of the project, the core of the XT-ADS has been developed starting from the MYRRHA DRAFT2 file. The XT-ADS core has only been fixed at the end of last June, so the calculations relating to this reference core are ongoing. There have been some scoping studies in the MYRRHA project on the capabilities as an irradiation facility (in-pile sections). As with the modified fuel pin and fuel assembly design, we started from the work done in the MYRRHA project to define the respective capabilities for the XT-ADS. (authors)

  5. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation in the EURATOM framework programmes

    Representing the EC, Michel Hugon gave an overview of the research activities on P and T carried out during the EURATOM 5. Framework Programme lasting from 1998 to 2002. The aim of the research work on P and T is to provide a basis for evaluating the practicability of P and T on an industrial scale for reducing the amount of long-lived radionuclides to be disposed of. The research projects are grouped in five clusters coordinated by the ADOPT (Advanced Options for P and T) network: (i) hydrometallurgical and pyrochemical partitioning processes, (ii) basic studies on transmutation (nuclear data and neutronics), (iii) technological support for transmutation, (iv) fuel for transmutation and (v) preliminary design for an accelerator driven system (ADS). The transmutation part of the programme is focused on ADS development although many topics investigated are useful for critical burners also. The results of the 5. Framework Programme projects will be presented in an International Workshop on P and T and ADS Development to be held in Mol, Belgium 6-8 October 2003. The 6. Framework Programme (2002-2006) and its specific programmes have been adopted by the European Council and Parliament in 2002. The objective of the research in the P and T sub-area is to determine practical ways of reducing the amount and/or hazard of the long-term component of the radioactive waste to be disposed of in geological repositories by P and T and to evaluate their practicability on an industrial scale. One of the research area of this programme will be a fundamental assessment of the overall concept of P and T and in particular its impact on waste management and geological disposal

  6. Influence of Laser Prepulse in Ultra-short Laser-Driven Proton Acceleration

    2011-01-01

    Influence of laser prepulse in ultra-short laser-driven proton acceleration was investigated by the differences in spatial distribution and energy spectrum between different foil-targets. The laser system produced pulses having energies of up to

  7. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 197Au and 129Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 129Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  8. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-12-01

    Studies have shown that the repository long-term radiological risk is from the long-lived transuranics and the fission products Tc-99 and I-129, thermal loading concerns arise mainly form the short-lived fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. In relation to the disposition of nuclear waste, ATW is expected to accomplish the following: (1) destroy over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroy over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separate Sr and Cs (short half-life isotopes); (4) separate uranium; (5) produce electricity. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to a ATW site where the plutonium, other transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their only pass through the facility. This approach contrasts with the present-day reprocessing practices in Europe and Japan, during which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors.

  9. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    Studies have shown that the repository long-term radiological risk is from the long-lived transuranics and the fission products Tc-99 and I-129, thermal loading concerns arise mainly form the short-lived fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. In relation to the disposition of nuclear waste, ATW is expected to accomplish the following: (1) destroy over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroy over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separate Sr and Cs (short half-life isotopes); (4) separate uranium; (5) produce electricity. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to a ATW site where the plutonium, other transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their only pass through the facility. This approach contrasts with the present-day reprocessing practices in Europe and Japan, during which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors

  10. Macroscopic cross sections of neutron radiation capture by Pb-208, U-238 and Tc-99 nuclides in the accelerator driven subcritical core cooled with molten Pb-208 - 286

    In the paper macroscopic cross sections for several isotopes: 208Pb, 238U, 99Tc and natural mix of lead isotopes, natPb, averaged over neutron spectra of the accelerator driven subcritical core cooled with natPb or 208Pb are given. It is shown that macro cross sections for a coolant from 208Pb are by 6.2 times smaller than those for the coolant consisted from natPb. The economy of neutrons in the core cooled with molten 208Pb can be used for reducing initial fuel load, increasing plutonium breeding and enhancing transmutation of such long lived fission products as 99Tc. The values of macro cross sections calculated for 238U and 99Tc, equal to 0.6 and 0.8 barns, respectively, are comparable with the values of the same nuclide macro cross sections for neutron spectrum of the fast reactor core cooled with sodium. Good neutron and physical features of molten 208Pb permit to assume it as perspective coolant for fast reactors and accelerator driven systems. (authors)

  11. Optimizing laser-driven proton acceleration from overdense targets

    Stockem Novo, A.; Kaluza, M. C.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate how to tune the main ion acceleration mechanism in laser-plasma interactions to collisionless shock acceleration, thus achieving control over the final ion beam properties (e. g. maximum energy, divergence, number of accelerated ions). We investigate this technique with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and illustrate a possible experimental realisation. The setup consists of an isolated solid density target, which is preheated by a first laser pulse to initiate target expansion, and a second one to trigger acceleration. The timing between the two laser pulses allows to access all ion acceleration regimes, ranging from target normal sheath acceleration, to hole boring and collisionless shock acceleration. We further demonstrate that the most energetic ions are produced by collisionless shock acceleration, if the target density is near-critical, ne ≈ 0.5 ncr. A scaling of the laser power shows that 100 MeV protons may be achieved in the PW range.

  12. Optimizing laser-driven proton acceleration from overdense targets

    Stockem Novo, A.; Kaluza, M. C.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how to tune the main ion acceleration mechanism in laser-plasma interactions to collisionless shock acceleration, thus achieving control over the final ion beam properties (e. g. maximum energy, divergence, number of accelerated ions). We investigate this technique with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and illustrate a possible experimental realisation. The setup consists of an isolated solid density target, which is preheated by a first laser pulse to initiate target expansion, and a second one to trigger acceleration. The timing between the two laser pulses allows to access all ion acceleration regimes, ranging from target normal sheath acceleration, to hole boring and collisionless shock acceleration. We further demonstrate that the most energetic ions are produced by collisionless shock acceleration, if the target density is near-critical, ne ≈ 0.5 ncr. A scaling of the laser power shows that 100 MeV protons may be achieved in the PW range. PMID:27435449

  13. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems and generation IV reactors for transmutation of minor actinides. Annual report 2009

    During 2009, the reactor physics division has made a design study of a source efficient ADS with nitride fuel and 15/15Ti cladding, based on the EFIT design made within the EUROTRANS project. It was shown that the source efficiency may be doubled as compared to the reference design with oxide fuel and T91 cladding. Transient analysis of a medium sized sodium cooled reactor with MOX fuel allowed to define criteria in terms of power penalty for americium introduction. It was shown that for each percent of americium added to the fuel, the linear rating must be reduced by 6% in order for the fuel to survive postulated unprotected transients. The Sjoestrand area ratio method for reactivity determination has been evaluated experimentally in the strongly heterogeneous subcritical facility YALINA-Booster. Surprisingly, it has been found that the area ratio reactivity estimates may differ by a factor of two depending on detector position. It is shown that this strong spatial dependence can be explained based on a two-region point kinetics model and rectified by means of correction factors obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. For the purpose of measuring high energy neutron cross sections at the SCANDAL facility in Uppsala, Monte Carlo simulations of neutron to proton conversion efficiencies in CsI detectors have been performed. A uranium fuel fabrication laboratory has been taken into operation at KTH in 2009. Uranium and zirconium nitride powders have been fabricated by hydridation/nitridation of metallic source materials. Sample pellets have been pressed and ZrN discs have been sintered to 93% density by means of spark plasma sintering methods

  14. System and safety studies of accelerator driven systems and generation IV reactors for transmutation of minor actinides. Annual report 2009

    Bergloef, Calle; Fokau, Andrei; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Tesinsky, Milan; Wallenius, Janne; Youpeng Zhang (Div. of Reactor Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    During 2009, the reactor physics division has made a design study of a source efficient ADS with nitride fuel and 15/15Ti cladding, based on the EFIT design made within the EUROTRANS project. It was shown that the source efficiency may be doubled as compared to the reference design with oxide fuel and T91 cladding. Transient analysis of a medium sized sodium cooled reactor with MOX fuel allowed to define criteria in terms of power penalty for americium introduction. It was shown that for each percent of americium added to the fuel, the linear rating must be reduced by 6% in order for the fuel to survive postulated unprotected transients. The Sjoestrand area ratio method for reactivity determination has been evaluated experimentally in the strongly heterogeneous subcritical facility YALINA-Booster. Surprisingly, it has been found that the area ratio reactivity estimates may differ by a factor of two depending on detector position. It is shown that this strong spatial dependence can be explained based on a two-region point kinetics model and rectified by means of correction factors obtained through Monte Carlo simulations. For the purpose of measuring high energy neutron cross sections at the SCANDAL facility in Uppsala, Monte Carlo simulations of neutron to proton conversion efficiencies in CsI detectors have been performed. A uranium fuel fabrication laboratory has been taken into operation at KTH in 2009. Uranium and zirconium nitride powders have been fabricated by hydridation/nitridation of metallic source materials. Sample pellets have been pressed and ZrN discs have been sintered to 93% density by means of spark plasma sintering methods

  15. An overview of U.S. activities in fast reactors and accelerator driven systems

    This report reviews the activities of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), describes EBR-II spent fuel treatment. Advanced accelerator applications were related to research and development of fuel cycle, namely system studies, fuels, separations, physics, materials. The work on Accelerator Driven Test Facility design has been stopped

  16. Guided post-acceleration of laser-driven ions by a miniature modular structure

    Kar, Satyabrata; Ahmed, Hamad; Prasad, Rajendra; Cerchez, Mirela; Brauckmann, Stephanie; Aurand, Bastian; Cantono, Giada; Hadjisolomou, Prokopis; Lewis, Ciaran L. S.; Macchi, Andrea; Nersisyan, Gagik; Robinson, Alexander P. L.; Schroer, Anna M.; Swantusch, Marco; Zepf, Matt; Willi, Oswald; Borghesi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    All-optical approaches to particle acceleration are currently attracting a significant research effort internationally. Although characterized by exceptional transverse and longitudinal emittance, laser-driven ion beams currently have limitations in terms of peak ion energy, bandwidth of the energy spectrum and beam divergence. Here we introduce the concept of a versatile, miniature linear accelerating module, which, by employing laser-excited electromagnetic pulses directed along a helical path surrounding the laser-accelerated ion beams, addresses these shortcomings simultaneously. In a proof-of-principle experiment on a university-scale system, we demonstrate post-acceleration of laser-driven protons from a flat foil at a rate of 0.5 GeV m-1, already beyond what can be sustained by conventional accelerator technologies, with dynamic beam collimation and energy selection. These results open up new opportunities for the development of extremely compact and cost-effective ion accelerators for both established and innovative applications.

  17. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  18. Accelerator-driven neutron sources for materials research

    Particle accelerators are important tools for materials research and production. Advances in high-intensity linear accelerator technology make it possible to consider enhanced neutron sources for fusion material studies or as a source of spallation neutrons. Energy variability, uniformity of target dose distribution, target bombardment from multiple directions, time-scheduled dose patterns, and other features can be provided, opening new experimental opportunities. New designs have also been used to ensure hands-on maintenance on the accelerator in these factory-type facilities. Designs suitable for proposals such as the Japanese Energy-Selective Intense Neutron Source, and the international Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility are discussed

  19. Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and fast reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles - a comparative study. Extract from OECD/NEA Publication ISBN 92-64-184882-1

    The long-term hazard of radioactive wastes arising from nuclear energy production is a matter of continued discussion and public concern in many countries. By the use of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) of the actinides and some of the long-lived fission products, the radiotoxicity of the high-level waste (HLW) and, possibly, the safety requirements for its geological disposal can be reduced compared with the current once-through fuel cycle. To make the technologically complex enterprise worthwhile, a reduction in the HLW radiotoxicity by a factor of at least one hundred is desirable. This requires very effective reactor and fuel cycle strategies, including fast reactors (FRs) and/or accelerator-driven, sub-critical systems. The accelerator-driven system (ADS) has recently been receiving increased attention due to its potential to improve the flexibility and safety characteristics of transmutation systems. The present study compares FR- and ADS-based actinide transmutation systems with respect to reactor properties, fuel cycle requirements, economic aspects, and R and D needs. The essential differences between the various systems are evaluated with the help of a number of representative 'fuel cycle schemes'. The strategies investigated include an evolutionary transmutation strategy in which the ADS provides additional flexibility by enabling plutonium utilisation in conventional reactors and confining the minor actinides to a small part of the fuel cycle, and two innovative transuranics (TRU) burning strategies, with an FR or an ADS, in which plutonium and minor actinides are managed together to minimise the proliferation risk. A novelty in the present study is that the analyses are carried out in a consistent manner using reactor and fuel cycle parameters which have been agreed upon by international experts. Principle messages from the study which could influence P and T policy development are: - Fuel cycles with multiple recycling of the fuel

  20. Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures

    Byer, Robert L.

    2013-11-07

    The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

  1. Curvature-driven acceleration: a utopia or a reality?

    Das, Sudipta [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Banerjee, Narayan [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Dadhich, Naresh [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-06-21

    The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contributions from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature.

  2. Curvature driven acceleration an utopia or a reality ?

    Das, S; Dadhich, N; Das, Sudipta; Banerjee, Narayan; Dadhich, Naresh

    2005-01-01

    The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contribution from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature.

  3. An Accelerated Stress Test Method for Electrostatically Driven MEMS Devices

    Ruan, Jinyu Jason; Monnereau, Nicolas; Trémouilles, David; Mauran, Nicolas; Coccetti, Fabio; Nolhier, Nicolas; Plana, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses an innovative solution to develop a circuit to perform accelerated stress tests of capacitive microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) switches and shows the use of instruments and equipment to monitor physical aging phenomena. A dedicated test circuit was designed and fabricated in order to meet the need for accelerated techniques for those structures. It integrated an in-house miniaturized circuit connected to additional test equipment (e.g., oscilloscopes and capacitance m...

  4. Monte Carlo analysis of the long-lived fission product neutron capture rates at the Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.M. [Centro de Investigaciones Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense, 40, Ed. 17, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ismailov, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Lafuente, A. [Grupo de Modelizacion de Sistemas Termoenergeticos, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, c/Ramiro de Maeztu, 7, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nishihara, K. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Saito, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Sugawara, T. [Transmutation Section, J-PARC Center, JAEA, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TARC experiment benchmark capture rates results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Utilization of updated databases, included ADSLib. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Self-shielding effect in reactor design for transmutation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of Lead nuclear data. - Abstract: The design of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) requires the development of simulation tools that are able to describe in a realistic way their nuclear performance and transmutation rate capability. In this publication, we present an evaluation of state of the art Monte Carlo design tools to assess their performance concerning transmutation of long-lived fission products. This work, performed under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency, analyses two important aspects for transmutation systems: moderation on Lead and neutron captures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 127}I and {sup 129}I. The analysis of the results shows how shielding effects due to the resonances at epithermal energies of these nuclides affects strongly their transmutation rate. The results suggest that some research effort should be undertaken to improve the quality of Iodine nuclear data at epithermal and fast neutron energy to obtain a reliable transmutation estimation.

  5. Fatigue analysis of the spallation module of a high power accelerator-driven demonstrator system

    In the framework of the study of a hybrid demonstrator system dedicated to waste transmutation, close attention has been paid to the mechanical design of the beam window plunging in the liquid metal target, since it ensures a critical function of confinement. First, the risk of fatigue induced by thermal cycling due to frequent beam trips of the accelerator has been assessed for an unirradiated T91 martensitic steel. This study has shown that the risk of fatigue will not be a limiting factor for the lifetime of the component even under severe operating conditions. A similar study has also been performed, with the help of adapted design rules, considering a T91 steel irradiated at 3.5 DPA. A similar conclusion has been found, which should, however, be confirmed by further studies at dose and temperature levels closer to the expected irradiation conditions of the window. (authors)

  6. Site layout and balance of plant design for an accelerator-driven materials processing complex

    High energy proton beam accelerators are under consideration for use in radioisotope production, surplus weapons material destruction, radioactive waste transmutation, and thorium-based energy conversion cycles. While there are unique aspects to each of these applications that must be accommodated in the design of the associated facility, all share a set of fundamental characteristics that in large measure dictate the site layout features and many balance-of-plant (BOP) design requirements found to be common to all. This paper defines these key design determinants and goes on to discuss the manner in which they have been accommodated in the pre-conceptual design for a particular materials production application. An estimate of the costs associated with this BOP design is also presented with the aim of guiding future evaluations where the basic plant designs are similar to that of this specific case

  7. Site layout and balance of plant design for an accelerator-driven materials processing complex

    Cunliffe, John; Taussig, Robert; Ghose, Sunil; Guillebaud, Louis

    1995-09-01

    High energy proton beam accelerators are under consideration for use in radioisotope production, surplus weapons material destruction, radioactive waste transmutation, and thorium-based energy conversion cycles. While there are unique aspects to each of these applications that must be accommodated in the design of the associated facility, all share a set of fundamental characteristics that in large measure dictate the site layout features and many balance-of-plant (BOP) design requirements found to be common to all. This paper defines these key design determinants and goes on to discuss the manner in which they have been accommodated in the pre-conceptual design for a particular materials production application. An estimate of the costs associated with this BOP design is also presented with the aim of guiding future evaluations where the basic plant designs are similar to that of this specific case.

  8. IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation

    Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium-tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project

  9. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Gschwendtner, E; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Olsen, V.K. Berglyd; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschon, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A.A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Huther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K.V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V.A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Oz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z.M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A.P.; Spitsyn, R.I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P.V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C.P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2015-01-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected to sample the wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  10. AWAKE, The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at CERN

    Gschwendtner, E.; Adli, E.; Amorim, L.; Apsimon, R.; Assmann, R.; Bachmann, A.-M.; Batsch, F.; Bauche, J.; Berglyd Olsen, V. K.; Bernardini, M.; Bingham, R.; Biskup, B.; Bohl, T.; Bracco, C.; Burrows, P. N.; Burt, G.; Buttenschön, B.; Butterworth, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cascella, M.; Chevallay, E.; Cipiccia, S.; Damerau, H.; Deacon, L.; Dirksen, P.; Doebert, S.; Dorda, U.; Farmer, J.; Fedosseev, V.; Feldbaumer, E.; Fiorito, R.; Fonseca, R.; Friebel, F.; Gorn, A. A.; Grulke, O.; Hansen, J.; Hessler, C.; Hofle, W.; Holloway, J.; Hüther, M.; Jaroszynski, D.; Jensen, L.; Jolly, S.; Joulaei, A.; Kasim, M.; Keeble, F.; Li, Y.; Liu, S.; Lopes, N.; Lotov, K. V.; Mandry, S.; Martorelli, R.; Martyanov, M.; Mazzoni, S.; Mete, O.; Minakov, V. A.; Mitchell, J.; Moody, J.; Muggli, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Norreys, P.; Öz, E.; Pardons, A.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Plyushchev, G.; Pukhov, A.; Rieger, K.; Ruhl, H.; Salveter, F.; Savard, N.; Schmidt, J.; Seryi, A.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Sherwood, P.; Silva, L.; Soby, L.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Spitsyn, R. I.; Trines, R.; Tuev, P. V.; Turner, M.; Verzilov, V.; Vieira, J.; Vincke, H.; Wei, Y.; Welsch, C. P.; Wing, M.; Xia, G.; Zhang, H.

    2016-09-01

    The Advanced Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) aims at studying plasma wakefield generation and electron acceleration driven by proton bunches. It is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN and the world's first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment. The AWAKE experiment will be installed in the former CNGS facility and uses the 400 GeV/c proton beam bunches from the SPS. The first experiments will focus on the self-modulation instability of the long (rms ~12 cm) proton bunch in the plasma. These experiments are planned for the end of 2016. Later, in 2017/2018, low energy (~15 MeV) electrons will be externally injected into the sample wakefields and be accelerated beyond 1 GeV. The main goals of the experiment will be summarized. A summary of the AWAKE design and construction status will be presented.

  11. Efficiency of the sulfur–iodine thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production based on ADS (accelerator driven system)

    The current hydrogen production is based on fossil fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere's pollution. Thermochemical water splitting cycles don't present this issue because the required process heat is obtained from nuclear energy and therefore, the environmental impact is smaller than using conventional fuels. Although, solar hydrogen production could be also used for practical applications because it's lower environmental impact. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen in an efficient way using nuclear energy is the sulfur–iodine (S–I) thermochemical water splitting cycle. The nuclear source proposed in this paper is a pebble bed gas cooled transmutation facility. Pebble bed very high temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy. Softwares based on CPS (chemical process simulation) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting sulfur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production. In this paper, a model for analyzing the sulfur-iodine process sensibility respect to the thermodynamics parameters: temperature, pressure and mass flow is developed. Efficiency is also calculated and the influence of different parameters on this value. The behavior of the proposed model for different values of initial reactant's flow, is analyzed. - Highlights: • Chemical Process Simulation (CPS) of the complete sulfur iodine cycle. • Conceptual design of an accelerator driven system for hydrogen production. • Radial and axial temperature profile for the end of stationary cycle (EOC). • Thermal stability of the sulfuric and hydriodic acid sections determination. • Sulfur iodine cycle efficiency analyses for different heat flow from the ADS

  12. Fission Product Transmutation in Mixed Radiation Fields

    Harmon, Frank [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Burgett, Erick [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Tsveretkov, Pavel [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Work under this grant addressed a part of the challenge facing the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; reducing the radiotoxicity of lived fission products (LLFP). It was based on the possibility that partitioning of isotopes and accelerator-based transmutation on particular LLFP combined with geological disposal may lead to an acceptable societal solution to the problem of management. The feasibility of using photonuclear processes based on the excitation of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) by bremsstrahlung radiation as a cost effective transmutation method was accessed. The nuclear reactions of interest: (γ,xn), (n,γ), (γ,p) can be induced by bremsstrahlung radiation produced by high power electron accelerators. The driver of these processes would be an accelerator that produces a high energy and high power electron beam of ~ 100 MeV. The major advantages of such accelerators for this purpose are that they are essentially available “off the shelf” and potentially would be of reasonable cost for this application. Methods were examined that used photo produced neutrons or the bremsstrahlung photons only, or use both photons and neutrons in combination for irradiations of selected LLFP. Extrapolating the results to plausible engineering scale transmuters it was found that the energy cost for 129I and 99Tc transmutation by these methods are about 2 and 4%, respectively, of the energy produced from 1000MWe.

  13. Neutron fluctuations in accelerator driven and power reactors via backward master equations

    The transport of neutrons in a reactor is a random process, and thus the number of neutrons in a reactor is a random variable. Fluctuations in the number of neutrons in a reactor can be divided into two categories, namely zero noise and power reactor noise. As the name indicates, they dominate (i.e. are observable) at different power levels. The reasons for their occurrences and utilization are also different. In addition, they are described via different mathematical tools, namely master equations and the Langevin equation, respectively. Zero noise carries information about some nuclear properties such as reactor reactivity. Hence methods such as Feynman- and Rossi-alpha methods have been established to determine the subcritical reactivity of a subcritical system. Such methods received a renewed interest recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven systems (ADS). Such systems, intended to be used either for energy production or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those of the traditionally used radioactive sources which were also assumed in the derivation of the Feynman- and Rossi-alpha formulae. Therefore it is necessary to re-derive the Feynman- and Rossi-alpha formulae. Such formulae for ADS have been derived recently but in simpler neutronic models. One subject of this thesis is the extension of such formulae to a more general case in which six groups of delayed neutron precursors are taken into account, and the full joint statistics of the prompt and all delayed groups is included. The involved complexity problems are solved with a combination of effective analytical techniques and symbolic algebra codes. Power reactor noise carries information about parametric perturbation of the system. Langevin technique has been used to extract such information. In such a treatment, zero noise has been neglected. This is a pragmatic

  14. Conceptual design of minor actinides burner with an accelerator-driven subcritical system.

    Cao, Y.; Gohar, Y. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-11-04

    In the environmental impact study of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, the limit of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) for disposal is assessed at 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM), among which 63,000 MTHM are the projected SNF discharge from U.S. commercial nuclear power plants though 2011. Within the 70,000 MTHM of SNF in storage, approximately 115 tons would be minor actinides (MAs) and 585 tons would be plutonium. This study describes the conceptual design of an accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system intended to utilize (burn) the 115 tons of MAs. The ADS system consists of a subcritical fission blanket where the MAs fuel will be burned, a spallation neutron source to drive the fission blanket, and a radiation shield to reduce the radiation dose to an acceptable level. The spallation neutrons are generated from the interaction of a 1 GeV proton beam with a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) or liquid lead target. In this concept, the fission blanket consists of a liquid mobile fuel and the fuel carrier can be LBE, liquid lead, or molten salt. The actinide fuel materials are dissolved, mixed, or suspended in the liquid fuel carrier. Therefore, fresh fuel can be fed into the fission blanket to adjust its reactivity and to control system power during operation. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to determine the overall parameters of an ADS system utilizing LBE as an example. Steady-state Monte Carlo simulations were studied for three fission blanket configurations that are similar except that the loaded amount of actinide fuel in the LBE is either 5, 7, or 10% of the total volume of the blanket, respectively. The neutron multiplication factor values of the three configurations are all approximately 0.98 and the MA initial inventories are each approximately 10 tons. Monte Carlo burnup simulations using the MCB5 code were performed to analyze the performance of the three conceptual ADS systems. Preliminary burnup analysis shows that all three conceptual ADS

  15. How dogs lap: open pumping driven by acceleration

    Gart, Sean; Socha, John; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-11-01

    Dogs drink by lapping because they have incomplete cheeks and cannot suck fluids into the mouth. When lapping, a dog's tongue pulls a liquid column from a bath, which is then swallowed, suggesting that the hydrodynamics of column formation are critical to understanding how dogs drink. We measured the kinematics of lapping from nineteen dogs and used the results to generate a physical model of the tongue's interaction with the air-fluid interface. These experiments with an accelerating rod help to explain how dogs exploit the fluid dynamics of the generated column. The results suggest that effects of acceleration govern lapping frequency, and that dogs curl the tongue ventrally (backwards) and time their bite on the column to increase fluid intake per lap. Comparing lapping in dogs and cats reveals that though they both lap with the same frequency scaling with respect to body mass and have similar morphology, these carnivores lap in different physical regimes: a high-acceleration regime for dogs and a low-acceleration regime for cats.

  16. A Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration experiment at CERN

    The AWAKE Collaboration has been formed in order to demonstrate protondriven plasma wakefield acceleration for the first time. This technology could lead to future colliders of high energy but of a much reduced length compared to proposed linear accelerators. The SPS proton beam in the CNGS facility will be injected into a 10m plasma cell where the long proton bunches will be modulated into significantly shorter micro-bunches. These micro-bunches will then initiate a strong wakefield in the plasma with peak fields above 1 GV/m that will be harnessed to accelerate a bunch of electrons from about 20MeV to the GeV scale within a few meters. The experimental program is based on detailed numerical simulations of beam and plasma interactions. The main accelerator components, the experimental area and infrastructure required as well as the plasma cell and the diagnostic equipment are discussed in detail. First protons to the experiment are expected at the end of 2016 and this will be followed by an initial 3–4 yea...

  17. Analytical benchmarks for the kinetics of accelerator-driven systems

    The work presented in this paper illustrates the analytical benchmark philosophy with applications to subcritical source-driven system dynamics. Results for different complexity problems are presented in the frame of multigroup diffusion theory. The analysis performed on systems having physical characteristics typical of the Yalina Booster experiment are presented. The comparisons with the results of numerical calculations enlighten the convergence trend of discretized schemes and the limits of applicability to the analysis of experiments. (authors)

  18. Effect of plasma inhomogeneity on plasma wakefield acceleration driven by long bunches

    Lotov, K. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Pukhov, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Caldwell, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    Effects of plasma inhomogeneity on self-modulating proton bunches and accelerated electrons were studied numerically. The main effect is the change of the wakefield wavelength which results in phase shifts and loss of accelerated particles. This effect imposes severe constraints on density uniformity in plasma wakefield accelerators driven by long particle bunches. The transverse two stream instability that transforms the long bunch into a train of micro-bunches is less sensitive to density inhomogeneity than are the accelerated particles. The bunch freely passes through increased density regions and interacts with reduced density regions.

  19. Positron acceleration in plasma bubble wakefield driven by an ultraintense laser

    Hou, Ya-Juan; Wan, Feng; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of positrons accelerating in electron-positron-ion plasma bubble fields driven by an ultraintense laser is investigated. The bubble wakefield is obtained theoretically when laser pulses are propagating in the electron-positron-ion plasma. To restrict the positrons transversely, an electron beam is injected. Acceleration regions and non-acceleration ones of positrons are obtained by the numerical simulation. It is found that the ponderomotive force causes the fluctuation of the positrons momenta, which results in the trapping of them at a lower ion density. The energy gaining of the accelerated positrons is demonstrated, which is helpful for practical applications.

  20. Electron acceleration driven by ultrashort and nonparaxial radially polarized laser pulses.

    Marceau, Vincent; April, Alexandre; Piché, Michel

    2012-07-01

    Exact closed-form solutions to Maxwell's equations are used to investigate the acceleration of electrons in vacuum driven by ultrashort and nonparaxial radially polarized laser pulses. We show that the threshold power above which significant acceleration takes place is greatly reduced by using a tighter focus. Moreover, electrons accelerated by tightly focused single-cycle laser pulses may reach around 80% of the theoretical energy gain limit, about twice the value previously reported with few-cycle paraxial pulses. Our results demonstrate that the direct acceleration of electrons in vacuum is well within reach of current laser technology. PMID:22743415

  1. Recycling and transmutation of spent fuel as a sustainable option for the nuclear energy development

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the option of recycling and transmutation of radioactive waste against Once-through Fuel Cycle (OTC) based on uranium feed under the perspective of sustainability. We use a qualitative analysis to compare OTC with closed fuel cycles based on studies already performed such as the Red Impact Project and the comparative study on accelerator driven systems and fast reactors for advanced fuel cycles performed by the Nuclear Energy Agency. The results show that recycling and transmutation fuel cycles are more attractive than the OTC from the point of view of sustainability. The main conclusion is that the decision about the construction of a deep geological repository for spent fuel disposal must be reevaluated. (author)

  2. Concept of the thorium fuelled accelerator driven subcritical system for both energy production and TRU incineration - 'TASSE'

    The TASSE is the concept of the subcritical accelerator driven system with 'TRU-free' fuel cycle and the continuous Th-feed regime. The tightness of Th neutronics call inevitably the subcritical mode of work. Two types of neutron spectra are recommended: fast and super-thermal (well thermalized) ones. TASSE fuel cycle could have the following options: (i) without any fuel recycling and reprocessing (once-through fuel cycle option) for maximum fuel cycle simplicity. However, subcriticality level (1- Keff) is essential and it requires high power accelerators; (ii) with the partial or, eventually, full U recycling 'on line' including the separation (U + Pa + Th) component from TRU + FP component which can be considered as wastes. Relatively small mass of fuel have to be reprocessed. Moreover, the requirement to separation is very soft. In this case, recycling allows to minimise subcriticality and smaller accelerators can be acceptable. The TASSE is oriented on 'clean' nuclear energy production and TRU burning with the following attractive features: (1) For the long term perspective, TASSEs have a rather limited mass of long-lived radioactive wastes, consisting mostly of Th, U and Pa nuclides. One can see the considerable reduction of waste toxicity by the factor of 1000 (or even more) in the magnitude regarding current PWR's and by the factor of 10-100 regarding (PWR's + dedicated burners) scenario. (2) Relatively low amounts of Th would have to be mined: approximately a factor of 100 lower than the U mined for PWR's. With TASSEs, nuclear power has practically inexhaustible (for a long future) and cheap fuel resources, taking into account that Thorium reserves exceed Uranium PWR fuel reserves by factor of 103. (3) TASSEs are able to burnout all previously accumulated transuraniums as well as weapons grade materials during PWR's replacement over a period of approximately 50 years. No actinide fuel waste is foreseen for this period of time. There is no need to develop

  3. Transmutation Technology Development

    Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.; Kim, Y. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The spent fuel coming from the PWR is one of the most difficult problems to be solved for the continuous use of nuclear power. It takes a few million years to be safe under the ground. Therefore, it is not easy to take care of the spent fuel for such a long time. Transmutation technology is the key technology which can solve the spent fuel problem basically. Transmutation is to transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides in the spent fuel into short-lived or stable nuclide through nuclear reactions. The long-lived radioactive nuclides can be TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Although the transmutation technology does not make the underground disposal totally unnecessary, the period to take care of the spent fuel can be reduced to the order of a few hundred years. In addition to the environmental benefit, transmutation can be considered to recycle the energy in the spent fuel since the transmutation is performed through nuclear fission reaction of the TRU in the spent fuel. Therefore, transmutation technology is worth being developed in economical aspect. The results of this work can be a basis for the next stage research. The objective of the third stage research was to complete the core conceptual design and verification of the key technologies. The final results will contribute to the establishment of Korean back end fuel cycle policy by providing technical guidelines.

  4. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  5. Accelerator reliability workshop

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  6. Long-Lived Fission Product Transmutation Studies

    A systematic study on long-lived fission products (LLFPs) transmutation has been performed with the aim of devising an optimal strategy for their transmutation in critical or subcritical reactor systems and evaluating impacts on the geologic repository. First, 99Tc and 129I were confirmed to have highest transmutation priorities in terms of transmutability and long-term radiological risk reduction. Then, the transmutation potentials of thermal and fast systems for 99Tc and 129I were evaluated by considering a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) core and a sodium-cooled accelerator transmutation of waste system. To determine the best transmutation capabilities, various target design and loading optimization studies were performed. It was found that both 99Tc and 129I can be stabilized (i.e., zero net production) in the same PWR core under current design constraints by mixing 99Tc with fuel and by loading CaI2 target pins mixed with ZrH2 in guide tubes, but the PWR option appears to have a limited applicability as a burner of legacy LLFP. In fast systems, loading of moderated LLFP target assemblies in the core periphery (reflector region) was found to be preferable from the viewpoint of neutron economy and safety. By a simultaneous loading of 99Tc and 129I target assemblies in the reflector region, the self-generated 99Tc and 129I as well as the amount produced by several PWR cores could be consumed at a cost of ∼10% increased fuel inventory. Discharge burnups of ∼29 and ∼37% are achieved for 99Tc and 129I target assemblies with an ∼5-yr irradiation period.Based on these results, the impacts of 99Tc and 129I transmutation on the Yucca mountain repository were assessed in terms of the dose rate. The current Yucca Mountain release evaluations do not indicate a compelling need to transmute 99Tc and 129I because the resulting dose rates fall well below current regulatory limits. However, elimination of the LLFP inventory could allow significant relaxation of

  7. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator-Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008)

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  8. YALINA facility a sub-critical Accelerator- Driven System (ADS) for nuclear energy research facility description and an overview of the research program (1997-2008).

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-04-28

    The YALINA facility is a zero-power, sub-critical assembly driven by a conventional neutron generator. It was conceived, constructed, and put into operation at the Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus located in Minsk-Sosny, Belarus. This facility was conceived for the purpose of investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems, and to serve as a neutron source for investigating the properties of nuclear reactions, in particular transmutation reactions involving minor-actinide nuclei. This report provides a detailed description of this facility and documents the progress of research carried out there during a period of approximately a decade since the facility was conceived and built until the end of 2008. During its history of development and operation to date (1997-2008), the YALINA facility has hosted several foreign groups that worked with the resident staff as collaborators. The participation of Argonne National Laboratory in the YALINA research programs commenced in 2005. For obvious reasons, special emphasis is placed in this report on the work at YALINA facility that has involved Argonne's participation. Attention is given here to the experimental program at YALINA facility as well as to analytical investigations aimed at validating codes and computational procedures and at providing a better understanding of the physics and operational behavior of the YALINA facility in particular, and ADS systems in general, during the period 1997-2008.

  9. Alternative concept for a fast energy amplifier accelerator driven reactor

    Recently Rubbia et al. introduced a conceptual design of a Fast Energy Amplifier (EA) as an advanced innovative reactor which utilizes a neutron spallation source induced by protons as an external source in a subcritical array imbibed a molten lead coolant which, besides being breeder and waste burner, generates energy. This paper introduces some qualitative changes in Rubbia's concept such as more than one point of spallation, in order to reduce the requirement in the energy and current of the accelerator, and mainly to make a more flat neutron distribution. The subcritical core which in Rubbia's concept is an hexagonal array of pins immersed in a molten lead coolant is replaced by a concept of a solid lead calandria with the fuel elements in channels cooled by helium, allowing on line refueling or shuffling, and the utilization of a direct thermodynamic cycle (Brayton), which is more efficient than a vapor cycle. Although the calculations to demonstrate the feasibility of the EA alternative concept are underway and not yet finished, these ideas do not violate the basic physics of the EA, as showed in this paper, with evident advantages in the fuel cycle (on line refueling); reduced requirements in the accelerator complex, which is more realistic and economical in today accelerators technology; and finally the utilization of He as coolant compared with molten Pb is more close to the proved technology given the know how of gas cooled reactors and more efficient from the thermodynamic point of view, allowing simplification and the utilization in other process, besides electricity generation, as hydrogen generation. (author)

  10. SFU-Driven Transparent Approximation Acceleration on GPUs

    Li, Ang; Song, Shuaiwen; Wijtvliet, Mark; Kumar, Akash; Corporaal, Henk

    2016-06-01

    Approximate computing, the technique that sacrifices certain amount of accuracy in exchange for substantial performance boost or power reduction, is one of the most promising solutions to enable power control and performance scaling towards exascale. Although most existing approximation designs target the emerging data-intensive applications that are comparatively more error-tolerable, there is still high demand for the acceleration of traditional scientific applications (e.g., weather and nuclear simulation), which often comprise intensive transcendental function calls and are very sensitive to accuracy loss. To address this challenge, we focus on a very important but often ignored approximation unit on GPUs.

  11. A "slingshot" laser-driven acceleration mechanism of plasma electrons

    Fiore, Gaetano; De Nicola, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    We briefly report on the recently proposed Fiore et al. [1] and Fiore and De Nicola [2] electron acceleration mechanism named "slingshot effect": under suitable conditions the impact of an ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulse against the surface of a low-density plasma is expected to cause the expulsion of a bunch of superficial electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to that of the pulse propagation; this is due to the interplay of the huge ponderomotive force, huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation, and the finite size of the laser spot.

  12. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping

    Gart, Sean; John J Socha; Vlachos, Pavlos P.; Jung, Sunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Cats and dogs are assumed to drink similarly, but little is known about the actual physical mechanisms that dogs use to transport fluids when lapping. We observed the drinking behavior of a wide range of dogs across breeds and body size, and used physical experiments to mimic the motion of a dog’s tongue as it exits the water. Dogs accelerate the tongue upward more quickly than do cats, and then time their bite to coincide with the pinch-off of the column. The everyday experience of dogs as m...

  13. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    NONE

    1991-07-01

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  14. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    The first international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Mito in Japan, on 6-8 November 1990. It starts with a number of general overview papers to give us some broad perspectives. Following that it takes a look at some basic facts about physics and about the quantities of materials it is talking about. Then it proceeds to some specific aspects of partitioning, starting with evolution from today commercially applied processes and going on to other possibilities. At the end of the third session it takes a look at the significance of partitioning and transmutation of actinides before it embarks on two sessions on transmutation, first in reactors and second in accelerators. The last session is designed to throw back into the discussion the main points which need to be looked at when considering future work in this area. (A.L.B.)

  15. Laser-driven proton acceleration and applications: recent results

    Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C.A.; Romagnani, L.; Kar, S.; Quinn, K.; Ramakrishna, B.; Wilson, P.A. [Belfast Queens Univ., School of Mathematics and Physics, Northern, Ireland (United Kingdom); Toncian, T.; Pipahl, A.; Jung, R.; Amin, M.; Willi, O. [Dusseldorf Heinrich Heine Univ., Institute for Laser and Plasma Physics (Germany); Fuchs, J.; Antici, P.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E. [LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Univ., 91 - Palaiseau (France); Clarke, R.J.; Notley, M.; Mora, P.; Grismayer, T. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot (United Kingdom); D' Humieres, E. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Sentoku, Y. [University of Nevada, Physics Dept., Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The acceleration of high-energy ion beams following the interaction of short (t < 1 ps) and intense (I{lambda}{sup 2} > 10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}*{mu}m{sup 2}) laser pulses with solid targets is a field of research currently attracting high interest in the scientific community, due to some of the unique properties of these ion sources, promising routes toward the optimization of their energy content, and a number of possible, innovative applications in the scientific, technological and medical areas. Work on the characterization and development of these sources has progressed enormously over the past few years, thanks to the contribution of many groups worldwide. This paper will report some recent results, obtained in experiments carried out at the RAL and LULI laboratories, in which we investigated the ion acceleration mechanism, developed a technique to control the ion beam divergence and energy spectrum, and applied a proton radiography technique to investigate electric and magnetic field production following laser-matter interaction. (authors)

  16. A Proposed Experimental Test of Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Based on CERN SPS

    Xia, G X; Lotov, K; Pukhov, A; Assmann, R; Zimmermann, F; Huang, C; Vieira, J; Lopes, N; Fonseca, RA; Silva, LO; An, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W; Lu, W; Muggli, P

    2011-01-01

    Proton-bunch driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PDPWA) has been proposed as an approach to accelerate electron beam to TeV energy regime in a single plasma section. An experimental test has recently proposed to demonstrate the capability of PDPWA by using proton beams from the CERN SPS. The layout of the experiment is introduced. Particle-in-cell simulation results based on the realistic beam parameters are presented. Presented at PAC2011 New York, 28 March - 1 April 2011.

  17. Collisionless Relativistic Shocks:current driven turbulence and particle acceleration

    Pelletier, Guy; Gremillet, Laurent; Plotnikov, Illya

    2014-01-01

    The physics of collisionless relativistic shocks with a moderate magnetization is presented. Micro-physics is relevant to explain the most energetic radiative phenomena of Nature, namely that of the termination shock of Gamma Ray Bursts. A transition towards Fermi process occurs for decreasing magnetization around a critical value which turns out to be the condition for the scattering to break the mean field inhibition. Scattering is produced by magnetic micro-turbulence driven by the current carried by returning particles, which had not been considered till now, but turns out to be more intense than Weibel's one around the transition. The current is also responsible for a buffer effect on the motion of the incoming flow, on which the threshold for the onset of turbulence depends.

  18. OECD/Nea benchmark calculations for accelerator driven systems

    In order to evaluate the performances of the codes and the nuclear data, the Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA organised in July 1999 a benchmark exercise on a lead-bismuth cooled sub-critical system driven by a beam of 1 GeV protons. The benchmark model is based on the ALMR reference design and is optimised to burn minor actinides using a 'double strata' fuel cycle strategy. Seven organisations (ANL, CIEMAT, KAERI, JAERI, PSI/CEA, RIT and SCK-CEN) have contributed to this exercise using different basic data libraries (ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2.2 and JENDL-3.2) and various reactor calculation methods. Significant discrepancies are observed in important neutronic parameters, such as keff, reactivity swing with burn-up and neutron flux distributions. (author)

  19. Colliding ionization injection in a beam driven plasma accelerator

    Wan, Y; Li, F; Wu, Y P; Hua, J F; Pai, C -H; Lu, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B; Gu, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    The proposal of generating high quality electron bunches via ionization injection triggered by an counter propagating laser pulse inside a beam driven plasma wake is examined via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that electron bunches obtained using this technique can have extremely small slice energy spread, because each slice is mainly composed of electrons ionized at the same time. Another remarkable advantage is that the injection distance is changeable. A bunch with normalized emittance of 3.3 nm, slice energy spread of 15 keV and brightness of 7.2 A m$^{-2}$ rad$^{-2}$ is obtained with an optimal injection length which is achieved by adjusting the launch time of the drive beam or by changing the laser focal position. This makes the scheme a promising approach to generate high quality electron bunches for the fifth generation light source.

  20. Observation of 690 MV m-1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure

    Wootton, K.P.; Wu, Z.; /SLAC; Cowan, B.M.; /Tech-X, Boulder; Hanuka, A.; /SLAC /Technion; Makasyuk, I.V.; /SLAC; Peralta, E.A.; Soong, K.; Byer, R.L.; /Stanford U.; England, R.J.; /SLAC

    2016-06-27

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. In this work, experimental results are presented of relativistic electron acceleration with 690±100 MVm-1 gradient. This is a record-high accelerating gradient for a dielectric microstructure accelerator, nearly doubling the previous record gradient. To reach higher acceleration gradients the present experiment employs 90 fs duration laser pulses.

  1. A proposed experiment on the proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration

    Xia, G; Lotov, K; Pukhov, A; Assmann, R; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    Simulations have shown that a high energy and intense proton beam can drive a large amplitude plasma wave and accelerate an electron beam to the energy frontier in a single plasma channel. To verify this novel idea, a proof-of-principle demonstration experiment is now being planned. The idea is to use the available high energy proton beams either from the Proton Synchrotron (PS) or the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN, to shoot the beam into a plasma cell and to excite the plasma wakefield. A strong density modulation due to the excited plasma wakefield is produced for a long drive beam and this modulated beam in turn produces a high electric field. The proposed experimental setup is introduced in this paper. The interactions between the plasma and the proton beam are simulated and the results are presented. The compression of an SPS bunch is also discussed.

  2. Laser-driven proton acceleration enhancement by nanostructured foils

    Margarone, Daniele; Klimo, Ondřej; Kim, I.J.; Prokůpek, Jan; Limpouch, Jiří; Jeong, T.M.; Mocek, Tomáš; Pšikal, Jan; Kim, H. T.; Proška, J.; Nam, K.H.; Štolcová, Lucie; Choi, I.W.; Lee, S.K.; Sung, J.H.; Yu, T.J.; Korn, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 23 (2012), "234801-1"-"234801-5". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 2 LaserGen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; Laserlab-Europe III(XE) 284464; AVČR(CZ) M100101210 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : proton acceleration * laser-nanosphere interaction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 7.943, year: 2012 http://prl.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v109/i23/e234801

  3. Protons energy loss for laser fusion driven ion acceleration

    Complete text of publication follows. The anomalous generation of plasma blocks by interaction of petawatt-picosecond laser pulses permits side-on ignition of uncompressed solid fusion fuel following an improved application of the hydrodynamic Chu-model for deuterium-tritium. The new possibility of side-on laser ignition depends on accelerated ions and produced ions beams of high energy particles by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of the laser pulse in the plasma block, a re-evolution of the early hydrodynamic analysis for ignition of inertial fusion by including inhibition factor, collective effect of stopping power of alpha particles and the energy loss rate reabsorb to plasma by the protons of plasma block being reduced by about a factor 40.

  4. The physics of sub-critical lattices in accelerator driven hybrid systems: The MUSE experiments in the MASURCA facility

    Since 1991, the CEA has studied the physics of hybrid systems, involving a sub-critical reactor coupled with an accelerator. These studies have provided information on the potential of hybrid systems to transmute actinides and, long lived fission products. The potential of such a system remains to be proven, specifically in terms of the physical understanding of the different phenomena involved and their modelling, as well as in terms of experimental validation of coupled systems, sub-critical environment/accelerator. This validation must be achieved through mock-up studies of the sub-critical environments coupled to a source of external neutrons. The MUSE-4 mock-up experiment is planed at the MASURCA facility and will use an accelerator coupled to a tritium target. The great step between the generator used in the past and the accelerator will allow to increase the knowledge in hybrid physic and to decrease the experimental biases and the measurement uncertainties

  5. Impact of accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety - Share cost project of the European Community

    As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities

  6. Electron heating in radiation-pressure-driven proton acceleration with a circularly polarized laser

    Paradkar, B. S.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2016-02-01

    Dynamics of electron heating in the radiation-pressure-driven acceleration through self-induced transparency (SIT) is investigated with the help of particle-in-cell simulations. The SIT is achieved through laser filamentation which is seeded by the transverse density modulations due to the Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability. We observe stronger SIT induced electron heating for the longer duration laser pulses leading to deterioration of accelerated ion beam quality (mainly energy spread). Such heating can be controlled to obtain a quasimonoenergetic beam by cascaded foils targets where a second foil behind the main accelerating foil acts as a laser reflector to suppress the SIT.

  7. Design of an accelerator-driven system for the destruction of nuclear waste

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by Carlo Rubbia and his group is a sub-critical fast neutron system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. (author)

  8. Accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor system (ADS) for nuclear energy generation

    S S Kapoor

    2002-12-01

    In this talk we present an overview of accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor systems (ADS), and bring out their attractive features for the elimination of troublesome long-lived components of the spent fuel, as well as for nuclear energy generation utilizing thorium as fuel. In India, there is an interest in the programmes of development of high-energy and high-current accelerators due to the potential of ADS in utilizing the vast resources of thorium in the country for nuclear power generation. The accelerator related activities planned in this direction will be outlined.

  9. Beamed neutron emission driven by laser accelerated light ions

    Kar, S.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; McKenna, P.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-05-01

    Highly anisotropic, beam-like neutron emission with peak flux of the order of 109 n/sr was obtained from light nuclei reactions in a pitcher–catcher scenario, by employing MeV ions driven by a sub-petawatt laser. The spatial profile of the neutron beam, fully captured for the first time by employing a CR39 nuclear track detector, shows a FWHM divergence angle of ∼ 70^\\circ , with a peak flux nearly an order of magnitude higher than the isotropic component elsewhere. The observed beamed flux of neutrons is highly favourable for a wide range of applications, and indeed for further transport and moderation to thermal energies. A systematic study employing various combinations of pitcher–catcher materials indicates the dominant reactions being d(p, n+p)1H and d(d,n)3He. Albeit insufficient cross-section data are available for modelling, the observed anisotropy in the neutrons’ spatial and spectral profiles is most likely related to the directionality and high energy of the projectile ions.

  10. Beamed neutron emission driven by laser accelerated light ions

    Kar, S; Ahmed, H; Alejo, A; Robinson, A P L; Cerchez, M; Clarke, R; Doria, D; Dorkings, S; Fernandez, J; Mirfyazi, S R; McKenna, P; Naughton, K; Neely, D; Norreys, P; Peth, C; Powell, H; Ruiz, J A; Swain, J; Willi, O; Borghesi, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of beam-like neutron emission with peak flux of the order of 10^9 n/sr, from light nuclei reactions in a pitcher-catcher scenario, by employing MeV ions driven by high power laser. The spatial profile of the neutron beam, fully captured for the first time by employing a CR39 nuclear track detector, shows a FWHM divergence angle of 70 degrees, with a peak flux nearly an order of magnitude higher than the isotropic component elsewhere. The observed beamed flux of neutrons is highly favourable for a wide range of applications, and indeed for further transport and moderation to thermal energies. A systematic study employing various combinations of pitcher-catcher materials indicates the dominant reactions being d(p, n+p)^1H and d(d,n)^3He. Albeit insufficient cross-section data are available for modelling, the observed anisotropy in the neutrons' spatial and spectral profiles are most likely related to the directionality and high energy of the projectile ions.

  11. Diffusive shock acceleration at laser driven shocks: studying cosmic-ray accelerators in the laboratory

    Reville, B; Gregori, G

    2012-01-01

    The non-thermal particle spectra responsible for the emission from many astrophysical systems are thought to originate from shocks via a first order Fermi process otherwise known as diffusive shock acceleration. The same mechanism is also widely believed to be responsible for the production of high energy cosmic rays. With the growing interest in collisionless shock physics in laser produced plasmas, the possibility of reproducing and detecting shock acceleration in controlled laboratory experiments should be considered. The various experimental constraints that must be satisfied are reviewed. It is demonstrated that several currently operating laser facilities may fulfil the necessary criteria to confirm the occurrence of diffusive shock acceleration of electrons at laser produced shocks. Successful reproduction of Fermi acceleration in the laboratory could open a range of possibilities, providing insight into the complex plasma processes that occur near astrophysical sources of cosmic rays.

  12. Estimation of acceptable beam-trip frequencies of accelerators for accelerator-driven systems and comparison with existing performance data

    Frequent beam trips as experienced in the existing high-power proton accelerators may cause thermal fatigue in accelerator-driven system (ADS) components, which may lead to degradation of their structural integrity and reduction of their lifetime. In this study, acceptable beam-trip frequencies of the ADS accelerator were evaluated and compared with the performance of the ADS accelerator, which was estimated based on the operational data on existing accelerators. Thermal transient analyses were performed to investigate the effects of beam trips on the reactor components, with the objective of determining the feasibility of engineering the ADS and the reliability of the accelerator. These analyses were based on the thermal responses of the following reactor components: the beam window, the fuel cladding, the inner barrel and the reactor vessel. Assuming that the annual plant availability was 70%, our results indicated three acceptable beam-trip frequencies, depending on the beam-trip duration, τb: 2 x 104 times per year for 0 ≤ τb ≤ 10 s; 2 x 103 times per year for 10 s b ≤ 5 min; and 42 times per year for τb > 5 min. In order to consider methods to reduce beam-trip frequency, we compared the acceptable beam-trip frequency with the performance of the ADS accelerator, which was estimated based on the operational data on existing accelerators. The comparison showed that for beam trips with a duration of 10 s or less, the beam-trip frequency was acceptable. On the other hand, for beam trips with durations of 10 s b ≤ 5 min and τb > 5 min, it was necessary to reduce the beam-trip frequencies to about 1/6 and 1/35, respectively. (author)

  13. Accelerated expansion of the universe driven by tachyonic matter

    It is an accepted practice in cosmology to invoke a scalar field with a potential V(φ) when the observed evolution of the universe cannot be reconciled with theoretical prejudices. Since one function degree of freedom in the expansion factor a(t) can be traded off for the function V(φ), it is always possible to find a scalar field potential which will reproduce a given evolution. I provide a recipe for determining V(φ) from a(t) in two cases: (i) a normal scalar field with the Lagrangian L=(1/2)∂aφ∂aφ-V(φ) used in quintessence or dark energy models; (ii) a tachyonic field with the Lagrangian L=-V(φ)[1-∂aφ∂ aφ]1/2, motivated by recent string theoretic results. In the latter case, it is possible to have accelerated expansion of the universe during the late phase in certain cases

  14. Commercial and technical viability of an accelerator driven thorium reactor power station

    This paper describes work carried out by Aker Solutions in underpinning and developing the concept design for a commercial 600 MW(e) power station based on an accelerator driven, thorium fuelled, lead cooled, fast reactor. The Accelerator Driven Thorium Reactor (ADTRTM) has been derived from original work by Carlo Rubbia. Aker Solutions commissioned this concept design work and, in close collaboration with Rubbia, developed the physics, engineering and business model. Much has been published about the Energy Amplifier concept and accelerator driven systems. This paper outlines the progress made in the engineering and design of the ADTRTM power station. Particular attention is paid to where the concept design has moved significantly beyond published material. Emphasis was placed on the need to develop a commercially viable system and this approach has influenced choice of structural materials, coolant temperatures and fluid velocities, fuel design and proposed fuel burn-up etc. Perhaps the most radical result of this approach has been the selection of a reactivity coefficient, keff of 0.995, which enables specification of a commercially available particle accelerator. In turn this has driven the requirement to develop a novel means of measuring keff as part of the reactor safety and control systems. Addressing Generation IV Goals of Sustainability, Economics, Safety and Reliability, Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection were essential to work carried out. A summary of ADTRTM performance against these measures is provided. The paper concludes that the work undertaken supports technical and commercial viability of the ADTRTM power station concept. (authors)

  15. Physical aspects of neutron generation in the target of an accelerator driven system

    In order to choose the optimal target parameters in the accelerator-driven systems, some nuclear physics aspects of target processes should be investigated. The spallation, fragmentation and fission cross sections, the yields of residual nuclei and neutrons for massive targets and the simulation of hadron-nucleus interaction at intermediate energies are discussed

  16. High flux transmutation of fission products and actinides

    Long-lived fission products and minor actinides accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of power reactors comprise the major part of high level radwaste. Their incineration is important from the point of view of radwaste management. Transmutation of these nuclides by means of neutron irradiation can be performed either in conventional nuclear reactors, or in specialized transmutation reactors, or in ADS facilities with subcritical reactor and neutron source with application of proton accelerator. Different types of transmutation nuclear facilities can be used in order to insure optimal incineration conditions for radwaste. The choice of facility type for optimal transmutation should be based on the fundamental data in the physics of nuclide transformations. Transmutation of minor actinides leads to the increase of radiotoxicity during irradiation. It takes significant time compared to the lifetime of reactor facility to achieve equilibrium without effective transmutation. High flux nuclear facilities allow to minimize these draw-backs of conventional facilities with both thermal and fast neutron spectrum. They provide fast approach to equilibrium and low level of equilibrium mass and radiotoxicity of transmuted actinides. High flux facilities are advantageous also for transmutation of long-lived fission products as they provide short incineration time

  17. Spectral Features in Laser Driven Proton Acceleration from Cylindrical Solid-density Hydrogen Jets

    Curry, Chandra; Gauthier, Maxence; Mishra, Rohini; Kim, Jongjin; Goede, Sebastian; Propp, Adrienne; Fiuza, Frederico; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Williams, Jackson; Ruby, John; Goyon, Clement; Pak, Art E.; Kerr, Shaun; Tsui, Ying Y.; Ramakrishna, Bhuvanesh; Aurand, Bastian; Willi, Oswald; Roedel, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The generation of monoenergetic proton beams by ultrashort high-intensity laser-plasma interactions is of great interest for applications such as stopping power measurements, fast ignition laser confinement fusion, and ion beam therapy. In general, the commonly used mechanism of target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) does not provide the required energy spread or maximum proton energy. Here we study alternative acceleration mechanisms, which have been identified in particle in cell (PIC) simulations, to overcome the limitations of TNSA. Using the Titan laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we investigate proton acceleration from wire targets and a cryogenic solid-density hydrogen jet. Due to the cylindrical geometry, TNSA is suppressed allowing other accelerations mechanisms to become observable. Quasi-monoenergetic features in laser-forward direction are observed in the proton spectrum indicating radiation-pressure-driven acceleration mechanisms. Our experimental results are accompanied by supporting PIC simulations.

  18. The GUINEVERE project for Accelerator Driven System physics

    Billebaud, A.; Baylac, M.; Bondoux, D.; Bouvier, J.; Chabod, S.; De Conto, J.M.; Nuttin, A. [LPSC-CNRS-IN2P3/UJF/INPG, 53 Avenue des Martyrs. 38026 Grenoble cedex (France); Baeten, P.; Ait Abderrahim, H.; Bergmans, G.; Chetnitkov, A.; Kochetkov, A.; Vandeplassche, D.; Vermeersch, F.; Vittiglio, G. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Ban, G.; Gautier, J.M.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecouey, J.L.; Marie, N.; Merrer, Y.; Steckmeyer, J.C. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN/Universite de Caen/CNRS-IN2P3, 14050 Caen (France); Dessagne, P.; Gaudiot, G.; Heitz, G.; Kerveno, M. [IPHC-DRS/UdS/CNRS-IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Granget, G.; Mellier, F. [CEA-Cadarache, 13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Laune, B.; Reynet, D. [IPNO, CNRS-IN2P3/UPS, 91406 Orsay (France)

    2009-06-15

    The GUINEVERE project is part of the EUROTRANS Integrated Project of the 6. EURATOM Framework Programme. It is mainly devoted to ADS on-line reactivity monitoring validation, subcriticality determination and operational procedures (loading, start-up, shut-down,..) in follow-up of the MUSE experiments. The project consists in coupling a fast lead core, set-up in the VENUS reactor at SCK.CEN Mol (B), with a GENEPI neutron source under construction by CNRS. To accommodate the accelerator in a vertical coupling configuration, the VENUS building is being heightened. The fast core will be loaded with enriched Uranium and will be moderated and reflected with solid lead (zero power experiment). For the purpose of the experimental programme, the neutron source has to be operated not only in pulsed mode but also in continuous mode to investigate the current-to-flux reactivity indicator in representative conditions of a powerful ADS. In this latter mode it is also required to make short beam interruptions to have access to the neutron population decrease as a function of time: from this spectrum it will be possible to apply different analysis techniques such as 'prompt decay' fitting techniques and 'source jerk' techniques. Beam interruptions will be repeated at a programmable frequency to improve time spectra statistics. Different sub-criticality levels (k{sub eff}=0.99, 0.97, 0.95,..) will be investigated in order to obtain a full set of data points for the final overall validation of the methodology. This paper describes the status of the experimental facility assembling, and the foreseen experimental programme to be started. (authors)

  19. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the 9Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  20. Towards the final BSA modeling for the accelerator-driven BNCT facility at INFN LNL

    Ceballos, C. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnlogicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, 5ta y30, Miramar, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Esposito, J., E-mail: juan.esposito@lnl.infn.it [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Agosteo, S. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; Moro, D. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), via dell' Universita, 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Pola, A. [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)] [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Some remarkable advances have been made in the last years on the SPES-BNCT project of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) towards the development of the accelerator-driven thermal neutron beam facility at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL), aimed at the BNCT experimental treatment of extended skin melanoma. The compact neutron source will be produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,xn) reactions using the 5 MeV, 30 mA beam driven by the RFQ accelerator, whose modules construction has been recently completed, into a thick beryllium target prototype already available. The Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) final modeling, using both neutron converter and the new, detailed, Be(p,xn) neutron yield spectra at 5 MeV energy recently measured at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator at LNL, is summarized here.

  1. Particle accelerator requirements for burning radioactive wastes

    One of the four subprograms of the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) program is the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) subprogram which in term is a program. The capacity to burn waste is given by the enhanced neutron economy made possible by the presence of the extra accelerator-produced neutrons. The better neutron economy increases the capacity of burning (transmute) anything that absorbs neutrons including long-lived fission products and actinides. By these transmuted or 'burning' systems, the bulk of long-lived radionuclides in disposed radioactive wastes can be reduced by factors of 1000 and the storage time of residual products can be greatly reduced from hundreds of thousands of years to several centuries. This paper presents particle beam requirements for ADTT applications. These are most often specified with a nominal 1 GeV energy and an average beam current for ATW ranging from 100 to 250 m A depending on different applications and different system concepts. It is sketched the reference RF-Linac Accelerator Design for ATW systems. (author)

  2. Analysis of advanced European nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economic estimates

    Highlights: • Four fuel cycle scenarios have been analyzed in resources and economic terms. • Scenarios involve Once-Through, Pu burning, and MA transmutation strategies. • No restrictions were found in terms of uranium and plutonium availability. • The best case cost and the impact of their uncertainties to the LCOE were analyzed. - Abstract: Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options (in coherence with PATEROS and CP-ESFR EU projects) have been addressed from a point of view of resources utilization and economic estimates. Scenarios include: (i) the current fleet using Light Water Reactor (LWR) technology and open fuel cycle, (ii) full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U–Pu MOX fuel, (iii) closed fuel cycle with Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet, and (iv) closed fuel cycle with MA transmutation in dedicated Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for 200 years, looking for long term equilibrium mass flow achievement. The simulations were made using the TREVOL code, capable to assess the management of the nuclear mass streams in the scenario as well as economics for the estimation of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and other costs. Results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (natural and depleted U, and Pu). Additionally, we have found as expected that the FR scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario. The elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires a maximum of 55% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 44 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation) or an average of 28 units of ADS plants (i.e., a peak value of 51 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the main usefulness of the provided economic results is for relative comparison of

  3. Overview of EU research activities in transmutation and innovative reactor systems within the Euratom framework programmes

    European Community (EC) (currently 27 Member States) shared-cost research has been organised in Framework Programmes (FP) of durations of 4 - 5 years since 1984. The 6th European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) Framework Programme (2002 - 06) and the current 7th FP (2007 - 11) have been allocated a fission research budget respectively of 209 and 287 Million Euro from the EC. There are 10 projects (total budget 70 M Euro, EC contribution 38 M Euro) in all aspects of transmutation ranging from road-mapping exercise to large integrated projects on accelerator driven systems, lead-cooled fast critical systems for waste transmutation, technology, fuel, accelerator facilities for nuclear data etc. In Innovative Reactor concepts, there are about half-a-dozen projects (total budget 30 M Euro, EC contribution 16 M Euro) including High Temperature Reactors, Gas-cooled Fast reactors, road-mapping exercise on sodium fast reactors etc. The main research and training activities in FP7 are: management of radioactive waste, reactor systems, radiation protection, infrastructures, human resources and mobility and training. In the two call for proposals (2007 and 2008) in FP7, 8 projects have been accepted in transmutation and innovative reactor concepts (total budget 53 M Euro, EC contribution 32 M Euro). These research projects cover activities ranging from materials, fuels, treatment of irradiated graphite waste, European sodium fast reactor to the establishment of a Central Design Team of a fast-spectrum transmutation device in Europe. The third call for proposals is underway requesting proposals on nuclear data, thermal hydraulics, gas and lead-cooled fast reactor systems with a total EC budget of 20 M Euro. International collaboration is an important element of the EU research policy. This overview paper will present elements of the strategy of EURATOM research and training in waste management including accelerator driven transmutation systems and Innovative reactor concepts

  4. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  5. Intense laser driven collision-less shock and ion acceleration in magnetized plasmas

    Mima, K.; Jia, Q.; Cai, H. B.; Taguchi, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Sanz, J. R.; Honrubia, J.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of strong magnetic field with a laser driven coil has been demonstrated by many experiments. It is applicable to the magnetized fast ignition (MFI), the collision-less shock in the astrophysics and the ion shock acceleration. In this paper, the longitudinal magnetic field effect on the shock wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense short pulse laser is investigated by theory and simulations. The transition of a laminar shock (electro static shock) to the turbulent shock (electromagnetic shock) occurs, when the external magnetic field is applied in near relativistic cut-off density plasmas. This transition leads to the enhancement of conversion of the laser energy into high energy ions. The enhancement of the conversion efficiency is important for the ion driven fast ignition and the laser driven neutron source. It is found that the total number of ions reflected by the shock increases by six time when the magnetic field is applied.

  6. Transmutation of Isotopes - Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions - after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors - are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  7. Importance of neutron cross-sections for transmutation

    Accurate neutron cross-section data is fundamental to the reliable design of any transmutation device, and, in particular, of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Calculations of the behaviour of the core depend strongly on the cross-section data: parameters such as the multiplication coefficient, power densities or reactivity may vary significantly depending on the nuclear-data (ND) library used. These potential discrepancies justify the need to improve the present data for several isotopes and reaction channels, for a wide range of neutron energies from thermal to high-energy. This paper follows on from work performed in the context of the nTOF-ND-ADS project of the EURATOM 5th framework program, where a preliminary analysis of the effects of different cross-section data was carried out using the Monte Carlo code package FLUKA-EAMC. That study was based on the Pb-Bi cooled 80 MWth energy-amplifier prototype, and included comparison of parameters such as source multiplication coefficient ksrc, neutron spectra, neutron balance and one-group cross-sections for different isotopes using different nuclear-data evaluations. The present work expands this analysis to other isotopes of interest such as 233U, 243Am, 244,245Cm and the long-lived fission fragments (LLFFs) 99Tc and 129I. A direct comparison of nuclear-data libraries to indicate the spread between values was performed. The paper also extends the sensitivity analysis of the parameters mentioned above to moderated systems, such as TRADE (triga accelerator-driven experiment): a 1 MW triga reactor coupled with a 110-140 MeV-2 mA proton cyclotron. Study of the discrepancies in the thermal and epithermal regions is essential for the design of systems for the transmutation of LLFF (transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing, TARC) and also important for minor actinides (MAs) for which sub-threshold fission should not be neglected. These studies highlight the relative importance of different isotopes and assess the

  8. Emerging nuclear energy and transmutation systems: Core physics and engineering aspects

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Core Physics and Engineering Aspects of Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems for Energy Generation and Transmutation held in December 2000, was convened by the IAEA on the recommendation of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). The objectives of this TCM were threefold: to review the status of Research and Development activities in the area of hybrid systems for energy generation and transmutation, to discuss specific scientific and technical issues covering the different R and D topics of these systems; and to recommend to the IAEA activities that would be specifically targeted to the needs of the Member States performing R and D in this field. The TCM had not called for broad overview papers of the various R and D fields. Apart from a rather brief presentation by each delegation of the general issues and the status of the R and D in the respective country, the IAEA had called for in-depth technical papers addressing one or more of the following topics: accelerator driven systems (ADS) concepts, requirements and features of ADS accelerators, target development, experiments and validation, sub-critical core studies, technology of heavy liquid metals, fuel and fuel processes development, and fuel cycle studies. Forty-five participants from eleven countries and one international organization attended the TCM, and thirty papers were presented. The status information presented in the delegates' general statements and in some of the papers is as of the time of the TCM. Thus, other later material should also be referenced for more current information. One such source of information is the Web Site of IAEA's project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems for Actinide and Long lived Fission Product Transmutation (http://www.iaea.org/inis/aws/fnss/). However, the technical information provided in the papers, representing the bulk of the information presented, remains valid

  9. Resonant Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons Driven by the R-X Mode

    XIAO Fu-Liang; ZHENG Hui-Nan; WANG Shui

    2005-01-01

    @@ An extended relativistic model is developed to evaluate the superluminous R-X-mode resonance especially the second-order and third-order resonances with electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. The potential for stochastic electron acceleration driven by the R-X mode is determined by the dispersive properties of the R-X mode and specifically the resonant harmonic N. In contrast to the limited acceleration at the first harmonic (N = 1)resonance, for the higher harmonic (N > 1) resonances, the R-X mode is capable of accelerating electrons from ~10keV to ~ MeV energies, over a wide range of wave normal angles, in spatial regions extending from the auroral cavity to the latitude (>30°) outer radiation belt. This indicates that higher-order resonance is essentially important for the electron acceleration for the oblique wave propagation.

  10. Linear accelerator driven (LADR) and regenerative reactors (LARR) for nuclear non-proliferation

    Linear accelerator breeders (LAB) could be used to produce fissile fuel in two modes, either with fuel reprocessing or without fuel reprocessing. With fuel reprocessing, the fissile material would be separated from the target and refabricated into a fuel element for use in a burner power reactor. Without reprocessing, the fissile material would be produced in-situ, either in a fresh fuel element or in a depleted or burned element after use in a power reactor. In the latter mode the fissile material would be increased in concentration for reuse in a power reactor. This system is called a Linear Accelerator Regenerative Reactor (LARR). The LAB can also be conceived of operating in a power production mode in which the spallation neutrons would be used to drive a subcritical assembly to produce power. This is called a Linear Accelerator Driven Reactor (LADR). A discussion is given of the principles and some of the technical problems of both types of accelerator breeders

  11. Modelling the behaviour of oxide fuels containing minor actinides with urania, thoria and zirconia matrices in an accelerator-driven system

    Sobolev, V.; Lemehov, S.; Messaoudi, N.; Van Uffelen, P.; Aı̈t Abderrahim, H.

    2003-06-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK • CEN, is currently working on the pre-design of the multipurpose accelerator-driven system (ADS) MYRRHA. A demonstration of the possibility of transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products with a realistic design of experimental fuel targets and prognosis of their behaviour under typical ADS conditions is an important task in the MYRRHA project. In the present article, the irradiation behaviour of three different oxide fuel mixtures, containing americium and plutonium - (Am,Pu,U)O 2- x with urania matrix, (Am,Pu,Th)O 2- x with thoria matrix and (Am,Y,Pu,Zr)O 2- x with inert zirconia matrix stabilised by yttria - were simulated with the new fuel performance code MACROS, which is under development and testing at the SCK • CEN. All the fuel rods were considered to be of the same design and sizes: annular fuel pellets, helium bounded with the stainless steel cladding, and a large gas plenum. The liquid lead-bismuth eutectic was used as coolant. Typical irradiation conditions of the hottest fuel assembly of the MYRRHA subcritical core were pre-calculated with the MCNPX code and used in the following calculations as the input data. The results of prediction of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the designed rods with the considered fuels during three irradiation cycles of 90 EFPD are presented and discussed.

  12. Preliminary physics design of accelerator-driven thorium cycle fast breeder reactor

    A preliminary reactor physics design of a lead cooled fast accelerator-driven system has been explored as a thorium-uranium cycle breeder reactor. The sub-critical reactor core operates at an effective neutron multiplication factor of 0.95 and when driven by 1 GeV proton beams of intensity 30 mA, produces about ∼ 900 MWth power. Variation of total thermal power, 233U inventory, Keff, radial and axial power distribution through the operating cycle as well as breeding ratio and doubling time are presented. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional dielectric photonic crystal structures for laser-driven acceleration

    Cowan, Benjamin M

    2007-01-01

    We present the design and simulation of a three-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide for linear laser-driven acceleration in vacuum. The structure confines a synchronous speed-of-light accelerating mode in both transverse dimensions. We report the properties of this mode, including sustainable gradient and optical-to-beam efficiency. We present a novel method for confining a particle beam using optical fields as focusing elements. This technique, combined with careful structure design, is shown to have a large dynamic aperture and minimal emittance growth, even over millions of optical wavelengths.

  14. Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors and their Function in the Future of Nuclear Power

    The Development of nuclear power reactors has slowed dozen considerably following the Three Mile Island accident in the US, and came to a standstill in most countries after the Chernobyl accident in Russia. This, in spite of the otherwise excellent safety and economic record of nuclear power plants in the west. The major reason is the public concern about safety of these plants and the disposal of the nuclear waste, which is considered by the public to be the most dangerous, produced by any industrial enterprise. The introduction of accelerators, or rather accelerator driven systems, the ADS, is intended to provide a partial response to the above concerns

  15. Parameter study for the laser-driven dielectric accelerator taking account of nonlinear optical effects

    A transmission grating type laser-driven dielectric accelerator (TG-LDA) was performed taking account of the optical damage threshold and the nonlinear optical effects such as the self-phase modulation and self-focus. The maximum laser intensity and the optimum pulse width were concluded to be 1012 W/cm2 and 2 ps, respectively. An irradiation intensity of 5 × 1011W/cm2 was suitable for a silica TG-LDA with a pulse width range from 1 ps to 10 ps. The higher order harmonics of the axial electric field distribution was capable of accelerating electrons provided that the electron speed approximately satisfies the conditions of v/c = 1/2, 1/3, or 1/4. The electrons at the initial energy of 20 kV are accelerated by an acceleration field strength of 20 MV/m, and the electrons were accelerated by higher fields as the speed increased. For relativistic energy electrons, the acceleration gradient was 600 MV/m. The accelerating length and the time to obtain 1 MeV electron were 4 mm and 50 ps, respectively. (author)

  16. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument's LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  17. Temperature Profile of the Solution Vessel of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Determan, John C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Dynamic System Simulation (DSS) models of fissile solution systems have been developed and verified against a variety of historical configurations. DSS techniques have been applied specifically to subcritical accelerator-driven systems using fissile solution fuels of uranium. Initial DSS models were developed in DESIRE, a specialized simulation scripting language. In order to tailor the DSS models to specifically meet needs of system designers they were converted to a Visual Studio implementation, and one of these subsequently to National Instrument’s LabVIEW for human factors engineering and operator training. Specific operational characteristics of subcritical accelerator-driven systems have been examined using a DSS model tailored to this particular class using fissile fuel.

  18. Sensitivity to Nuclear Data and Neutron Source Type in Calculations of Transmutation Capabilities of the Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility

    This text is a summary of two studies the author has performed within the field of 3-D Monte Carlo calculations of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste. The simulations were carried out with the state-of-the-art computer code package EA-MC, developed by C. Rubbia and his group at CERN. The concept studied is ANSALDOs 80 MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten Lead-Bismuth Eutectic cooling. A review of neutron cross section sensitivity in numerical calculations of an ADS and a comparative assessment relevant to the transmutation efficiency of plutonium and minor actinides in fusion/fission hybrids and ADS are presented

  19. Inherent Safety Features and Passive Prevention Approaches for Pb/Bi-cooled Accelerator-Driven Systems

    CARLSSON Johan

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the investigation of passivesafety and inherent features of subcritical nucleartransmutation systems - accelerator-driven systems. The generalobjective of this research has been to improve the safetyperformance and avoid elevated coolant temperatures inworst-case scenarios like unprotected loss-of-ow accidents,loss-of-heat-sink accidents, and a combination of both theseaccident initiators. The specific topics covered are emergencydecay heat removal by reactor vessel ...

  20. Benchmarking shielding simulations for an accelerator-driven spallation neutron source

    Cherkashyna, Nataliia; DiJulio, Douglas D.; Panzner, Tobias; Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Filges, Uwe; Ehlers, Georg; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    The shielding at an accelerator-driven spallation neutron facility plays a critical role in the performance of the neutron scattering instruments, the overall safety, and the total cost of the facility. Accurate simulation of shielding components is thus key for the design of upcoming facilities, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), currently in construction in Lund, Sweden. In this paper, we present a comparative study between the measured and the simulated neutron background at the...

  1. Optimisation Studies of Accelerator Driven Fertile to Fissile Conversion Rates in Thorium Fuel Cycle

    Bungau, Cristian; Barlow, Roger; Cywinski, R.

    2012-01-01

    The need for proliferation-resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burn up and improvedwaste form characteristics has led to a renewed worldwide interest in thorium-based fuels and fuel cycles. In this paper the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code has been used to simulate the Thorium-Uranium fuel cycle. The accelerator driven fertile to fissile conversion rates have been calculated for various geometries. Several new classes have been added by the authors to the GEANT4 simulation ...

  2. LANL sunnyside experiment: Study of neutron production in accelerator-driven targets

    Measurements have been made of the neutron production in prototypic targets for accelerator driven systems. Studies were conducted on four target assemblies containing lead, lithium, tungsten, and a thorium-salt mixture. Integral data on total neutron production were obtained as well as more differential data on neutron leakage and neutron flux profiles in the blanket/moderator region. Data analysis on total neutron production is complete and shows excellent agreement with calculations using the LAHET/MCNP code system

  3. Design calculations of the thermal-spectrum accelerator-driven system for LWR waste destruction

    A number of nuclear physics design issues concerning Accelerator Driven-salt Reactor based on the so called ATW concept proposed by Los Alamos are discussed. General description of concept using internal moderation with graphite block is presented. Burn-up, salt processing and safety criteria (reactivity temperature coefficients and kinetics parameters) are presented for different spectra (graphite to salt ratio) and an optimal variant of the blanket with non-positive temperature reactivity coefficients is provided and results are discussed. (Authors)

  4. An innovative accelerator-driven inertial electrostatic confinement device using converging ion beams

    Bauer, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    1999-12-08

    Fundamental physics issues facing development of fusion power on a small-scale are assessed with emphasis on the idea of Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC). The authors propose a new concept of accelerator-driven IEC fusion, termed Converging Beam Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (CB-IEC). CB-IEC offers a number of innovative features that make it an attractive pathway toward resolving fundamental physics issues and assessing the ultimate viability of the IEC concept for power generation.

  5. Accelerator development in BARC

    Charged particle accelerators have played crucial role in the field of both basic and applied sciences. This has been possible because the accelerators have been extensively utilized from unraveling the secrets of nature to diverse applications such as implantation, material modification, medical diagnostics and therapy, nuclear energy and clean air and water. The development of accelerators in BARC can be categorized in two broad categories namely proton and heavy ion based accelerators and electron based accelerators. The heavy ion accelerators with sufficiently high energies are currently being used for conducting frontline nuclear and allied research whereas the electron accelerators are being routinely used for various industrial applications. Recently, there is a strong interest for developing the high energy and high intensity accelerators due to their possibility of effective utilization towards concept of energy amplification (Accelerator Driven System), incineration nuclear waste and transmutation. This talk will discuss details of the accelerator development program in BARC with particular emphasis on the recent development at Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA) Facility in Ion Accelerator Development Division, BARC. (author)

  6. Scenario analysis for transuranic transmutation by using fast reactors

    Symbiotic fast reactor scenarios with the existing nuclear power systems have been analyzed from the viewpoint of a transuranics transmutation. In this study, a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) and an accelerator driven system (ADS) are considered as representative fast reactor systems. For a comparative analysis of the fuel cycle options, the once-through fuel cycle was at first analyzed based on the current nuclear power plant construction plan and the currently operating nuclear power plants such as the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor. After setting up a once-through fuel cycle model, the SFR and ADS scenarios were modeled based on the same nuclear energy demand prediction used for the once-through fuel cycle. Then important fuel cycle parameters such as the amount of the spent fuel and corresponding plutonium, minor actinides and fission products inventories were estimated and compared with those of the once-through fuel cycle. In this fuel cycle model, the Pyro process is assumed for all the spent fuel recycling. In the process all the actinides are recovered and some fraction of the fission product is removed. The deployment fractions of the fast reactor are 25, 10 and 20% for the periods of 2030-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, respectively. In order to feed the fast reactor systems, it was also assumed that the PWR and CANDU spent fuels are reprocessed from 2025 and the fast reactor spent fuel reprocessing begins in 2035. The fuel cycle calculation was performed by the DYMOND code, which has been used for an analysis of the Generation-IV road map studies. The analysis results of the once-through fuel cycle can be summarized as follows: - The nuclear power demand is expected to grow to 25.2 GWe in the year 2100. - The total spent fuel inventory is expected to be 65000 t in 2100. - The transuranics and fission product inventories are estimated to be 660 and 2390 t, respectively, in 2100. The fast reactor cycle

  7. Fabrication of nanostructured targets for improved laser-driven proton acceleration

    Barberio, M.; Scisciò, M.; Veltri, S.; Antici, P.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a novel realization of nanostructured targets suitable for improving laser-driven proton acceleration experiments, in particular with regard to the Target-Normal-Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) acceleration mechanism. The nanostructured targets, produced as films, are realized by a simpler and cheaper method than using conventional lithographic techniques. The growth process includes a two step approach for the production of the gold nanoparticle layers: 1) Laser Ablation in Solution and 2) spray-dry technique using a colloidal solution on target surfaces (Aluminum, Mylar and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotube). The obtained nanostructured films appear, at morphological and chemical analysis, uniformly nanostructured and the nanostructure distributed on the target surfaces without presence of oxides or external contaminants. The obtained targets show a broad optical absorption in all the visible region and a surface roughness that is two times greater than non-nanostructured targets, enabling a greater laser energy absorption during the laser-matter interaction experiments producing the laser-driven proton acceleration.

  8. A simple model for cavity-enhanced laser-driven ion acceleration from thin foil targets

    Rączka, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A scenario for the laser-driven ion acceleration off a solid target is considered, where the reflected laser pulse is redirected towards the target by reflection at the inner cavity wall, thus recycling to some extent the incident laser energy. This scenario is discussed in the context of sub-wavelength foil acceleration in the radiation pressure regime, when plasma dynamics is known to be reasonably well described by the laser-sail model. A semi-analytic extension of the 1D laser-sail model is constructed, which takes into account the effect of reflections at the inner cavity wall. The effect of cavity reflections on sub-wavelength foil acceleration is then illustrated with two concrete examples of intense laser pulses of picosecond and femtosecond duration.

  9. Free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma accelerator

    Schroeder, C. B.; Fawley, W. M.; Gruner, F.; Bakeman, M.; Nakamura, K.; Robinson, K. E.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2008-08-04

    A design of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generating ultra-fast, high-peak flux, XUV pulses is presented. The FEL is driven by ahigh-current, 0.5 GeV electron beam from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser-plasma accelerator, whose active acceleration length is only a few centimeters. The proposed ultra-fast source (~;;10 fs) would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science. Owing to the high current (>10 kA) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially greater than 10^13 photons/pulse. Devices based both on self-amplified spontaneous emission and high-harmonic generated input seeds, to reduce undulator length and fluctuations, are considered.

  10. A Data-Driven Analytic Model for Proton Acceleration by Large-Scale Solar Coronal Shocks

    Kozarev, Kamen A

    2016-01-01

    We have recently studied the development of an eruptive filament-driven, large-scale off-limb coronal bright front (OCBF) in the low solar corona (Kozarev et al. 2015), using remote observations from Solar Dynamics Observatory's Advanced Imaging Assembly EUV telescopes. In that study, we obtained high-temporal resolution estimates of the OCBF parameters regulating the efficiency of charged particle acceleration within the theoretical framework of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). These parameters include the time-dependent front size, speed, and strength, as well as the upstream coronal magnetic field orientations with respect to the front's surface normal direction. Here we present an analytical particle acceleration model, specifically developed to incorporate the coronal shock/compressive front properties described above, derived from remote observations. We verify the model's performance through a grid of idealized case runs using input parameters typical for large-scale coronal shocks, and demonstrate ...

  11. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

  12. Hollow microspheres as targets for staged laser-driven proton acceleration

    Burza, M; Genoud, G; Persson, A; Svensson, K; Quinn, M; McKenna, P; Marklund, M; Wahlström, C -G; 10.1088/1367-2630/13/1/013030

    2011-01-01

    A coated hollow core microsphere is introduced as a novel target in ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments. In particular, it facilitates staged laser-driven proton acceleration by combining conventional target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA), power recycling of hot laterally spreading electrons and staging in a very simple and cheap target geometry. During TNSA of protons from one area of the sphere surface, laterally spreading hot electrons form a charge wave. Due to the spherical geometry, this wave refocuses on the opposite side of the sphere, where an opening has been laser micromachined. This leads to a strong transient charge separation field being set up there, which can post-accelerate those TNSA protons passing through the hole at the right time. Experimentally, the feasibility of using such targets is demonstrated. A redistribution is encountered in the experimental proton energy spectra, as predicted by particle-in-cell simulations and attributed to transient fields set up by oscilla...

  13. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  14. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration. PMID:25860747

  15. Free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma accelerator

    A design of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generating ultra-fast, high-peak flux, XUV pulses is presented. The FEL is driven by ahigh-current, 0.5 GeV electron beam from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser-plasma accelerator, whose active acceleration length is only a few centimeters. The proposed ultra-fast source (∼10 fs) would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science. Owing to the high current (>10 kA) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially greater than 1013 photons/pulse. Devices based both on self-amplified spontaneous emission and high-harmonic generated input seeds, to reduce undulator length and fluctuations, are considered.

  16. Laser-driven electron acceleration and future applications to compact light sources

    Laser-driven plasma accelerators are gaining much attention by the advanced accelerator community due to the potential these accelerators hold in miniaturizing future high-energy and medium energy machines. In the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), the ponderomotive force of an ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse excites a longitudinal plasma wave or bubble. Due to huge charge separation, electric fields created in the plasma bubble can be several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional microwave and RF-based accelerator facilities, which are limited (up to ∼ 100 MV/m) by material breakdown. Therefore, if an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within an extremely short distance. Here, in the LWFA, we show the generation of high-quality and high-energy electron beams up to the GeV-class within a few millimeters of gas-jet plasmas irradiated by tens-of- terawatt ultrashort laser pulses. Thus, we realize approximately four orders of magnitude acceleration gradients, higher than available by conventional technology. As a practical application of the stable high-energy electron beam generation, we are planning on injecting the electron beams into a fewmeter-long conventional undulator in order to realize compact X-ray synchrotron (immediate) and Free Electron Laser (future) light sources. Stable laser-driven electron beam and radiation devices will surely open a new era in science, medicine, and technology and will benefit a larger number of users in those fields.

  17. Laser-driven electron beam acceleration and future application to compact light sources

    Laser-driven plasma accelerators are gaining much attention by the advanced accelerator community due to the potential these accelerators hold in miniaturizing future high-energy and medium-energy machines. In the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), the ponderomotive force of an ultrashort high intensity laser pulse excites a longitudinal plasma wave or bubble. Due to huge charge separation, electric fields created in the plasma bubble can be several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional microwave and RF-based accelerator facilities which are limited (up to ∼100 MV/m) by material breakdown. Therefore, if an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within an extremely short distance. Here, in the LWFA we show the generation of high-quality and high-energy electron beams up to the GeV-class within a few millimeters of gas-jet plasmas irradiated by tens of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses. Thus we realize approximately four orders of magnitude acceleration gradients higher than available by conventional technology. As a practical application of the stable high-energy electron beam generation, we are planning on injecting the electron beams into a few-meters long conventional undulator in order to realize compact X-ray synchrotron (immediate) and FEL (future) light sources. Stable laser-driven electron beam and radiation devices will surely open a new era in science, medicine and technology and will benefit a larger number of users in those fields.

  18. Developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) based on electron accelerators and heavy water

    An ADS based on electron accelerators has been developed specifically for energy generation and medical applications. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using FLUKA code to design a hybrid electron target and the core components. The composition, geometry of conversion targets and the coolant system have been optimized for electron beam energies of 20 to 100 MeV . Furthermore, the photon and photoneutron energy spectra, distribution and energy deposition for various incoming electron beam powers have been studied. Light-heavy water of various mixtures have been used as heat removal for the targets, as γ−n converters and as neutron moderators. We have shown that an electron LINAC, as a neutron production driver for ADSs, is capable of producing a neutron output of > 3.5 × 1014 (n/s/mA). Accordingly, the feasibility of an electron-based ADS employing the designed features is promising for energy generation and high intense neutron production which have various applications such as medical therapies

  19. Developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) based on electron accelerators and heavy water

    Feizi, H.; Ranjbar, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    An ADS based on electron accelerators has been developed specifically for energy generation and medical applications. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using FLUKA code to design a hybrid electron target and the core components. The composition, geometry of conversion targets and the coolant system have been optimized for electron beam energies of 20 to 100 MeV . Furthermore, the photon and photoneutron energy spectra, distribution and energy deposition for various incoming electron beam powers have been studied. Light-heavy water of various mixtures have been used as heat removal for the targets, as γ-n converters and as neutron moderators. We have shown that an electron LINAC, as a neutron production driver for ADSs, is capable of producing a neutron output of > 3.5 × 1014 (n/s/mA). Accordingly, the feasibility of an electron-based ADS employing the designed features is promising for energy generation and high intense neutron production which have various applications such as medical therapies.

  20. Nuclear data requirements for accelerator driven sub-critical systems – A roadmap in the Indian context

    S Ganesan

    2007-02-01

    The development of accelerator driven sub-critical systems (ADSS) require significant amount of new nuclear data in extended energy regions as well as for a variety of new materials. This paper reviews these perspectives in the Indian context.

  1. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    Litos, M.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Corde, S.; Clayton, C. E.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S. J.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Schmeltz, M.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-03-01

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV m-1at the spectral peak. The mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. These results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energy gain results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.

  2. 9 GeV Energy Gain in a Beam-Driven Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    Litos, M; Allen, J M; An, W; Clarke, C I; Corde, S; Clayton, C E; Frederico, J; Gessner, S J; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Schmeltz, M; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Yakimenko, V

    2015-01-01

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV/m at the spectral peak. The mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. These results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energy gain results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.

  3. Design and safety studies on the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT) with CERMET fuel

    European R and D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme [1]. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System. The EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. A key issue of the R and D work is the choice of an adequate fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven Transmuter (ADT) like EFIT. Various fuel forms have been assessed. CERCER and CERMET fuels, specifically with the matrices MgO and Mo, have finally been selected and are now under closer investigation. Within EUROTRANS, a special domain named 'AFTRA', is responsible to more deeply assess the behavior of these dedicated fuels and to provide the fuel data base for the core design of the EFIT. The EFIT concept has to be optimized towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burnup, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high safety level. The final recommendation on fuels by AFTRA gave a ranking of these fuels based on the mentioned criteria. The composite CERMET fuel (Pu0.5,Am0.5)O2-x - Mo (with the isotope 92Mo comprising 93% of the molybdenum) has been recommended as the primary candidate for the EFIT. This CERMET fuel fulfils adopted criteria for fabrication and reprocessing, and provides excellent safety margins. Disadvantages include the cost for enrichment of 92Mo and a lower specific transmutation rate of minor actinides, because of the higher neutron absorption cross-section of the matrix. The composite CERCER fuel (Pu0.4,Am0.6)O2-x - MgO has therefore been recommended as a backup solution as it might offer a higher consumption rate of minor actinides, and can be manufactured for a lower unit cost. This paper is in fact a sequel to our last paper [2] in this

  4. Comparative study of fast critical burner reactors and subcritical accelerator driven systems and the impact on transuranics inventory in a regional fuel cycle

    Research highlights: → Double-strata fuel cycle has a potential to minimize transuranics mass in Europe. → European Minor Actinides legacy can be reduced down to 0 before the end of century. → 40% higher capacity needed to burn MA for fast critical reactor then for EFIT fleet. → Na cooled fast reactor cores with high content of MA and low CR have been assessed. → Fast critical and ADS-EFIT reactors show comparable MA transmutation performance. - Abstract: In the frame of Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) strategies, many solutions have been proposed in order to burn transuranics (TRU) discharged from conventional thermal reactors in fast reactor systems. This is due to the favourable feature of neutron fission to capture cross section ratio in a fast neutron spectrum for most TRU. However the majority of studies performed use the Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), due to their potential flexibility to utilize various fuel types, loaded with significant amounts of TRU having very different Minor Actinides (MA) over Pu ratios. Recently the potential of low conversion ratio critical fast reactors has been rediscovered, with very attractive burning capabilities. In the present paper the burning performances of two systems are directly compared: a sodium cooled critical fast reactor with a low conversion ratio, and the European lead cooled subcritical ADS-EFIT reactor loaded with fertile-free fuel. Comparison is done for characteristics of both the intrinsic core and the regional fuel cycle within a European double-strata scenario. Results of the simulations, obtained by use of French COSI6 code, show comparable performance and confirm that in a double strata fuel cycle the same goals could be achieved by deploying dedicated fast critical or ADS-EFIT type reactors. However the critical fast burner reactor fleet requires ∼30-40% higher installed power then the ADS-EFIT one. Therefore full comparative assessment and ranking can be done only by a

  5. Transmutations of nuclear waste. Progress report RAS programme 1995: Recycling and transmutation of actinides and fission products

    This report describes the progress of the Dutch RAS programme on 'Recycling and Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products' over the year 1995, which is the second year of the 4-year programme 1994-1997. An extensive listing of reports and publications from 1991 to 1995 is given. Highlights in 1995 were: -The completion of the European Strategy Study on Nuclear Waste Transmutation as a result of which the understanding of transmutation of plutonium, minor actinides and long-lived fission products in thermal and fast reactors has been increased significantly. Important ECN contributions were given on Am, 99Tc and 129I transmutation options. Follow-up contracts have been obtained for the study of 100% MOX cores and accelerator-based transmutation. - Important progress in the evaluation of CANDU reactors for burning very large amounts of transuranium mixtures in inert matrices. - The first RAS irradiation experiment in the HFR, in which the transmutation of technetium and iodine was examined, has been completed and post-irradiation examination has been started. - A joint proposal of the EFTTRA cooperation for the 4th Framework Programme of the EU, to demonstrate the feasibility of the transmutation of americium in an inert matrix by an irradiation in the HFR, has been granted. - A bilateral contract with CEA has been signed to participate in the CAPRA programme, and the work in this field has been started. - The thesis work on Actinide Transmutation in Nuclear Reactor Systems was succesfully defended. New PhD studies on Pu burning in HTGR, on nuclear data for accelerator-based systems, and on the SLM-technique for separation of actinides were started. - A review study of the use of the thorium cycle as a means for nuclear waste reduction, has been completed. A follow-up of this work is embedded in an international project for the 4th Framework Programme of the EU. (orig./DG)

  6. Development and analysis of a metal-fueled accelerator-driven burner

    Lypsch, F. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Juelich GmbH (Germany); Hill, R.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the safety characteristics of an accelerator driven metal fueled fast system to a critical core on a consistent basis to determine how these characteristics are affected solely by subcritically of the system. To accomplish this an accelerator proton beam/tungsten neutron source model is surrounded by a subcritical blanket using metallic fuel and sodium as coolant. The consequences of typical accident transients, namely unprotected transient overpower (TOP), loss of heat sink (LOHS), and loss of flow (LOP) were calculated for the hybrid system and compared to corresponding results for a metal-fueled fast reactor. Results indicate that the subcritical system exhibits superior performance for TOP (reactivity-induced) transits; however, only in the critical system are reactivity feedbacks able to cause passive shutdown in the LOHS ad LOP events. Therefore, for a full spectrum of accident initiators considered, the overall safety behavior of accelerator-driven metal-fueled systems can neither be concluded to be worse nor to be better than advanced reactor designs which rely on passive safety features.

  7. Laser-driven proton beams: Acceleration mechanism, beam optimization, and radiographic applications

    Borghesi, M.; Romagnani, L.; Kar, S.; Wilson, P.A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast (United Kingdom); Cecchetti, C.A. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast (United Kingdom); Also with the Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory, IPCF-CNR, Pisa (Italy); Toncian, T.; Pipahl, A.; Amin, M.; Jung, R.; Osterholz, J.; Willi, O. [Institute for Laser and Plasma Physics, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf (Germany); Fuchs, J.; Audebert, P.; Brambrink, E. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Antici, P. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses LULI, UMR 7605 CNRS CEA Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Frascati National Laboratories INFN, Frascati (Italy); Nazarov, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.J.; Notley, M.; Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX Didcot (United Kingdom); Mora, P.; Grismayer, T. [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Schurtz, G. [Centre d' Etudes des Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 University Bordeaux I-CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Schiavi, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita -La Sapienza-, Rome (Italy); Sentoku, Y.; D' Humieres, E. [Physics Department, MS 220, University of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2008-08-15

    This paper reviews recent experimental activity in the area of optimization, control, and application of laser-accelerated proton beams, carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses 100 TW facility in France. In particular, experiments have investigated the role of the scale length at the rear of the plasma in reducing target-normal-sheath-acceleration acceleration efficiency. Results match with recent theoretical predictions and provide information in view of the feasibility of proton fast-ignition applications. Experiments aiming to control the divergence of the proton beams have investigated the use of a laser-triggered micro-lens, which employs laser-driven transient electric fields in cylindrical geometry, enabling to focus the emitted protons and select monochromatic beamlets; out of the broad spectrum beam. This approach could be advantageous in view of a variety of applications. The use of laser-driven protons as a particle probe for transient field detection has been developed and applied to a number of experimental conditions. Recent work in this area has focused on the detection of large-scale self-generated magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas and the investigation of fields associated to the propagation of relativistic electron both on the surface and in the bulk of targets irradiated by high-power laser pulses. (authors)

  8. Transmutations of atomic nuclei in hadron-nuclei nuclear collisions at GeV energies

    In hadron-nuclei nuclear collisions nuclei change their mass numbers A and the charge numbers Z. The mechanism of transmutation of a target nucleus was prompted experimentally and is described in this work. The information about the nuclei transmutation may be a basis for elaboration of the method of nuclei changes in beams of hadrons from accelerators

  9. Blast Wave Formation by Laser-Sustained Nonequilibrium Plasma in the Laser-Driven In-Tube Accelerator Operation

    Understanding the dynamics of laser-produced plasma is essentially important for increasing available thrust force in a gas-driven laser propulsion system such as laser-driven in-tube accelerator. A computer code is developed to explore the formation of expanding nonequilibrium plasma produced by laser irradiation. Various properties of the blast wave driven by the nonequilibrium plasma are examined. It is found that the blast wave propagation is substantially affected by radiative cooling effect for lower density case

  10. BRAHMMA: A compact experimental accelerator driven subcritical facility using D-T/D-D neutron source

    Highlights: • Design of compact zero-power subcritical assembly BRAHMMA is presented. • One of the unique features is the use of beryllium oxide as reflector. • Modular subcritical core which can be modified for different fuel combination. • Preliminary results of reactivity measurement using PNS technique reported. - Abstract: A zero-power, sub-critical assembly BRAHMMA driven by a D-T/D-D neutron generator has been designed and commissioned at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. This facility has been conceived for investigating the static and dynamic neutronics properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This paper describes the design details of the system. Preliminary results of flux measurements and reactivity measurements using pulsed neutron source techniques have also been presented. This system has the advantage of being modular in design which enables its keff values to be changed depending upon type of fuel being used and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed

  11. Transmutation in ASTRID

    Within the scope of the French Act of 28 June 2006 on managing long-lived radioactive waste, one of the objectives of the ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) reactor is to demonstrate the capacity to transmute minor actinides (MA) on an industrial scale. Demonstration scenarios currently focus on two modes of transmutation: a homogeneous mode using a standard fuel with low MA content, and a heterogeneous mode where the minor actinides are loaded in the radial blanket around the core, known as the minor-actinide-bearing blanket (MABB) concept. With different initial MA concentrations for the two modes of transmutation, we have estimated their impact on the performance and safety of the ASTRID reactor core. The consequences on the dimensions of the storage means, the handling systems and the fuel sub-assembly transport packaging are also reviewed in order to identify the limits beyond which significant design changes to the core and nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) would be required. Analysis of the results has made it possible to identify the most suitable irradiation conditions and initial contents to demonstrate transmutation in ASTRID, with the main aim of achieving a balance in the minor actinide flows without significantly changing the reactor design: • Americium (Am), a main contributor to the heat and the radiotoxicity of radioactive waste after the decay of fission products, will be treated as a top priority, • Part of the americium can be overridden by neptunium (Np) without any impact on the design and performance, • Curium (Cm) is not considered; it’s too penalising in the handling of new sub-assemblies, • Possible weight levels for the demonstration: 2% of Am in the fuel for the homogeneous mode and 10% of Am in the blanket for the heterogeneous mode. Whatever the chosen mode of transmutation, it will be necessary to conduct experimental programmes in ASTRID to validate and qualify the behaviour of

  12. Selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system

    38 theses are presented in this selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system. It includes reactor physics and experiment, accelerators physics and technology, nuclear physics, material research and partitioning. 13 abstracts, which has been presented on magazines home and abroad, are collected in the appendix

  13. Simulation and optimization for a 30-MeV electron accelerator driven neutron source

    A neutron source driven by electron accelerator is proposed in Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). The facility is planned for the study of nuclear data in Thorium-Uranium cycling system, and for material research. A detailed simulation of the neutron source is performed for the program to get the neutron generation maximum economically. Several parameters of the facility, which affect the neutron yield and the neutron escape from outer surface of the target, are analyzed respectively. Besides, the yielding neutron spectrum and the escaping neutron angular distribution are calculated and discussed. (authors)

  14. Freezing, accelerating and slowing directed currents in real time with superimposed driven lattices

    Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K; Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We provide a generic scheme offering real time control of directed particle transport in superimposed driven lattices. This scheme allows to accelerate, slow and freeze the transport on demand, by switching one of the lattices subsequently on and off. The underlying physical mechanism hinges on a systematic opening and closing of channels between transporting and non-transporting phase space structures upon switching, and exploits cantori structures which generate memory effects in the population of these structures. Our results should allow for real time control of cold thermal atomic ensembles in optical lattices, but might also be useful as a design principle for targeted delivery of molecules or colloids in optical devices.

  15. Freezing, accelerating, and slowing directed currents in real time with superimposed driven lattices

    Mukhopadhyay, Aritra K.; Liebchen, Benno; Wulf, Thomas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2016-05-01

    We provide a generic scheme offering real-time control of directed particle transport using superimposed driven lattices. This scheme allows one to accelerate, slow, and freeze the transport on demand by switching one of the lattices subsequently on and off. The underlying physical mechanism hinges on a systematic opening and closing of channels between transporting and nontransporting phase space structures upon switching and exploits cantori structures which generate memory effects in the population of these structures. Our results should allow for real-time control of cold thermal atomic ensembles in optical lattices but might also be useful as a design principle for targeted delivery of molecules or colloids in optical devices.

  16. Modeling laser-driven electron acceleration using WARP with Fourier decomposition

    Lee, P.; Audet, T. L.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Maynard, G.; Cros, B.

    2016-09-01

    WARP is used with the recent implementation of the Fourier decomposition algorithm to model laser-driven electron acceleration in plasmas. Simulations were carried out to analyze the experimental results obtained on ionization-induced injection in a gas cell. The simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental ones, confirming the ability of the code to take into account the physics of electron injection and reduce calculation time. We present a detailed analysis of the laser propagation, the plasma wave generation and the electron beam dynamics.

  17. Thermal response of the multiplier of an accelerator-driven system to beam interruptions

    Thermal response of the multiplier of an accelerator-driven system to beam trips has been calculated for sodium cooled and lead-bismuth cooled multipliers. The temperature transients caused by a beam trip lead to thermal fatigue in structural components, and restoring the beam causes an additional temperature transient that adds to thermal fatigue. Design lifetimes for various multiplier components are calculated, based on the frequency of beam interruptions and on the thermal fatigue per interruption. Mitigation strategies to increase design lifetimes are discussed. (author)

  18. Thermal response of the multiplier of an accelerator driven system to beam interruptions

    Thermal response of the multiplier of an accelerator driven system to beam trips has been calculated for sodium cooled and lead-bismuth cooled multipliers. The temperature transients caused by a beam trip lead to thermal fatigue in structural components, and restoring the beam causes an additional temperature transient that adds to thermal fatigue. Design lifetimes for various multiplier components are calculated, based on the frequency of beam interruptions and on the thermal fatigue per interruption. Mitigation strategies to increase design lifetimes are discussed

  19. Vacuum electron acceleration driven by a tightly focused radially polarized Gaussian beam.

    Dai, Lin; Li, Jian-Xing; Zang, Wei-Ping; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2011-05-01

    Electron acceleration in vacuum driven by a tightly focused radially polarized Gaussian beam has been studied in detail. Weniger transformation method is used to eliminate the divergence of the radially polarized electromagnetic field derived from the Lax series approach. And, electron dynamics in an intense radially polarized Gaussian beam is analyzed by using the Weniger transformation field. The roles of the initial phase of the electromagnetic field and the injection angle, position and energy of electron in energy gain of electron have been studied in detail. PMID:21643185

  20. Hindas a european nuclear data programme for accelerator-driven systems

    In the HINDAS programme, nuclear data in the 20-2000 MeV range are evaluated by means of a combination of nuclear models and well-selected intermediate and high-energy experiments. A panoply of European accelerators is utilised to provide complete sets of experimental data for iron, lead and uranium over a large energy range. Nuclear model codes are being improved and validated against these new experimental data. This should result in enhanced ENDF-formatted data libraries up to 200 MeV, and cross-sections for high-energy transport codes above 200 MeV. The impact of the new data libraries and high-energy models will be directly tested on some important parameters of an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Here, we report the recent progress of the various experimental and theoretical activities in HINDAS. (author)

  1. Current status of research and development of reactor noise analysis for accelerator-driven subcritical system

    This report presents a current status of the research and development of reactor noise analyses applicable to accelerator-driven subcritical reactor system. These research activities have been concentrated on the Feynman-α neutron correlation analysis on time domain and the power spectral analysis on frequency domain. At present, the latter power spectral analysis is of greater advantage than the former Feynman-α one, for periodic and pulsed neutron source. While Feynman-α formula for pulsed neutron source is too complicated to be fitted directly to variance-to-mean ratio data, the power spectral analysis has a simpler formula based on the first-order reactor transfer function. The Feynman-α should be improved to consider spatial effect of deeply subcritical system and instability of accelerator operation. Further subject of reactor noise analyses is an improvement for high power operation. (author)

  2. Feasibility of an XUV FEL Oscillator Driven by a SCRF Linear Accelerator

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Freund, H. P.; Reinsch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility is currently under construction at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Using a1-ms-long macropulse composed of up to 3000 micropulses, and with beam energies projected from 45 to 800 MeV, the possibility for an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) free-electron laser oscillator (FELO) with the higher energy is evaluated. We have used both GINGER with an oscillator module and the MEDUSA/OPC code to assess FELO saturation prospects at 120 nm, 40 nm, and 13.4 nm. The results support saturation at all of these wavelengths which are also shorter than the demonstrated shortest wavelength record of 176 nm from a storage-ring-based FELO. This indicates linac-driven FELOs can be extended into this XUV wavelength regime previously only reached with single-pass FEL configurations.

  3. Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra-intense laser pulses

    We report optimization of laser-driven proton acceleration, for a range of experimental parameters available from a single ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser system. We have characterized laser-generated protons produced at the rear and front target surfaces of thin solid targets (15 nm to 90 μm thicknesses) irradiated with an ultra-intense laser pulse (up to 1020 W⋅cm−2, pulse duration 30 to 500 fs, and pulse energy 0.1 to 1.8 J). We find an almost symmetric behaviour for protons accelerated from rear and front sides, and a linear scaling of proton energy cut-off with increasing pulse energy. At constant laser intensity, we observe that the proton cut-off energy increases with increasing laser pulse duration, then roughly constant for pulses longer than 300 fs. Finally, we demonstrate that there is an optimum target thickness and pulse duration.

  4. Design study on side-coupled cavity linac in accelerator-driven energy system

    In the normal conductive project of high beam in density proton linac in accelerator-driven energy system, the high energy section uses side-coupled cavity linac(CCL)structure, its frequency is 700 MHz, and operates on π/2 mode. CCL section accelerates the 30 mA, 80 MeV proton beam from the coupled-cavity drift tube linac(CCDTL) to 1 GeV. The total length of CCL is 1064 m, the focusing lattice is FODO, the focusing period is 8βλ. Bore radii of the cavities are 2.00, 2.25 and 2.50 cm, respectively. The cavities are optimized with SUPERFISH code. The calculation results of the cavities and energy gain are presented

  5. Investigation of laser-driven proton acceleration using ultra-short, ultra-intense laser pulses

    Fourmaux, S.; Gnedyuk, S.; Lassonde, P.; Payeur, S.; Pepin, H.; Kieffer, J. C. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Buffechoux, S.; Albertazzi, B. [INRS-EMT, Universite du Quebec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Capelli, D.; Antici, P. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Dipartimento SBAI, Sapienza, Universita di Roma, Via Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Levy, A.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, UMR 7605, CNRS - CEA - Universite Paris 6 - Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lecherbourg, L.; Marjoribanks, R. S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Optical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    We report optimization of laser-driven proton acceleration, for a range of experimental parameters available from a single ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser system. We have characterized laser-generated protons produced at the rear and front target surfaces of thin solid targets (15 nm to 90 {mu}m thicknesses) irradiated with an ultra-intense laser pulse (up to 10{sup 20} W Dot-Operator cm{sup -2}, pulse duration 30 to 500 fs, and pulse energy 0.1 to 1.8 J). We find an almost symmetric behaviour for protons accelerated from rear and front sides, and a linear scaling of proton energy cut-off with increasing pulse energy. At constant laser intensity, we observe that the proton cut-off energy increases with increasing laser pulse duration, then roughly constant for pulses longer than 300 fs. Finally, we demonstrate that there is an optimum target thickness and pulse duration.

  6. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  7. Sustained nuclear energy without weapons or reprocessing using accelerator-driven systems

    Accelerator-driven thermal-spectrum molten-salt nuclear technology can greatly simplify nuclear energy technology by eliminating reprocessing and greatly enhancing once-through burn-up. In effect the accelerator may be employed as a substitute for frequent reprocessing and recycle. The accelerator makes possible reduction in plutonium and minor actinides from current LWRs by a factor of more than ten without reprocessing while converting the plutonium remnant to a non-weapons-useful isotopic composition. The accelerator also enhances the once-through energy production from fertile material by a factor of ten without reprocessing compared to once-through LWR technology. This technology would eliminate the need to deploy plutonium production indefinitely, and reprocessing and recycle for at least several hundred years. The energy production technology proposed here operates primarily on the Th-U cycle with a minor contribution from the U-Pu cycle to eliminate the weapons-usefulness of 233U. There are two key innovations in addition to the accelerator. One is the use of liquid fuel flowing once through a pool of material undergoing fission thereby allowing high burn-up concurrently with continuous removal of fission product without reprocessing. The second is the unanticipated low capture cross section of fission product nuclides which substantially enhances the neutron economy in this type of system. The supplement of neutrons from the accelerator, the reduced fission product neutron capture, and the continuously flowing fuel are the enablers for the performance described here. This technology allows an essentially complete decoupling of nuclear energy from nuclear weapons (orig.)

  8. Opportunistic or event-driven maintenance at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) uses a maintenance management philosophy that is best described as opportunistic or event-driven. Opportunistic maintenance can be defined as a systematic method of collecting, investigating, pre-planning, and publishing a set of proposed maintenance tasks and acting on them when there is an unscheduled failure or repair ''opportunity''. Opportunistic maintenance can be thought of as a modification of the run-to-fail maintenance management philosophy. This maintenance plan was adopted and developed to improve the overall availability of SLAC's linear accelerator, beam delivery systems, and associated controls, power systems, and utilities. In the late 1980's, as the technical complexity of the accelerator facility increased, variations on a conventional maintenance plan were used with mixed results. These variations typically included some type of regular periodic interruption to operations. The periodic shutdowns and unscheduled failures were additive and resulted in unsatisfactory availability. Maintenance issues are evaluated in a daily meeting that includes the accelerator managers, maintenance supervisors and managers, safety office personnel, program managers, and accelerator operators. Lists of pending maintenance tasks are made available to the general SLAC population by a World Wide Web site on a local internet. A conventional information system which pre-dates the WWW site is still being used to provide paper copies to groups that are not yet integrated into the WWW system. The local internet provides real time maintenance information, allowing people throughout the facility to track progress on tasks with essentially real-time status updates. With the introduction of opportunistic maintenance, the accelerator's availability has been measurably better. This paper will discuss processes, rolls and responsibilities of key maintenance groups, and management tools developed to support opportunistic maintenance

  9. Physics design of a CW high-power proton Linac for accelerator-driven system

    Rajni Pande; Shweta Roy; S V L S Rao; P Singh; S Kailas

    2012-02-01

    Accelerator-driven systems (ADS) have evoked lot of interest the world over because of their capability to incinerate the MA (minor actinides) and LLFP (long-lived fission products) radiotoxic waste and their ability to utilize thorium as an alternative nuclear fuel. One of the main subsystems of ADS is a high energy (∼1 GeV) and high current (∼30 mA) CW proton Linac. The accelerator for ADS should have high efficiency and reliability and very low beam losses to allow hands-on maintenance. With these criteria, the beam dynamics simulations for a 1 GeV, 30 mA proton Linac has been done. The Linac consists of normal-conducting radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), drift tube linac (DTL) and coupled cavity drift tube Linac (CCDTL) structures that accelerate the beam to about 100 MeV followed by superconducting (SC) elliptical cavities, which accelerate the beam from 100 MeV to 1 GeV. The details of the design are presented in this paper.

  10. Supersonic micro-jets and their application to few-cycle laser-driven electron acceleration

    Schmid, Karl

    2009-07-23

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. The laser system employed in this work is a new development based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and is the only multi-TW few-cycle laser in the world. In the experiment, the laser beam is focused onto a supersonic helium gas jet which leads to the formation of a plasma channel. The laser pulse, having an intensity of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} propagates through the plasma with an electron density of 2 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} and forms via a highly nonlinear interaction a strongly anharmonic plasma wave. The amplitude of the wave is so large that the wave breaks, thereby injecting electrons from the background plasma into the accelerating phase. The energy transfer from the laser pulse to the plasma is so strong that the maximum propagation distance is limited to the 100 m range. Therefore, gas jets specifically tuned to these requirements have to be employed. The properties of microscopic supersonic gas jets are thoroughly analyzed in this work. Based on numeric flow simulation, this study encompasses several extensive parameter studies that illuminate all relevant features of supersonic flows in microscopic gas nozzles. This allowed the optimized design of de Laval nozzles with exit diameters ranging from 150 {mu}m to 3 mm. The employment of these nozzles in the experiment greatly improved the electron beam quality. After these optimizations, the laser-driven electron accelerator now yields monoenergetic electron pulses with energies up to 50 MeV and charges between one and ten pC. The electron beam has a typical divergence of 5 mrad and comprises an energy spectrum that is virtually free from low energetic background. The electron pulse duration could not yet be determined experimentally but simulations point towards values in the range of 1 fs. The acceleration gradient is estimated from simulation and experiment to be approximately 0.5 TV/m. The

  11. Supersonic micro-jets and their application to few-cycle laser-driven electron acceleration

    This thesis covers the few-cycle laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a laser-generated plasma. The laser system employed in this work is a new development based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification and is the only multi-TW few-cycle laser in the world. In the experiment, the laser beam is focused onto a supersonic helium gas jet which leads to the formation of a plasma channel. The laser pulse, having an intensity of 1019 W/cm2 propagates through the plasma with an electron density of 2 x 1019 cm-3 and forms via a highly nonlinear interaction a strongly anharmonic plasma wave. The amplitude of the wave is so large that the wave breaks, thereby injecting electrons from the background plasma into the accelerating phase. The energy transfer from the laser pulse to the plasma is so strong that the maximum propagation distance is limited to the 100 m range. Therefore, gas jets specifically tuned to these requirements have to be employed. The properties of microscopic supersonic gas jets are thoroughly analyzed in this work. Based on numeric flow simulation, this study encompasses several extensive parameter studies that illuminate all relevant features of supersonic flows in microscopic gas nozzles. This allowed the optimized design of de Laval nozzles with exit diameters ranging from 150 μm to 3 mm. The employment of these nozzles in the experiment greatly improved the electron beam quality. After these optimizations, the laser-driven electron accelerator now yields monoenergetic electron pulses with energies up to 50 MeV and charges between one and ten pC. The electron beam has a typical divergence of 5 mrad and comprises an energy spectrum that is virtually free from low energetic background. The electron pulse duration could not yet be determined experimentally but simulations point towards values in the range of 1 fs. The acceleration gradient is estimated from simulation and experiment to be approximately 0.5 TV/m. The electron accelerator is

  12. Radiation reaction effect on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    Sagar, Vikram; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, P. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2015-12-15

    The effects of radiation reaction force on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration scheme are studied using Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion. These studies are carried out for both linear and circularly polarized laser fields in the presence of static axial magnetic field. From the parametric study, a radiation reaction dominated region has been identified in which the particle dynamics is greatly effected by this force. In the radiation reaction dominated region, the two significant effects on particle dynamics are seen, viz., (1) saturation in energy gain by the initially resonant particle and (2) net energy gain by an initially non-resonant particle which is caused due to resonance broadening. It has been further shown that with the relaxation of resonance condition and with optimum choice of parameters, this scheme may become competitive with the other present-day laser driven particle acceleration schemes. The quantum corrections to the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion have also been taken into account. The difference in the energy gain estimates of the particle by the quantum corrected and classical Landau-Lifshitz equation is found to be insignificant for the present day as well as upcoming laser facilities.

  13. Startup transients in accelerator driven systems using CINESP-ADS code

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are subcritical nuclear reactor cores driven by spallation neutron source. These spallation neutrons are provided from the bombardment of a liquid metal flowing in a central region of the core, by a proton beam coming from a linear accelerator. Since neutron source dominates the neutronic of the ADS, its control usually is not related to the delayed neutron fractions as in the critical systems. In this way, ADS kinetics diverges from the former ones. This work presents some results of transients in ADS. Since ADS is to work in a pulsed regime, with time duration of pulse, a parametric result is showed to point out that different pulse durations should be studied in conjunction with pulse intensity, to maintain the ADS power stable. In addition, before generating these results, some transients were used to validate the CINESP-ADS code. It solves numerically the kinetic equations based on the multigroup diffusion theory, in one- or two-dimensional, in the Cartesian or Cylindrical geometries, and for any energy and delayed neutron groups. Three-dimensional simulation is possible using a reactor transversal buckling. The numerical solution is obtained via finite differences for the spatial discretization, using the so-called box integration, and with the use of Alternating Direction Explicit (ADE) methods, for the time discretization. The code application to some transients due to source neutron variations demonstrates its efficiency and accuracy, when compared with analytical techniques, such as one that uses expansion in series of Helmholtz eigenfunctions. (author)

  14. Radiation reaction effect on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration

    The effects of radiation reaction force on laser driven auto-resonant particle acceleration scheme are studied using Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion. These studies are carried out for both linear and circularly polarized laser fields in the presence of static axial magnetic field. From the parametric study, a radiation reaction dominated region has been identified in which the particle dynamics is greatly effected by this force. In the radiation reaction dominated region, the two significant effects on particle dynamics are seen, viz., (1) saturation in energy gain by the initially resonant particle and (2) net energy gain by an initially non-resonant particle which is caused due to resonance broadening. It has been further shown that with the relaxation of resonance condition and with optimum choice of parameters, this scheme may become competitive with the other present-day laser driven particle acceleration schemes. The quantum corrections to the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion have also been taken into account. The difference in the energy gain estimates of the particle by the quantum corrected and classical Landau-Lifshitz equation is found to be insignificant for the present day as well as upcoming laser facilities

  15. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of minor actinide burning in the accelerator-driven system and critical reactors within various scenarios for closing the nuclear fuel cycle

    The choice of efficient types of systems for the utilization of long-lived radioactive wastes (RW) of nuclear power is one of the highest priority concerns in nuclear sphere. The accelerator-driven systems (ADS) with heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) and fast neutron spectrum are considered among the most efficient nuclear devices for burning minor actinides (MA). Results of numerical studies for the optimization of characteristics of an ADS-system with lead-bismuth coolant for burning minor actinides produced in the open fuel cycle of thermal reactors have been summarized. Criteria of efficiency of MA burning have been determined (time of transmutation, etc.). It has been shown that neutronic characteristics ensuring nuclear safety in an analogous critical reactor - MA burner - are significantly inferior vs. fast critical reactor with UO2 fuel. In order to define whether or not it is justified to use ADS in different scenarios for the nuclear fuel cycle closure, a comparative study has been fulfilled on radiation and technological characteristics of spent fuel from subcritical reactor ADS and on fuel from other nuclear facilities. The VVER-1000 reactor and the variant of fast reactor with lead-bismuth coolant were chosen for the comparison. SVBR-100 reactor can be considered as a prototype of the latter facility. Two options of closing the fuel cycle have been analyzed: the variant with recycling U,Pu without MA, the variant with total recycling of U and all transuranic isotopes (Pu, Np, Am, Cm). The differences have been defined in terms of specific values of radioactivity, residual heat release, intensity of sources of neutrons and gamma-radiation of spent fuel. (author)

  16. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    Assmann, R; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Buttenschön, B; Butterworth, A; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Feldbaumer, E; Fonseca, R A; Goddard, B; Gross, M; Grulke, O; Gschwendtner, E; Holloway, J; Huang, C; Jaroszynski, D; Jolly, S; Kempkes, P; Lopes, N; Lotov, K; Machacek, J; Mandry, S R; McKenzie, J W; Meddahi, M; Militsyn, B L; Moschuering, N; Muggli, P; Najmudin, Z; Noakes, T C Q; Norreys, P A; Öz, E; Pardons, A; Petrenko, A; Pukhov, A; Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Ruhl, H; Shaposhnikova, E; Silva, L O; Sosedkin, A; Tarkeshian, R; Trines, R M G N; Tückmantel, T; Vieira, J; Vincke, H; Wing, M; Xia G , G

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN { the AWAKE experiment { has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  17. Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration: a path to the future of high-energy particle physics

    Assmann, R; Bohl, T; Bracco, C; Buttenschon, B; Butterworth, A; Caldwell, A; Chattopadhyay, S; Cipiccia, S; Feldbaumer, E; Fonseca, R A; Goddard, B; Gross, M; Grulke, O; Gschwendtner, E; Holloway, J; Huang, C; Jaroszynski, D; Jolly, S; Kempkes, P; Lopes, N; Lotov, K; Machacek, J; Mandry, S R; McKenzie, J W; Meddahi, M; Militsyn, B L; Moschuering, N; Muggli, P; Najmudin, Z; Noakes, T C Q; Norreys, P A; Oz, E; Pardons, A; Petrenko, A; Pukhov, A; Rieger, K; Reimann, O; Ruhl, H; Shaposhnikova, E; Silva, L O; Sosedkin, A; Tarkeshian, R; Trines, R M G N; Tuckmantel, T; Vieira, J; Vincke, H; Wing, M; Xia, G

    2014-01-01

    New acceleration technology is mandatory for the future elucidation of fundamental particles and their interactions. A promising approach is to exploit the properties of plasmas. Past research has focused on creating large-amplitude plasma waves by injecting an intense laser pulse or an electron bunch into the plasma. However, the maximum energy gain of electrons accelerated in a single plasma stage is limited by the energy of the driver. Proton bunches are the most promising drivers of wakefields to accelerate electrons to the TeV energy scale in a single stage. An experimental program at CERN -- the AWAKE experiment -- has been launched to study in detail the important physical processes and to demonstrate the power of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. Here we review the physical principles and some experimental considerations for a future proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

  18. Transmutable nanoparticles with reconfigurable surface ligands

    Kim, Youngeun; Macfarlane, Robert J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2016-02-01

    Unlike conventional inorganic materials, biological systems are exquisitely adapted to respond to their surroundings. Proteins and other biological molecules can process a complex set of chemical binding events as informational inputs and respond accordingly via a change in structure and function. We applied this principle to the design and synthesis of inorganic materials by preparing nanoparticles with reconfigurable surface ligands, where interparticle bonding can be programmed in response to specific chemical cues in a dynamic manner. As a result, a nascent set of “transmutable nanoparticles” can be driven to crystallize along multiple thermodynamic trajectories, resulting in rational control over the phase and time evolution of nanoparticle-based matter.

  19. Radiation therapy with laser-driven accelerated particle beams: physical dosimetry and spatial dose distribution

    One of the main goals of the Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP) is the application of laser driven accelerated (LDA) particle beams for radiation therapy. Due to the unique acceleration process ultrashort particle pulses of high intensity (> 107 particles /cm2/ns) are generated, which makes online detection an ambitious task. So far, state of the art detection of laser accelerated ion pulses are non-electronic detectors like radiochromic films (RCF), imaging plates (IP) or nuclear track detectors (e.g. CR39). All these kind of detectors are offline detectors requiring several hours of processing time. For this reason they are not qualified for an application in radiation therapy where quantitative real time detection of the beam is an essential prerequisite. Therefore we are investigating pixel detectors for real time monitoring of LDA particle pulses. First tests of commercially available systems with 8-20 MeV protons are presented. For radiobiological experiments second generation Gafchromic films (EBT2) have been calibrated with protons of 12 and 20 MeV for a dose range of 0.3-10 Gy. Dose verification in proton irradiation of subcutaneous tumours in mice was successfully accomplished using these films.

  20. Radiation therapy with laser-driven accelerated particle beams: physical dosimetry and spatial dose distribution

    Reinhardt, Sabine; Assmann, Walter [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Kneschaurek, Peter; Wilkens, Jan [MRI, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    One of the main goals of the Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP) is the application of laser driven accelerated (LDA) particle beams for radiation therapy. Due to the unique acceleration process ultrashort particle pulses of high intensity (> 10{sup 7} particles /cm{sup 2}/ns) are generated, which makes online detection an ambitious task. So far, state of the art detection of laser accelerated ion pulses are non-electronic detectors like radiochromic films (RCF), imaging plates (IP) or nuclear track detectors (e.g. CR39). All these kind of detectors are offline detectors requiring several hours of processing time. For this reason they are not qualified for an application in radiation therapy where quantitative real time detection of the beam is an essential prerequisite. Therefore we are investigating pixel detectors for real time monitoring of LDA particle pulses. First tests of commercially available systems with 8-20 MeV protons are presented. For radiobiological experiments second generation Gafchromic films (EBT2) have been calibrated with protons of 12 and 20 MeV for a dose range of 0.3-10 Gy. Dose verification in proton irradiation of subcutaneous tumours in mice was successfully accomplished using these films.

  1. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  2. Conceptual design of thorium-fuelled Mitrailleuse accelerator-driven subcritical reactor using D-Be neutron source

    A distributed accelerator is a charged-particle accelerator that uses a new acceleration method based on repeated electrostatic acceleration. This method offers outstanding benefits not possible with the conventional radio-frequency acceleration method, including: (1) high acceleration efficiency, (2) large acceleration current, and (3) lower failure rate made possible by a fully solid-state acceleration field generation circuit. A 'Mitrailleuse Accelerator' is a product we have conceived to optimize this distributed accelerator technology for use with a high-strength neutron source. We have completed the conceptual design of a Mitrailleuse Accelerator and of a thorium-fuelled subcritical reactor driven by a Mitrailleuse Accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design details and approach to implementing the subcritical reactor core. We will spend the next year or so on detailed design work, and then will start work on developing a prototype for demonstration. If there are no obstacles in setting up a development organization, we expect to finish verifying the prototype's performance by the third quarter of 2015. (authors)

  3. Analysis of burn up effects on kinetic parameters in an Accelerator Driven Subcritical TRIGA reactor

    Highlights: • Among the kinetic parameters, the most important ones are βeff and Λ. • The kinetic parameters at the end of cycle for 20 days operation at 1 MW reactor power have been calculated using MCNPX code. • The system sub-criticality levels, the required accelerator current and power have been calculated for each burnup step. • Burnup effects on neutronic parameters and accelerator requirements are analysed for a life cycle of the reactor core. - Abstract: In this paper, the kinetic parameters at the end of cycle for 20 days operation at 1 MW reactor power have been calculated using MCNPX code for source multiplication factors (Ks) of critical and 0.97 levels. Accelerator Driven Subcritical TRIGA reactor has been considered as the case study of the problem. The system sub-criticality levels, the required accelerator current (Ip) and power (Pacc) have been calculated for each burn up step. According to the results, the required Ip and Pacc increased as system sub-criticality level decreased. Also, the results show that the effective delayed neutron fraction (βeff) does not depend on sub-criticality levels significantly but the neutron reproduction time (Λ) strongly depends on the number of fuel elements in the core and sub-criticality levels. In addition, it was observed that in comparison with the beginning-of-cycle values, at end-of-cycle, the Λ increases by 112.6% and 108.4% respectively but the βeff decreases by 6.1% and 1.8% respectively in critical and 0.97 levels

  4. Test of pixel detectors for laser-driven accelerated particle beams

    Laser-driven accelerated (LDA) particle beams have due to the unique acceleration process very special properties. In particular they are created in ultra-short bunches of high intensity exceeding more than 107 (particles)/cm2·ns per bunch. Characterization of these beams is very limited with conventional particle detectors. Non-electronic detectors such as imaging plates or nuclear track detectors are, therefore, conventionally used at present. Moreover, all these detectors give only offline information about the particle pulse position and intensity as they require minutes to hours to be processed, calling for a new highly sensitive online device. Here, we present tests of different pixel detectors for real time detection of LDA ion pulses. Experiments have been performed at the Munich 14MV Tandem accelerator with 8–20 MeV protons in dc and pulsed beam, the latter producing comparable flux as a LDA ion pulse. For detection tests we chose the position-sensitive quantum-counting semiconductor pixel detector Timepix which also provides per-pixel energy- or time-sensitivity. Additionally other types of commercially available pixel detectors are being evaluated such as the RadEye™1, a large area (25 x 50 mm2) CMOS image sensor. All of these devices are able to resolve individual ions with high spatial- and energy-resolution down to the level of μm and tens of keV, respectively. Various beam delivering parameters of the accelerator were thus evaluated and verified. The different readout modes of the Timepix detector which is operated with an integrated USB-based readout interface allow online visualization of single and time-integrated events. Therefore Timepix offers the greatest potential in analyzing the beam parameters.

  5. The mechanical integrity of fuel pin cladding in a pulsed-beam accelerator driven subcritical reactor

    Highlights: ► We develop the PTS-ADS code to study transients in ADSR cladding. ► We study thermal response in an ADSR cladding to pulsed beam operation. ► We perform thermal fatigue analysis. ► The cladding mechanical integrity can be assumed unaffected by repetitive temperature variations due to pulsed beam operation. - Abstract: The Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) is one of the reactor designs proposed for future nuclear energy production. Interest in the ADSR arises from its enhanced and intrinsic safety characteristics, as well as its potential ability to utilize the large global reserves of thorium and to burn legacy actinide waste from other reactors and decommissioned nuclear weapons. The ADSR concept is based on the coupling of a particle accelerator and a subcritical core by means of a neutron spallation target interface. One of the candidate accelerator technologies receiving increasing attention, the Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator, generates a pulsed proton beam. This paper investigates the impact of pulsed proton beam operation on the mechanical integrity of the fuel pin cladding. A pulsed beam induces repetitive temperature changes in the reactor core which lead to cyclic thermal stresses in the cladding. To perform the thermal analysis aspects of this study a code that couples the neutron kinetics of a subcritical core to a cylindrical geometry heat transfer model was developed. This code, named PTS-ADS, enables temperature variations in the cladding to be calculated. These results are then used to perform thermal fatigue analysis and to predict the stress-life behaviour of the cladding.

  6. 2nd RCM of the CRP on Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and Technical Meeting on Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Utilization in Accelerator Driven Sub-critical Systems. Working Material

    The overall objective of the CRP is contributing to the generic R&D efforts in various fields common to innovative fast neutron system development, i.e., heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics, dedicated transmutation fuels and associated core designs, theoretical nuclear reaction models, measurement and evaluation of nuclear data for transmutation, and development and validation of calculational methods and codes. Ultimately, the CRP’s overall objective is to make contributions towards the realization of a transmutation demonstration facility

  7. A Fast Numerical Method for the Calculation of the Equilibrium Isotopic Composition of a Transmutation System in an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    F. Álvarez-Velarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast numerical method for the calculation in a zero-dimensional approach of the equilibrium isotopic composition of an iteratively used transmutation system in an advanced fuel cycle, based on the Banach fixed point theorem, is described in this paper. The method divides the fuel cycle in successive stages: fuel fabrication, storage, irradiation inside the transmutation system, cooling, reprocessing, and incorporation of the external material into the new fresh fuel. The change of the fuel isotopic composition, represented by an isotope vector, is described in a matrix formulation. The resulting matrix equations are solved using direct methods with arbitrary precision arithmetic. The method has been successfully applied to a double-strata fuel cycle with light water reactors and accelerator-driven subcritical systems. After comparison to the results of the EVOLCODE 2.0 burn-up code, the observed differences are about a few percents in the mass estimations of the main actinides.

  8. EU strategy in partitioning and transmutation and its implementation within the EURATOM Framework Programmes

    A robust strategy is followed in the European Union (EU) in the area of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) for sustainability of nuclear energy by promoting collaborative research and training among member states within the EURATOM multi-annual Framework Programmes (FP) and Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNE-TP). Once-through cycle ('disposal of spent fuel as is') does not appear to be sustainable for nuclear energy production. Reprocessing of the spent fuel and transmutation of minor actinides in dedicated devices would reduce considerably the radio-toxic inventory of the disposed waste in geological repositories. This is of significant importance in non-proliferation strategy and radiological terrorism and reduces risks in case of an inadvertent human intrusion. The separation of main heavy metals (uranium and plutonium) reduces the volume and thermal output of the waste to be disposed of, which increases effectively the capacity of the repository. Furthermore, extraction of heat-bearing components (Sr and Cs) from the waste 'can reduce thermal output' of the disposed waste. Concerns of the public related to long-life of the waste could largely be overcome by P and T as it would reduce half-life of most of the waste to be disposed of to a couple of hundred years and it could thus come to the aid of geological disposal community in securing a broadly agreed political solution of waste disposal in geological repositories. Nevertheless, additional cost, additional secondary waste, activation products, intermediate-level waste and dose to workers in the process of P and T itself will contribute to defining an optimal transmutation scheme. A double-strata approach with subcritical accelerator-driven systems (ADS) and/or critical fast reactors (Generation IV systems) is being considered. A decision on the choice is planned in a couple of years. Geological disposal of the remaining waste (separation/transmutation losses) will nevertheless be

  9. Laser energized traveling wave accelerator - a novel scheme for simultaneous focusing, energy selection and post-acceleration of laser-driven ions

    Kar, Satyabrata

    2015-11-01

    All-optical approaches to particle acceleration are currently attracting a significant research effort internationally. Where intense laser driven proton beams, mainly by the so called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, have attractive properties such as brightness, laminarity and burst duration, overcoming some of the inherent shortcomings, such as large divergence, broad spectrum and slow ion energy scaling poses significant scientific and technological challenges. High power lasers are capable of generating kiloampere current pulses with unprecedented short duration (10s of picoseconds). The large electric field from such localized charge pulses can be harnessed in a traveling wave particle accelerator arrangement. By directing the ultra-short charge pulse along a helical path surrounding a laser-accelerated ion beams, one can achieve simultaneous beam shaping and re-acceleration of a selected portion of the beam by the components of the associated electric field within the helix. In a proof-of-principle experiment on a 200 TW university-scale laser, we demonstrated post-acceleration of ~108 protons by ~5 MeV over less than a cm of propagation - i.e. an accelerating gradient ~0.5 GeV/m, already beyond what can be sustained by conventional accelerator technologies, with dynamic beam collimation and energy selection. These results open up new opportunities for the development of extremely compact and cost-effective ion accelerators for both established and innovative applications.

  10. ADS-Lib/V1.0. A test library for Accelerator Driven Systems. Summary documentation

    The report describes the generation of a test library for a number of code systems used in the analysis of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The generation of the ADS library was undertaken by IAEA-NDS and the data files are available to users at http://wwwnds. iaea.org/ads/ and also as CD-ROM (upon request).The source of the evaluated nuclear data was the JEFF-3.1 library. Processing was carried out using NJOY-99.90 with the local updates at IAEA-NDS. The resulting processed files are available in ACE format for MCNP and in MATXS format for multi-group transport calculations. (author)

  11. Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow in the Target of Accelerator-driven Subcritical System

    2001-01-01

    The beam window, which separates the vaccum beam tube and the spallation target, is one of the most crucial components in a liquid metal target of the accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS). The major difficulties in the window design are the protection against radiation damage and heat removal. It is a challenge to cool down the beam window sufficiently due to its high heat load.Numerical simulations of the fluid flow are performed by using the PHOENICS code for the proposed spallation target of ADS. The main objectives of the study are to investigate the flow behavior in the target systems, especially around the beam window, and to make contribution to the

  12. An Electron Bunch Compression Scheme for a Superconducting Radio Frequency Linear Accelerator Driven Light Source

    We describe an electron bunch compression scheme suitable for use in a light source driven by a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac. The key feature is the use of a recirculating linac to perform the initial bunch compression. Phasing of the second pass beam through the linac is chosen to de-chirp the electron bunch prior to acceleration to the final energy in an SRF linac ('afterburner'). The final bunch compression is then done at maximum energy. This scheme has the potential to circumvent some of the most technically challenging aspects of current longitudinal matches; namely transporting a fully compressed, high peak current electron bunch through an extended SRF environment, the need for a RF harmonic linearizer and the need for a laser heater. Additional benefits include a substantial savings in capital and operational costs by efficiently using the available SRF gradient.

  13. Status of an induction accelerator driven, high-power microwave generator at Livermore

    The authors are testing an enhanced version of the Choppertron, a high-power rf generator which shows great promise of achieving greater than 400 MW of output power at 11.4 GHz with stable phase and amplitude. This version of the Choppertron is driven by a 5-MeV, 1-kA induction accelerator beam. Modifications to the original Choppertron included aggressive suppression of high order modes in the two output structures, lengthening of the modulation section to match for higher beam energy, and improved efficiency. Final results of the original Choppertron experiment, status of the ongoing experiment and planned experiments for the next year are presented. The motivation of the research program at the LLNL Microwave Source Facility is to develop microwave sources which could be suitable drivers for a future TeV linear e+e- collider

  14. Net Shape Manufacturing of Accelerator Components by High Pressure Combustion Driven Powder Compaction

    Nagarathnam, Karthik

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of the net shape and cost-effective manufacturing aspects of high density accelerator (normal and superconducting) components (e.g., NLC Copper disks) and materials behavior of copper, stainless steel, refractory materials (W, Mo and TZM), niobium and SiC by innovative high pressure Combustion Driven Compaction (CDC) technology. Some of the unique process advantages include high densities, net-shaping, improved surface finish/quality, suitability for simple/complex geometries, synthesis of single as well as multilayered materials, milliseconds of compaction process time, little or no post-machining, and process flexibility. Some of the key results of CDC fabricated sample geometries, process optimization, sintering responses and structure/property characteristics such as physical properties, surface roughness/quality, electrical conductivity, select microstructures and mechanical properties will be presented. Anticipated applications of CDC compaction include advanced x-ray targets, vac...

  15. Free-electron laser multiplex driven by a superconducting linear accelerator.

    Plath, Tim; Amstutz, Philipp; Bödewadt, Jörn; Brenner, Günter; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Faatz, Bart; Hacker, Kirsten; Honkavaara, Katja; Lazzarino, Leslie Lamberto; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Scholz, Matthias; Schreiber, Siegfried; Vogt, Mathias; Zemella, Johann; Laarmann, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) generate femtosecond XUV and X-ray pulses at peak powers in the gigawatt range. The FEL user facility FLASH at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) is driven by a superconducting linear accelerator with up to 8000 pulses per second. Since 2014, two parallel undulator beamlines, FLASH1 and FLASH2, have been in operation. In addition to the main undulator, the FLASH1 beamline is equipped with an undulator section, sFLASH, dedicated to research and development of fully coherent extreme ultraviolet photon pulses using external seed lasers. In this contribution, the first simultaneous lasing of the three FELs at 13.4 nm, 20 nm and 38.8 nm is presented. PMID:27577757

  16. Research Programme for the 660 Mev Proton Accelerator Driven MOX-Plutonium Subcritical Assembly

    Barashenkov, V S; Buttseva, G L; Dudarev, S Yu; Polanski, A; Puzynin, I V; Sissakian, A N

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents a research programme of the Experimental Acclerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton acceletator operating at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems of the JINR, Dubna. MOX fuel (25% PuO_2 + 75% UO_2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core of a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient k_eff = 0.945, energetic gain G = 30 and the accelerator beam power 0.5 kW.

  17. Influence of the ablation threshold fluence on laser-driven acceleration

    Margarone, Daniele; Velyhan, Andriy; Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Giuffrida, L.; Picciotto, A.; Krása, Josef; Cavallaro, S.; Limpouch, J.; Klimo, O.; Psikal, J.; Proska, J.; Novotný, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 272, May (2013), s. 132-137. ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0087; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OPVK 3 Laser Zdroj(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279; OP VK 2 Laser Gen(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0087; 7FP LASER LAB-EUROPE(XE) 228334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : nanosecond laser s * ablation threshold * laser -driven acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013

  18. Shock creation and particle acceleration driven by plasma expansion into a rarefied medium

    Sarri, G; Dieckmann, M E; Borghesi, M

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of a dense plasma through a more rarefied ionised medium is a phenomenon of interest in various physics environments ranging from astrophysics to high energy density laser- matter laboratory experiments. Here this situation is modeled via a 1D Particle-In-Cell simulation; a jump in the plasma density of a factor of 100 is introduced in the middle of an otherwise equally dense electron-proton plasma with an uniform proton and electron temperature of 10eV and 1keV respectively. The diffusion of the dense plasma, through the rarified one, triggers the onset of different nonlinear phenomena such as a strong ion-acoustic shock wave and a rarefaction wave. Secondary structures are detected, some of which are driven by a drift instability of the rarefaction wave. Efficient proton acceleration occurs ahead of the shock, bringing the maximum proton velocity up to 60 times the initial ion thermal speed.

  19. Attosecond Thomson-scattering x-ray source driven by laser-based electron acceleration

    Luo, W. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhuo, H. B.; Yu, T. P. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Ma, Y. Y. [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, Y. M.; Zhu, Z. C. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Yu, M. Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-21

    The possibility of producing attosecond x-rays through Thomson scattering of laser light off laser-driven relativistic electron beams is investigated. For a ≤200-as, tens-MeV electron bunch produced with laser ponderomotive-force acceleration in a plasma wire, exceeding 10{sup 6} photons/s in the form of ∼160 as pulses in the range of 3–300 keV are predicted, with a peak brightness of ≥5 × 10{sup 20} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1% bandwidth). Our study suggests that the physical scheme discussed in this work can be used for an ultrafast (attosecond) x-ray source, which is the most beneficial for time-resolved atomic physics, dubbed “attosecond physics.”.

  20. Estimation for effect of JENDL-3.3 on neutronics characteristics of accelerator-driven system

    The latest version of Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (JENDL-3.3) was released in last year. Primary purpose of this study was to estimate an effect of a revision of nuclear data library on neutronics characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS). The burnup calculations using both JENDL-3.3 and JENDL-3.2 were performed for JAERI proposed ADS. The detailed contribution of each nuclide and reaction on the difference of the calculation results, such as effective multiplication factor and burnup swing, were investigated. Moreover, to validate the nuclear data of actinides, the burnup analysis for the actinides samples irradiated at the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor were carried out. (author)