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Sample records for accelerator driven transmutation technologies

  1. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies

    The basic principles of accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT) are outlined and their assets highlighted. Current designs of ADTT facilities pursue 3 basic objectives: (i) Systems designed to generate power and convert nuclear wastes produced by conventional nuclear reactors into long-lived radioisotopes by transmutation. Such isotopes will be separated from molten salts by centrifugal separation. A single subcritical assembly will 'burn' wastes produced by several conventional NPPs. (ii) Systems for power generation using thorium fuel. Such systems are not designed for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The amount of transuranium elements produced by the thorium cycle is minimal, whereby the problem of storage of very long lived isotopes is virtually eliminated. (iii) Systems for transmutation of plutonium reclaimed from nuclear weapons. As to the future of ADTT in comparison with nuclear fusion, an asset of the former is that there remain no unsolved principal physical problems that would preclude its implementation. What has to be solved is materials and technological problems and, in particular, the financial problem. Implementation of ADTT is impossible in any way other than on the basis of a wide international cooperation. There exists a group of people dealing with ADTT in the Czech Republic, joining academic and industrial experts; this group is fostering contacts with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, U.S.A. The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, has set up an ADTT Documentation Center, which is accessible to any person interested in this promising field of science and technology. (P.A.). 3 figs

  2. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems

  3. An overview of accelerator-driven transmutation technology

    Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology, or ADT2, is a collection of programs that share a common theme - they each have at their heart an intense source of neutrons generated by a high-energy proton beam striking a heavy metal target. The beam energy, typically 1000 MeV, is enough for a single proton to smash a target atom into atomic fragments. This so-called spallation process generates large numbers of neutrons (around 20 to 30 per proton) amid the atomic debris. These neutrons are of high value because they can be used to transmute neighboring atoms by neutron capture. Three distinct ADT2 program elements will be described. These are ADEP - accelerator-driven energy production, ABC - accelerator based conversion (of plutonium) and ATW - accelerator transmutation of waste

  4. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current

  5. Accelerator-driven transmutation technology: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    This paper discusses current technical and non-technical issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution of the current U.S. conceptual design is identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Although a number of key challenges are identified in this paper, the benefits of the research and development effort and the potential paradigm shift in attitude toward resource stewardship could greatly enhance public confidence in nuclear waste management that will have rapid positive repercussions on nuclear technology research and commercial applications. (author)

  6. Los Alamos transmutation research: heavy liquid metal coolant technology and accelerator-driven materials test station

    The US Department of Energy is developing technologies needed to reduce the quantity of high-level nuclear waste bound for deep geologic disposal. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a long history of transmutation research in support of this mission. This report summarises two research programmes in the portfolio development of lead-alloy coolant technology and materials, and the Materials Test Station (MTS) using an accelerator-driven spallation target. We have been developing lead and lead-bismuth coolant technology and materials for advanced transmutation and nuclear energy systems since the mid-1990. Our programme mainly consists of operating a medium-scale lead-bismuth eutectic materials and thermal-hydraulic test loop (DELTA), conducting tests and experiments, developing associated coolant chemistry and liquid metal flow measurement and control sensors, instrumentation and systems, building and validating system corrosion models. We are also building a high-temperature natural convection lead test loop using an advanced material (Al-rich oxide dispersion strengthened steel). Key activities and an assessment of the technological readiness level will be given. (authors)

  7. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL

  8. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2003/2004

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Nilsson, L.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2004-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala univ. The activities of the group are directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from hydrogen at 96 MeV. The results corroborate the normalization of previously obtained data at TSL, which have been under debate. This is of importance since this reaction serves as reference for many other measurements. Compelling evidence of the existence of three-body forces in nuclei has been obtained. Within the project, one PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded. One PhD exam and one licentiate exam has been awarded for work closely related to the project. A new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance has been built and commissioned at TSL.

  9. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology Project

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the US and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives

  10. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    Blomgren, J.; Hildebrand, A.; Mermod, P.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. for Neutron Research

    2003-08-01

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA.

  11. Neutron data for accelerator-driven transmutation technologies. Annual Report 2002/2003

    The project NATT, Neutron data for Accelerator-driven Transmutation Technology, is performed within the nuclear reactions group of the Department for neutron research, Uppsala university. The activities of the group is directed towards experimental studies of nuclear reaction probabilities of importance for various applications, like transmutation of nuclear waste, biomedical effects and electronics reliability. The experimental work is primarily undertaken at the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala, where the group has previously developed two world-unique instruments, MEDLEY and SCANDAL. Highlights from the past year: Analysis and documentation has been finalized of previously performed measurements of elastic neutron scattering from carbon and lead at 96 MeV. The precision in the results surpasses all previous data by at least an order of magnitude. These measurements represent the highest energy in neutron scattering where the ground state has been resolved. The results show that all previous theory work has underestimated the probability for neutron scattering at the present energy by 0-30 %. A new method for measurements of absolute probabilities for neutron-induced nuclear reactions with experimental techniques only has been developed. Previously, only two such methods have been known. One student has reached his PhD exam. Two PhD students have been accepted. TSL has decided to build a new neutron beam facility with significantly improved performance for these, and similar, activities. A new instrument for measurements of inelastic neutron scattering has been built, tested and found to meet the specifications. This work has been performed in collaboration with two French research groups from Caen and Nantes. The instrument is intended to be used for a series of experiments during the coming years. Previous work by the group on nuclear data for assessment of electronics reliability has lead to a new industry standard in the USA

  12. Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies for resolution of long-term nuclear waste concerns

    The paper provides a rationale for resolution of the long-term waste disposition issue based on complete destruction of fissile material and all higher actinides. It begins with a brief history of geologic storage leading to the present impasse in the US. The proliferation aspects of commercial plutonium are presented in a new light as a further driver for complete destruction. The special problems in Russia and the US of the disposition of the highly enriched spent naval reactor fuel and spent research reactor fuel are also presented. The scale of the system required for complete destruction is also examined and it is shown that a practical system for complete destruction of commercial and defense fissile material must be widely dispersed rather than concentrated at a single site. Central tenants of the US National Academy of Sciences recommendations on waste disposition are examined critically and several technologies considered for waste destruction are described briefly and compared Recommendations for waste disposition based on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology suitable for both the US and Russia are presented

  13. AIP conference on accelerator driven transmutation technologies and applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 25-29, 1994

    This conference was the first to bring together US and foreign researchers to define Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) concepts in several important national and international application areas - nuclear waste transmutation, minimizing of world plutonium inventories, and long-term energy production. The conference covered a number of diverse technological areas - accelerators, target/blankets, separations, materials - that make up ADTT systems. The meeting provided one of the first opportunities for specialists in these technologies to meet together and learn about system requirements, components, and interface issues. It was also an opportunity to formulate plans for future developments in ADTT. During the conference over one hundred technical presentations were made describing ADTT system and technology concepts as well as the impact of ADTT on issues related to global plutonium management and the high-level nuclear waste problem areas. Separate abstracts have been entered into the database for articles from this report

  14. Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste

    Venneri, Francesco

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage. Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear energy, reprocessing and non-proliferation. The current United States policy is to store unprocessed spent reactor fuel in a geologic repository. Other countries are opting for treatment of nuclear waste, including partial utilization of the fissile material contained in the spent fuel, prior to geologic storage. Long-term uncertainties are hampering the acceptability and eventual licensing of a geologic repository for nuclear spent fuel in the US, and driving up its cost. The greatest concerns are with the potential for radiation release and exposure from the spent fuel for tens of thousands of years and the possible diversion and use of the actinides contained in the waste for weapons construction. Taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and of the natural flexibility of subcritical systems, the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept offers the United States and other countries the possibility to greatly reduce plutonium, higher actinides and environmentally hazardous fission products from the waste stream destined for permanent storage. ATW does not eliminate the need for, but instead enhances the viability of permanent waste repositories. Far from being limited to waste destruction, the ATW concept also brings to the table new technologies that could be relevant for next-generation power producing reactors. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to the ATW site where the plutonium, transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their first and only pass through the

  15. The accelerator driven transmutation technology - A study on the linac for proton accelerator

    Han, Bum Soo; Joh, Ki Hun; Kim, Sung Myun; Park, Heung Gyu; Park, Jong Pil; Kang, Bo Sun [Samsung Heavy Industries, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the manufacturing technology of proton accelerators, and to find the adequate manufacturing technique for construction of such proton accelerators. Review of manufacturing technology for RFQ has been carried out - RFQ machine of other country has been reviewed on the aspects of manufacturing, - Machining of engineering mock-up has been performed based on the designed data, - Brazing technology for RFQ, and brazing test and analysis of Copper specimen. Adequate brazing conditions for RFQ - 1st brazing (vane to section, 950 deg C), Filler metal composition: Cu-20Sn, Brazing conditions: peak temp. 950 deg C (holding time 20min, rising rate 7 deg C/min), Atmosphere: H{sub 2}. - 2nd brazing (section to section, 850 deg C or less), Filler metal: Cu-Sn4%-P7.5%-Ag6%, Brazing conditions: peak temp. 750 deg C (holding time 20min, rising rate 7 deg C/min), Atmosphere: H{sub 2}. 8 refs., (author). 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation technology project

    The paper describes a new accelerator-based nuclear technology developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory which offers total destruction of the weapons Plutonium inventory, a solution to the commercial nuclear waste problem which greatly reduces or eliminates the requirement for geologic waste storage, and a system which generates potentially unlimited energy from Thorium fuel while destroying its own waste and operating in a new regime of nuclear safety

  17. Reduction of burden for waste disposal for accelerator-driven transmutation technology. Preparing for unforeseeable future by nuclear fuel cycle for back-end

    Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is an innovative nuclear system to transmute minor actinides. By coupling transmutation technology by ADS and partitioning technology, the burden for nuclear waste disposal is expected to be largely reduced. Under the present status where the future of nuclear fuel cycle is unforeseeable, it is desirable to proceed with the research and development of ADS which can flexibly harmonize well with various options in the future. The research and development of ADS should be promoted by international and interdisciplinary collaboration. In this context, Transmutation Experimental Facility under the J-PARC phase-2 project is expected to play an important role to lead worldwide activities to cope with radioactive wastes. (author)

  18. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power

  19. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1999

    In 1996, SKB commenced funding of the project 'System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems and development of a spallation target'. The aim of the project was stated as: Development of a complete code for simulation of transmutation processes in an accelerator driven system. Application of the code for analysis of neutron flux, transmutation rates, reactivity changes, toxicity and radiation damages in the transmutation core. Build up of competence regarding issues related to spallation targets, development of research activities regarding relevant material issues. Performing of basic experiments in order to investigate the adequacy of using the spallation. target as a neutron source for a transmutation system, and participation in the planning and implementation of an international demonstration experiment. In the present report, activities within and related to the framework of the project, performed at the department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology during 1999, are accounted for

  20. Research on accelerator-driven transmutation and studies of experimental facilities

    Takizuka, Takakazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on accelerator-driven transmutation systems under the national OMEGA Program that aims at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of radioactive waste. Research facilities for accelerator-driven transmutation experiments are proposed to construct within the framework of the planned JAERI Neutron Science Project. This paper describes the features of the proposed accelerator-driven transmutation systems and their technical issues to be solved. A research facility plan under examination is presented. The plan is divided in two phases. In the second phase, technical feasibility of accelerator-driven systems will be demonstrated with a 30-60 MW experimental integrated system and with a 7 MW high-power target facility. (author)

  1. Technical issues of accelerator-driven transmutation and a research facility

    In the late 1980s, Japan launched an ambitious long-term program on partitioning and transmutation (P-T), called OMEGA, aiming at development of the technology to improve efficiency and safety in the final disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and to recover useful elements from HLW. This paper describes the concept of double stratum nuclear fuel cycle and the concept of accelerator-driven transmutation systems, which are proposed by JAERI as the most efficient strategy and system for the deployment of P-T. Technical issues of accelerator-driven transmutation and a research facility plan under reviewing are summarized. More detail descriptions of technical issues and research facility plan are presented in the successive two companion papers. National and international R and D activities on accelerator-based transmutation are overviewed with emphasis placed on engineering experiment and demonstration test part of programs. (author)

  2. Design windows for accelerator driven pebble-bed transmutators

    Nuclear waste transmutation can be achieved by different strategies. In this paper, the studies are focused in the 'Once Through' scenario, consisting in the nuclear waste transmutation until a maximum burnup (BU) is achieved. After transmutation, the fuel elements can be disposed in a Deep Storage Facility (DSF.) The main advantage of this strategy is that only one reprocess step is necessary. The drawback of this strategy consists mainly in the need of a fuel element design capable of withstanding very high burn-ups. It has been demonstrated that pebbles fuel elements in a pebble bed reactor design can withstand 700 MWd/Kg BU. This reactor presents the possibility of attainment different neutron spectrum with different fuel element designs, presents good safety characteristics, and the possibility of replacing the fuel elements easily inside the reactor (necessary for recycling strategies.) The transmutation process can be achieved in two steps. The first one, as a critical reactor, and the second one, as a subcritical assembly driven by an accelerator. In this paper, the optimum spectrum for the 'Once Through' strategy is presented, and some safety characteristics of the subcritical assembly are introduced. (authors)

  3. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  4. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2001-05-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the department has been focused on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache). Moreover, during the reporting period the EU-project 'IABAT', co-ordinated by the department has been finished and 4 other projects have been initiated in the frame of the 5th European Framework Programme. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  5. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    Sasa, Toshinobu; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  6. Accelerator-driven transmutation reactor analysis code system (ATRAS)

    JAERI is proceeding a design study of the hybrid type minor actinide transmutation system which mainly consist of an intense proton accelerator and a fast subcritical core. Neutronics and burnup characteristics of the accelerator-driven system is important from a view point of the maintenance of subcriticality and energy balance during the system operation. To determine those characteristics accurately, it is necessary to involve reactions at high-energy region, which are not treated on ordinary reactor analysis codes. The authors developed a code system named ATRAS to analyze the neutronics and burnup characteristics of accelerator-driven subcritical reactor systems. ATRAS has a function of burnup analysis taking account of the effect of spallation neutron source. ATRAS consists of a spallation analysis code, a neutron transport codes and a burnup analysis code. Utility programs for fuel exchange, pre-processing and post-processing are also incorporated. (author)

  7. Accelerator driven systems: Energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste. Status report

    The report includes 31 individual contributions by experts from six countries and two international organizations in different areas of the accelerator driven transmutation technology intended to be applied for the treatment of highly radioactive waste and power generation. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  8. Accelerator-driven transmutation: a high-tech solution to some nuclear waste problems

    This paper discusses current technical and political issues regarding the innovative concept of using accelerator-driven transmutation processes for nuclear waste management. Two complex and related issues are addressed. First, the evolution and improvements of the design technologies are identified to indicate that there has been sufficient technological advancement with regard to a 1991 scientific peer review to warrant the advent of a large-scale national research and development program. Second, the economics and politics of the transmutation system are examined to identify non-technical barriers to the implementation of the program. Transmutation of waste has been historically viewed by nuclear engineers as one of those technologies that is too good to be true and probably too expensive to be feasible. The concept discussed in the present paper uses neutrons ( which result from protons accelerated into spallation targets)to transmute the major very long-lived hazardous materials such as the radioactive isotopes of technetium, iodine, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. Although not a new concept, accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) lead by a team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has made some significant advances which are discussed in the present paper. (authors)

  9. Parametric study of the accelerator-driven transmutation system

    A couple of parametric studies were performed for an accelerator-driven transmutation system in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). For the analysis, LAHET code system developed by LANL was employed. Molten salt fuel was adopted with its chemical composition of 64NaCl3-1Pu-35MA(Minor Actinide)Cl3. The isotope compositions of Pu and Ma were determined based on the composition in the 10-year cooled spent fuel having 3.2 W% initial enrichment and 33GWD/MTU discharge burnup. Proton beam of 20 mA, 1 GeV was assumed for the neutron production by the spallation reaction with the fuel. The fuel was designed to perform multifunction such as target, coolant. From the calculation results, one proton was believed to produce about 27 neutrons and the neutron multiplication factor was found to be 0.95 for the given system condition. For the beam of 20 mA, 1 GeV, the neutron flux reached up to 1.26x1015 n/cm2 and the corresponding total thermal power was 773 MWth. It was believed that the proposed system could transmute 502 kg of MA a year. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  10. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    Wallenius, J.; Gudowski, W.; Carlsson, Johan; Eriksson, Marcus; Tucek, K. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-12-01

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project `Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety` - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups 31 refs, 23 figs

  11. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation systems. Annual report 1998

    This annual report describes the accelerator-driven transmutation project conducted at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics at the Royal Institute of Technology. The main results are: development of the simulation tools for accelerator-driven transmutation calculations including an integrated Monte-Carlo burnup module and improvements of neutron energy fission yield simulations, processing of the evacuated nuclear data files including preparation of the temperature dependent neutron cross-sections, development of nuclear data for a medium energy range for some isotopes, development of the models and codes for radiation damage simulations, system studies for the spent fuel transmuter, based on heavy metal coolant and advanced nuclear fuel, contribution to the spallation target design being manufactured in IPPE, Obninsk, and accelerator reliability studies. Moreover a lot of efforts were put to further develop existing international collaboration with the most active research groups in the world together with educational activities in Sweden including a number of meetings and workshops and a graduate course in transmutation. This project has been conducted in close collaboration with the EU-project 'Impact of the accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety' - IABAT and in bilateral cooperation with different foreign research groups

  12. Accelerator driven systems for transmutation and energy production: challenges and dangers

    Accelerator driven systems (ADS) are an old technological idea: relativistic proton accelerators deliver their beams onto massive heavy element targets, thus producing abundant neutron fluences. Placing this target into sub-critical nuclear fission assemblies is yielding substantial fission reactions, thus additional fission energy (Rubbia called such a system ''energy amplifier''). This technology has recently attracted considerable attention due to advances in the construction of powerful accelerators. It allows the safe and cheap production of nuclear energy simultaneously with the destruction (transmutation) of long lived radioactive waste, in particular plutonium and other minor actinides (neptunium and americium). The principles and the present-state-of-the-art are described, including first experiments to transmute plutonium this way. This technology needs, however, many more years of further ''research and development'' before large scale ADS's can be constructed. It may be even necessary to investigate the question, if all basic physics phenomena of this technology are already sufficiently well understood. (orig.)

  13. Transmutation of fission products in reactors and accelerator-driven systems

    Energy flows and mass flows in several scenarios are considered. Economical and safety aspects of the transmutation scenarios are compared. It is difficult to find a sound motivation for the transmutation of fission products with accelerator-driven systems. If there would be any hesitation in transmuting fission products in nuclear reactors, there would be an even stronger hesitation to use accelerator-driven systems, mainly because of their lower energy efficiency and their poor cost effectiveness. The use of accelerator-driven systems could become a 'meaningful' option only if nuclear energy would be banished completely. (orig./HP)

  14. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  15. FZK proposal on transient benchmark in accelerator driven transmuter

    The benchmark should help to understand the behavior of a subcritical system with external source under transient conditions. It should allow to test and compare available methods and codes; include the knowledge base gained by experiments. The benchmark should be largely flexible, starting from simple configurations and transients up to comprehensive dynamics problems. It should help improving the description of transient and accident related phenomena in an ADS. General proposals on transient benchmark in accelerator driven transmuter are described. Select one or more systems to be analysed in details: solid and movable (molten salt) fuel systems; oxide, nitride, and other fuels for the solid option; Pb/I, Pb, Na coolants for the solid option; Pu+MA, LWR Pu, introduction of Th, other fuels; ADS and critical reactors; small (k-eff>0.97), very small (>0.99) or large deviations from k=1; intermediate, small, large reactor. Select types type of analyses: transient, static (reactivity coefficients, power peak factors), MA incineration rate calculations. In the transient case select: unprotected (no Control Rod, constant beam power) reactivity transients: benchmark exercise, investigation of the influence of the subcriticality level, other types of analyses. The investigation of dynamics of the ADS could be structured as short time-scale and long time-scale. Study of the ADT with dedicated fuels and cores is proposed including the safety aspects. Benchmark cores and fuels are defined. Spec-time kinetics of subcritical ADS should be recalculated. ADS/critical reactor behaviour and point kinetics should be included

  16. Accelerator-driven transmutation projects in Sweden in a European perspective

    Accelerator driven transmutation projects in Sweden are dealt with within the country's energy policy and energy plans as well as in relation to European perspectives. ADS activities at Royal Institute of Technology (RIT) and Sweden are concerned with: Conceptual design nitride fueled ADS) of Sing-Sing core (heavily 'poisoned'; Development of nitride fuel (in a EU-frame); transients of ADS; Managing nuclear data and stimulating development dedicated data libraries; Development of Monte-Carlo burnup; Design of RVACS for ADS. Besides the mentioned, this paper describes projects in fourth Framework Programme of European Union, fifth Framework Programme of EU and Experiments related to ADS

  17. The Los Alamos accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept development of the ATW target/blanket system

    The studies carried out in the frame of the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) program developed at Los Alamos in order to solve the nuclear waste problem and to build a new generation of safer and non-proliferant nuclear power plants, are presented

  18. High-current deuteron cyclotron complex as meson and neutron generator for accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) and energy production

    The research and development results are given for the Deuteron Cyclotron Complex with the final energy about 900 MeV/nucleon and average beam intensity in the milli ampere range. The complex consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole linear accelerator (RFQ-linac) and two superconducting sector cyclotrons DC-I and DC-II. The possibility of replacing a linac by a cyclotron injector with the deuteron energy 15 MeV and with 'warm' or superconducting sector magnets is discussed. A DC-II version with 10 superconducting sector magnets and 6 main and 2 flat-top radio frequency (RF) resonators is proposed. Information on the constructing of the full-scale prototype for several DC-I systems is given

  19. Assessment of the transmutation capability an accelerator driven system cooled by lead bismuth eutectic alloy

    1. PURPOSE The reduction of long-lived fission products (LLFP) and minor actinides (MA) is a key point for the public acceptability and economy of nuclear energy. In principle, any nuclear fast reactor is able to burn and transmute MA, but the amount of MA content has to be limited a few percent, having unfavourable consequences on the coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and delayed neutron fraction, and therefore on the dynamic behaviour and control. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are instead able to safely burn and/or transmute a large quantity of actinides and LLFP, as they do not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have very little importance during accidents. Such systems are very innovative being based on the coupling of an accelerator with a subcritical system by means of a target system, where the neutronic source needed to maintain the neutron reaction chain is produced by spallation reactions. To this end the PDS-XADS (Preliminary Design Studies on an experimental Accelerator Driven System) project was funded by the European Community in the 5th Framework Program in order both to demonstrate the feasibility of the coupling between an accelerator and a sub-critical core loaded with standard MOX fuel and to investigate the transmutation capability in order to achieve values suitable for an Industrial Scale Transmuter. This paper summarizes and compares the results of neutronic calculations aimed at evaluating the transmutation capability of cores cooled by Lead-Bismuth Eutectic alloy and loaded with assemblies based on (Pu, Am, Cm) oxide dispersed in a molybdenum metal (CERMET) or magnesia (CERCER) matrices. It also describes the constraints considered in the design of such cores and describes the thermo-mechanical behaviour of these innovative fuels along the cycle. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE WORK: The U-free composite fuels (CERMET and CERCER) were selected for this study, being considered at European level

  20. Transmutation of high level nuclear waste in an accelerator driven system: towards a demonstration device of industrial interest (EUROTRANS)

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6th Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of accelerator components, fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating activities of 51 participants from 16 countries, within the industry (10 participants), the national research centres (20) and 17 universities. 16 universities are collectively represented by ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network). EUROTRANS is the continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It is a five-year project which started in April 2005

  1. Development of accelerator driven transmutation system concept and related R and D activities at JAERI

    JAERI has carried out R and D on transmutation of long-lived nuclides with a special emphasis placed on accelerator-driven systems (ADS) under the Japanese OMEGA Program. The ADS is designed to be introduced as a dedicated transmutation system into the second stratum of a double-strata nuclear fuel cycle concept. Early ADS concepts employed sodium coolant and solid tungsten target. A chloride molten-salt system and a molten-alloy system were investigated as advanced options to pursue the possibility of taking full advantages of liquid fuel systems. The current reference ADS design employs eutectic lead-bismuth as spallation target material and coolant. The fuel for the subcritical core is minor-actinide mononitride. The system consists of a 1.5-GeV, 14-mA proton accelerator and an 800-MWt subcritical core with an effective neutron multiplication factor of 0.95. The design incorporates salient features that the coolant inventory is large due to the tank-type configuration, the temperature rise through the core is relatively low, and the power conversion is operated on a saturated steam turbine cycle. These features help mitigate the problems of plant transient during beam interruptions. ADS related R and D is underway in various fields such as scenario study, lead-bismuth technology development, nitride fuel and fuel cycle technology development, nuclear data development, and high-intensity accelerator development. Construction of ADS experimental facilities is planned under the JAERI-KEK Joint Project of a high-power proton accelerator. (author)

  2. Research progress for accelerator driven sub-critical Transmutation system (ADS)

    The minimization of the nuclear waste is the key problem for the long term and sustainable nuclear energy development. Accelerator driven system (ADS) is a kind of high efficient nuclear waste transmutation machine (or incinerator), which is the key technique to solve the nuclear water problem. The basic theory of ADS and driven influence of ADS and driven influence of ADS on the advanced accelerator, advanced cooling technique, etc are introduced. Mean while the present research situations of ADS in some countries are compared. At last, the key problem of the ADS development and the relationship between ADS and the development of nuclear energy in China is discussed. (authors)

  3. European research programme for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste in an accelerator-driven system: Eurotrans

    The EUROTRANS (European Research Programme for the Transmutation of High-level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator-driven System) Integrated Project within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the assessment of the design and the feasibility of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal-hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of technological feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS-based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS is integrating critical masses of resources (23 M euros contribution, 43 M euros total eligible costs) and activities of 29 partners from 14 countries, within industry (10 partners), national research centres (18 partners) and 17 universities in Europe. The universities are collectively represented by one partner, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN). EUROTRANS is the logical continuation of the three FP5 Clusters FUETRA, BASTRA and TESTRA together with the PDS-XADS Project. It takes credit from the Road-map on ADS of the Technical Working Group. EUROTRANS strengthens and consolidates the European research and development activities with regard to transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industry assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005

  4. Neutronic and burnup studies of accelerator-driven systems dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation

    Tucek, Kamil

    2004-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of plutonium, americium, and curium is inevitable if the radiotoxic inventory of spent nuclear fuel is to be reduced by more than a factor of 100. But, admixing minor actinides into the fuel severely degrades system safety parameters, particularly coolant void reactivity, Doppler effect, and (effective) delayed neutron fractions. The incineration process is therefore envisioned to be carried out in dedicated, accelerator-driven sub-critical reactors (ADS). Howev...

  5. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Abánades, A.; Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Rafael; GARCÍA FAJARDO, LAURA; Escrivá, A.; Pérez-Navarro Gómez, Ángel; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel f...

  6. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Abánades Velasco, Alberto; C. García; García, L.; Escrivá, A.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Rosales, J.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fu...

  7. Proceedings of the international symposium on acceleration-driven transmutation systems and Asia ADS network initiative

    An International Symposium on 'Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and Asia ADS Network Initiative' was held on March 24 and 25, 2003 at Gakushi-Kaikan, Tokyo, hosted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka University, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization and Tokyo Institute of Technology. The objectives of this symposium are to make participants acquainted with the current status and future plans for research and development (R and D) of ADS in the world and to enhance the initiation of an international collaborative network for ADS in Asia. This report records the papers and the materials of 15 presentations in the symposium. On the first day of the symposium, current activities for R and D of ADS were presented from United States, Europe, Japan, Korea, and China. On the second day, R and D activities in the fields of accelerator and nuclear physics were presented. After these presentations, a panel discussion was organized with regard to the prospective international collaboration and multidisciplinary synergy effect, which are essential to manage various technological issues encountered in R and D stage of ADS. Through the discussion, common understanding was promoted concerning the importance of establishing international network. It was agreed to establish the international network for scientific information exchange among Asian countries including Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam in view of the future international collaboration in R and D of ADS. (author)

  8. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  9. Transmutation of transuranium elements in a gas-cooled accelerator-driven system

    The peaceful usage of nuclear energy by light and boiling water reactors is connected with a buildup of long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Compared to the direct disposal, partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered as an effective way to reduce this waste in its quantity by converting it into short-lived radio nuclides. By that the long term radiotoxicity is reduced compared to direct disposal. Subcritical systems, which are powered by spallation processes for free neutron production to maintain the nuclear chain reaction, allow a target-oriented transmutation. As a subcritical system a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) for transmutation of transuranic elements has been modeled in this thesis to evaluate the reduction of the radio toxicity by P and T. The simulation of neutron-physical processes is based on the Monte Carlo computer program MCNPX. The development of an equilibrium core made it possible to study the transmutation and operating behavior for several fuel variations in a magnesium oxide matrix and develop a simplified burnup method. Americium as part of the fuel has a stabilizing effect on the neutron multiplication due to its conversion into plutonium during the operation. Thorium was investigated as an alternative matrix for the fuel in order to replicate the stabilizing effect of americium by the conversion of thorium in 233U. By that a consistent operating cycle in the later P and T-process is ensured. Calculation of the nuclide composition at the end of a P and T-process leads to an expansion of the mathematical description of the mass reduction (transmutation efficiency) by the material located in the reactor. The achieved transmutation efficiency with the investigated ADS is 98.8 %. The transmutation time was examined with different operating strategies regarding the number, size and thermal power of use of transmutation facilities to determine the effort for the P and T-process depending on efficiency. It turns out

  10. Accelerator-driven transmutation of plutonium and nuclear waste

    The ultimate disposition of spent reactor fuel and processed high-level nuclear waste (HLW) has been a subject of much concern and little progress since the dawn of the nuclear era. In the United States today, the spent fuel from more than 110 commercial light water reactors continues to be stored onsite while highly toxic liquid HLW continues to be stored in tanks at several U.S. Department of Energy sites. The management policy that has been followed in the United States for the past 12 yr is defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and its subsequent amendment of 1987. The NWPA requires the disposal of spent fuel assemblies in geologic waste repositories, the first of which will presumably be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The pace of the process for implementing the Yucca Mountain repository discussed in a recent General Accounting Office (GAO) assessment, remains frustratingly slow. By GAO estimation, an operational permanent waste repository at Yucca Mountain could be delayed beyond the 2020 time frame. The approach to formulating an acceptable HLW disposal strategy has always involved serious consideration of nonproliferation issues. Most recently, the nuclear weapon build-down following the Cold War has stimulated the need for the United States and Russia to dispose of surplus plutonium. Consideration of this has motivated (a) a recognition that all plutonium is a proliferation hazard and (b) a renewed debate on the best approach to dispose of plutonium in general. From an international perspective, there is little agreement on the best strategy for the ultimate disposition of HLW and plutonium. This paper discusses the concept of transmutation of plutonium

  11. Accelerator transmutation of 129I

    Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered

  12. Application of variance reduction technique to nuclear transmutation system driven by accelerator

    Sasa, Toshinobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In Japan, it is the basic policy to dispose the high level radioactive waste arising from spent nuclear fuel in stable deep strata after glass solidification. If the useful elements in the waste can be separated and utilized, resources are effectively used, and it can be expected to guarantee high economical efficiency and safety in the disposal in strata. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute proposed the hybrid type transmutation system, in which high intensity proton accelerator and subcritical fast core are combined, or the nuclear reactor which is optimized for the exclusive use for transmutation. The tungsten target, minor actinide nitride fuel transmutation system and the melted minor actinide chloride salt target fuel transmutation system are outlined. The conceptual figures of both systems are shown. As the method of analysis, Version 2.70 of Lahet Code System which was developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory in USA was adopted. In case of carrying out the analysis of accelerator-driven subcritical core in the energy range below 20 MeV, variance reduction technique must be applied. (K.I.)

  13. Accelerator driven systems (ADS): A principal neutronics and transmutation potential

    An accelerator-based system using a beam of high energy protons to produce supplementary neutrons as a result of spallation processes in a target is investigated. The spallation neutrons are successively used to feed a subcritical blanket where they create a neutron surplus available for incineration of those long-lived toxic nuclei which require neutrons (long-lived fission products and minor actinides), and enhance the deterministic safety features for reactivity-type of accidents

  14. Simulation study of an accelerator driven as a transmutation and energy generation system

    In twenty first century world is facing two issues of future concern, generation of clean energy and the protection of the environment. Oil price is soaring to a level of jeopardizing world economy and on the other hand burning fossil fuel is reaching to a point of endangering life of all creatures. The sole solution to compete the energy shortage is exploiting nuclear energy and other clean energy sources. The main concern of nuclear energy is long term radioactive waste. In principle, any nuclear reactor is able to burn and transmute minor actinides, but reactors with fast neutron spectrum must be preferred, as they allow a positive neutron gain throughout the burning process. A core dedicated to the transmutation of the minor actinides should be designed in order to minimize its self-production of actinides. A possible solution to these problems is represented by a subcritical system driven by an accelerator, which is able to safely bum and/or transmute actinides and long lived fission products, as it does not rely on delayed neutrons for control or power change and the reactivity feedbacks have only limited importance during transient response. In this study, an accelerator driven system based on Japanese design was simulated using MCNPX code to calculate neutron spectrum flux level, core sub-criticality and peaking factor

  15. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Westlen, D. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2002-03-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details.

  16. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been focused in year 2001 on: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics; c) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE (CEA-Cadarache) and YALINA experiment in Minsk. The Dept. is very actively participating in many European projects in the 5th Framework Programme of the European Community. Most of the research topics reported in this paper are referred to by appendices, which have been published in the open literature. The topics, which are not yet published, are described here in more details

  17. JAERI accelerator driven system project

    In Japan a national program called OMEGA was started in 1988 for research and development of new technologies for partitioning and transmutation of nuclear waste. Under this program JAERI is carrying out research and development for proton accelerator-driven transmutation, together with transmutation with fast burner reactor and advanced partitioning technology. Two types of accelerator driven transmutation systems are proposed: a solid system and a molten-salt system. An outline of the OMEGA program and the partitioning and transmutation studies at JAERI are presented in this report

  18. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1998/99

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started according to the plan 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Institute. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; and constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. In this document, we give a status report after the first year (1998-07-01--1999-06-30) of the project

  19. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1998/99

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research. The Svedberg Lab.

    1999-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by the Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started according to the plan 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Institute. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; and constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. In this document, we give a status report after the first year (1998-07-01--1999-06-30) of the project.

  20. Nuclear energy generation and waste transmutation using an accelerator-driven intense thermal neutron source

    We describe a new approach for commercial nuclear energy production without a long-term high-level waste stream and for transmutation of both fission product and higher actinide commercial nuclear waste using a thermal flux of accelerator-produced neutrons in the 1016 n/cm2-s range. Continuous neutron fluxes at this intensity, which is approximately 100 times larger than is typically available in a large scale thermal reactor, appear practical owing to recent advances in proton linear accelerator technology and to the spallation target-moderator design presented here. This large flux of thermal neutrons makes possible a waste inventory in the transmutation system which is smaller by about a factor of 100 than competing concepts. The accelerator allows the system to operate well below criticality so that the possibility for a criticality accident is estimated. No control rods are required. The successful implementation of this new method for energy generation and waste transmutation would eliminate the need for nuclear waste storage on a geologic time scale. The production of nuclear energy from 232Th or 238U is used to illustrate the general principles of commercial nuclear energy production without long-term high-level waste. There is sufficient thorium to meet the world's energy needs for many millenia. 27 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs

  1. Preliminary neutronics design analysis on accelerator driven subcritical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation

    By taking minor actinides (MA) transmutation performance as evaluation index, preliminary neutronics design analyses were performed on ADS-NWT which is a lead-alloy cooled accelerator driven subcritical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation. In the specific design, liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and transuranic metallic dispersion fuel were used as coolant and a fuel of ADS-NWT, respectively. The neutronics calculations and analyses were performed by using CAD-based multi-functional 4D neutronics and radiation simulation system named VisualBUS and the nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). The preliminary results showed that based on specific deign of MA/Pu volume ratio of 7 : 3, the transmutation rate of MA was approximately 650 kg/a, the high thermal reactor power output was ∼1000 MW when energy self-sustaining was satisfied and relatively deep subcriticality and negative reactivity coefficients made sure of good inherent safety of ADS-NWT. (authors)

  2. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  3. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2003

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Tucek, Kamil [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics] [and others

    2004-12-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics reported here has been focused on different aspects of safety of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems and on Transmutation research in more general terms. An overview of the topics of our research is given in the Summary which is followed by detailed reports as separate chapters or subchapters. Some of the research topics reported in this report are referred to appendices, which have been published in the open literature. Topics, which are not yet published, are described with more details in the main part of this report. Main focus has been, as before, largely determined by the programme of the European projects of the 5th Framework Programme in which KTH is actively participating. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimised for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes even computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel so called Sing-Sing Core developed at KTH; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel so called ANSALDO design for the European Project PDS-XADS; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel a design investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS. b) analysis of potential of advance fuels, in particular nitrides with high content of minor actinides; c) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; d) emergency heat removal from ADS; e) participation in ADS: MUSE (CEA-Cadarache), YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; f) theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (and/or proton) fluxes; g) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, validation of the MCB code and sensitivity analysis; h) studies of

  4. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001/2002

    Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Pomp, S.; Renberg, P.U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Neutron Research and The Svedberg Laboratory

    2002-07-01

    The present project started 1998-07-01. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish in influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research (INF)at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. Transmutation techniques in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) involve high-energy neutrons, created in the proton-induced spallation of a heavy target nucleus. The existing nuclear data libraries developed for reactors of today go up to about 20 MeV,which covers all available energies for that application; but with a spallator coupled to a core, neutrons with energies up to 1 - 2 GeV will be present. Although a large majority of the neutrons will be below 20 MeV, the relatively small fraction at higher energies still has to be characterized. Above {approx} 200 MeV, direct reaction models work reasonably well, while at lower energies nuclear distortion plays a non-trivial role. This makes the 20 - 200 MeV region the most important for new experimental cross section data. Very little high-quality neutron-induced data exist in this energy domain.Only the total cross section and the np scattering cross section have been investigated extensively. Besides this, there are data on neutron elastic scattering

  5. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual Report 2001/2002

    The present project started 1998-07-01. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students; push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation'; strengthen the Swedish in influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network; constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research (INF)at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) at Uppsala University. Transmutation techniques in accelerator-driven systems (ADS) involve high-energy neutrons, created in the proton-induced spallation of a heavy target nucleus. The existing nuclear data libraries developed for reactors of today go up to about 20 MeV,which covers all available energies for that application; but with a spallator coupled to a core, neutrons with energies up to 1 - 2 GeV will be present. Although a large majority of the neutrons will be below 20 MeV, the relatively small fraction at higher energies still has to be characterized. Above ∼ 200 MeV, direct reaction models work reasonably well, while at lower energies nuclear distortion plays a non-trivial role. This makes the 20 - 200 MeV region the most important for new experimental cross section data. Very little high-quality neutron-induced data exist in this energy domain.Only the total cross section and the np scattering cross section have been investigated extensively. Besides this, there are data on neutron elastic scattering from UC Davis at

  6. Monte Carlo studies in accelerator-driven systems for transmutation of high-level nuclear waste

    A spallation neutron source was modeled using a high energy proton accelerator. The aim of the core design is to optimise the core parameters for maximizing the minor actinides and fission products transmutation rates, which is created from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the production of electricity, while maintaining the structural material damage and decay heat as low as possible. The transmutation system is composed of a natural lead target, beam window, subcritical core, reflector, and structural material. The neutrons are produced by the spallation reaction of protons from a high intensity linear accelerator in the spallation target, and the fission reaction in the core. It is used a hexagonal lattice for the waste and fuel assemblies. The system is driven by a 1 GeV proton beam incident on a natural lead cylindrical target, 20 cm radius, 70 cm height , and entering the target through a 5.3 cm radius hole. The protons were uniformly distributed across the beam of radius 2 cm. The core is cylindrical assembly, 2.3 m radius, 4.6 m high. The wall thickness of the main vessel is 2 cm. The main vessel surrounded by a reflector made of graphite, 40 cm thick. The axes of proton beam and target are concentric with the main vessel axis. The structural walls and beam window are made of the same material, stainless steel, HT9. All dimensions of systems are results of target and core optimization that keeps most of the spallation neutrons within the lead target and transmutes the largest fraction of the long-lived waste. We investigated the following neutronics parameters with presence and absence of fissile materials: o spallation neutron and other particles such as proton, pions and muons yields (per one incident proton) from the spallation target, - spatial and energy distribution of the spallation neutrons, and protons in target, - heat deposition distribution in the spallation target, - heat deposition in beam window, core, reflector and structural

  7. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2005

    The results of the research activities on System and Safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation (ADS) at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics are described in this report followed by the Appendices of the relevant scientific papers published in 2005. PhD and Licentiate dissertations of Marcus Ericsson, Per Seltborg, Christina Lagerstedt and Daniel Westlen (see Appendices) reflect the research mainstream of 2005. Year 2005 was also very rich in international activities with ADS in focus. Summary of conferences, seminars and lecturing activities is given in Chapter 9 Research activities of 2005 have been focused on several areas: system and safety studies of ADS; subcritical experiments; ADS source efficiency studies; nuclear fuel cycle analysis; potential of reactor based transmutation; ADS fuel development; simulation of radiation damage; and development of codes and methods. Large part of the research activities has been well integrated with the European projects of the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of the European Commission in which KTH is actively participating. In particular European projects: RED-IMPACT, CONFIRM, FUTURE, EUROTRANS and NURESIM

  8. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation Annual Report 2005

    Gudowski, Waclaw; Wallenius, Jan; Arzhanov, Vasily; Jolkkonen, Mikael; Eriksson, Marcus; Seltborg, Per; Westlen, Daniel; Lagerstedt, Christina; Isaksson, Patrick; Persson, Carl-Magnus; Aalander, Alexandra [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2006-11-15

    The results of the research activities on System and Safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation (ADS) at the Department of Nuclear and Reactor Physics are described in this report followed by the Appendices of the relevant scientific papers published in 2005. PhD and Licentiate dissertations of Marcus Ericsson, Per Seltborg, Christina Lagerstedt and Daniel Westlen (see Appendices) reflect the research mainstream of 2005. Year 2005 was also very rich in international activities with ADS in focus. Summary of conferences, seminars and lecturing activities is given in Chapter 9 Research activities of 2005 have been focused on several areas: system and safety studies of ADS; subcritical experiments; ADS source efficiency studies; nuclear fuel cycle analysis; potential of reactor based transmutation; ADS fuel development; simulation of radiation damage; and development of codes and methods. Large part of the research activities has been well integrated with the European projects of the 5th and 6th Framework Programmes of the European Commission in which KTH is actively participating. In particular European projects: RED-IMPACT, CONFIRM, FUTURE, EUROTRANS and NURESIM.

  9. Transmutation of neptunium, americium, technetium, and iodine in fast spectrum cores driven by accelerated protons

    A neutronic analysis is presented of three incinerator subcritical lattices, driven by accelerated protons and designed to transmute the minor actinides, the 99Tc and the 129I, of light water reactor (LWR) waste. A calculational methodology must first be established to enable a neutronic burnup analysis of fission cores driven by high-energy protons. The methodology is based on the following codes: HERMES, the Forschungszentrum Juelich adaptation of HETC, for high-energy interactions; MCNP3, for neutron interactions below 20 MeV of neutron energy; and KORIGEN, the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe adaptation of ORIGEN, for burnup analysis. A result of applying the methodology is that the minor actinides, the 99Tc, and the 129I, of LWR waste may be transmuted in subcritical cores, driven by the spallation neutrons emanating from the bombardment of the cores with 1600-MeV protons. Three cores types are required. Core type 1 is fueled by the minor actinides and is a modification of the Brookhaven National Laboratory PHOENIX. With a proton current of 20 mA, the core incinerates the minor actinide waste of 14 LWRs. Core type 2 contains the 99Tc, 129I, and plutonium waste of 19 LWRs. With a proton beam of 130 mA, the core incinerates the technetium and 60% of the iodine. With a faction of the plutonium coming out of this core, the remaining 40% of 129I is incinerated in core type 3. All three cores run to 100,000 MWd/tonne or slightly higher; on the average, no core is a net consumer of grid electricity; all are cooled by sodium but remain subcritical with the loss of coolant

  10. Accelerator for nuclear transmutation

    A review on nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes using particle accelerators is given. Technical feasibility, nuclear data, costs of various projects are discussed. It appears that one high energy accelerator (1500 MeV, 300 mA proton) could probably handle the amount of actinides generated by the actual French nuclear program

  11. Technology of magnetically driven accelerators

    The marriage of Induction Linac technology with Nonlinear Magnetic Modulators has produced some unique capabilities. It appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, at gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, and with power efficiencies approaching 50%. A 2 MeV, 5 kA electron accelerator has been constructed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to demonstrate these concepts and to provide a test facility for high brightness sources. The pulse drive for the accelerator is based on state-of-the-art magnetic pulse compressors with very high peak power capability, repetition rates exceeding a kilohertz and excellent reliability. 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Nuclear Waste Transmutation in Subcritical Reactors Driven by Target-Distributed Accelerators

    Blanovsky, A

    2004-01-01

    A radioactive waste transmutation system based extensively on existing nuclear power technology is presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform long-lived waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors. The design is based on a small pressurized water reactor, fission electric cell (FEC), target-distributed accelerator (TDA) and power monitoring system with in-core gamma-ray detectors, now under development in several countries. The TDA, in which an FEC electric field compensates for lost beam energy in the target, offers a new approach to obtain large neutron fluxes. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of TDA design aspects including the wave model of observed relativistic phenomena, in-core microwave power source, the FEC with a multistage collector (anode) and layered cathode.

  13. Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes

    A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MWe. 19 refs., 20 figs

  14. Special scientific programme on use of high energy accelerators for transmutation of actinides and power production

    Various techniques for the transmutation of radioactive waste through the use of high energy accelerators are reviewed and discussed. In particular, the present publication contains presentations on (i) requirements and the technical possibilities for the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides (background paper); (ii) high energy particle accelerators for bulk transformation of elements and energy generation; (iii) the resolution of nuclear energy issues using accelerator-driven technology; (iv) the use of proton accelerators for the transmutation of actinides and power production; (v) the coupling of an accelerator to a subcritical fission reactor (with a view on its potential impact on waste transmutation); (vi) research and development of accelerator-based transmutation technology at JAERI (Japan); and (vii) questions and problems with regard to accelerator-driven nuclear power and transmutation facilities. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and transmutation of nuclear waste: Options and trends

    The scope of the lecture is to present: 1) the rationale for transmutation, 2) the principle of ADS (spallation source, sub-critical blanket), 3) an overview of the main concepts being investigated and the ongoing R and D activities in this area, 4) development trends for this technology. (author)

  16. Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators

    Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required

  17. Status of Accelerator Driven Systems Research and Technology Development

    One of the greatest challenges for nuclear energy is how to properly manage the highly radioactive waste generated during irradiation in nuclear reactors. In order for nuclear power to exploit its full potential as a major sustainable energy source, there needs to be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Since 1995, several scenario studies have been conducted on different advanced nuclear fuel cycle and waste management options in various countries. Examples include the collaborative projects under “Global sustainable nuclear energy scenarios for long term development and deployment of nuclear energy” of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) initiative, and the scenario studies conducted under the auspices of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the Euratom research project PATEROS — Partitioning and Transmutation European Roadmap for Sustainable Nuclear Energy. Some of the proposed long term nuclear fuel cycles include an innovative concept of a hybrid system for the transmutation of long lived radioisotopes. This is usually the called accelerator driven system (ADS) — or accelerator driven transmutation of waste (ATW) — and consists of a high power proton accelerator, a heavy metal spallation target that produces neutrons when bombarded by the high power beam, and a subcritical core that is neutronically coupled to the spallation target. The ADS, which has been developed in different countries for more than 40 years, is claimed to offer new prospects and advantages for the transmutation of high level radioactive waste. The ADS would convert highly radioactive material to non-radioactive material or material with a much shorter half-life. In addition, these hybrid systems can generate electricity during the conversion of transuranic waste. In 1997, under the guidance of its Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA published IAEA-TECDOC-985, Accelerator Driven Systems: Energy

  18. Chemical separations technologies for the US accelerator transmutation of waste programme

    Management of the spent nuclear fuel generated by the operating commercial reactors in the United States is entering a new phase because it is clear that the continued rate of accumulation of spent fuel is such that the spent fuel inventory will soon exceed the legislated capacity of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository. An integrated chemical separations system has been conceived for the partitioning of this fuel preparatory to transmutation of transuranic elements and long-lived fission products in an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor. A hybrid aqueous/pyrochemical separations system is being developed, with the initial separation done with an aqueous solvent extraction process called UREX. The UREX process extracts uranium, technetium and iodine and directs the transuranic elements and other fission products to the liquid waste stream. The uranium is sufficiently pure that it can be disposed as a low-level waste, while the technetium and iodine are converted into targets for transmutation to stable isotopes. The liquid waste stream containing the transuranics is converted to solid oxide form and the transuranics are separated from the fission products by electrorefining after having been converted to the metallic state. Demonstrations of the process with actual LWR spent fuel are in progress. (author)

  19. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Eriksson, Marcus; Carlsson, Johan; Seltborg, P.; Cetnar, J.; Chakarova, R.; Jollkonen, Mikael; Westlen, D. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    2003-06-01

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been largely determined by the program of the European projects of the the 5th Framework Programme. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimized for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel - so called Sing-Sing Core; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel - both designs investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; c) emergency heat removal from ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE, YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; e) material studies for ADS, in particular theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (or proton) fluxes; f) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, special efforts were put in the frame of the European Project PDS-XADS to perform sensitivity studies of the different nuclear data libraries; g) studies of transmutation potential of critical reactors in particular High Temp Gas Cooled Reactor. Most important finding and conclusions from our studies: A strong positive void coefficient was found for lead/bismuth cooled cores. This considerable void effect is attributed to a high fraction of americium (60%) in the fuel. It was found that void reactivity insertion rates increases with P/D; in response to the beam overpower accident the Pb/Bi-cooled core featured the twice longer grace time compared to the sodium-cooled core; an important safety issue is the high void worth that could

  20. System and safety studies of accelerator driven transmutation. Annual Report 2002

    The research on safety of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Systems (ADS) at the Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics has been largely determined by the program of the European projects of the the 5th Framework Programme. In particular: a) ADS core design and development of advanced nuclear fuel optimized for high transmutation rates and good safety features. This activity includes computer modeling of nuclear fuel production. Three different ADS-core concept are being investigated: Conceptual design of Pb-Bi cooled core with nitride fuel - so called Sing-Sing Core; Pb-Bi cooled core with oxide fuel; Gas cooled core with oxide fuel - both designs investigated for the European Project PDS-XADS; b) analysis of ADS-dynamics and assessment of major reactivity feedbacks; c) emergency heat removal from ADS; d) participation in ADS experiments including 1 MW spallation target manufacturing, subcritical experiments MUSE, YALINA subcritical experiment in Minsk and designing of the subcritical experiment SAD in Dubna; e) material studies for ADS, in particular theoretical and simulation studies of radiation damage in high neutron (or proton) fluxes; f) computer code and nuclear data development relevant for simulation and optimization of ADS, special efforts were put in the frame of the European Project PDS-XADS to perform sensitivity studies of the different nuclear data libraries; g) studies of transmutation potential of critical reactors in particular High Temp Gas Cooled Reactor. Most important finding and conclusions from our studies: A strong positive void coefficient was found for lead/bismuth cooled cores. This considerable void effect is attributed to a high fraction of americium (60%) in the fuel. It was found that void reactivity insertion rates increases with P/D; in response to the beam overpower accident the Pb/Bi-cooled core featured the twice longer grace time compared to the sodium-cooled core; an important safety issue is the high void worth that could

  1. Towards standardized calculation tools for the Accelerator-Driven Systems and their application to various scenarios for nuclear waste transmutation

    This thesis discusses the question of partitioning and transmutation of actinides and some long-lived fission products as a way of reducing the mass and radio-toxicity of wastes from nuclear power facilities. Numerical benchmarking and computational exercises carried out in related projects are discussed and the quantitative assessment of the advantages and drawbacks of various transmutation strategies are discussed, as is the role of Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) and Advanced Fast Reactors (FR) in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. According to the author, the study allows three main options in nuclear waste management - open cycle, plutonium recycling and the recycling of all actinides - to be compared. The last part of the dissertation is dedicated to two phase-out schemes employing either ASDs or critical reactors

  2. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  3. Study of particle transport in a high power spallation target for an accelerator-driven transmutation system

    Shetty, Nikhil Vittal

    2013-01-31

    AGATE is a project envisaged to demonstrate the feasibility of transmutation in a gas (helium) cooled accelerator-driven system using solid spallation target. Development of the spallation target module and assessing its safety aspects are studied in this work. According to the AGATE concept parameters, 600 MeV protons are delivered on to the segmented tungsten spallation target. The Monte Carlo toolkit Geant4 has been used in the simulation of particle transport. Binary cascade is used to simulate intra-nuclear cascades, along with the G4NDL neutron data library for low energy neutrons (<20 MeV).

  4. The JAERI-KEK joint project on high intensity proton accelerator and overview of nuclear transmutation experimental facilities

    A status of the JAERI/KEK joint project on High Intensity Proton Accelerator is overviewed. It is highlighted that Experimental facilities for development of the accelerator driven system (ADS) for nuclear transmutation technology is proposed under the project. (author)

  5. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system

  6. Assessment of General Atomics accelerator transmutation of waste concept based on gas-turbine-modular helium cooled reactor technology

    An assessment has been performed for an Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept based on the use of the high temperature gas reactor technology. The concept has been proposed by General Atomics for the ATW system. The assessment was jointly conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos national laboratory to assess and to define the potential candidates for the ATW system. This report represents the assessment work performed at ANL. The concept uses recycled light water reactor (LWR)-discharge-transuranic extracted from irradiated oxide fuel in a critical and sub-critical accelerator driven gas-cooled transmuter. In this concept, the transmuter operates at 600 MWt first in the critical mode for three cycles and then operates in a subcritical accelerator-driven mode for a single cycle. The transmuter contains both thermal and fast spectrum transmutation zones. The thermal zone is fueled with the TRU oxide material in the form of coated particles, which are mixed with graphite powder, packed into cylindrical compacts, and loaded in hexagonal graphite blocks with cylindrical channels; the fast zone is fueled with TRU-oxide material in the form of coated particles without the graphite powder and the graphite blocks that has been burned in the thermal region for three critical cycles and one additional accelerator-driven cycle. The fuel loaded into the fast zone is irradiated for four additional cycles. This fuel management scheme is intended to achieve a high Pu isotopes consumption in the thermal spectrum zone, and to consume the minor actinides in the fast-spectrum zone. Monte Carlo and deterministic codes have been used to assess the system performance and to determine the feasibility of achieving high TRU consumption levels. The studies revealed the potential for high consumption of Pu-239 (97%), total Pu (71%) and total TRU (64%) in the system. The analyses confirmed the need for burnable absorber for both suppressing the initial excess

  7. Scientific-technical problems on creation of accelerator driven systems for transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste and simultaneously for production of energy (Russian experience)

    The scientific base of nuclear transmutation for long-lived radioactive waste of atomic industry with application of Accelerator Driven system is considered in current review. The problems on creation of facilities of such kind were analysed. The results of conceptual investigations for different versions of Accelerator Driven system carried out in Russian nuclear centres are presented. The main directions of research and development on grounding of installation's design and creation of demonstration facility are considered

  8. Summary: 'A roadmap for developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology'. A report to Congress

    The U.S. Congressional Conference Report accompanying the Fiscal Year 1999 Energy and Water Development Appropriation Act directed the U.S. Department of Energy, through its Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to conduct a study of accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW). It was transmitted to the U.S. Congress on November 1, 1999. The Report to Congress made it clear that the U.S. Administration, in transmitting the report, was not taking a position either way on those recommendations. If an ATW program were to be undertaken in the U.S., the pace and funding would have to be evaluated and planned in light of the currently unproven technologies involved, the potential benefits, and overall Government budget priorities. (author)

  9. Transmutation Technology Development

    Song, T. Y.; Park, W. S.; Kim, Y. H. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The spent fuel coming from the PWR is one of the most difficult problems to be solved for the continuous use of nuclear power. It takes a few million years to be safe under the ground. Therefore, it is not easy to take care of the spent fuel for such a long time. Transmutation technology is the key technology which can solve the spent fuel problem basically. Transmutation is to transmute long-lived radioactive nuclides in the spent fuel into short-lived or stable nuclide through nuclear reactions. The long-lived radioactive nuclides can be TRU and fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129. Although the transmutation technology does not make the underground disposal totally unnecessary, the period to take care of the spent fuel can be reduced to the order of a few hundred years. In addition to the environmental benefit, transmutation can be considered to recycle the energy in the spent fuel since the transmutation is performed through nuclear fission reaction of the TRU in the spent fuel. Therefore, transmutation technology is worth being developed in economical aspect. The results of this work can be a basis for the next stage research. The objective of the third stage research was to complete the core conceptual design and verification of the key technologies. The final results will contribute to the establishment of Korean back end fuel cycle policy by providing technical guidelines.

  10. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility

  11. Accelerator-Driven System with Current Technology

    Lee, Hee Seok; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    World needs a safer and cleaner nuclear power plant. A nuclear power plant that will not cause a disaster and that will produce radiotoxic nuclear waste as small as possible. At the moment, the closest system is the accelerator driven system (ADS) making use of the Thorium fuel. First of all, it is safer in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. And, there won't be a Fukushima-like accident, because this Thorium ADS reactor uses air cooling. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of ADS was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty of accelerator. The accelerator-based system needs 0.6-1 GeV and at least a few MW power proton beam, which is an unprecedentedly high power. The most powerful 1 GeV proton linear accelerator is the Spallation Neutron Source, USA, which operates now at the power of 1.5 MW with the length of 350 m. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. Another difficulty is reliability of accelerator operation. To be used as a power plant facility, accelerator should obviously operate such that the power plant may continuously generate electricity at least for months with no interruption. However, the reality is that a high power proton accelerator is hardly operated even a few hours without interruption, although very short interruptions are tolerable. Anyway, it will take a time to develop an accelerator sufficiently reliable to be used for power generation. Now the question is if it is possible to realize ADS with the current level of accelerator technology. This paper seeks the possibility.

  12. Review of national accelerator driven system programmes for partitioning and transmutation. Proceedings of an advisory group meeting

    One of the current important issues of nuclear power is the long lived radioactive waste toxicity problem. The sharpness of this problem could be considerably reduced if, during energy production, there was the possibility to incinerate at least the most toxic radioactive isotopes (long lived fission products and minor actinides). The combination of external intensive neutron sources with facilities containing nuclear fuel, so-called hybrid systems, are under investigation in several countries. The surplus of neutrons in such systems may be used to convert most of the long lived radioactive nuclides into isotopes having a shorter lifetime. Currently, an increasing number of groups are entering this field of research. There is clearly a need for co-originated their efforts, and also for the exchange of information from nationally or internationally co-ordinated activities. Consideration of the advantages of hybrid systems, and the wide field of interdisciplinary areas of research involved, show the need for an international co-operation in this novel R and D area. The International Atomic Energy Agency has maintained an active interest in advanced nuclear technology related to accelerator driven systems (ADS), and related activities have been carried out within the framework of its programme on emerging nuclear energy systems. After thorough analyses of the outcomes of several international forums and recommendations of the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation (Madrid, Spain, 1997), the IAEA conducted an Advisory Group Meeting on Review of National Accelerator Driven System Programmes in Taejon, Republic of Korea, from 1 to 4 November 1999. The scope of the meeting included review of the current R and D programmes in the Member States and the assessment of the progress in the development of hybrid concepts. The programme of the AGM included the following topics

  13. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. The impact of the core configuration on safety and transmutation behavior in an accelerator driven system; Auswirkung der Brennstoffwahl auf das Transmutationsverhalten in einem beschleunigergetriebenen System

    Biss, K.; Nabbi, R.; Thomauske, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearen Brennstoffkreislauf (INBK)

    2012-11-01

    For the reduction of the long-term hazards of high-level wastes transmutation is one of the candidate techniques. For an effective conversion of transuranic elements, esp. minor actinides, the use of accelerator driven systems (ADS) is the favored concept. The subcritical system AGATE (advanced gas-cooled accelerator driven transmutation experiment)is a 100 MW(th) facility using a proton beam to produce the required spallation neutrons. The fuel zone includes 120 uniform fuel elements with hexagonal structure (each one with 91 fuel rods) in an annular configuration around the spallation target. Neutron flux and energy spectra are determined and averaged for each zone allowing a fast calculation of fuel element variants and geometry variations. For modeling the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.7 is used. The transmutation rate for pure PuMA fuel show high values for americium, but the isotope analysis shows that the largest fraction is transmuted to plutonium. The use of thorium as matrix material reduces the transmutation rate of transuranic elements but allows a long-term burnup cycle without required fuel element replacement.

  15. Advances in conceptual design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    The possibilities of a nuclear energy development are considerably increasing with the world energetic demand increment. However, the management of nuclear waste from conventional nuclear power plants and its inventory minimization are the most important issues that should be addressed. Fast reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are the main options to reduce the long-lived radioactive waste inventory. Pebble Bed Very High Temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy development challenges. The conceptual design of a Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Applications (TADSEA) has been made in preliminary studies. The TADSEA is an ADS cooled by helium and moderated by graphite that uses as fuel small amounts of transuranic elements in the form of TRISO particles, confined in 3 cm radius graphite pebbles forming a pebble bed configuration. It would be used for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production. In this paper, the results of a method for calculating the number of whole pebbles fitting in a volume according to its size are showed. From these results, the packing fraction influence on the TADSEAs main work parameters is studied. In addition, a redesign of the previous configuration, according to the established conditions in the preliminary design, i.e. the exit thermal power, is made. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of the TRISO particles inside the pebbles can not be negligible. In this paper, a study of the power density distribution inside the pebbles by means of a detailed simulation of the TRISO fuel particles and using an homogeneous composition of the fuel is addressed. (author)

  16. Performances on actinide transmutation based accelerator-driven systems (ADS) at CIEMAT

    The FACET group at CIEMAT is studying the properties and potentialities of several liquid metal-cooled ADS designs for actinide and fission product transmutation. The main characteristics of these systems are the use of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic as primary coolant and moderator and fuels made by transuranics. The program has two main research lines. The first one is dedicated to the development of concepts, designs, operation models and computer simulation tools characteristics of this kind of systems. The second line includes the participation and the data analysis of the most advanced experiments in the field and international benchmarks. (authors)

  17. Design Study of Full Scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS, for Transmuting High Level Waste of MA/Pu

    Marsodi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ADS system used in this study consisting of a high intensity proton linear accelerator, a spallation target, and a sub-critical reactor core. The Pb-Bi spallation target is bombarded by high intensity protons coming from the accelerator. The fast neutrons generated from the spallation reaction were used to drive the sub-critical reactor core. In this ADS system, the neutron source is in the center of reactor core region, so that the neutron distribution was concentrated in the center of core region. In this case, the B/T of MA/Pu could be performed effectively in the center of core region. The neutron energy in the outer region of reactor core was decreased due to the moderation of fuel and coolant materials. Such condition gives a chance to perform Burning and/or Transmutation of LLFPs.The basic parameters of this system are shown in the form of neutronic design, neutron spectrum and B/T rate, including other aspects related to the safety operation system. Furthermore, the analysis of the ADS system was accomplished using ATRAS computer code of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, JAERI[1]. Due to the complexity of the reactor calculation codes, the author has carried out only those calculations needed for analyzing the neutronics system and some parameters related to the safety system. Design study of the transmutation system was a full-scale power level system of 657.53 MWt sub-critical reactor for an accelerator-driven transmutation system. The liquid Pb-Bi was used together as the spallation target materials and coolant of the system, because of some advantages of Pb-Bi in the system concerning the comparison with the sodium coolant. Moreover, they have a possibility to achieve a hard neutron energy spectrum, avoid a positive void reactivity coefficient, allow much lower system operating temperatures, and are favorable for safety in the event of coolant leakage. The multiplication factor of sub-critical core design was adjusted

  18. Reliability studies of a high-power proton accelerator for accelerator-driven system applications for nuclear waste transmutation

    The main effort of the present study is to analyze the availability and reliability of a high-performance linac (linear accelerator) conceived for Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) purpose and to suggest recommendations, in order both to meet the high operability goals and to satisfy the safety requirements dictated by the reactor system. Reliability Block Diagrams (RBD) approach has been considered for system modelling, according to the present level of definition of the design: component failure modes are assessed in terms of Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) and Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), reliability and availability figures are derived, applying the current reliability algorithms. The lack of a well-established component database has been pointed out as the main issue related to the accelerator reliability assessment. The results, affected by the conservative character of the study, show a high margin for the improvement in terms of accelerator reliability and availability figures prediction. The paper outlines the viable path towards the accelerator reliability and availability enhancement process and delineates the most proper strategies. The improvement in the reliability characteristics along this path is shown as well

  19. Perspectives of partitioning and transmutation technology

    When we explore the sustainable utilization of nuclear power, reasonable and environmentally preferable waste management is indispensable. The Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) technology has been studied in many countries aiming at reduction of the burden for disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This technology, coupled with the geological disposal, is now regarded as a part of advanced fuel cycle, and hence various research and development (R and D) are under way. As for the partitioning process of spent fuel, various innovative extractants and methods are being studied and proposed to separate actinide and lanthanide from other fission product (FP), to separate minor actinide (MA) from lanthanide, and so on. As for the transmutation of long-lived nuclides, various types of system, such as MA loading (both homogeneous and heterogeneous concepts) to a fast reactor (FR) and dedicated transmutation of MA in an accelerator-driven system (ADS), are being studied and proposed, and respective types of MA-bearing fuel are being investigated. One of problems to proceed with R and D on this technology is in the difficulty to provide and handle a certain amount of MA. To overcome this point, international collaboration to make use of facilities and MA resources is desirable. (author)

  20. Assessment of americium and curium transmutation in magnesia based targets in different spectral zones of an experimental accelerator driven system

    Haeck, W.; Malambu, E.; Sobolev, V. P.; Aït Abderrahim, H.

    2006-06-01

    The potential to incinerate minor actinides (MA) in a sub-critical accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a subject of study in several countries where nuclear power plants are present. The performance of the MYRRHA experimental ADS, as to the transmutation of Am and Cm in the inert matrix fuel (IMF) samples consisting of 40 vol.% (Cm0.1Am0.5Pu0.4)O1.88 fuel and 60 vol.% MgO matrix with a density of 6.077 g cm-3 in three various spectrum regions, were analysed at the belgian nuclear research centre SCK · CEN. The irradiation period of 810 effective full power days (EFPD) followed by a storage period of 2 years was considered. The ALEPH code system currently under development at SCK · CEN was used to carry out this study. The total amount of MA is shown to decrease in all three considered cases. For Am, the decrease is the largest in the reflector (89% decrease) but at the cost of a net Cm production (92% increase). In the two other positions (inside the core region), 20-30% of Am has disappeared but with a lower production of Cm (between 7% and 11%). In the reflector, a significant build-up of long-lived 245Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm and 248Cm was also observed while the production of these isotopes is 10-1000 times smaller in the core. The reduction of the Pu content is also the highest in the reflector position (41%). In the other positions the incinerated amount of Pu is much smaller: 1-5%.

  1. System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation Driven by Target-Distributed Accelerators

    Blanovsky, A

    2004-01-01

    A design concept and characteristics for an epithermal breeder controlled by variable feedback and external neutron source intensity are presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could improve safety and perform radioactive waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors (HFSR). To increase neutron source intensity the HFSR is divided into two zones: a booster and a blanket operating with solid and liquid fuels. Use of a liquid actinide fuel permits transport of the delayed-neutron emitters from the blanket to the booster where they can provide additional neutrons or all the necessary excitation. With blanket and booster multiplication factors of k=0.95 and 0.98, respectively, an external photoneutron source rate of at least 10.sup.15 n/s (electron beam power 2.5MW) is needed to control the HFSR that produces 300MWt. An inexpensive method of obtaining large neutron fluxes is target-distributed accelerators (TDA), in which a fission electrical cell (FEC) compensates for lost beam energy...

  2. Selection of flowing liquid lead target structural materials for accelerator driven transmutation applications

    The beam entry window and container for a liquid lead spallation target will be exposed to high fluxes of protons and neutrons that are both higher in magnitude and energy than have been experienced in proton accelerators and fission reactors, as well as in a corrosive environment. The structural material of the target should have a good compatibility with liquid lead, a sufficient mechanical strength at elevated temperatures, a good performance under an intense irradiation environment, and a low neutron absorption cross section; these factors have been used to rank the applicability of a wide range of materials for structural containment Nb-1Zr has been selected for use as the structural container for the LANL ABC/ATW molten lead target. Corrosion and mass transfer behavior for various candidate structural materials in liquid lead are reviewed, together with the beneficial effects of inhibitors and various coatings to protect substrate against liquid lead corrosion. Mechanical properties of some candidate materials at elevated temperatures and the property changes resulting from 800 MeV proton irradiation are also reviewed

  3. Requirements for an evaluated nuclear data file for accelerator-based transmutation

    The importance of intermediate-energy nuclear data files as part of a global calculation scheme for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste systems (for instance with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor) is discussed. A proposal for three intermediate-energy data libraries for incident neutrons and protons is presented: - a data library from 0 to about 100 MeV (first priority), - a reference data library from 20 to 1500 MeV, - an activation/transmutation library from 0 to about 100 MeV. Furthermore, the proposed ENDF-6 structure of each library is given. The data needs for accelerator-based transmutation are translated in terms of the aforementioned intermediate-energy data libraries. This could be a starting point for an ''International Evaluated Nuclear Data File for Transmutation''. This library could also be of interest for other applications in science and technology. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations concerning future evaluation work are given. (orig.)

  4. Transmutation calculations for the accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program

    The disposal of radioactive waste by the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides is being considered; now using neutrons produced with an intense beam of 1.6-GeV protons on a Pb-Bi target. Study teams have been active in the areas of accelerator design, beam transport, radiation transport, transmutation, fluid flow and heat transfer, process chemistry and system analyses. Work is of a preliminary and developmental nature. Here we describe these preliminary efforts in transmutation calculations; the tools developed, status of basic nuclear data, and some early results. These calculations require the description of the intensity and spectrum of neutrons produced by the beam, the distribution of nuclides produced in the medium-energy reactions, the transport of particles produced by the beam, the transmutation of the target materials and transmutation products, and the decay properties of the inventory of radionuclides produced

  5. Redesign of a pilot international online course on accelerator driven systems for nuclear transmutation to implement a massive open online course

    Alonso-Ramos, M.; Fernandez-Luna, A. J.; Gonzalez-Romero, E. M.; Sanchez-Elvira, A.; Castro, M.; Ogando, F.; Sanz, J.; Martin, S.

    2014-07-01

    In April 2013, a full-distance international pilot course on ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) for advanced nuclear waste transmutation was taught by UNED-CIEMAT within FP7 ENEN-III project. The experience ran with 10 trainees from the project, using UNED virtual learning platform a LF. Video classes, web-conferences and recorded simulations of case studies were the main learning materials. Asynchronous and synchronous communication tools were used for tutoring purposes, and a final examination for online submission and a final survey were included. (Author)

  6. Redesign of a pilot international online course on accelerator driven systems for nuclear transmutation to implement a massive open online course

    In April 2013, a full-distance international pilot course on ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems) for advanced nuclear waste transmutation was taught by UNED-CIEMAT within FP7 ENEN-III project. The experience ran with 10 trainees from the project, using UNED virtual learning platform a LF. Video classes, web-conferences and recorded simulations of case studies were the main learning materials. Asynchronous and synchronous communication tools were used for tutoring purposes, and a final examination for online submission and a final survey were included. (Author)

  7. Laser-driven photo-transmutation of 129I - a long-lived nuclear waste product

    Intense laser-plasma interactions produce high brightness beams of gamma rays, neutrons and ions and have the potential to deliver accelerating gradients more than 1000 times higher than conventional accelerator technology, and on a tabletop scale. This paper demonstrates one of the exciting applications of this technology, namely for transmutation studies of long-lived radioactive waste. We report the laser-driven photo-transmutation of long-lived 129I with a half-life of 15.7 million years to 128I with a half-life of 25 min. In addition, an integrated cross-section of 97 ± 40 mbarns for the reaction 129I(γ, n)128I is determined from the measured ratio of the (γ, n) induced 128I and 126I activities. The potential for affordable, easy to shield, tabletop laser technology for nuclear transmutation studies is highlighted. (rapid communication)

  8. 12th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion. Conference on Alternative Power from Space (APFS),Conference on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies and Applications (A-DTTA)

    Mohamed, S.E. [ed.] [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 12th symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion held in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The symposium theme was ``commercialization and technology transfer``. The topics discussed include: wireless power transmission, solar power from space next generation spacecraft, space power electronics and power management, flight testing of components, manufacturing and processing of materials, nuclear propulsion, reactors and shielding and many others of interest to the scientific community representing industry, government and academic institutions. There were 163 papers presented at the conference and 60 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database. (AIP)

  9. 12th Symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion. Conference on Alternative Power from Space (APFS),Conference on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies and Applications (A-DTTA)

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 12th symposium on Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion held in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The symposium theme was ''commercialization and technology transfer''. The topics discussed include: wireless power transmission, solar power from space next generation spacecraft, space power electronics and power management, flight testing of components, manufacturing and processing of materials, nuclear propulsion, reactors and shielding and many others of interest to the scientific community representing industry, government and academic institutions. There were 163 papers presented at the conference and 60 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  10. Comparative study of accelerator driven system (ADS) of different transmutation scenarios for actinides in advanced nuclear fuel cycles

    The full text follows. In recent years transmutation has raised as a complementary option to solve the problem of the long-lived radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants. The main advantages expected from transmutation are the reduction in volume of the high level waste and a significant decrease in the long-term radiotoxicity inventory, with a probable impact in the final costs and potential risks of the geological repository. This paper will describe the evaluation of different systems proposed for actinide transmutation, their integration in the waste management process, their viability, performances and limitations. Particular attention is taking of comparing transmutation scenarios where the actinides are transmuted inside fertile (U, Th) or inert matrix. This study has been supported by ENRESA inside the CIEMAT-ENRESA collaboration for the study of long-lived isotope transmutation. (authors)

  11. Assessment of reference structural materials, heavy liquid metal technology and thermal-hydraulics for European waste transmutation ADS

    The R and D program, named DEMETRA (DEvelopment and assessment of structural materials and heavy liquid MEtal technology for TRAnsmutation systems) program is a domain of the integrated EU project EUROpean Research Program for the TRANSmutation of High-Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS). DEMETRA has been fully defined on the basis of the design needs for the European Accelerator Driven System devoted to the transmutation of spent nuclear waste. The subjects addressed in DEMETRA are materials assessment, chemical-physical characterization of the LBE, technologies and thermal-hydraulics. (author)

  12. On fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation

    Aagren, O (Uppsala Univ., Aangstroem laboratory, div. of electricity, Uppsala (Sweden)); Moiseenko, V.E. (Inst. of Plasma Physics, National Science Center, Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)); Noack, K. (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany))

    2008-10-15

    This report gives a brief description of ongoing activities on fusion driven systems (FDS) for transmutation of the long-lived radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear waste from fission reactors. Driven subcritical systems appears to be the only option for efficient minor actinide burning. Driven systems offer a possibility to increase reactor safety margins. A comparatively simple fusion device could be sufficient for a fusion-fission machine, and transmutation may become the first industrial application of fusion. Some alternative schemes to create strong fusion neutron fluxes are presented

  13. The U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste program

    A national project to develop a future capability to separate actinides and long-lived fission products from spent fuel, to transmute them, and to dispose off the remaining waste in optimal waste forms has begun in the United States. This project is based on the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program developed during the 1990s at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and has its technological roots in several technologies that have been developed by the multi-mission laboratories of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In the Fiscal Year 1999 Energy and Water Appropriation Act, the U.S. Congress directed the DOE to study ATW and by the end of FY99 to prepare a 'roadmap' for developing this technology. DOE convened a steering committee, assembled four technical working groups consisting of members from many national laboratories, and consulted with several individual international and national experts. The finished product, 'A Roadmap for Developing ATW Technology - A Report to Congress', recommends a five-year, $281 M, science-based, technical-risk-reduction program. This paper provides an overview of the U.S. Roadmap for developing ATW technology, the organization of the national ATW Project, the critical issues in subsystems and technological options, deployment scenarios, institutional challenges, and academic and international collaboration

  14. EC-FP7 ARCAS: technical and economical comparison of Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems for transmutation of Minor Actinides

    The ARCAS project aims to compare, on a technological and economical basis, Accelerator Driven Systems and Fast Reactors as Minor Actinide burners. It is split in five work packages: the reference scenario definition, the fast reactor system definition, the accelerator driven system definition, the fuel reprocessing and fabrication facilities definition and the economical comparison. This paper summarizes the status of the project and its five work packages. (author)

  15. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD and D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years

  16. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  17. Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems. Second International Workshop Proceedings, Nantes, France, 21-23 May 2013

    The accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a potential transmutation system option as part of partitioning and transmutation strategies for radioactive waste in advanced nuclear fuel cycles. Following the success of the workshop series on the utilisation and reliability of the High Power Proton Accelerators (HPPA), the scope of this new workshop series on Technology and Components of Accelerator-driven Systems has been extended to cover subcritical systems as well as the use of neutron sources. The workshop organised by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency provided experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of ADS and neutron sources. A total of 40 papers were presented during the oral and poster sessions. Four technical sessions were organised addressing ADS experiments and test facilities, accelerators, simulation, safety, data, neutron sources that were opportunity to present the status of projects like the MYRRHA facility, the MEGAPIE target, FREYA and GUINEVERE experiments, the KIPT neutron source, and the FAIR linac. These proceedings include all the papers presented at the workshop

  18. Study of the fuel behavior, safety characteristics and transmutation performance of a gas cooled accelerator driven system (ADS)

    The neutronic behavior of an ADS system based on gas cooling is examined in this work by using the simulation tools MCNPX and ORIGEN. The main character of the MCNPX code is the use of the Monte-Carlo method allowing a high dimensional simulation of the physical processes. The whole model of the core is represented in 3 dimensional zones including the target structure, which provides the initial spallation neutrons for the chain reaction in the fuel zone. At the beginning, MOX fuel with 19.5 wt. Pu/(Pu+U) is loaded in order to investigate the technical feasibility of a test facility. The fuel assemblies are replaced step by step with Plutonium and minor actinides (PuMa) uranium free fuel according to a loading and shuffling pattern. The designed test facility consists of 120 fuel assemblies each 91 fuel rods which are arranged around the spallation target. For a thermal power of 100 MW the burn-up and transmutation rate is studied. The first results for the MOX and partially PuMa fuel loaded core are presented in this paper. For the PuMa fuel two compositions are investigated. Both fuel types chosen for the analysis demonstrate the capability of the incineration of americium. The simulations show that the initial composition has significant influence on the transmutation rate. The deployment of MOX type fuel in the ADS core causes a considerable consumption of Pu but also a significant generation of americium

  19. IAEA activities on accelerator-driven systems

    A brief account is given of the following IAEA programmes and events: Special Scientific Programme on 'Use of High Energy Accelerators for Transmutation of Actinides and Power Production'; Status report on actinide and fission product transmutation studies; Accelerator-driven systems: energy generation and transmutation of nuclear waste (status report); Coordinated Research Programme on the Use of Thorium-based Fuel Cycle in Accelerator Driven Systems to Incinerate Plutonium and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicities; Technical Committee Meeting on 'Feasibility and Motivation for Hybrid Concepts for Nuclear Energy Generation and Transmutation'; Data-base on experimental facilities and computer codes for ADS related research and development; Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Safety, Environmental and Non-Proliferation Aspects of Partitioning and Transmutation of Actinides and Long-lived Fission Products. (P.A.)

  20. A proposal of particle beam engineering in some 100 MeV energy field used beam line of accelerator-driven transmutation experimental facility

    To develop the researches of particle beam engineering in the middle energy field, construction of 'particle beam engineering experimental device' in the nuclear transmutation physics experimental facility of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility was investigated and proposed. The basis of proposal is experiments using short pulse proton beam (<1ns) produced by laser charge exchange method and construction of two targets: one is the low power target (10 W) for proton beam experiments and other the high power target (1kW) for neutron induced reaction experiments. This facility consists of target chamber, target exchange device, beam dump, some neutron TOF lines. This facility pressed forward the important experiments in the middle energy field such as basic data of proton and neutron in the nuclear transmutation physics and engineering, effects and elementary process of cosmic radiation, basic test of application of particle beam to medical treatment and development and characteristics test of detector. (S.Y.)

  1. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    A small scale experiment designed to demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is described. The experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator to produce neutrons with a molten Lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate Plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from Thorium

  2. A proposal of reactor physics research of accelerator drive system using transmutation physics experimental Facility

    Reactor physics section of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) recognizes an accelerator driven system (ADS) as the next generation reactor and to promote researches using it. History of this section activity on ADS, outline of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility in the 'High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project', a proposal of reactor physics section to the project and future actions of this section are explained. The Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility consists of a fast neutron subcritical system and a nuclear spallation neutron source. The contents of experiments are evaluation of nuclear properties of fast neutron subcritical system driven by nuclear spallation source, verification of operation and control of accelerator driven hybrid system and evaluation of nuclear transmutation characteristics of MA (Minor Actinides) and LLFP (Long-Lived Fission Product). Themes of R and D of ADS contain operation control of ADS, critical control of subcritical system, properties of reactor with nuclear spallation neutron source and nuclear transmutation characteristics. The experimental items are measurement of dynamic characteristics of reactor at beam change, R and D of method of output control and stop, R and D of contentious monitoring method of subcritical multiplication, measurement of dynamic characteristics of behaviors of reactivity, effects on reactor characteristics of high energy neutron, effects on reactor physics of beam duct and large target, nuclear transmutation efficiency and simulation of nuclear transmutation reactor core. (S.Y.)

  3. Accelerator driven radiation clean nuclear power system conceptual research symposium

    The R and D of ADS (Accelerators Driven Subcritical System) in China introduced. 31 theses are presented. It includes the basic principle of ADS, accelerators, sub-critical reactors, neutron physics, nuclear data, partitioning and transmutation

  4. Accelerator transmutation of wastes (ATW) - Prospects and safety

    Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) has during last years gained interest as a technologically possible method to transform radioactive wastes into short-lived or stable isotopes. Different ATW-projects are described from the physical and technical point of view. The principal sketch of the safety analysis of the ATW-idea is given. Due to the very limited technical data for existing ATW-projects the safety analysis can cause some risks for the health and environmental safety for the closest environment. General public should not be affected. 35 refs, 22 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Partitioning and Transmutation - Physics, Technology and Politics

    Nuclear reactions can be effectively used to destroy radio toxic isotopes through transmutation processes transforming those isotopes into less radio toxic or stable ones Spent nuclear fuel, a mixture of many isotopes with some of them being highly radio toxic for many hundred thousands of years, may be effectively transmuted through nuclear reactions with neutrons. In a dedicated, well designed transmutation system one can, in principle, reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel to a level, which will require isolation from the biosphere for the period of time for which engineered barriers can be constructed and licensed (not more than 1-2 thousands of years). En effective transmutation process can not be achieved without a suitable partitioning. Only partitioning of the spent nuclear fuel into predetermined groups of elements makes possible an effective use of neutrons to transmute long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable one. However, most of the chemical separation/partitioning processes are element- not isotope-specific, therefore the transmutation of the elements with an existing isotope composition is a typical alternative for transmutation processes. Isotope-specific separation is possible but still very expensive and technologically not matured

  6. The status of fast reactor technology development and accelerator driven subcritical system researches in China

    Since last May in mainland China there are two nuclear power plants with total capacity of 2.1 GWe in operation and four NPPs in construction. It is envisaged that the total nuclear power capacity will be about 8.5 GWe in the year 2005. Recently the Government is considering four other new NPPs with a total capacity of about 4 GWe and starting their construction during 'tenth five years Plan' (2001-2005). The three new nuclear systems, FBR, ADS and Hybrid, have started to be developed with a rather moderate project and are all still in the early stage. For fast reactor engineering development, the China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) of 65 MWt is the first step. After some additional accidents analysis, especially sodium spray fire accident analysis, the reactor building construction will be continued. The main components including of the reactor block, primary and secondary circuits, fuel handling system have been ordered. It is foreseen to have CEFR reaching first criticality at the end of 2005. The second step 300 MWe Modular Fast Reactor (MPFR) is under consideration, which will be a prototype for large size fast reactor. Based on the size of MPFR, the role of MA transmutation has been evaluated. For the Accelerator Driven Subcritical System (ADS), we are making great efforts to accomplish the research tasks worked out in the first phase program (1998-2002) with emphasis on the system optimization, reactor physics and technology, accelerator physics and technology and nuclear and material data base, and are enthusiastically preparing to step to the second phase program which is marked by ADS concept verification study (2000-2007). As to the Fusion-Fission Hybrid System, in near-term the emphasis will be put on the experiments on two big testing facilities HL-1M and HT-7 on one hand, and on the other hand, we will determine the targets of medium-term and long-term development for Hybrid system and work out relative development program

  7. Status of nuclear transmutation study

    JAERI is carrying out R and Ds on partitioning and transmutation under the OMEGA Program. The R and Ds include the design study of accelerator-driven transmutation systems and the development of transmutation experimental facilities. Accelerator-driven systems have received much interests due to their potential role as dedicated transmuters in the nuclear fuel cycle for minimizing long-lived waste. Principles of accelerator-driven system, its history, JAERI proposed system concepts, and the experimental program are overviewed. (author)

  8. Development of nuclear transmutation technology

    Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Yoo, Jae Kwon; Choi, Byung Ho; Shin, Hee Sung; Gil, Chung Sup; Kim, Jung Do

    1997-08-01

    A basic characteristics and neutronic code development for accelerator driven subcritical reactor have been performed. In the field of basic characteristic study, the world-wide technical trends for a subcritical reactor has been investigated and some new directions for the subcritical system development were investigated. For the analysis of subcritical reactor core, a Montecarlo depletion code was developed by combining LAHET code with ORIGEN2 code. In addition, one-point kinetics equation for subcritical reactor programmed in order to analyze the dynamic behavior of subcritical core. (author). 26 tabs., 49 figs.

  9. Planning the research and development necessary for accelerator transmutation of waste, leading to integrated proof of performance testing

    The Research and Development (R and D) Plan for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Program has been developed for the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE/NE) to serve as a focus and progressional guide in developing critical transmutation technologies. It is intended that the Plan will serve as a logical reference considering all elements of an integrated accelerator-driven transmutation system, and will maximize the use of resources by identifying and prioritizing research, design, development and trade activities. The R and D Plan provides a structured framework for identifying and prioritizing activities leading to technically-justifiable integrated Proof of Performance testing within ten years and ultimate demonstration of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The Plan builds from the decision objectives specified for ATW, utilizes informational input from the ATW Roadmap and programmatic System Point Design efforts, and employs the knowledge and expertise provided by professionals familiar with ATW technologies. With the firm intent of understanding what, why and when information is needed, including critical interfaces, the Plan then develops a progressional strategy for developing ATW technologies with the use of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) scale. The TRL approach is first used to develop a comprehensive, yet generic, listing of experimental, analytical and trade study activities critical to developing ATW technologies. Technology-specific and concept-specific aspects are then laid over the generic mapping to gage readiness levels. Prioritization criteria for reducing technical uncertainty, providing information to decision points, and levering off of international collaborations are then applied to focus analytical, experimental and trade activities. (author)

  10. Transmutation of high level wastes in a fusion-driven transmuter (FDT)

    This study presents the transmutations of both the minor actinides (MAs: 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm) and the long-lived fission products (LLFPs: 99Tc, 129I and 135Cs), discharged from high burn-up PWR-MOX spent fuel, in a fusion-driven transmuter (FDT) and the effects of the MA and LLFP volume fractions on their transmutations. The blanket configuration of the FDT is improved by analyzing various sample blanket design combinations with different radial thicknesses. Two different transmutation zones (TZMA and TZFP which contain the MA and LLFP nuclides, respectively) are located separately from each other. The volume fraction of the MA is raised from 10 to 20% stepped by 2%. The MAs are cladded with the graphite (10%) and cooled with the high-pressured helium gas for nuclear heat transfer. The volume fraction of helium is reduced from 80 to 70% depending on that of MA. Furthermore, the volume fraction of graphite is raised from 10 to 80% stepped by 5% to slow down the energy of neutrons entering into the TZFP while the volume fraction of LLFP is reduced from 80 to 10% depending on the graphite volume fraction. The calculations are performed for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (η) under a neutron wall load (P) of 5 MW/m2 to estimate neutronic parameters and transmutation characteristics per D-T fusion neutron. The transmutation rates of the LLFP nuclides increase linearly with the increase of volume fractions of the MA, and the 99Tc nuclide among them has the highest transmutation rate

  11. Accelerator driven systems for energy production and waste incineration: Physics, design and related nuclear data

    This volume contains the notes of lectures given at the workshops 'Hybrid Nuclear Systems for Energy Production, Utilisation of Actinides and Transmutation of Long-lived Radioactive Waste' and 'Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Accelerator Driven Waste Incineration', held at the Abdus Salam ICTP in September 2001. The subject of the first workshop was focused on the so-called Accelerator Driven Systems, and covered the most important physics and technological aspects of this innovative field. The second workshop was devoted to an exhaustive survey on the acquisition, evaluation, retrieval and validation of the nuclear data relevant to the design of Accelerator Driven Systems

  12. Advanced fuel developments for an industrial accelerator driven system prototype

    Delage, Fabienne; Ottaviani, Jean Pierre [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique CEA (France); Fernandez-Carretero, Asuncion; Staicu, Dragos [JRC-ITU (Germany); Boccaccini, Claudia-Matzerath; Chen, Xue-Nong; Mascheck, Werner; Rineiski, Andrei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); D' Agata, Elio [JRC-IE (Netherlands); Klaassen, Frodo [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sobolev, Vitaly [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Wallenius, Janne [KTH Royal Institute of Technology (Sweden); Abram, T. [National Nuclear Laboratory - NNL (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Fuel to be used in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for transmutation in a fast spectrum, can be described as a highly innovative concept in comparison with fuels used in critical cores. ADS fuel is not fertile, so as to improve the transmutation performance. It necessarily contains a high concentration ({approx}50%) of minor actinides and plutonium. This unusual fuel composition results in high gamma and neutron emissions during its fabrication, as well as degraded core performance. So, an optimal ADS fuel is based on finding the best compromise between thermal, mechanical, chemical, neutronic and technological constraints. CERCER and CERMET composite fuels consisting of particles of (Pu,MA)O{sub 2} phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix are under investigation within the frame of the ongoing European Integrated Project EUROTRANS (European Research programme for Transmutation) which aims at performing a conceptual design of a 400 MWth transmuter: the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). Performances and safety of EFIT cores loaded with CERCER and CERMET fuels have been evaluated. Out-of-pile and in-pile experiments are carried out to gain knowledge on the properties and the behaviour of these fuels. The current paper gives an overview of the work progress. (authors)

  13. Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and of transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems A summary of the TARC Project at CERN

    The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3x3.3x3 m3 lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments 99Tc and 129I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation

  14. Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and of transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems A summary of the TARC Project at CERN

    Abanades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C.A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J.I.; Cerro, E.; Moral, R.D.R.Del; Diez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Galvez, J.; Garcia, J.; Geles, C.; Giorni, A.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Le Naour, C.; Lopez, C.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Enciso, E.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P. E-mail: Jean-Pierre.Revol@cern.ch; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldana, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J.B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K

    2001-05-11

    The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3x3.3x3 m{sup 3} lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation.

  15. Proceedings of the specialists' meeting on accelerator-based transmutation

    The meeting was organised under the auspices of OECD Nuclear Agency's International Information Exchange Programme on Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation. In the original announcement for the meeting the following sessions were proposed: 1) Concepts of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 2) Nuclear design problems of accelerator-based transmutation systems with emphasis on target facilities and their interfaces with accelerators, 3) Data and methods for nuclear design of accelerator-based transmutation systems, 4) Related cross-section measurements and integral experiments, 5) Identification of discrepancies and gaps and discussion of desirable R+D and benchmark activities. Due to the large number of papers submitted it was necessary to split session 2 into two parts and to reassign some papers in order to balance the sessions more evenly. No papers were submitted for session 5 and this was replaced by a summary and general discussion session. These proceedings contain all 30 papers in the order they were presented at the meeting. They are copies of the duplication-ready versions given to us during or shortly after the meeting. In the Table of Contents, the papers are listed together with the name of the presenter. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  16. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    Park, Won Suk; Song, T. Y.; Kim, Y. H

    2001-03-01

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4.

  17. Development of high level radwaste treatment and conversion technology. Transmutation technology development

    The final disposition of spent fuel has been, and continues to be, an important issue of nuclear industry. The conceptual design for the accelerator driven transmutation system HYPER is scheduled to be completed by the year of 2006. As the first step for the conceptual design, a study to determine 1. sub-critical core characteristics, 2. fuel concept, 3. coolant system concept, 4. spallation target concept for the HYPER was performed from 1997 to 2000. Most of concept studies were done on the literature basis. The major objectives of the study is to give a guid-line for the second stage research which will be performed during 2001-2003. In addition, the technologies related with TRU-Zr fuel and Pb-Bi coolant can be utilized for the future nuclear reactor development such as generation 4

  18. Spallation target design and integration into an accelerator-based transmutation system

    Spallation target design and system integration is critical for the success of accelerator-based transmutation systems. Issues which must be considered in the design of spallation targets are identified, and representative parametric studies on the system integration of a sample target are given. The results illustrate the importance of a systems-driven target design approach due to the large effects that the target design can have on both the economics and physics performance of the system

  19. ULOF and unprotected blockage accident analyses of the 400MWth-class EFIT accelerator driven transmuter with the SIMMER-III code

    In the EUROTRANS Programme of the 6th FP of the EC the EFIT, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, a generic conceptual design of a full 400 MWth ADS transmuter loaded with a CERCER U-free fuel with an MgO matrix, is developed. The safety objectives for the EFIT are achieved on the basis of the defense-in-depth concept. For the safety assessment various protected and unprotected design basis conditions (DBC) and design extension conditions (DEC) transients have been analyzed as e.g. the protected and unprotected loss of flow (PLOF/ULOF), beam trip transients, over power transients and especially the unprotected blockage accidents (UBAs). Key safety analyses of the EFIT core have been performed with the SIMMER-III code, currently the only code which can handle core disruptive conditions for heavy liquid metal reactors. Unprotected transients set upper safety limits and play an important role in the overall safety assessment and transient behaviors of MgO based fuel and T91 cladding. Especially the high temperature range is still connected with significant uncertainties, therefore, unprotected accidents with a potential of fuel failure and gas release deserve special attention. In this paper, analyses of the ULOF and the UBA will be presented. Simulations of the core under the steady operation state have been carried out first, whose results show good agreement with the design data. In addition the safety parameters as e.g. the void worth of the core and the Doppler constant have been determined. In the ULOF analysis, the pump head is assumed to be completely lost within 1 or 5 seconds. Due to the loss of the pump head, coolant mass flow rate in the reactor will decrease and finally arrive at its new steady state because of the remained natural convection. Calculated results indicate that, under the current assumptions, the EFIT design can survive a ULOF without fuel pin failure whilst a larger safety margin exists if the pump halving time is longer

  20. Selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system

    38 theses are presented in this selected works of basic research on the physics and technology of accelerator driven clean nuclear power system. It includes reactor physics and experiment, accelerators physics and technology, nuclear physics, material research and partitioning. 13 abstracts, which has been presented on magazines home and abroad, are collected in the appendix

  1. Research activities related to accelerator-based transmutation at PSI

    Transmutation of actinides and fission products using reactors and other types of nuclear systems may play a role in future waste management schemes. Possible advantages of separation and transmutation are: volume reductions, the re-use of materials, the avoidance of a cumulative risk, and limiting the duration of the risk. With its experience in reactor physics, accelerator-based physics, and the development of the SINQ spallation neutron source, PSI is in a good position to perform basic theoretical and experimental studies relating to the accelerator-based transmutation of actinides. Theoretical studies at PSI have been concentrated, so far, on systems in which protons are used directly to transmute actinides. With such systems and appropriate recycling schemes, the studies showed that considerable reduction factors for long-term toxicity can be obtained. With the aim of solving some specific data and method problems related to these types of systems, a programme of differential and integral measurements at the PSI ring accelerator has been initiated. In a first phase of this programme, thin samples of actinides will be irradiated with 590 MeV protons, using an existing irradiation facility. The generated spallation and fission products will be analysed using different experimental techniques, and the results will be compared with theoretical predictions based on high-energy nucleon-meson transport calculations. The principal motivation for these experiments is to resolve discrepancies observed between calculations based on different high-energy fission models. In a second phase of the programme, it is proposed to study the neutronic behaviour of multiplying target-blanket assemblies with the help of zero-power experiments set up at a separate, dedicated beam line of the accelerator. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs

  2. Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Utilization and Transmutation of Actinides in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Renewed interest in the potential of nuclear energy to contribute to a sustainable worldwide energy mix is strengthening the IAEA's statutory role in fostering the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, in particular the need for effective exchanges of information and collaborative research and technology development among Member States on advanced nuclear power technologies (Articles III-A.1 and III-A.3). The major challenges facing the long term development of nuclear energy as a part of the world's energy mix are improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptability. The concern linked to the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission has led to increased R and D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount of long lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or accelerator driven hybrids. In recent years, in various countries and at an international level, more and more studies have been carried out on advanced and innovative waste management strategies (i.e. actinide separation and elimination). Within the framework of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems (http://www.iaea.org/inisnkm/nkm/aws/fnss/index.html), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long lived radioactive waste, accelerator driven systems, thorium fuel options, innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles, non-conventional nuclear energy systems, and fusion/fission hybrids. These activities are implemented under the guidance and with the support of the IAEA Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR). This publication compiles the analyses and findings of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste (2002

  3. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137Cs, and 90Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  4. Neutrino-driven nuclear reactions of cold fusion and transmutation

    The term 'neutrino-driven nuclear reactions' is usually attributed to some reactions of direct or reverse β-decay having, as a rule, an extremely small interaction cross section and is applied for detection of neutrino (antineutrino). The author considers that a great majority of intense reactions of β-decay, nuclear fission and partly of fusion, formerly described without participation of neutrinos as an input, are neutrino-driven ones. The facts listed below demonstrate that the reactions of direct and reverse β-decay, including nuclear fission and partly nuclear fusion, are driven from the outside. Significance of a radioactive decay rate variation and its correlation with the solar activity variation is demonstrated after some decades long observations. Variation of decay rate after variation of crystalline and chemical environment was observed since the 40. years of the 20. century. Variation of nuclear transmutation rates is even more significant after low energy non-nuclear actions on media (cold fusion and transmutation of nuclei). It was also stated that the Chernobyl accident produced radioisotopes (in particular, 137Cs) for some years after their fallout had reduced half-life periods (3.5 and 17 years for 1988 and 1992 years' samples, respectively), hereinafter asymptotically increasing incrementally up to the conventional values (30.6 years). And, last but not least: there are some data on an opportunity of radioisotopes decay and other nuclear transformations initiating by means of so-called torsion radiation (scalar fields, non-hertzian energy and so on). We suggest the hypothesis of neutrino-driven nuclear reactions for explication of abnormally fast nuclear reactions surveyed above and conformities to natural laws observed under the noted reactions proceeding. The not-high energy neutrino (NNN) is abundant in Nature, which is a solid fact. The author suggests that correct interpretation by many other authors of experimental data allow the

  5. Status of development of actinide blanket processing flowsheets for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste

    An accelerator-driven subcritical nuclear system is briefly described that transmutes actinides and selected long-lived fission products. An application of this accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept to spent fuel from a commercial nuclear power plant is presented as an example. The emphasis here is on a possible aqueous processing flowsheet to separate the actinides and selected long-lived fission products from the remaining fission products within the transmutation system. In the proposed system the actinides circulate through the thermal neutron flux as a slurry of oxide particles in heavy water in two loops with different average residence times: one loop for neptunium and plutonium and one for americium and curium. Material from the Np/Pu loop is processed with a short cooling time (5-10 days) because of the need to keep the total actinide inventory, low for this particular ATW application. The high radiation and thermal load from the irradiated material places severe constraints on the separation processes that can be used. The oxide particles are dissolved in nitric acid and a quarternary, ammonium anion exchanger is used to extract neptunium, plutonium, technetium, and palladium. After further cooling (about 90 days), the Am, Cm and higher actinides are extracted using a TALSPEAK-type process. The proposed operations were chosen because they have been successfully tested for processing high-level radioactive fuels or wastes in gram to kilogram quantities

  6. Thorium fuel cycle concept for KAERI's accelerator driven system project

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been carrying out accelerator driven system related research and development called HYPER for transmutation and energy production. HYPER program is aiming to develop the elemental technologies for the subcritical system by 2001 and build a small bench scale test facility (∼5MW(th)) by the year 2006. Some major features of HYPER have been developed and employed, which are on-power fueling concepts, a hollow cylinder-type metal fuel, and Pb-Bi as a coolant and spallation target material. Another fuel cycle concept for HYPER has been also studied to utilize thorium as a molten salt form to produce electricity as well as to transmute TRU elements. At the early stage of the fuel cycle, fissile plutonium isotopes in TRU will be incinerated to produce energy and to breed 233U from thorium. Preliminary calculation showed that periodic removal of fission products and small amount of TRU addition could maintain the criticality without separation of 233Pa. At the end of the fuel cycle, the composition of fissile plutonium isotopes in TRU was significantly reduced from about 60% to 18%, which is not attractive any more for the diversion of plutonium. Thorium molten salt fuel cycle may be one of the alternative fuel cycles for the transmutation of TRU. The TRU remained at the end of fuel cycle can be incinerated in HYPER having fast neutron spectrums. (author)

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of models for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program is directed toward the dual goals of alleviating the problems associated with existing high-level radioactive defense wastes, and of developing systems for the generation of fission energy with minimal production of high-level, long-lived nuclear wastes. In the Los Alamos ATW concept, a high-current, high-energy proton accelerator creates and intense flux of neutrons through spallation in heavy metal targets. The high neutron flux levels available in such systems allow the rapid burning even of nuclides with small cross sections, the design of systems with dilute inventories, and the operation of systems far from criticality. A crucial tool for ATW simulations is the LAHET Code System (LCS), which consists of the Los Alamos version of the HETC Monte Carlo code, a special version of the MCNP code, and several tallying and postprocessing utilities. Here we present results for a baseline system designed to transmute technetium. 16 refs

  8. Current US plans for development of fuels for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The United States is currently investigating the feasibility of proposed technologies for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept, which is funded as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program. The ATW concept is proposed as a means to transmute transuranic isotopes and, perhaps, long-lived fission products removed from light water reactor spent fuel to shorter-lived fission products. To attain maximum possible transmutation rates, no fertile material (i.e., U-238 or Th-232) is to be incorporated into the fuel. Fuel forms currently proposed for ATW application include non-fertile dispersions of metal alloy or nitride fuel particles in a metal matrix, a non-fertile metal alloy, or non-fertile nitride pellets for a fast-spectrum, liquid metal-cooled transmuter, and non-fertile TRISO-coated particles dispersed in graphite compacts for a thermal-spectrum, gas-cooled transmuter. There is little or no experience with these non-fertile fuels, so an extensive fuel development program is envisioned. Current plans call for initial effort to demonstrate feasibility of the proposed fuel forms by the end of 2005, consistent with AAA program decision milestones. Feasibility research and development will consist of the following: Development of fabrication processes to demonstrate fabricability of the proposed fuel forms; Simple irradiation tests to screen samples of each fuel type for unexpected or poor performance; and Determination of intrinsic properties or characteristics (e.g., out-of pile interdiffusion behavior of fuel and constituents and thermophysical properties). If the decision is made to continue development of the ATW concept beyond 2005, then of the successful candidate forms, one or two will be selected for further development, with more extensive irradiation testing and fuel property characterization. (author)

  9. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  10. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee's review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues

  11. A prototype Accelerator Driven System in Belgium: the Myrrha project

    The renewed interest in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) world-wide, has given a new increased effort in several related research domains. The communications within the ICANS, ICENES and ADTT meetings have shown that all major research institutes are somehow conducting research in this new field. Within this research forum, most of the e proposed systems deal with spallation sources in the MW-range, addressing needs for accelerators and sub-critical facilities that are out of current reliability and sometimes even out of current technology range. The necessary research in several sub-domains has to be addressed once and will need prototype systems enabling the validation and test of calculational tools and technological items. At SCK.CEN, the Belgian nuclear research center, the Myrrha project has been started end of 1995. This project intends to design, develop and possibly realize a prototype accelerator driven system as advanced neutron source and with four main objectives. . research of ADS-development as an option for transmutation . in-core irradiation experiments as extension and continuing support in the field of reactor physics and technology and safety-related experiments; . medical and industrial applications (including radioisotope production, known as the ADONIS-project) . extension of current SCK.CEn-research and extensions into new fields based on the availability of performing in-core and neutron-beam experiments This paper will describe the current status of this project and planning og ongoing research as well the description of two specific applications, i. e. radioisotope production and transmutation studies. (Author) 10 refs

  12. The transfer of accelerator technology to industry

    The national laboratories and universities are sources for innovative accelerator technology developments. With the growing application of accelerators in such fields as semiconductor manufacturing, medical therapy isotope production, nuclear waste transmutation, materials testing, bomb detection, pure science, etc., it is becoming more important to transfer these technologies and build an accelerator industrial base. In this talk the methods of technology transfer, the issues involved in working with the labs and examples of successful technology transfers are discussed. (Author)

  13. A small scale accelerator driven subcritical assembly development and demonstration experiment at LAMPF

    A small scale experiment is described that will demonstrate many of the aspects of accelerator-driven transmutation technology. This experiment uses the high-power proton beam from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility accelerator and will be located in the Area-A experimental hall. Beam currents of up to 1 mA will be used to produce neutrons with a molten lead target. The target is surrounded by a molten salt and graphite moderator blanket. Fissionable material can be added to the molten salt to demonstrate plutonium burning or transmutation of commercial spent fuel or energy production from thorium. The experiment will be operated at power levels up to 5 MWt

  14. Science and Technology for Americium Transmutation

    Americium could be seen as the most troublesome element that is present in nuclear fuel. This thesis offers different points of view on the possibility of americium transmutation. The first point of view elaborates simulations of americium-bearing facilities, namely nuclear data, a popular computational code and modeling techniques. The second point of view is focused on practical usage of the simulations to examine upper limit of americium in a specific reactor

  15. Conceptual design study of an accelerator-based actinide transmutation plant with sodium-cooled solid target/core

    Research and development works on accelerator-based nuclear waste transmutation are carried out at JAERI under the national program OMEGA. The preliminary design of the proposed minor actinide transmutation plant with a solid target/core is described. The plant consists of a high intensity proton accelerator, spallation target of solid tungsten, and subcritical core loaded with actinide alloy fuel. Minor actinides are transmuted by fast fission reactions. The target and core are cooled by the forced flow of liquid sodium coolant. Thermal energy is recovered to supply electricity to power its own accelerator. The core with an effective multiplication factor of about 0.9 generates. The thermal power of 820 MW by using a 1.5 GeV proton beam with a current of 39 mA. The average burnup is about 8%, about 250 kg of actinides, after one year operation at an 80% of load factor. With the conventional steam turbine cycle, electric output of about 246 MW is produced. The design of the transmutation plant with sodium-cooled solid target/core is mostly based on the well-established technology of current LMFRs. Advantages and disadvantages of solid target/core are discussed. Recent progress in the development of intense proton accelerator, the development of simulation code system, and the spallation integral experiment is also presented. (author)

  16. Accelerator transmutation studies at Los Alamos with LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER'90

    Versions of the CINDER code have been used over three decades for determination of reactor fuel inventories and aggregate neutron absorption and radioactive decay properties. The CINDER'90 code, an evolving version which requires no predetermined nuclide chain structure, is suitable for a wider range of transmutation problems including those treated with older versions. In recent accelerator transmutation studies, the CINDER'90 code has been linked with the LAHET Code System (LCS) and, for high-energy calculations, with SUPERHET. A description of the nature of these linked calculational tools is given; data requirements for the transmutation studies are described; and, examples of linked calculations are described for some interesting accelerator applications

  17. Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4 ton fission products per year, and output 12 GW thermal power. In addition, the variation of power and critical factor of this blanket is relatively little during its 1-year operation period. This blanket is also tritium self-sustainable

  18. Materials compatibility and corrosion issues for accelerator transmutation of waste

    The need to understand the materials issues in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system is essential. This report focuses on the spallation container material, as this material is exposed to some of the most crucial environmental conditions of simultaneous radiation and corrosion in the system. The most severe design being considered is that of liquid lead. In previous investigations of lead compatibility with materials, the chemistry of the system was derived solely from the corrosion products; however, in an ATW system, the chemistry of the lead changes not only with the derived corrosion products of the material being tested but also with the buildup of the daughter production with time. Daughter production builds up and introduces elements that may have a great effect on the corrosion activity of the liquid lead. Consequently, data on liquid lead compatibility can be regarded only as a guide and must be reevaluated when particular daughter products are added. This report is intended to be a response to specific materials issues and concerns expressed by the ATW design working group and addresses the compatibility/corrosion concerns

  19. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste by a charged particle accelerator

    Transmutation of minor actinides and fission products using proton accelerators has many advantages over a transmutor operated in a critical condition. The energy required for this transmutation can be reduced by multiplying the spallation neutrons in a subcritical assembly surrounding the spallation target. The authors have studied the relation between the energy requirements and the multiplication factor, k, of the subcritical assembly, while varying the range of several parameters in the spallation target. A slightly subcritical reactor is superior to a reactor with large subcriticality in the context of the energy requirement of a small proton accelerator, the extent of radiation damage, and other safety problems. To transmute the fission products, the transmutor reactor must have a good neutron economy, which can be provided by a transmutor operated by a proton accelerator. The paper discusses the use of minor actinides to improve neutronics characteristics, such as a long fuel burn-up rather than simply transmuting this valuable material

  20. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign

  1. Transmutation research in Europe: Steps towards a demonstrator

    Knebel, Joachim U.; Fazio, Concetta; Struwe, Dankward [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Lepoldshafen (Germany); Abderrahim, Hamid Ait; D' hondt, Pierre [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, BR1 Building, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Cinotti, Luciano [ANSALDO NUCLEARE, Divisione di ANSALDO ENERGIA SpA, Corso Perrone, 25, 16100 Genova (Italy); Giot, Michel [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1, Place de l' Universite, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Giraud, Benoit [Framatome ANP, 10 rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Gonzalez, Enrique [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22 E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Granget, Gilbert; Pillon, Sylvie; Warin, Dominique [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex (France); Monti, Stefano [ENEA FIS-NUC, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mueller, Alex C. [CNRS, 3, rue Michel-Ange, 75794 Paris cedex 16 (France); Salvatores, Massimo [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Lepoldshafen (Germany); Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA, 31-33, rue de la Federation, 75752 Paris cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the design and the feasibility assessment of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS will strengthen and consolidate the European research and development activities in transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industries assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005. (authors)

  2. Transmutation research in Europe: Steps towards a demonstrator

    The Integrated Project EUROTRANS (EURopean Research Programme for the Transmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in an Accelerator Driven System) within the ongoing EURATOM 6. European Commission Framework Programme (FP6) is devoted to the study of transmutation of high-level waste from nuclear power plants. The work is focused on transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). The objective of EUROTRANS is the design and the feasibility assessment of an industrial ADS prototype dedicated to transmutation. The necessary R and D results in the areas of fuel development, structural materials, thermal hydraulics, heavy liquid metal technology and nuclear data will be made available, together with the experimental demonstration of the ADS component coupling. The outcome of this work will allow to provide a reasonably reliable assessment of feasibility and a cost estimate for ADS based transmutation, and to possibly decide on the detailed design of an experimental ADS and its construction in the future. EUROTRANS will strengthen and consolidate the European research and development activities in transmutation. The involvement of universities strengthens education and training in nuclear technologies. The involvement of industries assures a market-oriented and economic design development and an effective dissemination of the results. The four-year project started in April 2005. (authors)

  3. MYRRHA project: a Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for R and D

    The objective of the MYRRHA project is to develop a multipurpose neutron source for research and development applications on the basis of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS). Current activities in this area focus on (1) the continuation and the extension towards ADS of the ongoing programmes at SCK-CEN in the field of reactor materials, fuel and reactor physics research; (2) the enhancement and the triggering of new R and D activities such as nuclear waste transmutation, ADS technology, liquid metal embrittlement; (3) the initiation of medical applications, for example proton therapy and PET production, or proton Based irradiation programmes. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  4. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Orlandi, Riccard; Sako, Hiroyuki; Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatory Ya; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Pirozhkov, Alexander S; Matsukawa, Kenya; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Kanasaki, Masato; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Yuji; Koura, Hiroyuki; Kando, Masaki; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Kondo, Kiminori; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of properties of exotic nuclei, essential for fundamental nuclear physics, now confronts a formidable challenge for contemporary radiofrequency accelerator technology. A promising option can be found in the combination of state-of-the-art high-intensity short pulse laser system and nuclear measurement techniques. We propose a novel Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method (LENex): a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly-charged nuclear reaction products. Here a proof-of-principle experiment of LENex is presented: a few hundred-terawatt laser focused onto an aluminum foil, with a small amount of iron simulating nuclear reaction products, extracts almost fully stripped iron nuclei and accelerate them up to 0.9 GeV. Our experiments and numerical simulations show that short-lived, heavy exotic nuclei, with a much larger charge-to-mass ratio than in conventional technology, can ...

  5. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ferguson, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  6. Thorium utilization in heavy water moderated Accelerator Driven Systems

    Research on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) is being carried out around the world primarily with the objective of waste transmutation. Presently, the volume of waste in India is small and therefore there is little incentive to develop ADS based waste transmutation technology immediately. With limited indigenous U availability and the presence of large Th deposits in the country, there is a clear incentive to develop Th related technologies. India also has vast experience in design, construction and operation of heavy water moderated reactors. Heavy water moderated reactors employing solid Th fuels can be self sustaining, but the discharge burnups are too low to be economical. A possible way to improve the performance such reactors is to use an external neutron source as is done in ADS. This paper discusses our studies on Th utilization in heavy water moderated ADSs. The study is carried out at the lattice level. The time averaged k-infinity of the Th bundle from zero burnup up to the discharge burnup is taken to be the same as the core (ensemble) averaged k-infinity. For the purpose of the analysis we have chosen standard PHWR and AHWR assemblies. Variation of the pitch and coolant (H2O/D2O) are studied. Both, the once through cycle and the recycling option are studied. In the latter case the study is carried out for various enrichments (% 233U in Th) of the recycled Th fuel bundles. The code DTF as modified for lattice and burnup calculations (BURNTRAN) was used for carrying out the study. The once through cycle represents the most attractive ADS concept (Th burner ADS) possible for Th utilization. It avoids reprocessing of Th spent fuel and in the ideal situation the use of any fissile material either initially or for sustaining itself. The gain in this system is however rather low requiring a high power accelerator and a substantial fraction of the power generated to be fed back to the accelerator. The self sustaining Th-U cycle in a heavy moderated ADS is a

  7. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1991

    This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; Φ Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations

  8. Disposition of Nuclear Waste Using Subcritical Accelerator-Driven Systems

    Doolen, G.D.; Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.A.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-06-27

    ATW destroys virtually all the plutonium and higher actinides without reprocessing the spent fuel in a way that could lead to weapons material diversion. An ATW facility consists of three major elements: (1) a high-power proton linear accelerator; (2) a pyrochemical spent fuel treatment i waste cleanup system; (3) a liquid lead-bismuth cooled burner that produces and utilizes an intense source-driven neutron flux for transmutation in a heterogeneous (solid fuel) core. The concept is the result of many years of development at LANL as well as other major international research centers. Once demonstrated and developed, ATW could be an essential part of a global non-proliferation strategy for countries that could build up large quantities of plutonium from their commercial reactor waste. ATW technology, initially proposed in the US, has received wide and rapidly increasing attention abroad, especially in Europe and the Far East with major programs now being planned, organized and tided. Substantial convergence presently exists on the technology choices among the programs, opening the possibility of a strong and effective international collaboration on the phased development of the ATW technology.

  9. Minimising the economic cost and risk to accelerator-driven subcritical reactor technology: The case of designing for flexibility: Part 1

    Highlights: ► Accelerator performance is a risk to ADSR reactor technology demonstration. ► Sensitivity of ADSR economic value to accelerator performance is assessed. ► Economic value of ADSRs with and without accelerator redundancy is tested. ► Real options identify design flexibility to accelerator performance uncertainty. ► Multiple ADSR “park” with a single integrated accelerator system is proposed. - Abstract: Demonstrating the generation of electricity for commercial markets with accelerator-driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) technology will incur substantial financial risk. This risk will arise from traditional uncertainties associated with the construction of nuclear power stations and also from new technology uncertainties such as the reliability of the required accelerator system. The sensitivity of the economic value of ADSRs to the reliability of the accelerator system is assessed. Using linear accelerators as an example of choice for the accelerator technology, the economic assessment considers an ADSR with either one or two accelerators driving it. The extent to which a second accelerator improves the accelerator system reliability is determined, as are the costs for that reliability improvement. Two flexible designs for the accelerator system are also considered, derived from the real options analysis technique. One seeks to achieve the benefits of both the single and dual accelerator ADSR configurations through initially planning to build a second accelerator, but only actually constructing it once it is determined to be economically beneficial to do so. The other builds and tests an accelerator before committing to constructing a reactor. Finally, a phased multiple-reactor park with an integrated system of accelerators is suggested and discussed. The park uses the principles of redundancy as for the Dual accelerator ADSR and flexibility as for the real options design, but for a lower cost per unit of electricity produced.

  10. Laser driven particle acceleration

    This dissertation summarizes the last ten years of research at the Laboratory of Applied Optics on laser-plasma based electron acceleration. The main result consists of the development and study of a relativistic electron source with unique properties: high energy (100-300 MeV) in short distances (few millimeters), mono-energetic, ultra-short (few fs), stable and tunable. The manuscript describes the steps that led to understanding the physics, and then mastering it in order to produce this new electron source. Non linear propagation of the laser pulse in the plasma is first presented, with phenomena such as non linear wakefield excitation, relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing in the short pulse regime, self-compression. Acceleration and injection of electrons are then reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Experimental demonstrations of self-injection in the bubble regime and then colliding pulse injection are then presented. These experiments were among the first to produce monoenergetic, high quality, stable and tunable electron beams from a laser-plasma accelerator. The last two chapters are dedicated to the characterization of the electron beam using transition radiation and to its applications to gamma radiography and radiotherapy. Finally, the perspectives of this research are presented in the conclusion. Scaling laws are used to determine the parameters that the electron beams will reach using peta-watt laser systems currently under construction. (author)

  11. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  12. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  13. Present status and future plan of research and development in JAEA on partitioning and transmutation technology for long-lived nuclides

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting research and development (R and D) on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) technology for long-lived nuclides in accordance with the Atomic Energy Commission's Research and Development of Technologies for Partitioning and Transmutation of Long-lived Nuclides - Status and Evaluation Report' issued in 2000. The present report reviews the progress of the investigation on the benefit and the cost of the P and T technology, the international trend of R and D, the progress and the future plan of R and D on the partitioning process and the transmutation cycle technology, together with the necessary infrastructure improvement including the Transmutation Experimental Facility as the Phase-II of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). (author)

  14. Minor actinides partitioning and transmutation technology in France

    The global energy context pleads in favour of a sustainable development of nuclear energy. It is a technology with a future since the demand for energy will likely increase, whereas resources will tend to get scarcer and the prospect of global warming will drive down the consumption of fossil fuel sources. How we deal with radioactive waste is crucial in this context. From the start, the CEA has devoted considerable effort to management of the back end of the cycle. It furnished the process and techniques used in the La Hague facility to extract the re-usable materials, uranium and plutonium, and condition the resulting waste. Towards the end of the 1960's, it developed the process of vitrification for highly active waste that has become the world reference. French industry was responsible for the introduction of standard international practices with respect to waste conditioned during the processing of spent fuels. The specifications for the packages are approved by more than ten countries across the world.The law of 1991 specifically gave new momentum to the research into waste by requesting exploration not only into deep geological storage repositories, but also into reducing the quantity and toxicity of the long-life radioactive elements present in the waste by separation and transmutation and studying their conditioning for long-term disposal. All of the above-mentioned research has been conducted in close collaboration with partners from industry (ANDRA, EDF, COGEMA, FRAMATOME), with the CNRS (France) and various universities.A review of the situation ten years on indicates a number of significant results that have changed the prospects for nuclear waste management. The paper will focus on separation and transmutation R and D programme and main results at CEA. Over the past 10 years the CEA has been conducting a massive research programme on enhanced separation, supported by broad international co-operation. This year, 2001, saw some vital progress. Based on

  15. 次锕系元素在加速器驱动的次临界快堆中嬗变的研究%Study of Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical Fast Reactor

    杨永伟; 古玉祥

    2001-01-01

    选取加速器驱动次临界快堆(ADSFR),进行嬗变来自于PWR(U)乏燃料 中次锕系元素 的研究。在堆芯内,燃料为NpAmCm的氧化物,选取液态钠为冷却剂。利用下列程序对所选方 案进行物理计算和分析:LAHET -模拟质子与靶核的相互作用;MCNP4A-模拟次临界包层内 20MeV以下的中子与材料核的相互作用;ORIGEN2-利用MCNP4A的输出提供的一群等效截面对 堆芯进行燃耗计算。计算分析的结果表明:考虑临界安全、功率密度和燃耗等因素,利用所 选方案进行次锕系元素嬗变是可行的。%Accelerator-Driven Sub-critical Fast Reactor (ADSFR)is chosenfor transmu ta tion of minor actinides from the spent fuel of PWR(U). In the core, the fuel type is (PuNpAmCm)Ox. Liquid sodium is chosen as coolant The neutronics calcul ation and analysis of the selected scheme have been done by using the following codes: LAHET, for the simulation of the interaction between the protons and the nuclei of the target; MCNP4A, for the simulation of interaction between neutron s with energy below 20MeV and the nuclei of materials in the sub-critical blank e t; ORIGEN2, for the multi-region burnup calculation of the blanket by using the one-group effective cross-section provided in the output of MCNP4A. The neutro ni cs calculation and analysis show that the proposed scheme is feasible for trans mutation of minor actinides, considering the factors such as the criticality s afety, power density, burnup, etc.

  16. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Orlandi, R.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koura, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2016-04-01

    A combination of a petawatt laser and nuclear physics techniques can crucially facilitate the measurement of exotic nuclei properties. With numerical simulations and laser-driven experiments we show prospects for the Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method proposed in [M. Nishiuchi et al., Phys, Plasmas 22, 033107 (2015)]: a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly charged short-lived heavy exotic nuclei created in the target via nuclear reactions.

  17. IAEA workshop on 'Technology and applications of accelerator driven systems (ADS)'. Working material

    The objective of this workshop was to familiarize the students with the status of the R and D activities in the areas of: General Concept and System Studies, Accelerator, Target, Sub-Critical Core, Fuel Development, Fuel Cycle Studies. Participants were given a review of ADS designs presently under consideration. Participants studied the theoretical foundation of ADS design work, identified the most problematic areas as well as the limitations of the simulation methods. Based on the discussion of the impact of the present uncertainties on the performance of the ADS, the needs for data and methods development and validation work were identified. Eighteen participants from 13 different countries namely (Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Belarus, Croatia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Sudan, Slovakia and Turkey) took part in the Workshop

  18. Uncertainty assessment for accelerator-driven systems

    The concept of a subcritical system driven by an external source of neutrons provided by an accelerator ADS (Accelerator Driver System) has been recently revived and is becoming more popular in the world technical community with active programs in Europe, Russia, Japan, and the U.S. A general consensus has been reached in adopting for the subcritical component a fast spectrum liquid metal cooled configuration. Both a lead-bismuth eutectic, sodium and gas are being considered as a coolant; each has advantages and disadvantages. The major expected advantage is that subcriticality avoids reactivity induced transients. The potentially large subcriticality margin also should allow for the introduction of very significant quantities of waste products (minor Actinides and Fission Products) which negatively impact the safety characteristics of standard cores. In the U.S. these arguments are the basis for the development of the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), which has significant potential in reducing nuclear waste levels. Up to now, neutronic calculations have not attached uncertainties on the values of the main nuclear integral parameters that characterize the system. Many of these parameters (e.g., degree of subcriticality) are crucial to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of this concept. In this paper we will consider uncertainties related to nuclear data only. The present knowledge of the cross sections of many isotopes that are not usually utilized in existing reactors (like Bi, Pb-207, Pb-208, and also Minor Actinides and Fission Products) suggests that uncertainties in the integral parameters will be significantly larger than for conventional reactor systems, and this raises concerns on the neutronic performance of those systems

  19. The TARC experiment (PS211): neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing

    The main purpose of the TARC experiment is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (En≥1 MeV) slow down quasi adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m x 3.3 m x 3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates of LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of 99Tc or 129I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications. (orig.)

  20. Photo-transmutation of long-lived radionuclide Cs-135 by laser-plasma driven electron source

    Wang, X L; Zhu, Z C; Wang, X D; Song, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic electrons, accelerated by the laser ponderomotive force, can be focused onto a high-Z convertor to generate high-brightness beams of gamma-rays, which in turn can be used to induce photonuclear reactions. In this work, the possibility of photo-transmutation of long-lived radionuclide Cs-135 by laser-plasma driven electron source has been demonstrated through Geant4 simulations. High energy electron generation, bremsstrahlung and photonuclear reaction have been observed at four different laser intensities of 10^{20} W/cm^2, 5 times 10^{20} W/cm^2, 10^{21} W/cm^2 and 5 times 10^{21} W/cm^2, respectively. It was shown that the laser intensity and the target geometry have strong effect on the transmutation reaction yield. At different laser intensities the recommended target sizes were found to obtain the maximum reaction yield. The remarkable feature of this work is to evaluate the optimal laser intensity to produce maximum reaction yield of 10^8 per Joule in laser pulse energy, which is 10^{21} W/c...

  1. Simulation of accelerator transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes

    The incineration of minor actinides with a hybrid reactor (i.e. coupled with an accelerator) could reduce their radioactivity. The scientific tool used for simulations, the GEANT code implemented on a paralleled computer, has been confirmed initially on thin and thick targets and by simulation of a pressurized water reactor, a fast reactor like Superphenix, and a molten salt fast hybrid reactor 'ATP'. Simulating a thermal hybrid reactor seems to indicate the non-negligible presence of neutrons which diffuse back to the accelerator. In spite of simplifications, the simulation of a molten lead fast hybrid reactor (as the CERN Fast Energy Amplifier) might indicate difficulties in the radial power distribution in the core, the life time of the window and the activated air leak risk. Finally, we propose a thermoelectric compact hybrid reactor, PRAHE - small atomic board hybrid reactor - the principle of which allows a neutron coupling between the accelerator and the reactor. (author)

  2. Design status and future research programme for a sub-critical assembly driven by a proton accelerator with proton energy 660 MeV for experiments on long-lived fission products and minor actinides transmutation (Sad)

    Report presents project for the construction of a low power integral system on the basis of the proton accelerator of energy 660 MeV and sub-critical MOX blanket with uranium-plutonium fuel. Installation includes sub-critical core with a nominal thermal power of 15-20 kW. Multiplication coefficient keff = 0,95 and the accelerator beam power of 0.75-1 kW. The experimental programme for SAD will be focused on solving different aspects of reactor physics, reaction rates measurements and benchmarking. The first conceptual design of the SAD experiment is completed in the form of the ISTC Project Proposal 2267. Realisation of the SAD facility may be expected in about 3-4 years. (author)

  3. Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based nuclear waste transmutation schemes

    An overview of the most significant studies in the last 35 years of partitioning and transmutation of commercial light water reactor spent fuel is given. Recent Accelerator-based Transmutation of Waste (ATW) systems are compared with liquid-fuel thermal reactor systems that accomplish the same objectives. If no long-lived fission products (e.g. 99Tc and 129I) are to be burned, under ideal circumstances the neutron balance in an ATW systems becomes identical to that for a thermal reactor system. However, such a reactor would need extraordinarily rapid removal of internally-generated fission products to remain critical at equilibrium without enriched feed. The accelerator beam thus has two main purposes (1) the burning of long-lived fission products that could not be burned in a comparable reactor's margin (2) a relaxing of on-line chemical processing requirements without which a reactor-based system cannot maintain criticality. Fast systems would require a parallel, thermal ATW system for long-lived fission product transmutation. The actinide-burning part of a thermal ATW system is compared with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) using the well-known Pigford-Choi model. It is shown that the ATW produces superior inventory reduction factors for any near-term time scale. (author)

  4. Introduction to Physical and Technical Analysis of Accelerator Driven System

    In the present paper the main elements of the accelerator driven system (ADS) are discussed. Describing the spallation source it is underlined that beside the well accepted theory of spallation, the spallation phenomena is not yet sufficiently investigated. Dealing with the sub-critical reactor as an energy amplifier of the primary spallation source a suggestion for the specific neutron spectrum is proposed to obtain optimal conditions for energy production, burn-up and transmutation. In the chapter devoted for the accelerators which accelerates the charged particles, the two accelerator principles are presented on the examples of working accelerators: the linear accelerator - LINAC and cyclotron. Finally, there is presented the project of accelerator driven system - MYRHA for research and development worked out by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre - SCK-CEN and the conception of nuclear power station of RBMK-1000 type with spallation source together with analysis of the balance of energy worked out by the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia. (author)

  5. MYRRHA: a multipurpose accelerator driven system for research and development

    SCK-CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, and IBA s.a., Ion Beam Application, a world leader in accelerator technology, want to fulfil a prominent role in the Accelerator Driven Systems field and are designing an ADS prototype, the MYRRHA Project, and conducting an associated R and D programme. The partners are foreseeing MYRRHA as a first step towards the European ADS-Demo facility. The project focuses primarily on ADS related research, i.e. structural materials and nuclear fuel research, liquid metals and associated aspects, sub-critical reactor physics and subsequently on applications such as waste transmutation, radioisotope production and safety research on sub-critical systems. In this respect, the MYRRHA system should become a new major research infrastructure for the European partners presently involved in the ADS Demo development, supporting and enabling the international R and D programs. Ion Beam Applications, the Belgium world leader in particle accelerators, had joined the MYRRHA Project to perform the accelerator development. Currently the study and preliminary conceptual design of the MYRRHA system is going on and an intensive R and D programme is conducted to assess the most risky points of the present design. This study will define the final choice of the characteristics of the facility depending on the selected fields of application to be achieved. The MYRRHA concept, as it is today, is based on the coupling of an upgraded commercial proton accelerator with a spallation target surrounded by a subcritical neutron-multiplying medium. Its design is determined by the versatility m applications that should be made possible. Further technical and/or strategic developments of the project might change the concept. A cyclotron, based on positive ion acceleration technology brings the protons up to an energy level of 350 MeV. The nominal current is 5 mA of protons. The spallation target system consists in a circuit with, at the upper part, a free

  6. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    Nanni, Emilio Alessandro; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators is dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency (RF) accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV/m gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional RF structures. However, laser-driven electron accelerators require intense sources and suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here, we demonstrate the first linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically-generated terahertz (THz) pulses. THz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. Increasing the operational frequency of accelerators into the THz band allows for greatly increased accelerating ...

  7. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  8. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides

  9. A steady-state core analysis code for the modeling of accelerator-driven subcritical reactors

    In order to analyze and evaluate Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (ADSR) efficiently, a neutronics/thermal-hydraulics coupling analysis code named LAVENDER has been developed. In the neutronics calculation, the three dimensional deterministic neutron transport method is adopted. The nuclides transmutation analysis is implemented by the micro-depletion method with the Transmutation Trajectory Analysis algorithm (TTA). In the thermal-hydraulics calculation, a heat transfer model is established to consider thermal feedback and examine thermal-hydraulics design. The validations are performed based on several benchmarks. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the design and steady-state analysis of ADSR. (author)

  10. Design, safety and fuel developments for the EFIT accelerator-driven system with CERCER and CERMET cores

    European R and D for ADS design, fuel and general technology development is driven in the 6. FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS programme. In EUROTRANS, two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation in an accelerator-driven System. The longer-term EFIT development, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, with which this paper is deals, aims at a generic conceptual design of a full transmuter. The EUROTRANS Domain DM1 (DESIGN) developed the conceptual reference design of the EFIT, a 400 MWth ADT, loaded with a CERCER, U-free fuel based on an MgO matrix. The Domain DM3 (AFTRA), responsible for fuel development within EUROTRANS, in parallel developed a core loaded with a Mo-92 CERMET matrix-based fuel. In both cores for the cladding, the 9Cr1MoVNb T91 steel has been chosen. The core coolant is pure lead with inlet and outlet temperatures of 673 K and 753 K. The windowless target for the 800 MeV proton beam also contains pure lead. The EFIT concept was intended to be optimised towards: a good transmutation efficiency, high burn-up, low reactivity swing, low power peaking, adequate subcriticality, reasonable beam requirements and a high level of safety. In the current paper the two designs are reported and discussed. For the project, detailed design calculations have been performed both with deterministic and Monte Carlo methods. An extensive safety study is currently under way for the CERCER reference core. For the CERMET core the most important safety analyses have already been performed, sufficient for a preliminary safety assessment. The status of the design work and fuel development for the CERCER and CERMET cores is presented. In addition the results of the CERMET safety analyses are given. (authors)

  11. Proliferation Potential of Accelerator-Driven Systems: Feasibility Calculations

    Accelerator-driven systems for fissile materials production have been proposed and studied since the early 1950s. Recent advances in beam power levels for small accelerators have raised the possibility that such use could be feasible for a potential proliferator. The objective of this study is to review the state of technology development for accelerator-driven spallation neutron sources and subcritical reactors. Energy and power requirements were calculated for a proton accelerator-driven neutron spallation source and subcritical reactors to produce a significant amount of fissile material--plutonium

  12. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    García, C.; Rosales, J.; García, L.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Escrivá, A.; Abánades Velasco, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas-cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, cooled by helium which enables high temperatures (...

  13. Developments in laser-driven plasma accelerators

    Hooker, Simon Martin

    2014-01-01

    Laser-driven plasma accelerators provide acceleration gradients three orders of magnitude greater than conventional machines, offering the potential to shrink the length of accelerators by the same factor. To date, laser-acceleration of electron beams to particle energies comparable to those offered by synchrotron light sources has been demonstrated with plasma acceleration stages only a few centimetres long. This article describes the principles of operation of laser-driven plasma accelerators, and reviews their development from their proposal in 1979 to recent demonstrations. The potential applications of plasma accelerators are described and the challenges which must be overcome before they can become a practical tool are discussed.

  14. A study of the transmutation performance of externally driven sub-critical assemblies

    For transmutation systems based on externally driven sub-critical assemblies with a fast neutron spectrum, there is an incentive to expose the actinides directly to the source neutrons, since these neutrons have higher energies than the fission neutrons. To evaluate the transmutation effectiveness of such systems, a parameter study based on the PHOENIX system, i.e. a sodium-cooled system with a minor actinide (MA) oxide fuelled target was performed. An interesting result is that the high-energy source neutrons give rise to a 20-25% increase in the fission-to-capture ratio of the important (fissionable) nuclides. Moreover, the performance of such a system can be further improved by substituting the oxide fuel by metal fuel and by reducing the volume fraction of steel in the target. Replacing the liquid sodium coolant by liquid lead has only a small effect on the fission-to-capture ratio, however, for a given proton current, the neutron production in the target increases. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    Yu Qi; Xu Tao Guang

    2002-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  16. Study on design of superconducting proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac (SCL) is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. It is constitute by a series of the superconducting accelerating cavities. The cavity geometry is determined by means of the electromagnetic field computation. The SCL main parameters are determined by the particle dynamics computation

  17. Proton-driven plasma acceleration at CERN

    Plasma-based acceleration methods have seen important progress over the last years. Recently, it has been proposed to experimentally study plasma acceleration driven by proton beams, in addition to the established research directions of electron and laser-driven plasmas. This talk presents the planned experiment and the research efforts carried out at CERN.

  18. Conceptual study on high performance dual-cooled blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter

    A preliminary conceptual design of high performance dual-cooled blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter has been proposed based on the core D-T plasma parameter level achieved or to be achieved in the near future. The calculation shows that this kind of blanket is tritium self-sustainable and could safely transmute the long-lived actinides produced by 102 GWe·year PWRs, with several tons of fission products per year and 11600 MW thermal power output

  19. Ability to burn plutonium and minor actinides. Interest of accelerator driven system compared to critical reactor

    In the frame of the French Act of December 1991, EDF is presently assessing the interest of Acceleration Driven System (ADS) for the Transmutation of the Plutonium and Minor Actinides (MA) produced by its park of nuclear reactors. The studies presented here assess the efficiency of ADS and critical reactors to incinerate Pu and MA (Minor Actinides) and the potential interest of ADS for that purpose. (author)

  20. Subcritical set coupled to accelerator (ADS) for transmutation of radioactive wastes: an approach of computational modelling

    Nuclear fission devices coupled to particle accelerators ADS are being widely studied. These devices have several applications, including nuclear waste transmutation and producing hydrogen, both applications with strong social and environmental impact. The essence of this work was to model an ADS geometry composed of small TRISO fuel loaded with a mixture of MOX uranium and thorium target material spallation of uranium, using methods of computational modeling probabilistic, in particular the MCNPX 2.6e program to evaluate the physical characteristics of the device and their ability to transmutation. As a result of the characterization of the spallation target, it can be concluded that production of neutrons per incident proton increases with increasing dimensions of the spallation target (thickness and radius), until it reached the maximum production of neutrons per incident proton or call the region saturation. The results obtained in modeling the ADS device bed kind of balls with respect to isotopic variation in the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides considered in the analysis revealed that accumulation of mass of the isotopes of plutonium and minor actinides increase for subcritical configuration considered. In the particular case of the isotope 239Pu, it is observed a reduction of the mass from the time of burning of 99 days. The increase of power in the core, whereas tungsten spallation targets and Lead is among the key future developments of this work

  1. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV m-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  2. Advanced Computational Models for Accelerator-Driven Systems

    In the nuclear engineering scientific community, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) have been proposed and investigated for the transmutation of nuclear waste, especially plutonium and minor actinides. These fuels have a quite low effective delayed neutron fraction relative to uranium fuel, therefore the subcriticality of the core offers a unique safety feature with respect to critical reactors. The intrinsic safety of ADS allows the elimination of the operational control rods, hence the reactivity excess during burnup can be managed by the intensity of the proton beam, fuel shuffling, and eventually by burnable poisons. However, the intrinsic safety of a subcritical system does not guarantee that ADSs are immune from severe accidents (core melting), since the decay heat of an ADS is very similar to the one of a critical system. Normally, ADSs operate with an effective multiplication factor between 0.98 and 0.92, which means that the spallation neutron source contributes little to the neutron population. In addition, for 1 GeV incident protons and lead-bismuth target, about 50% of the spallation neutrons has energy below 1 MeV and only 15% of spallation neutrons has energies above 3 MeV. In the light of these remarks, the transmutation performances of ADS are very close to those of critical reactors.

  3. Thermal-hydraulics of lead bismuth for accelerator driven systems

    Full text of publication follows: Lead bismuth has been selected as one of the most suitable coolants to be used in accelerator driven systems (ADS) for transmutation of minor actinides. It serves both, as a target material of the spallation source to balance the neutron economy, and as a coolant with high thermal inertia to provide a safe and reliable heat transfer to the secondary power cycle. With the aim to develop the required technologies to enable the later design of such ADS systems, the Karlsruhe Lead bismuth LAboratory KALLA, consisting of three test loops, has been built and set into operation at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe since 2000, keeping more than 45 t of PbBi in operation at temperatures up to 550 deg. C. The test program includes oxygen control systems, heat flux simulation tools, electro-magnetic and mechanical pump technologies, heat transfer and flow measurements, reliability and corrosion tests. In a first test campaign, a technology loop called THESYS was built to develop measurement technologies for the acquisition of scalar quantities, like pressures, temperatures, concentrations, and flow rates, as well as velocity fields, which are required for both operational and scientific purposes. THESYS also allowed to perform generic turbulent heat transfer experiments necessary to provide liquid metal adapted turbulent heat transfer models for ADS design analyses. The second loop, the thermalhydraulic loop THEADES with an installed power of 2.5 MW, has been built to conduct prototypical component experiments for beam windows (e.g. MEGAPIE or MYHRRA) or fuel rod configurations. First test results will be reported. The experimental team is supported by a numerical team who studied the thermal hydraulics of the tested components in order to enable a later transfer of the results to industrial systems. Three different types of codes are being improved: lumped parameter codes (e.g. ATHLET) to perform system analyses for lead bismuth in loops

  4. Accelerator-induced transients in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

    Achieving higher particles energies and beam powers have long been the main focus of research in accelerator technology. Since Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (ADSRs) have become the subject of increasing interest, accelerator reliability and modes of operation have become important matters that require further research and development in order to accommodate the engineering and economic needs of ADSRs. This paper focuses on neutronic and thermo-mechanical analyses of accelerator-induced transients in an ADSR. Such transients fall into three main categories: beam interruptions (trips), pulsed-beam operation, and beam overpower. The concept of a multiple-target ADSR is shown to increase system reliability and to mitigate the negative effects of beam interruptions, such as thermal cyclic fatigue in the fuel cladding and the huge financial cost of total power loss. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of the temperature-to-reactivity feedback mechanisms in ADSRs. A comparison of shutdown mechanisms using control rods and beam cut-off highlights the intrinsic safety features of ADSRs. It is evident that the presence of control rods is crucial in an industrial-scale ADSR. This paper also proposes a method to monitor core reactivity online using the repetitive pattern of beam current fluctuations in a pulsed-beam operation mode. Results were produced using PTS-ADS, a computer code developed specifically to study the dynamic neutronic and thermal responses to beam transients in subcritical reactor systems.

  5. Lead, Lead-bismuth Eutectic Technologies and Materials Studies for Transmutation Systems

    Fazio, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - FZK (Germany); Almazouzi, A. [SCK-CEN (Belgium); Crespo, L.S. [CIEMAT (Spain); Henry, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique - CEA (France); Roelofs, F. [NRG, PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Turroni, P. [ENEA, Lungotevere Thaon di Revel, 76 - 00196 Rome (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and critical fast reactors are currently investigated to transmute Am, Np and Cm, present in the spent nuclear fuel as discharged e.g. from Light Water Reactors. In Europe this investigation, mostly focussed on ADS, is done within the EUROTRANS project. The EUROTRANS-ADS systems, foresee the use of Heavy Liquid Metals (HLM) i.e. Pb and Pb-Bi Eutectic as coolant and neutron spallation target materials. Therefore the DEMETRA sub-project within EUROTRANS addresses material compatibility, thermal-hydraulics performances and technological component development to support the design activities. The materials studies are focussed on corrosion tests, mechanical behaviour in liquid metal and under neutron and proton/neutron irradiation effects. The aim is to produce a robust database to enable the assessment of the materials limit and to drive, where possible, the design and related safety studies. The present paper reports new results and analysis in different areas. For example, it has been shown that the corrosion mechanism, and consequently the corrosion products and the corrosion rate, are affected by parameters as the oxygen activity in the liquid metal, the liquid metal flow rate, the stresses applied on the steel, the temperature and the exposure time. In given conditions, an oxide layer, protective against corrosive attack, can develop on steel surfaces. However, these layers have safety implications which are related to the maximum allowable cladding temperature. As alternative solution to the natural oxide scale, corrosion protection methods are investigated. The technology under qualification is the combination of the Low Pressure Plasma Spray technique of a FeCrAlY based powder and a successive treatment with a pulsed electron beam (GESA). Specific results will be presented in the full paper. Technological solutions to monitor and adjust the oxygen content in the liquid metal such as the solid state electrolyte probe for the

  6. Laser-driven electron accelerators

    The following possibilities are discussed: inverse free electron laser (wiggler accelerator); inverse Cerenkov effect; plasma accelerator; dielectric tube; and grating linac. Of these, the grating acceleraton is considered the most attractive alternative

  7. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    Mori, Y

    2003-01-01

    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  8. Isotope transmutation - Nuclear technology on the wrong track, or on a way out?

    'Transmute to gold.' - This alchemical dream might come true in some respect. It is possible by way of a physical process using neutron radiation to transform, i.e. 'transmute' long half-life radioactive isotopes to those with much shorter half-lives (of 50 or some hundred years, instead of several 10 000 years), or in extreme cases it is even possible to transmute the isotopes to stable, non-decaying isotopes. If this process could be mastered at a technological scale and scope, the problems of ultimate storage of high-level radioactive waste for isolation from the biosphere might be solved for the worst case, storage over 'endless' time periods into a far future, with the lesser problem of less hazardous radioactive waste storage remaining. In addition, development of the process to a feasible technology would open up variants of the method for safe multiplication of fissionable materials. (orig./CB)

  9. Progress of Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    There is a great interest worldwide in plasma accelerators driven by ultra-intense lasers which make it possible to generate ultra-high gradient acceleration and high quality particle beams in a much more compact size compared with conventional accelerators. A frontier research on laser and plasma accelerators is focused on high energy electron acceleration and ultra-short X-ray and Tera Hertz radiations as their applications. These achievements will provide not only a wide range of sciences with benefits of a table-top accelerator but also a basic science with a tool of ultrahigh energy accelerators probing an unknown extremely microscopic world.Harnessing the recent advance of ultra-intense ultra-short pulse lasers, the worldwide research has made a tremendous breakthrough in demonstrating high-energy high-quality particle beams in a compact scale, so called ''dream beams on a table top'', which represents monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators and GeV acceleration by capillary plasma-channel laser wakefield accelerators. This lecture reviews recent progress of results on laser-driven plasma based accelerator experiments to quest for particle acceleration physics in intense laser-plasma interactions and to present new outlook for the GeV-range high-energy laser plasma accelerators

  10. Impact of accelerator based technologies on nuclear fission safety - Share cost project of the European Community

    As a result of the growing interest in Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), some European institutes have established a shared cost project in the framework of the European Community. The overall objective of the project is to make an assessment of the possibilities of accelerator-driven hybrid reactor systems from the point of view of safe energy production, minimum waste production and transmutation capabilities

  11. Program on fuels for transmutation: present status and prospects

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Chauvin, N.; Pillon, S. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Combustibles

    2001-07-01

    The performance calculations of appropriate fuel cycle facilities and reactor configurations (scenarios) relying on current reactor technologies (Pressurized Water Reactor and Fast neutrons Reactors) or innovative reactors (Accelerator Driven Systems) have proved the scientific feasibility of some P and T strategies. To insure the technological feasibility, a large program on fuels and materials is underway, including advanced concepts for PWRs and the development of specific targets (dispersed fuels) for transmutation in Fast Reactors. Experiments in different reactors including Phenix are being prepared. The program is presented and recent results are given. (author)

  12. Dynamic response of an accelerator driven system to accelerator beam interruptions for criticality

    Subcritical nuclear reactors driven by intense neutron sources can be very suitable tools for nuclear waste transmutation, particularly in the case of minor actinides with very low fractions of delayed neutrons. A proper control of these systems needs to know at every time the absolute value of the reactor subcriticality (negative reactivity), which must be measured by fully reliable methods, usually conveying a short interruption of the accelerator beam in order to assess the neutron flux reduction. Those interruptions should be very short in time, for not disturbing too much the thermal magnitudes of the reactor. Otherwise, the cladding and the fuel would suffer from thermal fatigue produced by those perturbations, and the mechanical integrity of the reactor would be jeopardized. It is shown in this paper that beam interruptions of the order of 400 μs repeated every second would not disturb significantly the reactor thermal features, while enabling for an adequate measurement of the negative reactivity

  13. Investigation of Lead Target Nuclei Used on Accelerator-Driven Systems for Tritium Production

    Tel, E.; Aydin, A.

    2012-02-01

    High-current proton accelerators are being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory and other laboratories for accelerator production of tritium, transmuting long-lived radioactive waste into shorter-lived products, converting excess plutonium, and producing energy. These technologies make use of spallation neutrons produced in ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions on high-Z targets. Through ( p,xn) and ( n,xn) nuclear reactions, neutrons are produced and are moderated by heavy water. These moderated neutrons are subsequently captured on 3He to produce tritium via the ( n,p) reaction. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial fusion power plant. Rubbia succeeded in a proposal of a full scale demonstration plant of the Energy Amplifier. This plant is to be known the accelerator-driven system (ADS). The ADS can be used for production of neutrons in spallation neutron source and they can act as an intense neutron source in accelerator-driven subcritical reactors, capable of incinerating nuclear waste and of producing energy. Thorium and Uranium are nuclear fuels and Lead, Bismuth, Tungsten are the target nuclei in these reactor systems. The spallation targets can be Pb, Bi, W, etc. isotopes and these target material can be liquid or solid. Naturally Lead includes the 204Pb (%1.42), 206Pb (%24.1), 207Pb (%22.1) and 208Pb (%52.3) isotopes. The design of ADS systems and also a fusion-fission hybrid reactor systems require the knowledge of a wide range of better data. In this study, by using Hartree-Fock method with an effective nucleon-nucleon Skyrme interactions rms nuclear charge radii, rms nuclear mass radii, rms nuclear proton, neutron radii and neutron skin thickness were calculated for the 204, 206, 208Pb isotopes . The calculated results have been compared with those of the compiled experimental and theoretical values of other studies.

  14. Activity report of working party on reactor physics of accelerator-driven system. July 1999 to March 2001

    Under the Research Committee on Reactor Physics, the Working Party on Reactor Physics of Accelerator-Driven System (ADS-WP) was set in July 1999 to review and investigate special subjects related to reactor physics research for the Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System (ADS). The ADS-WP, at the first meeting, discussed a guideline of its activity for two years and decided to concentrate upon three subjects: (1) neutron transport calculations in high energy range, (2) static and kinetic (safety-related) characteristics of subcritical system, and (3) system design including ADS concepts and elemental technology developments required. The activity of ADS-WP continued from July 1999 to March 2001. In this duration, the members of ADS-WP met together four times and discussed the above subjects. In addition, the ADS-WP conducted a questionnaire on requests and proposals for the plan of Transmutation Physics Experimental Facility in the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project, which is a joint project between JAERI and KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization). This report summarizes the results obtained by the above ADS-WP activity. (author)

  15. Diagnostics for laser-driven plasma accelerators

    When generating relativistic plasmas with high power laser systems small-scale particle accelerators can be realized producing particle pulses which exhibit parameters complementary to conventional accelerators. To be able to resolve the physical processes underlying the acceleration mechanisms diagnostics well-suited for this plasma environment need to be designed and realized. In this presentation, several techniques are introduced, and recent results are discussed. They have lead to the first time-resolved visualization of the plasma wave necessary for laser-driven electron acceleration, its non-linear evolution and the actual breaking of the plasma wave. Furthermore, diagnostic techniques relevant for laser-driven ion acceleration based on optical and particle probing are presented.

  16. IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on 'Analytical and experimental benchmark analyses of accelerator driven systems'

    In December 2005, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has started a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Analytical and Experimental Benchmark Analyses of Accelerator Driven Systems'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWGFR) of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department, is to increase the capability of interested Member States in developing and applying advanced reactor technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. The specific objective of the CRP is to improve the present understanding of the coupling of an external neutron source (e.g. spallation source) with a multiplicative sub-critical core. The participants are performing computational and experimental benchmark analyses using integrated calculation schemes and simulation methods. The CRP aims at integrating some of the planned experimental demonstration projects of the coupling between a sub-critical core and an external neutron source (e.g. YALINA Booster in Belarus, and Kyoto University's Critical Assembly (KUCA)). The objective of these experimental programs is to validate computational methods, obtain high energy nuclear data, characterize the performance of sub-critical assemblies driven by external sources, and to develop and improve techniques for sub-criticality monitoring. The paper summarizes preliminary results obtained to-date for some of the CRP benchmarks. (authors)

  17. Results from the TARC experiment: spallation neutron phenomenology in lead and neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing

    Abanades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C.A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J.I.; Cerro, E.; Moral, R. Del; Diez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Galvez, J.; Garcia, J.; Geles, C.; Giorni, A.; Gonzalez, E.; Gonzalez, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Naour, C. Le; Lopez, C.; Loiseaux, J.M.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Meplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perez-Enciso, E.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P. E-mail: jean-pierre.revol@cern.ch; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J.A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldana, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J.B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K

    2002-02-11

    We summarize here the results of the TARC experiment whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy (E{sub n}{>=}1 MeV) slow down quasi-adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 and 3.5 GeV/c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 mx3.3 mx3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of {sup 99}Tc or {sup 129}I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications.

  18. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  19. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden

    This report contains a review of the transmutation technology and an elucidation of the consequences of the use of transmutation in Sweden. Transmutation has often been mentioned in the public debate as a way of rendering harmless the high-level waste from nuclear power such that the final disposal of the waste can be substantially simplified or even completely avoided. However, it can be noted that even with an exploitation of transmutation, significant amounts of radioactive waste requiring qualified final disposal will be generated. The transmutation technology will make it possible to reduce the longevity of the high-level waste by converting primarily the transuranic elements to fission products with shorter half lives. The long-term radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel is dominated by the transuranics. Hence, transmutation will lead to a substantial decrease of the long-term radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. The research on transmutation has been focussed on sub-critical so called ADS-reactors (Accelerator Driven System). In such a system protons are accelerated to very high energy levels (in the order of GeV) in an electromagnetic field. The accelerated protons are impacted on a spallation source consisting of heavy atoms, e.g. lead or a mixture of lead and bismuth. At the impact the heavy nuclei are spalled releasing a number of neutrons that can be used for fissioning the nuclei of the substances to be transmuted, primarily the transuranics. ADS-reactors are still at the research stage. It is a common view that it will take several decades before the technology has reached a maturity that allows the construction of a demonstration facility. Calculations performed at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm show that using the ADS-technology would allow a reduction of the inventory of transuranics in the spent fuel from Swedish reactors by 50-85% within a 50-100 years period. The goal to transmute 99% of the transuranics inventory has been achieved in

  20. APT accelerator technology

    The proposed accelerator production of tritium (APT) project requires an accelerator that provides a cw proton beam of 100 m A at 1300 MeV. Since the majority of the technical risk of a high-current cw (continuous-wave, 100% DF) accelerator resides in the low-energy section, Los Alamos is building a 20 MeV duplicate of the accelerator front end to confirm design codes, beam performance, and demonstrate operational reliability. We report on design details of this low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) and discuss the integrated design of the full accelerator for the APT plant. LEDA's proton injector is under test and has produced more than 130 mA at 75 keV. Fabrication is proceeding on a 6.7- MeV, 8-meter-long RFQ, and detailed design is underway on coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) structures. In addition, detailed design and technology experiments are underway on medium-beta superconducting cavities to assess the feasibility of replacing the conventional (room-temperature copper) high-energy linac with a linac made of niobium superconducting RF cavities. (author)

  1. A European roadmap for developing accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste incineration. Executive summary

    In 1998 the Research Ministers of France, Italy and Spain, set up a Ministers' Advisors Group on the use of accelerator driven systems (ADS) for nuclear waste transmutation. This led to the establishing of a technical working group under the chairmanship of Prof. Carlo Rubbia to identify the critical technical issues and to prepare a 'Roadmap' for a demonstration programme to be performed within 12 years. In the following Roadmap, the technical working group (consisting of representatives from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the JRC) has identified the steps necessary to start the construction of an experimental accelerator driven system towards the end of the decade. This is considered as an essential prerequisite to assess the safe and efficient behaviour of such systems for a large-scale deployment for transmutation purposes in the first half of this century. The development and deployment of accelerator driven systems requires three steps: a comprehensive mid- and long-term R and D program, to develop the single elements and components of the system. This includes development of new fuels and fuel cycle systems; planning, design, construction and operation of an Experimental Accelerator Driven System for the demonstration of the concept; planning, design, construction and operation of a large size prototype accelerator driven systems with subsequent large-scale deployment. Following a first phase of R and D focused on the understanding of the basic principles of ADS (already partly underway), the programmes should be streamlined and focused on a practical demonstration of the key issues. These demonstrations should cover high intensity proton accelerators (beam currents in the range 1-20 mA), spallation targets of high power (of power in excess of 1 megawatt), and their effective coupling with a sub-critical core. Cost estimates are taken into account as well as the ADS activities in Japan and USA

  2. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in...

  3. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power

  4. Disposition of nuclear waste using subcritical accelerator-driven systems

    Venneri, F.; Li, N.; Williamson, M.; Houts, M.; Lawrence, G.

    1998-12-31

    Spent fuel from nuclear power plants contains large quantities of Pu, other actinides, and fission products (FP). This creates challenges for permanent disposal because of the long half-lives of some isotopes and the potential for diversion of the fissile material. Two issues of concern for the US repository concept are: (1) long-term radiological risk peaking tens-of-thousands of years in the future; and (2) short-term thermal loading (decay heat) that limits capacity. An accelerator-driven neutron source can destroy actinides through fission, and can convert long-lived fission products to shorter-lived or stable isotopes. Studies over the past decade have established that accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) can have a major beneficial impact on the nuclear waste problem. Specifically, the ATW concept the authors are evaluating: (1) destroys over 99.9% of the actinides; (2) destroys over 99.9% of the Tc and I; (3) separates Sr-90 and Cs-137; (4) separates uranium from the spent fuel; (5) produces electric power.

  5. TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment (TRADE)

    This short report is derivated from the TRADE FINAL FEASIBILITY REPORT (March 2002) that is the result of the collective effort of a Working Group composed by ENEA, CEA, CERN, ANSALDO under Carlo Rubbia (ENEA) and Massimo Salvatores (CEA) supervision. The TRADE experiment, to be performed in the TRIGA reactor of the ENEA Casaccia Centre consists in the coupling of an external proton accelerator to a target to be installed in the Central thimble of the reactor scrammed to sub-criticality. This pilot experiment, aimed at a global demonstration of the ADS concept, is based on an original idea of Carlo Rubbia, presented at CEA in October 2000. (author)

  6. Separation and transmutation. A picture of the applications in Sweden; Separation och transmutation. Belysning av tillaempning i Sverige

    Grundfelt, Bertil; Lindgren, Maria [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15

    This report contains a review of the transmutation technology and an elucidation of the consequences of the use of transmutation in Sweden. Transmutation has often been mentioned in the public debate as a way of rendering harmless the high-level waste from nuclear power such that the final disposal of the waste can be substantially simplified or even completely avoided. However, it can be noted that even with an exploitation of transmutation, significant amounts of radioactive waste requiring qualified final disposal will be generated. The transmutation technology will make it possible to reduce the longevity of the high-level waste by converting primarily the transuranic elements to fission products with shorter half lives. The long-term radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel is dominated by the transuranics. Hence, transmutation will lead to a substantial decrease of the long-term radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. The research on transmutation has been focussed on sub-critical so called ADS-reactors (Accelerator Driven System). In such a system protons are accelerated to very high energy levels (in the order of GeV) in an electromagnetic field. The accelerated protons are impacted on a spallation source consisting of heavy atoms, e.g. lead or a mixture of lead and bismuth. At the impact the heavy nuclei are spalled releasing a number of neutrons that can be used for fissioning the nuclei of the substances to be transmuted, primarily the transuranics. ADS-reactors are still at the research stage. It is a common view that it will take several decades before the technology has reached a maturity that allows the construction of a demonstration facility. Calculations performed at Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm show that using the ADS-technology would allow a reduction of the inventory of transuranics in the spent fuel from Swedish reactors by 50-85% within a 50-100 years period. The goal to transmute 99% of the transuranics inventory has been achieved in

  7. Weapon plutonium in accelerator driven power system

    Accelerator Driven Systems are planned to be developed for the use (or destruction) of dozens of tons of weapon-grade Plutonium (W-Pu) resulted from the reducing of nuclear weapons. In the paper are compared the parameters of various types of accelerators, the physical properties of various types of targets and blankets, and the results of fuel cycle simulation. Some economical aspects are also discussed

  8. Research on self-expanding sealed target preparation technology in 129I artificial transmutation experiment

    The sealed target preparation technology based on Al heat-expanding characteristic was proposed and performed firstly for iodine artificial transmutation experiment. The 129I transmutation experiment in Xi'an Pulsed Reactor needed small target dimension and low leakage rate. After cooling enough time, the Al sealing-head was quickly placed into the top of the Al shell which was at room temperature. And the tar get was sealed automatically when the sealing-head had expanded at room temperature. The method is easy to practice and there is no high temperature welding process in tar get preparation, so the target core state shouldn't be changed, and it costs little. At the same time, the target material could release little unwanted gas in heating analysis and tolerate 600 ℃. The experience calculation formula was obtained for the matching dimensions of self-expanding sealing parts on several experiments with 6061 Al. The leakage rates of four real transmutation targets are lower than 5 × 10-9 Pa · m3/s in reverse-pressure leakage detection and can meet the requirement of transmutation experiment. (authors)

  9. Conceptual study of high power proton linac for accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system

    Yu Qi; Ouyang Hua Fu; Xu Tao Guang

    2001-01-01

    As a prior option of the next generation of energy source, the accelerator driven subcritical nuclear power system (ADS) can use efficiently the uranium and thorium resource, transmute the high-level long-lived radioactive wastes and raise nuclear safety. The ADS accelerator should provide the proton beam with tens megawatts. The superconducting linac is a good selection of ADS accelerator because of its high efficiency and low beam loss rate. The ADS accelerator presented by the consists of a 5 MeV radio-frequency quadrupole, a 100 MeV independently phased superconducting cavity linac and a 1 GeV elliptical superconducting cavity linac. The accelerating structures and main parameters are determined and the research and development plan is considered

  10. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    Mueller, Alex C

    2012-01-01

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven syste...

  11. Proton-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration

    Caldwell, Allen; Pukhov, Alexander; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas excited by laser beams or bunches of relativistic electrons have been used to produce electric fields of 10–100 GV m$^{-1}$. This has opened up the possibility of building compact particle accelerators at the gigaelectronvolt scale. However, it is not obvious how to scale these approaches to the energy frontier of particle physics—the teraelectronvolt regime. Here, we introduce the possibility of proton-bunch-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration, and demonstrate through numerical simulations that this energy regime could be reached in a single accelerating stage.

  12. Preliminary design of a gas-cooled accelerator driven system demonstrator

    At the present time, nuclear power appears to be the best solution for producing a large amount of electricity from both economical and ecological viewpoints, provided that acceptable answers to the nuclear waste concern are found. In France, this is the subject of the law 91-1381 (December 30th , 1991). The transmutation of most of the long-lived radioactive wastes is a promising solution which could play a substantial role for the safety of the fuel cycle. Sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS), coupling an ion accelerator and a sub-critical reactor, seems to have a high capacity for the fission of minor actinides and transmutation of long life fission products. The practicality on an industrial scale of partitioning and transmutation through ADS for reducing the amount of long life radio-nuclides has to be evaluated. It was recognised that the most efficient way, in terms of cost and planning, to conclusively assess the potential and the feasibility of a full scale industrial programme on ADS was to design and operate an ADS Demonstrator. The main ADS DF characteristics, defined within a joint working group, and reactor design features are described and justified. Then, main issues which call for research and development support are identified. (authors)

  13. ACCELERATING NANO-TECHNOLOGICAL

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian

    2007-01-01

    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... features of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in...... that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterized by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse. The institutional...

  14. Neutronic studies in support of accelerator-driven systems: The MUSE experiments in the MASURCA facility

    Soule, R.; Assal, W.; Chaussonnet, P.; Destouches, C.; Domergue, C.; Jammes, C.; Laurens, J.-M.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Mellier, F.; Perret, G.; Rimpault, G.; Servière, H.; Imel, G.; M. Thomas, G.; VILLAMARIN D.

    2004-01-01

    The MUSE program (multiplication with an external source) is in progress at the MASURCA critical facility at the Cadarache Research Center of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique in France. The program is dedicated to the physics studies of accelerator-driven systems in support of transmutation studies of minor actinides and long-lived fission products. It began in 1995 with the coupling of a Cf source in MASURCA and was followed by a commercial (d,T) source. In 2001, a specially constructed...

  15. Preliminary neutronics design and analysis for accelerator driven subcritical tritium production reactor ADS-T

    In this paper, by using self-developed multi-functional 4D neutronics simulation system VisualBUS4.2 and hybrid evaluated nuclear data library HENDL3.0, sensitivity analysis on spallation neutron energy, abundance of 6Li in tritium breeding material, structural steel, initial keff, neutron energy spectrum as well as the placement of tritium production assembly was performed for lead-alloy cooled accelerator driven subcritical nuclear waste transmutation and tritium production reactor ADS-T (ADS- Tritium). Finally, preliminary neutronics options of ADS-T were given, an attractive tritium production pathway was provided. (authors)

  16. Cosmic acceleration driven by mirage inhomogeneities

    A cosmological model based on an inhomogeneous D3-brane moving in an AdS5 x S5 bulk is introduced. Although there are no special points in the bulk, the brane universe has a centre and is isotropic around it. The model has an accelerating expansion and its effective cosmological constant is inversely proportional to the distance from the centre, giving a possible geometrical origin for the smallness of a present-day cosmological constant. Besides, if our model is considered as an alternative of early-time acceleration, it is shown that the early stage accelerating phase ends in a dust-dominated FRW homogeneous universe. Mirage-driven acceleration thus provides a dark matter component for the brane universe final state. We finally show that the model fulfils the current constraints on inhomogeneities

  17. Macroscopic multigroup constants for accelerator driven system core calculation

    The high-level wastes stored in facilities above ground or shallow repositories, in close connection with its nuclear power plant, can take almost 106 years before the radiotoxicity became of the order of the background. While the disposal issue is not urgent from a technical viewpoint, it is recognized that extended storage in the facilities is not acceptable since these ones cannot provide sufficient isolation in the long term and neither is it ethical to leave the waste problem to future generations. A technique to diminish this time is to transmute these long-lived elements into short-lived elements. The approach is to use an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), a sub-critical arrangement which uses a Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), after separation the minor actinides and the long-lived fission products (LLFP), to convert them to short-lived isotopes. As an advanced reactor fuel, still today, there is a few data around these type of core systems. In this paper we generate macroscopic multigroup constants for use in calculations of a typical ADS fuel, take into consideration, the ENDF/BVI data file. Four energy groups are chosen to collapse the data from ENDF/B-VI data file by PREPRO code. A typical MOX fuel cell is used to validate the methodology. The results are used to calculate one typical subcritical ADS core. (author)

  18. Pre-design of MYRRHA, A Multipurpose Accelerator Driven System for Research and Development

    One of the main SCKCEN research facility, namely BR2, is nowadays arriving at an age of 40 years just like the major materials testing reactors (MTR) in the world and in Europe (i.e. BR2 (B-Mol), HFR (EU-Petten), OSIRIS (F-Saclay), R2 (S-Studsvik)). The MYRRHA facility in planning has been conceived as potentially replacing BR2 and to be a fast spectrum facility complementary to the thermal spectrum RJH (Reacteur Jules Horowitz) facility, in planning in France. This situation would give Europe a full research capability in terms of nuclear R and D. Furthermore, the disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from industrial nuclear energy production has still to find a fully satisfactory solution, especially in terms of environmental and social acceptability. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce (by a factor of 100 or more) the radio-toxicity of the High Level Waste (HLW) to be stored in a deep geological repository. This can be achieved via burning of minor actinides (MA) and to a less extent of long-lived fission products (LLFP) in Accelerator Driven Systems. The MYRRHA project contribution will be in helping to demonstrate the ADS concept at reasonable power level and the demonstration of the technological feasibility of MA and LLFP transmutation under real conditions

  19. LAVENDER: A steady-state core analysis code for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Cao, Liangzhi; Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Huang, Kai; He, Mingtao; Li, Xunzhao

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new code system for design studies of accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) is developed. • S{sub N} transport solver in triangular-z meshes, fine deletion analysis and multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis are coupled in the code. • Numerical results indicate that the code is reliable and efficient for design studies of ADSRs. - Abstract: Accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADSRs) have been proposed and widely investigated for the transmutation of transuranics (TRUs). ADSRs have several special characteristics, such as the subcritical core driven by spallation neutrons, anisotropic neutron flux distribution and complex geometry etc. These bring up requirements for development or extension of analysis codes to perform design studies. A code system named LAVENDER has been developed in this paper. It couples the modules for spallation target simulation and subcritical core analysis. The neutron transport-depletion calculation scheme is used based on the homogenized cross section from assembly calculations. A three-dimensional S{sub N} nodal transport code based on triangular-z meshes is employed and a multi-channel thermal-hydraulics analysis model is integrated. In the depletion calculation, the evolution of isotopic composition in the core is evaluated using the transmutation trajectory analysis algorithm (TTA) and fine depletion chains. The new code is verified by several benchmarks and code-to-code comparisons. Numerical results indicate that LAVENDER is reliable and efficient to be applied for the steady-state analysis and reactor core design of ADSRs.

  20. Optimizing accelerator technology

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  1. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  2. Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application

    Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite in the form of pebble beds, being cooled by helium which enables high temperatures, in the order of 1200 K, to facilitate hydrogen generation from water either by high temperature electrolysis or by thermo chemical cycles. To design this device several configurations were studied, including several reactors thickness, to achieve the desired parameters, the transmutation of nuclear waste and the production of 100 MW. of thermal power. In this paper we are presenting new studies performed on deep burn in-core fuel management strategy for LWR waste. We analyze the fuel cycle on TADSEA device based on driver and transmutation fuel that were proposed for the General Atomic design of a gas turbine-modular helium reactor. We compare the transmutation results of the three fuel management strategies, using driven and transmutation, and standard LWR spend fuel, and present several parameters that describe the neutron performance of TADSEA nuclear core as the fuel and moderator temperature reactivity coefficients and transmutation chain. (author)

  3. Accelerator-based systems for plutonium destruction and nuclear waste transmutation

    Accelerator-base systems are described that can eliminate long-lived nuclear materials. The impact of these systems on global issues relating to plutonium minimization and nuclear waste disposal can be significant. An overview of the components that comprise these systems is given, along with discussion of technology development status and needs. A technology development plan is presented with emphasis on first steps that would demonstrate technical performance

  4. Update on Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    Xia, G; Lotov, K; Pukhov, A; Kumar, N; An, W; Lu, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C; Huang, C; Muggli, P; Assmann, R; Zimmermann, F

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the update of proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PDPWA) is given. After a brief introduction to the scheme of PDPWA, a future demonstration experiment is discussed. The particle-in-cell simulation results based on the realistic proton beams from the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are presented, followed by a simulation study of proton bunch compression. Presented at AAC’10, 13-19 June 2010, Annapolis, MD, USA

  5. Current status and future plan of research and development on partitioning and transmutation technology in Japan

    After a first check and review on partitioning and transmutation (P and T) technology by the Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) in 2000, significant progress was made in respective research areas of partitioning, fuel fabrication, transmutation and fuel recycling in Japan. The second check and review on P and T technology was made by the JAEC in 2008-2009 to illustrate the benefit and significance of P and T, to review the current state of P and T technology in and outside Japan, and to discuss how to conduct future research and development. The final report, issued in April 2009, mentions that the significance of P and T technology can be reduced to three points: reduction of the potential hazard, mitigation of the requirement for geological repository site, and enhancement of the options in the design of the whole system of waste disposal. The current technology levels of P and T for both FBR and ADS were evaluated. Although the technology levels of some parts of the FBR cycle system are between basic research and engineering demonstration, P and T technology in general is still in the basic research stage because of the lack of experimental data on minor actinides (MA). It was, therefore, strongly recommended to accumulate experimental data for MA as a common basis for both FBR and ADS. (authors)

  6. Preliminary neutronics analysis of a spallation target for transmutation

    Accelerator Driven subcritical System (ADS) was recognized as an effective nuclear waste transmutation device. Target in liquid or solid in an independent loop bombarded by the charged particle beam was considered as the neutron source. Heavy metal was chosen as target material or coolant. The present work was to discuss the possibility of taking Minor Actinides as part of spallation target material, for a better transmutation performance of entire ADS. According to the thermal cooling and irradiation time limitation, a conceptual design of target for transmutation was proposed. And preliminary neutronics analysis for target performance assessment including neutron flux, neutron yield as well neutron spectrum is shown in this work. (author)

  7. Transmutation experiments ion I-129, La-139 and Np-237 using the Nuclotron accelerator

    Westmeier, W.; Brandt, B. A.; Langrock, E. J.; Odoj, R.; Adam, Jindřich; Bradnova, V.; Golovatyuk, VM.; Krasnov, VA.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Sosnin, A. N.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Vladimirova, NM.; Hashemi-Nezhad, R. S.; Zamani-Valasiadou, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2005), s. 65-73. ISSN 0033-8230 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA213 Keywords : transmutation * relativistic proton beam * moderator Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2005

  8. Scenarios for minor actinides transmutation in the framework of the French Act on Waste Management

    In the framework of the French Act on Waste Management, options of minor actinides (MA) transmutation are studied, based on several scenarios of sodium fast reactor deployment. Basically, one of these scenarios considers the deployment of a 60 GWe SFR fleet in two steps (20 GWe from 2040 to 2050 and 40 GWe, as well as, from 2080 to 2100). For this scenario, the advantages and drawbacks of different transmutation options are evaluated: - transmutation of all minor actinides or only of americium; - transmutation in homogeneous mode (MA bearing fuel in all the core or just in the outer core) or in heterogeneous mode (MA bearing radial blankets). Scenarios have been optimised to limit the impacts of MA transmutation on the cycle: - reduction of the initial MA content in the core in the case of transmutation in homogeneous mode to reduce the impact on reactivity coefficients; - reduction of the number of rows of blankets and fuel decay heat in the case of transmutation in heterogeneous mode. The sensitivity of transmutation options to cycle parameters such as the fuel cooling time before transportation is also assessed. Thus, the transmutation of only americium in one row of radial blankets containing initially 10 pc % Am and irradiated during the same duration as the standard fuel assemblies appears to be a suitable solution to limit the transmutation impacts on fuel cycle and facilities. A comparison of results obtained with MA transmutation in dedicated systems is also presented with a symbiotic scenario considering ADS (accelerator-driven system) deployment to transmute MA together with a SFR fleet to produce energy. The MA inventory within the cycle is higher in the case of transmutation in ADS than in the case of transmutation in SFR. Considering the industrial feasibility of MA transmutation, it appears important to study 'independently' SFR deployment and MA transmutation. Consequently, scenarios of progressive introduction of MA options are assessed

  9. Designing of the laser driven dielectric accelerator

    A phase-modulation-masked-type laser-driven dielectric accelerator was studied. Although the preliminary analysis made a conclusion that a grating period and an electron speed must satisfy the matching condition of LG=λ=v=c, a deformation of a wavefront in a transmission grating relaxed the matching condition and enabled the slow electron to be accelerated. The simulation results by using the FDTD code, Meep, showed that the low energy electron of 20 keV felt the acceleration field strength of 20 MV/m and gradually felt higher field as the speed was increased. The ultra relativistic electron felt the field strength of 600 MV/m. The Meep code also showed that a length of the accelerator to get energy of 1 MeV was 3.8 mm, the required laser power and energy were 11 GW and 350 mJ, respectively. Restrictions on the laser was eased by adopting sequential laser pulses. If the accelerator is illuminated by sequential N pulses, the pulse power, pulse width and the pulse energy are reduced to 1=N, 1=N and 1=N2, respectively. The required laser power per pulse is estimated to be 2.2 GW when ten pairs of sequential laser pulse is irradiated. (author)

  10. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.